Source

cc-mode / cc-mode.texi

Full commit
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
2785
2786
2787
2788
2789
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
2797
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
2804
2805
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812
2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
2844
2845
2846
2847
2848
2849
2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
2884
2885
2886
2887
2888
2889
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
2897
2898
2899
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
2905
2906
2907
2908
2909
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
2931
2932
2933
2934
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
2946
2947
2948
2949
2950
2951
2952
2953
2954
2955
2956
2957
2958
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
2970
2971
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
2977
2978
2979
2980
2981
2982
2983
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
2992
2993
2994
2995
2996
2997
2998
2999
3000
3001
3002
3003
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
3009
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
3021
3022
3023
3024
3025
3026
3027
3028
3029
3030
3031
3032
3033
3034
3035
3036
3037
3038
3039
3040
3041
3042
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
3062
3063
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
3083
3084
3085
3086
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
3094
3095
3096
3097
3098
3099
3100
3101
3102
3103
3104
3105
3106
3107
3108
3109
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
3123
3124
3125
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
3133
3134
3135
3136
3137
3138
3139
3140
3141
3142
3143
3144
3145
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
3153
3154
3155
3156
3157
3158
3159
3160
3161
3162
3163
3164
3165
3166
3167
3168
3169
3170
3171
3172
3173
3174
3175
3176
3177
3178
3179
3180
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
3192
3193
3194
3195
3196
3197
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
3226
3227
3228
3229
3230
3231
3232
3233
3234
3235
3236
3237
3238
3239
3240
3241
3242
3243
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
3265
3266
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
3278
3279
3280
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
3295
3296
3297
3298
3299
3300
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
3306
3307
3308
3309
3310
3311
3312
3313
3314
3315
3316
3317
3318
3319
3320
3321
3322
3323
3324
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
3336
3337
3338
3339
3340
3341
3342
3343
3344
3345
3346
3347
3348
3349
3350
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
3369
3370
3371
3372
3373
3374
3375
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
3382
3383
3384
3385
3386
3387
3388
3389
3390
3391
3392
3393
3394
3395
3396
3397
3398
3399
3400
3401
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
3427
3428
3429
3430
3431
3432
3433
3434
3435
3436
3437
3438
3439
3440
3441
3442
3443
3444
3445
3446
3447
3448
3449
3450
3451
3452
3453
3454
3455
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
3469
3470
3471
3472
3473
3474
3475
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499
3500
3501
3502
3503
3504
3505
3506
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
3512
3513
3514
3515
3516
3517
3518
3519
3520
3521
3522
3523
3524
3525
3526
3527
3528
3529
3530
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537
3538
3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
3560
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
3588
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
3603
3604
3605
3606
3607
3608
3609
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
3617
3618
3619
3620
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636
3637
3638
3639
3640
3641
3642
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648
3649
3650
3651
3652
3653
3654
3655
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
3662
3663
3664
3665
3666
3667
3668
3669
3670
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3678
3679
3680
3681
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
3687
3688
3689
3690
3691
3692
3693
3694
3695
3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
3719
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
3741
3742
3743
3744
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
3756
3757
3758
3759
3760
3761
3762
3763
3764
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
3770
3771
3772
3773
3774
3775
3776
3777
3778
3779
3780
3781
3782
3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
3789
3790
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
3797
3798
3799
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
3812
3813
3814
3815
3816
3817
3818
3819
3820
3821
3822
3823
3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
3841
3842
3843
3844
3845
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
3851
3852
3853
3854
3855
3856
3857
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
3863
3864
3865
3866
3867
3868
3869
3870
3871
3872
3873
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
3880
3881
3882
3883
3884
3885
3886
3887
3888
3889
3890
3891
3892
3893
3894
3895
3896
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
3902
3903
3904
3905
3906
3907
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
3914
3915
3916
3917
3918
3919
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
3925
3926
3927
3928
3929
3930
3931
3932
3933
3934
3935
3936
3937
3938
3939
3940
3941
3942
3943
3944
3945
3946
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
3953
3954
3955
3956
3957
3958
3959
3960
3961
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
3968
3969
3970
3971
3972
3973
3974
3975
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
3982
3983
3984
3985
3986
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
3994
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
4000
4001
4002
4003
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
4031
4032
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
4038
4039
4040
4041
4042
4043
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050
4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
4058
4059
4060
4061
4062
4063
4064
4065
4066
4067
4068
4069
4070
4071
4072
4073
4074
4075
4076
4077
4078
4079
4080
4081
4082
4083
4084
4085
4086
4087
4088
4089
4090
4091
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128
4129
4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
4143
4144
4145
4146
4147
4148
4149
4150
4151
4152
4153
4154
4155
4156
4157
4158
4159
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
4167
4168
4169
4170
4171
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
4207
4208
4209
4210
4211
4212
4213
4214
4215
4216
4217
4218
4219
4220
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
4243
4244
4245
4246
4247
4248
4249
4250
4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
4259
4260
4261
4262
4263
4264
4265
4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
4277
4278
4279
4280
4281
4282
4283
4284
4285
4286
4287
4288
4289
4290
4291
4292
4293
4294
4295
4296
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
4324
4325
4326
4327
4328
4329
4330
4331
4332
4333
4334
4335
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
4343
4344
4345
4346
4347
4348
4349
4350
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
4356
4357
4358
4359
4360
4361
4362
4363
4364
4365
4366
4367
4368
4369
4370
4371
4372
4373
4374
4375
4376
4377
4378
4379
4380
4381
4382
4383
4384
4385
4386
4387
4388
4389
4390
4391
4392
4393
4394
4395
4396
4397
4398
4399
4400
4401
4402
4403
4404
4405
4406
4407
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
4435
4436
4437
4438
4439
4440
4441
4442
4443
4444
4445
4446
4447
4448
4449
4450
4451
4452
4453
4454
4455
4456
4457
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
4469
4470
4471
4472
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
4479
4480
4481
4482
4483
4484
4485
4486
4487
4488
4489
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
4498
4499
4500
4501
4502
4503
4504
4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
4521
4522
4523
4524
4525
4526
4527
4528
4529
4530
4531
4532
4533
4534
4535
4536
4537
4538
4539
4540
4541
4542
4543
4544
4545
4546
4547
4548
4549
4550
4551
4552
4553
4554
4555
4556
4557
4558
4559
4560
4561
4562
4563
4564
4565
4566
4567
4568
4569
4570
4571
4572
4573
4574
4575
4576
4577
4578
4579
4580
4581
4582
4583
4584
4585
4586
4587
4588
4589
4590
4591
4592
4593
4594
4595
4596
4597
4598
\input texinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@comment No overfull hbox marks in the dvi file.
@finalout

