Calc 2.02 comes as a set of GNU Emacs Lisp files, with names like
`calc.el' and `calc-ext.el', and also as a `calc.texinfo' file which
can be used to generate both on-line and printed documentation.
To install Calc, just follow these simple steps. If you want more
information, each step is discussed at length in the sections below.
1. Change (`cd') to the Calc "home" directory. This directory was
created when you unbundled the Calc `.tar' or `.shar' file.
2. Type `make' to install Calc privately for your own use, or type
`make install' to install Calc system-wide. This will compile all
the Calc component files, modify your `.emacs' or the system-wide
`lisp/default' file to install Calc as appropriate, and format
the on-line Calc manual.
Both variants are shorthand for the following three steps:
* `make compile' to run the byte-compiler.
* `make private' or `make public', corresponding to `make' and
`make install', respectively. (If `make public' fails
because your system doesn't already have a `default' or
`default.el' file, use Emacs or the Unix `touch' command to
create a zero-sized one first.)
* `make info' to format the on-line Calc manual. This first
tries to use the `makeinfo' program; if that program is not
present, it uses the Emacs `texinfo-format-buffer' command
The Unix `make' utility looks in the file `Makefile' in the
current directory to see what Unix commands correspond to the
various "targets" like `install' or `public'. If your system
doesn't have `make', you will have to examine the `Makefile' and
type in the corresponding commands by hand.
3. If you ever move Calc to a new home directory, just give the
`make private' or `make public' command again in the new
4. Test your installation as described at the end of these
5. (Optional.) To print a hardcopy of the Calc manual (over 500
pages) or just the Calc Summary (about 20 pages), follow the
instructions under "Printed Documentation" below.
Calc is now installed and ready to go!
Upgrading from Calc 1.07
If you have Calc version 1.07 or earlier, you will find that Calc 2.00
is organized quite differently. For one, Calc 2.00 is now distributed
already split into many parts; formerly this was done as part of the
installation procedure. Also, some new functions must be autoloaded
and the `M-#' key must be bound to `calc-dispatch' instead of to
The easiest way to upgrade is to delete your old Calc files and then
install Calc 2.00 from scratch using the above instructions. You
should then go into your `.emacs' or `default' file and remove the old
`autoload' and `global-set-key' commands for Calc, since `make
public'/`make private' has added new, better ones.
See the `README' and `README.prev' files in the Calc distribution
for more information about what has changed since version 1.07.
(`README.prev' describes changes before 2.00, and is present only in
the FTP and tape versions of the distribution.)
The `make public' Command
If you are not the regular Emacs administrator on your system, your
account may not be allowed to execute the `make public' command, since
the system-wide `default' file may be write-protected. If this is the
case, you will have to ask your Emacs installer to execute this
command. (Just `cd' to the Calc home directory and type `make
The `make private' command adds exactly the same set of commands to
your `.emacs' file as `make public' adds to `default'. If your Emacs
installer is concerned about typing this command out of the blue, you
can ask her/him instead to copy the necessary text from your `.emacs'
file. (It will be marked by a comment that says "Commands added by
`calc-private-autoloads' on (date and time).")
Calc is written in a way that maximizes performance when its code has
been byte-compiled; a side effect is that performance is seriously
degraded if it *isn't* compiled. Thus, it is essential to compile the
Calculator before trying to use it. The function `calc-compile' in
the file `calc-maint.el' runs the Emacs byte-compiler on all the Calc
source files. (Specifically, it runs `M-x byte-compile-file' on all
files in the current directory with names of the form `calc*.el', and
also on the file `macedit.el'.)
If `calc-compile' finds that certain files have already been
compiled and have not been changed since, then it will not bother to
recompile those files.
The `calc-compile' command also pre-builds certain tables, such as
the units table (see "The Units Table") and the built-in rewrite
rules (see "Rearranging with Selections") which Calc would otherwise
need to rebuild every time those features were used.
The `make compile' shell command is simply a convenient way to
start an Emacs and give it a `calc-compile' command.