@setfilename  cc-mode.info
@settitle     CC Mode Manual
@footnotestyle end

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment @setchapternewpage odd !! we don't want blank pages !!
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment 
@comment Texinfo manual for CC Mode
@comment Generated from the original README file by Krishna Padmasola
@comment <krishna@earth-gw.njit.edu>
@comment
@comment Authors:
@comment Barry A. Warsaw
@comment Martin Stjernholm
@comment
@comment Maintained by Martin Stjernholm <bug-cc-mode@gnu.org>
@comment 
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@macro copyrightblurb
Copyright @copyright{} 1995, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 01 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@end macro

@comment Info directory entry for use by install-info. The indentation
@comment here is by request from the FSF folks.
@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* CC Mode: (cc-mode).   Emacs mode for editing C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, Pike, and IDL code.
@end direntry

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The following lines inserts the copyright notice
@comment into the Info file.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ifnottex
@copyrightblurb
@end ifnottex

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment TeX title page
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@titlepage
@sp 10

@center @titlefont{CC Mode 5.28}
@sp 2
@center @subtitlefont{A GNU Emacs mode for editing C and C-like languages}
@sp 2
@center Barry A. Warsaw, Martin Stjernholm

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@copyrightblurb
@end titlepage

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The Top node contains the master menu for the Info file.
@comment This appears only in the Info file, not the printed manual.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@node    Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@comment node-name, next, previous, up

@macro ccmode
CC Mode
@end macro

@ifinfo
@top @ccmode{}

@ccmode{} is a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C, C++,
Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL, and Pike code.  It provides syntax-based
indentation and has several handy commands and some minor modes to make
the editing easier.  Note that @ccmode{} does @emph{not} provide
font-locking; there are other Emacs packages for that.
@end ifinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@menu
* Introduction::
* Getting Connected::
* New Indentation Engine::
* Minor Modes::
* Text Filling and Line Breaking::
* Commands::
* Customizing Indentation::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Indentation Functions::
* Performance Issues::
* Limitations and Known Bugs::
* Frequently Asked Questions::
* Getting the Latest CC Mode Release::
* Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports::
* Sample .emacs File::

 --- Indices ---

* Concept Index::
* Command Index::
* Key Index::
* Variable Index::

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

New Indentation Engine

* Syntactic Analysis::
* Indentation Calculation::

Minor Modes

* Auto-newline Insertion::
* Hungry-deletion of Whitespace::

Auto-newline Insertion

* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Electric Commands::
* Clean-ups::

Commands

* Indentation Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Other Commands::

Customizing Indentation

* Interactive Customization::
* Permanent Customization::
* Hooks::
* Styles::
* Advanced Customizations::

Styles

* Built-in Styles::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::

Advanced Customizations

* Custom Indentation Functions::
* Custom Brace and Colon Hanging::
* Customizing Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Special Indentations::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Introduction, Getting Connected, Top, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Introduction
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex BOCM

Welcome to @ccmode{}, a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C,
C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL, and Pike code.  This incarnation of
the mode is descendant from @file{c-mode.el} (also called "Boring Old C
Mode" or BOCM @t{:-)}, and @file{c++-mode.el} version 2, which Barry has
been maintaining since 1992.  @ccmode{} represents a significant
milestone in the mode's life.  It has been fully merged back with Emacs
19's @file{c-mode.el}. Also a new, more intuitive and flexible mechanism
for controlling indentation has been developed.  Late in 1997, Martin
joined the @ccmode{} Maintainers Team, and implemented the Pike support.
As of 2000 Martin has taken over as the sole maintainer.

This manual describes @ccmode{}
@comment The following line must appear on its own, so that the automated
version 5.28.
@comment Release.py script can update the version number automatically

@ccmode{} supports the editing of K&R and ANSI C, @dfn{ARM}
@footnote{@cite{The Annotated C++ Reference Manual}, by Ellis and
Stroustrup.} C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA's Interface Definition
Language, and Pike@footnote{A C-like scripting language with its roots
in the LPC language used in some MUD engines.  See
@uref{http://pike.idonex.se/}.} files.  In this way, you can easily set
up consistent coding styles for use in editing all of these languages.
@ccmode{} does @emph{not} handle font-locking (a.k.a. syntax coloring,
keyword highlighting) or anything of that nature, for any of these
modes.  Font-locking is handled by other Emacs packages.

This manual will describe the following:

@itemize @bullet
@item
How to get started using @ccmode{}.

@item
How the new indentation engine works.

@item
How to customize the new indentation engine.

@end itemize

@findex c-mode
@findex c++-mode
@findex objc-mode
@findex java-mode
@findex idl-mode
@findex pike-mode
Note that the name of this package is ``@ccmode{}'', but there is no top
level @code{cc-mode} entry point.  All of the variables, commands, and
functions in @ccmode{} are prefixed with @code{c-@var{<thing>}}, and
@code{c-mode}, @code{c++-mode}, @code{objc-mode}, @code{java-mode},
@code{idl-mode}, and @code{pike-mode} entry points are provided.  This
package is intended to be a replacement for @file{c-mode.el} and
@file{c++-mode.el}.

@cindex @file{cc-compat.el} file
This distribution also contains a file
called @file{cc-compat.el} which should ease your transition from BOCM
to @ccmode{}.  If you have a BOCM configuration you are really happy
with, and want to postpone learning how to configure @ccmode{}, take a
look at that file.  It maps BOCM configuration variables to @ccmode{}'s
new indentation model.  It is not actively supported so for the long
run, you should learn how to customize @ccmode{} to support your coding
style.

A special word of thanks goes to Krishna Padmasola for his work in
converting the original @file{README} file to Texinfo format.  I'd also
like to thank all the @ccmode{} victims who help enormously during the
early beta stages of @ccmode{}'s development.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Getting Connected, New Indentation Engine, Introduction, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Getting Connected
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you got this version of @ccmode{} with Emacs or XEmacs, it should
work just fine right out of the box.  Note however that you may not have
the latest @ccmode{} release and may want to upgrade your copy.

If you are upgrading an existing @ccmode{} installation, please see the
@file{README} file for installation details.  @ccmode{} may not work
with older versions of Emacs or XEmacs.  See the @ccmode{} release notes
Web pages for the latest information on Emacs version and package
compatibility (@pxref{Getting the Latest CC Mode Release}).

@cindex @file{cc-mode-18.el} file
@emph{Note that @ccmode{} no longer
works with Emacs 18!}, so if you haven't upgraded from Emacs 18 by now,
you are out of luck.

@findex c-version
@findex version (c-)
You can find out what version of @ccmode{} you are using by visiting a C
file and entering @kbd{M-x c-version RET}.  You should see this message in
the echo area:
@example

Using CC Mode version 5.XX

@end example

@noindent
where @samp{XX} is the minor release number.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    New Indentation Engine, Minor Modes, Getting Connected, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    New Indentation Engine
@cindex indentation engine
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} has a new indentation engine, providing a simplified, yet
flexible and general mechanism for customizing indentation. It separates
indentation calculation into two steps: first, @ccmode{} analyzes the
line of code being indented to determine the kind of language construct
it's looking at, then it applies user defined offsets to the current
line based on this analysis.

This section will briefly cover how indentation is calculated in
@ccmode{}. It is important to understand the indentation model
being used so that you will know how to customize @ccmode{} for
your personal coding style.