To teach Emacs how to load in Calc when you type `M-#' for the first
time, add these lines to your `.emacs' file (if you are installing
Calc just for your own use), or the system's `lisp/default' file (if
you are installing Calc publicly). The `make private' and `make
public' commands, respectively, take care of this. (Note that `make'
runs `make private', and `make install' runs `make public'.)
(autoload 'calc-dispatch "calc" "Calculator Options" t)
(autoload 'full-calc "calc" "Full-screen Calculator" t)
(autoload 'full-calc-keypad "calc" "Full-screen X Calculator" t)
(autoload 'calc-eval "calc" "Use Calculator from Lisp")
(autoload 'defmath "calc" nil t t)
(autoload 'calc "calc" "Calculator Mode" t)
(autoload 'quick-calc "calc" "Quick Calculator" t)
(autoload 'calc-keypad "calc" "X windows Calculator" t)
(autoload 'calc-embedded "calc" "Use Calc from any buffer" t)
(autoload 'calc-embedded-activate "calc" "Activate =>'s in buffer" t)
(autoload 'calc-grab-region "calc" "Grab region of Calc data" t)
(autoload 'calc-grab-rectangle "calc" "Grab rectangle of data" t)
Unless you have installed the Calc files in Emacs' main `lisp/'
directory, you will also have to add a command that looks like the
following to tell Emacs where to find them. In this example, we have
put the files in directory `/usr/gnu/src/calc-2.00'.
(setq load-path (append load-path (list "/usr/gnu/src/calc-2.00")))
The `make public' and `make private' commands also do this (they use
the then-current directory as the name to add to the path). If you
move Calc to a new location, just repeat the `make public' or `make
private' command to have this new location added to the `load-path'.
The `autoload' command for `calc-dispatch' is what loads `calc.elc'
when you type `M-#'. It is the only `autoload' that is absolutely
necessary for Calc to work. The others are for commands and features
that you may wish to use before typing `M-#' for the first time. In
particular, `full-calc' and `full-calc-keypad' are autoloaded to
support "standalone" operation (see "Standalone Operation"),
`calc-eval' and `defmath' are autoloaded to allow other Emacs Lisp
programs to use Calc facilities (see "Calling Calc from Your
Programs"), and `calc-embedded-activate' is autoloaded because some
Embedded Mode files may call it as soon as they are read into Emacs
(see "Assignments in Embedded Mode").
Finding Component Files
There is no need to write `autoload' commands that point to all the
various Calc component files like `calc-misc.elc' and `calc-alg.elc'.
The main file, `calc.elc', contains all the necessary `autoload'
commands for these files.
(Actually, to conserve space `calc.elc' only autoloads a few of the
component files, plus `calc-ext.elc', which in turn autoloads the rest
of the components. This allows Calc to load a little faster in the
beginning, but the net effect is the same.)
This autoloading mechanism assumes that all the component files can
be found on the `load-path'. The `make public' and `make private'
commands take care of this, but Calc has a few other strategies in
case you have installed it in an unusual way.
If, when Calc is loaded, it is unable to find its components on the
`load-path' it is given, it checks the file name in the original
`autoload' command for `calc-dispatch'. If that name included
directory information, Calc adds that directory to the `load-path':
(autoload 'calc-dispatch "calc-2.00/calc" "Calculator" t)
Suppose the directory `/usr/gnu/src/emacs/lisp' is on the path, and
the above `autoload' allows Emacs to find Calc under the name
`/usr/gnu/src/emacs/lisp/calc-2.00/calc.elc'. Then when Calc starts
up it will add `/usr/gnu/src/emacs/lisp/calc-2.00' to the path so that
it will later be able to find its component files.
If the above strategy does not locate the component files, Calc
examines the variable `calc-autoload-directory'. This is initially
`nil', but you can store the name of Calc's home directory in it as a
sure-fire way of getting Calc to find its components.