@menu
* Syntactic Analysis::
* Indentation Calculation::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Syntactic Analysis, Indentation Calculation, , New Indentation Engine
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Syntactic Analysis
@cindex syntactic analysis
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex relative buffer position
@cindex syntactic symbol
@cindex syntactic component
@cindex syntactic component list
The first thing @ccmode{} does when indenting a line of code, is to
analyze the line, determining the @dfn{syntactic component list} of the
construct on that line.  A syntactic component consists of a pair of
information (in lisp parlance, a @emph{cons cell}), where the first part
is a @dfn{syntactic symbol}, and the second part is a @dfn{relative
buffer position}.  Syntactic symbols describe elements of C code
@footnote{Unless otherwise noted, the term ``C code'' to refers to all
the C-like languages.}, e.g. @code{statement}, @code{substatement},
@code{class-open}, @code{class-close}, etc.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols},
for a complete list of currently recognized syntactic symbols and their
semantics.  The style variable @code{c-offsets-alist} also contains the
list of currently supported syntactic symbols.

Conceptually, a line of C code is always indented relative to the
indentation of some line higher up in the buffer.  This is represented
by the relative buffer position in the syntactic component.

Here is an example.  Suppose we had the following code as the only thing
in a C++ buffer @footnote{The line numbers in this and future examples
don't actually appear in the buffer, of course!}:
@example
@group

  1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
  2: @{
  3:     int tmp = a;
  4:     a = b;
  5:     b = tmp;
  6: @}

@end group
@end example

@kindex C-c C-s
@findex c-show-syntactic-information
@findex show-syntactic-information (c-)
We can use the command @kbd{C-c C-s}
(@code{c-show-syntactic-information}) to simply report what the
syntactic analysis is for the current line.  Running this command on
line 4 of this example, we'd see in the echo area@footnote{With a universal
argument (i.e. @kbd{C-u C-c C-s}) the analysis is inserted into the
buffer as a comment
on the current line.}:
@example

((statement . 35))

@end example

This tells us that the line is a statement and it is indented relative
to buffer position 35, which happens to be the @samp{i} in @code{int} on
line 3.  If you were to move point to line 3 and hit @kbd{C-c C-s}, you
would see:
@example

((defun-block-intro . 29))

@end example

This indicates that the @samp{int} line is the first statement in a top
level function block, and is indented relative to buffer position 29,
which is the brace just after the function header.

Here's another example:
@example 
@group

  1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
  2: @{
  3:     if( doit )
  4:         @{
  5:             return( val + incr );
  6:         @}
  7:     return( val );
  8: @}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 gives us:
@example

((substatement-open . 46))

@end example

@cindex substatement
@cindex substatement block
@noindent
which tells us that this is a brace that @emph{opens} a substatement
block. @footnote{A @dfn{substatement} is the line after a
conditional statement, such as @code{if}, @code{else}, @code{while},
@code{do}, @code{switch}, etc.  A @dfn{substatement
block} is a brace block following one of these conditional statements.}

@cindex comment-only line
Syntactic component lists can contain more than one component, and
individual syntactic components need not have relative buffer positions.
The most common example of this is a line that contains a @dfn{comment
only line}.
@example
@group

  1: void draw_list( List<Drawables>& drawables )
  2: @{
  3:         // call the virtual draw() method on each element in list
  4:     for( int i=0; i < drawables.count(), ++i )
  5:     @{
  6:         drawables[i].draw();
  7:     @}
  8: @}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 3 of this example gives:
@example

((comment-intro) (defun-block-intro . 46))

@end example

@noindent
and you can see that the syntactic component list contains two syntactic
components.  Also notice that the first component,
@samp{(comment-intro)} has no relative buffer position.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Calculation, , Syntactic Analysis, New Indentation Engine
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Indentation Calculation
@cindex indentation calculation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Indentation for a line is calculated using the syntactic
component list derived in step 1 above (@pxref{Syntactic Analysis}).
Each component contributes to the final total indentation of the line in
two ways.

First, the syntactic symbols are looked up in the @code{c-offsets-alist}
style variable, which is an association list of syntactic symbols and
the offsets to apply for those symbols.  These offsets are added to a
running total.

Second, if the component has a relative buffer position, @ccmode{}
adds the column number of that position to the running total.  By adding
up the offsets and columns for every syntactic component on the list,
the final total indentation for the current line is computed.

Let's use our two code examples above to see how this works.  Here is
our first example again:
@example
@group

    1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
    2: @{
    3:     int tmp = a;
    4:     a = b;
    5:     b = tmp;
    6: @}

@end group
@end example

Let's say point is on line 3 and we hit the @kbd{TAB} key to re-indent
the line.  Remember that the syntactic component list for that
line is:
@example

((defun-block-intro . 29))

@end example

@noindent
@ccmode{} looks up @code{defun-block-intro} in the
@code{c-offsets-alist} style variable.  Let's say it finds the value
@samp{4}; it adds this to the running total (initialized to zero),
yielding a running total indentation of 4 spaces.

Next @ccmode{} goes to buffer position 29 and asks for the current
column.  This brace is in column zero, so @ccmode{}
adds @samp{0} to the running total.  Since there is only one syntactic
component on the list for this line, indentation calculation is
complete, and the total indentation for the line
is 4 spaces.

Here's another example:
@example
@group

    1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
    2: @{
    3:     if( doit )
    4:         @{
    5:             return( val + incr );
    6:         @}
    7:     return( val );
    8: @}

@end group
@end example

If we were to hit @kbd{TAB} on line 4 in the above example, the same
basic process is performed, despite the differences in the syntactic
component list.  Remember that the list for this line is:
@example

((substatement-open . 46))

@end example

Here, @ccmode{} first looks up the @code{substatement-open} symbol
in @code{c-offsets-alist}. Let's say it finds the value @samp{4}.  This
yields a running total of 4.  @ccmode{} then goes to
buffer position 46, which is the @samp{i} in @code{if} on line 3.  This
character is in the fourth column on that line so adding this to the
running total yields an indentation for the line of 8 spaces.

Simple, huh?

Actually, the mode usually just does The Right Thing without you having
to think about it in this much detail.  But when customizing
indentation, it's helpful to understand the general indentation model
being used.

@vindex c-echo-syntactic-information-p
@vindex echo-syntactic-information-p (c-)
As you configure @ccmode{}, you might want to set the variable
@code{c-echo-syntactic-information-p} to non-@code{nil} so that the
syntactic component list and calculated offset will always be echoed in
the minibuffer when you hit @kbd{TAB}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Minor Modes, Text Filling and Line Breaking, New Indentation Engine, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Minor Modes
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains two minor-mode-like features that you should
find useful while you enter new C code.  The first is called
@dfn{auto-newline} mode, and the second is called @dfn{hungry-delete}
mode.  These minor modes can be toggled on and off independently, and
@ccmode{} can be configured so that it starts up with any
combination of these minor modes.  By default, both of these minor modes
are turned off.

The state of the minor modes is always reflected in the minor mode list
on the modeline of the @ccmode{} buffer.  When auto-newline mode is
enabled, you will see @samp{C/a} on the mode line @footnote{The @samp{C}
would be replaced with @samp{C++}, @samp{ObjC}, @samp{Java}, @samp{IDL},
or @samp{Pike} for the respective languages.}.  When hungry delete mode
is enabled you would see @samp{C/h} and when both modes are enabled,
you'd see @samp{C/ah}.

@kindex C-c C-a
@kindex C-c C-d
@kindex C-c C-t
@findex c-toggle-hungry-state
@findex c-toggle-auto-state
@findex c-toggle-auto-hungry-state
@findex toggle-hungry-state (c-)
@findex toggle-auto-state (c-)
@findex toggle-auto-hungry-state (c-)
@ccmode{} provides keybindings which allow you to toggle the minor
modes on the fly while editing code.  To toggle just the auto-newline
state, hit @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{c-toggle-auto-state}).  When you do
this, you should see the @samp{a} indicator either appear or disappear
on the modeline.  Similarly, to toggle just the hungry-delete state, use
@kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{c-toggle-hungry-state}), and to toggle both states,
use @kbd{C-c C-t} (@code{c-toggle-auto-hungry-state}).

To set up the auto-newline and hungry-delete states to your preferred
values, you would need to add some lisp to your @file{.emacs} file that
called one of the @code{c-toggle-*-state} functions directly.  When
called programmatically, each function takes a numeric value, where
a positive number enables the minor mode, a negative number disables the
mode, and zero toggles the current state of the mode.

So for example, if you wanted to enable both auto-newline and
hungry-delete for all your C file editing, you could add the following
to your @file{.emacs} file:
@example

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
	  (lambda () (c-toggle-auto-hungry-state 1)))

@end example


@cindex electric characters

@menu
* Auto-newline Insertion::
* Hungry-deletion of Whitespace::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Auto-newline Insertion, Hungry-deletion of Whitespace, , Minor Modes
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Auto-newline Insertion
@cindex auto-newline insertion
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex electric commands
Auto-newline minor mode works by enabling certain @dfn{electric
commands}.  Electric commands are typically bound to special characters
such as the left and right braces, colons, semi-colons, etc., which when
typed, perform some magic formatting in addition to inserting the typed
character.  As a general rule, electric commands are only electric when
the following conditions apply:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Auto-newline minor mode is enabled, as evidenced by a @samp{C/a} or
@samp{C/ah} indicator on the modeline.