Merging Source Files
If the `autoload' mechanism is not managing to load each part of Calc
when it is needed, you can concatenate all the `.el' files into one
big file. The order should be `calc.el', then `calc-ext.el', then all
the other files in any order. Byte-compile the resulting big file.
This merged Calculator ought to work just like Calc normally does,
though it will be *substantially* slower to load.
Calc is normally bound to the `M-#' key. To set up this key binding,
include the following command in your `.emacs' or `lisp/default' file.
(This is done automatically by `make private' or `make public',
(global-set-key "\e#" 'calc-dispatch)
Note that `calc-dispatch' actually works as a prefix for various
two-key sequences. If you have a convenient unused function key on
your keyboard, you may wish to bind `calc-dispatch' to that as well.
You may even wish to bind other specific Calc functions like `calc' or
`quick-calc' to other handy function keys.
Even if you bind `calc-dispatch' to other keys, it is best to bind
it to `M-#' as well if you possibly can: There are references to
`M-#' all throughout the Calc manual which would confuse novice users
if they didn't work as advertised.
Another key binding issue is the DEL key. Some installations use a
different key (such as backspace) for this purpose. Calc normally
scans the entire keymap and maps all keys defined like DEL to the
`calc-pop' command. However, this may be slow. You can set the
variable `calc-scan-for-dels' to `nil' to cause only the actual DEL
key to be mapped to `calc-pop'; this will speed loading of Calc.
The `macedit' Package
The file `macedit.el' contains another useful Emacs extension called
`edit-kbd-macro'. It allows you to edit a keyboard macro in
human-readable form. The `Z E' command in Calc knows how to use it to
edit user commands that have been defined by keyboard macros. To
autoload it, you will want to include the commands,
(autoload 'edit-kbd-macro "macedit" "Edit Keyboard Macro" t)
(autoload 'edit-last-kbd-macro "macedit" "Edit Keyboard Macro" t)
(autoload 'read-kbd-macro "macedit" "Read Keyboard Macro" t)
The `make public' and `make private' commands do this.
The GNUPLOT Program
Calc's graphing commands use the GNUPLOT program. If you have GNUPLOT
but you must type some command other than `gnuplot' to get it, you
should add a command to set the Lisp variable `calc-gnuplot-name' to
the appropriate file name. You may also need to change the variables
`calc-gnuplot-plot-command' and `calc-gnuplot-print-command' in order
to get correct displays and hardcopies, respectively, of your plots.
The documentation for Calc (this manual) comes in a file called
`calc.texinfo'. To format this for use as an on-line manual, type
`make info' (to use the `makeinfo' program), or `make texinfo' (to use
the `texinfmt.el' program which runs inside of Emacs). The former
command is recommended if it works on your system; it is faster and
produces nicer-looking output.
The `makeinfo' program will report inconsistencies involving the
nodes "Copying" and "Interactive Tutorial"; these messages should be
The result will be a collection of files whose names begin with
`calc.info'. You may wish to add a reference to the first of these,
`calc.info' itself, to your Info system's `dir' file. (This is
optional since the `M-# i' command can access `calc.info' whether or
not it appears in the `dir' file.)
There is a Lisp variable called `calc-info-filename' which holds
the name of the Info file containing Calc's on-line documentation.
Its default value is `"calc.info"', which will work correctly if the
Info files are stored in Emacs' main `info/' directory, or if they are
in any of the directories listed in the `load-path'. If you keep them
elsewhere, you will want to put a command of the form,
(setq calc-info-filename ".../calc.info")
in your `.emacs' or `lisp/default' file, where `...' represents the
directory containing the Info files. This will not be necessary if
you follow the normal installation procedures.
The `make info' and `make texinfo' commands compare the dates on
the files `calc.texinfo' and `calc.info', and run the appropriate
program only if the latter file is older or does not exist.
Because the Calc manual is so large, you should only make a printed
copy if you really need it. To print the manual, you will need the
TeX typesetting program (this is a free program by Donald Knuth at
Stanford University) as well as the `texindex' program and
`texinfo.tex' file, both of which can be obtained from the FSF as part
of the `texinfo2' package.