@cindex literal
@cindex syntactic whitespace
@item
The character was not typed inside of a literal @footnote{A
@dfn{literal} is defined as any comment, string, or C preprocessor macro
definition.  These constructs are also known as @dfn{syntactic
whitespace} since they are usually ignored when scanning C code.}.

@item
@kindex C-u
No numeric argument was supplied to the command (i.e. it was typed as
normal, with no @kbd{C-u} prefix).

@end itemize

@menu
* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Electric Commands::
* Clean-ups::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Braces, Hanging Colons, , Auto-newline Insertion
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Hanging Braces
@cindex hanging braces
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@findex c-electric-brace
@findex electric-brace (c-)
@vindex c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)
When you type either an open or close brace (i.e. @kbd{@{} or @kbd{@}}),
the electric command @code{c-electric-brace} gets run.  This command has
two electric formatting behaviors.  First, it will perform some
re-indentation of the line the brace was typed on, and second, it will
add various newlines before and/or after the typed brace.
Re-indentation occurs automatically whenever the electric behavior is
enabled.  If the brace ends up on a line other than the one it was typed
on, then that line is also re-indented.

@cindex class-open syntactic symbol
@cindex class-close syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-open syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-close syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-open syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-open syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-entry-open syntactic symbol
@cindex block-open syntactic symbol
@cindex block-close syntactic symbol
@cindex substatement-open syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-close syntactic symbol
@cindex namespace-open syntactic symbol
@cindex namespace-close syntactic symbol
@cindex inexpr-class-open symbol
@cindex inexpr-class-close symbol

The default in auto-newline mode is to insert newlines both before and
after a brace, but that can be controlled by the
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist} style variable.  This variable contains a
mapping between syntactic symbols related to braces, and a list of
places to insert a newline.  The syntactic symbols that are useful for
this list are: @code{class-open}, @code{class-close}, @code{defun-open},
@code{defun-close}, @code{inline-open}, @code{inline-close},
@code{brace-list-open}, @code{brace-list-close},
@code{brace-list-intro}, @code{brace-entry-open}, @code{block-open},
@code{block-close}, @code{substatement-open},
@code{statement-case-open}, @code{extern-lang-open},
@code{extern-lang-close}, @code{namespace-open}, @code{namespace-close},
@code{inexpr-class-open}, and @code{inexpr-class-close}@footnote{Note
that the aggregate constructs in Pike mode, @samp{(@{}, @samp{@})},
@samp{([}, @samp{])}, and @samp{(<}, @samp{>)}, do not count as brace
lists in this regard, even though they do for normal indentation
purposes.  It's currently not possible to set automatic newlines on
these constructs.}.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols}, for a more detailed
description of these syntactic symbols, except for
@code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, which aren't
actual syntactic symbols.

The braces of anonymous inner classes in Java are given the special
symbols @code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, so that
they can be distinguished from the braces of normal classes@footnote{The
braces of anonymous classes produces a combination of
@code{inexpr-class}, and @code{class-open} or @code{class-close} in
normal indentation analysis.}.

The value associated with each syntactic symbol in this association list
is called an @var{ACTION} which can be either a function or a list.
@xref{Custom Brace and Colon Hanging}, for a more detailed discussion of
using a function as a brace hanging @var{ACTION}.

When the @var{ACTION} is a list, it can contain any combination of the
symbols @code{before} and @code{after}, directing @ccmode{} where to
put newlines in relationship to the brace being inserted.  Thus, if the
list contains only the symbol @code{after}, then the brace is said to
@dfn{hang} on the right side of the line, as in:
@example
@group

// here, open braces always `hang'
void spam( int i ) @{
    if( i == 7 ) @{
        dosomething(i);
    @}
@}


@end group
@end example

When the list contains both @code{after} and @code{before}, the braces
will appear on a line by themselves, as shown by the close braces in the
above example.  The list can also be empty, in which case no newlines
are added either before or after the brace.

If a syntactic symbol is missing entirely from
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist}, it's treated in the same way as an
@var{ACTION} with a list containing @code{before} and @code{after}, so
that braces by default end up on their own line.

For example, the default value of @code{c-hanging-braces-alist} is:
@example
@group

  ((brace-list-open)
   (brace-entry-open)
   (substatement-open after)
   (block-close . c-snug-do-while)
   (extern-lang-open after)
   (inexpr-class-open after)
   (inexpr-class-close before))

@end group
@end example

@noindent which says that @code{brace-list-open} and
@code{brace-entry-open} braces should both hang on the right side, and
allow subsequent text to follow on the same line as the brace.  Also,
@code{substatement-open}, @code{extern-lang-open}, and
@code{inexpr-class-open} braces should hang on the right side, but
subsequent text should follow on the next line.  The opposite holds for
@code{inexpr-class-close} braces; they won't hang, but the following
text continues on the same line.  Here, in the @code{block-close} entry,
you also see an example of using a function as an @var{ACTION}.  In all
other cases, braces are put on a line by themselves.

A word of caution: it is not a good idea to hang top-level construct
introducing braces, such as @code{class-open} or @code{defun-open}.
Emacs makes an assumption that such braces will always appear in column
zero, hanging them can introduce performance problems.
@xref{Performance Issues}, for more information.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Colons, Hanging Semi-colons and Commas, Hanging Braces, Auto-newline Insertion
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Hanging Colons
@cindex hanging colons
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex hanging-colons-alist (c-)
@vindex c-hanging-colons-alist
Using a mechanism similar to brace hanging (@pxref{Hanging Braces}),
colons can also be made to hang using the style variable
@code{c-hanging-colons-alist}.  The syntactic symbols appropriate for
this association list are: @code{case-label}, @code{label},
@code{access-label}, @code{member-init-intro}, and @code{inher-intro}.
Note however that for @code{c-hanging-colons-alist}, @var{ACTION}s as
functions are not supported. See also @ref{Custom Brace and Colon
Hanging} for details.

In C++, double-colons are used as a scope operator but because these
colons always appear right next to each other, newlines before and after
them are controlled by a different mechanism, called @dfn{clean-ups} in
@ccmode{}.  @xref{Clean-ups}, for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hanging Semi-colons and Commas, Other Electric Commands, Hanging Colons, Auto-newline Insertion
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Hanging Semi-colons and Commas
@cindex hanging semi-colons
@cindex hanging commas
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Semicolons and commas are also electric in @ccmode{}, but since
these characters do not correspond directly to syntactic symbols, a
different mechanism is used to determine whether newlines should be
automatically inserted after these characters.  @xref{Customizing
Semi-colons and Commas}, for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Other Electric Commands, Clean-ups, Hanging Semi-colons and Commas, Auto-newline Insertion
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Other Electric Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex #
@findex c-electric-pound
@vindex c-electric-pound-behavior
@findex electric-pound (c-)
@vindex electric-pound-behavior (c-)
A few other keys also provide electric behavior.  For example
@kbd{#} (@code{c-electric-pound}) is electric when typed as
the first non-whitespace character on a line.  In this case, the
variable @code{c-electric-pound-behavior} is consulted for the electric
behavior.  This variable takes a list value, although the only element
currently defined is @code{alignleft}, which tells this command to force
the @samp{#} character into column zero.  This is useful for entering
C preprocessor macro definitions.

@findex c-electric-star
@findex c-electric-slash
@findex electric-star (c-)
@findex electric-slash (c-)
Stars and slashes (i.e. @kbd{*} and @kbd{/}, @code{c-electric-star} and
@code{c-electric-slash} respectively) are also electric under
certain circumstances.  If a star is inserted as the second character of
a C style block comment on a comment-only line, then the comment
delimiter is indented as defined by @code{c-offsets-alist}.  A
comment-only line is defined as a line which contains only a comment, as
in:
@example
@group

void spam( int i ) 
@{
        // this is a comment-only line...
    if( i == 7 )                             // but this is not
    @{
        dosomething(i);
    @}
@}

@end group
@end example

Likewise, if a slash is inserted as the second slash in a C++ style line
comment (also only on a comment-only line), then the line is indented as
defined by @code{c-offsets-alist}.

@findex c-electric-lt-gt
@findex electric-lt-gt (c-)
@kindex <
@kindex >
Less-than and greater-than signs (@code{c-electric-lt-gt}) are also
electric, but only in C++ mode.  Hitting the second of two @kbd{<} or
@kbd{>} keys re-indents the line if it is a C++ style stream operator.

@findex c-electric-paren
@findex electric-paren (c-)
@kindex (
@kindex )
The normal parenthesis characters @samp{(} and @samp{)} also reindent
the current line if they are used in normal code.  This is useful for
getting the closing parenthesis of an argument list aligned
automatically.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Clean-ups, , Other Electric Commands, Auto-newline Insertion
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Clean-ups
@cindex clean-ups
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@dfn{Clean-ups} are mechanisms complementary to colon and brace hanging.
On the surface, it would seem that clean-ups overlap the functionality
provided by the @code{c-hanging-*-alist} variables.  Clean-ups are
however used to adjust code ``after-the-fact'', i.e. to adjust the
whitespace in constructs after they are typed.

Most of the clean-ups are only applicable to counteract automatically
inserted newlines, and will therefore only have any effect if the
auto-newline minor mode is turned on.  Others will work all the time.