To print the Calc manual in one huge 550 page tome, type `make tex'.
This will take care of running the manual through TeX twice so that
references to later parts of the manual will have correct page numbers.
(Don't worry if you get some "overfull box" warnings.)
The result will be a device-independent output file called
`calc.dvi', which you must print in whatever way is right for your
system. On many systems, the command is
lpr -d calc.dvi
Marginal notes for each function and key sequence normally alternate
between the left and right sides of the page, which is correct if the
manual is going to be bound as double-sided pages. Near the top of
the file `calc.texinfo' you will find alternate definitions of the
`\bumpoddpages' macro that put the marginal notes always on the same
side, best if you plan to be binding single-sided pages.
Some people find the Calc manual to be too large to handle easily.
In fact, some versions of TeX have too little memory to print it. So
Calc includes a `calc-split-manual' command that splits `calc.texinfo'
into two volumes, the Calc Tutorial and the Calc Reference. The
easiest way to use it is to type `make tex2' instead of `make tex'.
The result will be two smaller files, `calctut.dvi' and `calcref.dvi'.
The former contains the tutorial part of the manual; the latter
contains the reference part. Both volumes include copies of the
"Getting Started" chapter and licensing information.
To save disk space, you may wish to delete `calctut.*' and
`calcref.*' after you're done. Don't delete `calc.texinfo', because
you will need it to install future patches to Calc. The `make tex2'
command takes care of all of this for you.
The `make textut' command formats only the Calc Tutorial volume,
producing `calctut.dvi' but not `calcref.dvi'. Likewise, `make
texref' formats only the Calc Reference volume.
Finally, there is a `calc-split-summary' command that splits off
just the Calc Summary appendix suitable for printing by itself. Type
`make summary' instead of `make tex'. The resulting `calcsum.dvi'
file will print in less than 20 pages. If the Key Index file
`calc.ky' is present, left over from a previous `make tex' command,
then `make summary' will insert a column of page numbers into the
summary using that information.
The `make isummary' command is like `make summary', but it prints a
summary that is designed to be substituted into the regular manual.
(The two summaries will be identical except for the additional column
of page numbers.) To make a complete manual, run `make tex' and `make
isummary', print the two resulting `.dvi' files, then discard the
Summary pages that came from `calc.dvi' and insert the ones from
`calcsum.dvi' in their place. Also, remember that the table of
contents prints at the end of the manual but should generally be moved
to the front (after the title and copyright pages).
If you don't have TeX, you can print the summary as a plain text
file by going to the "Summary" node in Calc's Info file, then typing
`M-x print-buffer' (see "Summary").
Another variable you might want to set is `calc-settings-file', which
holds the file name in which commands like `m m' and `Z P' store
"permanent" definitions. The default value for this variable is
`"~/.emacs"'. If `calc-settings-file' does not contain `".emacs"' as
a substring, and if the variable `calc-loaded-settings-file' is `nil',
then Calc will automatically load your settings file (if it exists)
the first time Calc is invoked.
Testing the Installation
To test your installation of Calc, start a new Emacs and type `M-# c'
to make sure the autoloads and key bindings work. Type `M-# i' to
make sure Calc can find its Info documentation. Press `q' to exit the
Info system and `M-# c' to re-enter the Calculator. Type `20 S' to
compute the sine of 20 degrees; this will test the autoloading of the
extensions modules. The result should be 0.342020143326. Finally,
press `M-# c' again to make sure the Calculator can exit.
You may also wish to test the GNUPLOT interface; to plot a sine
wave, type `' [0 .. 360], sin(x) RET g f'. Type `g q' when you are
done viewing the plot.
Calc is now ready to use. If you wish to go through the Calc
Tutorial, press `M-# t' to begin.
(The above text is included in both the Calc documentation and the
file INSTALL in the Calc distribution directory.)