@vindex c-cleanup-list
@vindex cleanup-list (c-)
@cindex literal
You can configure @ccmode{}'s clean-ups by setting the style variable
@code{c-cleanup-list}, which is a list of clean-up symbols.  By default,
@ccmode{} cleans up only the @code{scope-operator} construct, which is
necessary for proper C++ support.  Note that clean-ups are only
performed when the construct does not occur within a literal
(@pxref{Auto-newline Insertion}), and when there is nothing but
whitespace appearing between the individual components of the construct.

These are the clean-ups that only are active in the auto-newline minor
mode:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{brace-else-brace} --- Clean up @samp{@} else @{} constructs by
placing the entire construct on a single line.  Clean-up occurs when the
open brace after the @samp{else} is typed.  So for example, this:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 )
    @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else
    @{

@end group
@end example
@noindent
appears like this after the open brace is typed:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else @{

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{brace-elseif-brace} --- Similar to the @code{brace-else-brace}
clean-up, but this cleans up @samp{@} else if (...) @{} constructs.  For
example:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 )
    @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else if( i==3 )
    @{

@end group
@end example
@noindent
appears like this after the open parenthesis is typed:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else if( i==3 )
    @{

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and like this after the open brace is typed:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else if( i==3 ) @{

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{brace-catch-brace} --- Analogous to @code{brace-elseif-brace}, but
cleans up @samp{@} catch (...) @{} in C++ and Java mode.

@item
@code{empty-defun-braces} --- Clean up braces following a top-level
function or class definition that contains no body.  Clean up occurs
when the closing brace is typed.  Thus the following:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
is transformed into this when the close brace is typed:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{@}

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{defun-close-semi} --- Clean up the terminating semi-colon on
top-level function or class definitions when they follow a close
brace.  Clean up occurs when the semi-colon is typed.
So for example, the following:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@}
;

@end group
@end example
@noindent
is transformed into this when the semi-colon is typed:

@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@};

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{list-close-comma} --- Clean up commas following braces in array
and aggregate initializers.  Clean up occurs when the comma is typed.

@item
@code{scope-operator} --- Clean up double colons which may designate a
C++ scope operator split across multiple lines@footnote{Certain C++
constructs introduce ambiguous situations, so @code{scope-operator}
clean-ups may not always be correct.  This usually only occurs when
scoped identifiers appear in switch label tags.}.  Clean up occurs when
the second colon is typed.  You will always want @code{scope-operator}
in the @code{c-cleanup-list} when you are editing C++ code.

@end itemize

The following clean-ups are always active when they occur on
@code{c-cleanup-list}, and are thus not affected by the auto-newline
minor mode:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{space-before-funcall} --- Insert a space between the function name
and the opening parenthesis of a function call.  This produces function
calls in the style mandated by the GNU coding standards,
e.g. @samp{signal (SIGINT, SIG_IGN)} and @samp{abort ()}.  Clean up
occurs when the opening parenthesis is typed.

@item
@code{compact-empty-funcall} --- Clean up any space between the function
name and the opening parenthesis of a function call that have no
arguments.  This is typically used together with
@code{space-before-funcall} if you prefer the GNU function call style
for functions with arguments but think it looks ugly when it's only an
empty parenthesis pair.  I.e. you will get @samp{signal (SIGINT,
SIG_IGN)}, but @samp{abort()}.  Clean up occurs when the closing
parenthesis is typed.

@end itemize


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hungry-deletion of Whitespace, , Auto-newline Insertion, Minor Modes
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Hungry-deletion of Whitespace
@cindex hungry-deletion of whitespace
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Hungry deletion of whitespace, or as it more commonly called,
@dfn{hungry-delete mode}, is a simple feature that some people find
extremely useful.  In fact, you might find yourself wanting
hungry-delete in @strong{all} your editing modes!

@kindex DEL
@kindex Backspace
In a nutshell, when hungry-delete mode is enabled, hitting the
@key{Backspace} key@footnote{I say ``hit the @key{Backspace} key'' but
what I really mean is ``when Emacs receives the @code{BackSpace} key
event''.  The difference usually isn't significant to most users, but
advanced users will realize that under window systems such as X, any
physical key (keycap) on the keyboard can be configured to generate any
keysym, and thus any Emacs key event.  Also, the use of Emacs on TTYs
will affect which keycap generates which key event.  From a pedantic
point of view, here we are only concerned with the key event that
Emacs receives.} will consume all preceding whitespace, including
newlines and tabs.  This can really cut down on the number of
@key{Backspace}'s you have to type if, for example you made a mistake on
the preceding line.

@findex c-electric-backspace
@findex electric-backspace (c-)
@vindex c-backspace-function
@vindex backspace-function (c-)

@findex c-electric-delete
@findex electric-delete (c-)
@vindex c-delete-function
@vindex delete-function (c-)
@cindex literal

@findex backward-delete-char-untabify

By default, when you hit the @key{Backspace} key @ccmode{} runs the
command @code{c-electric-backspace}, which deletes text in the backwards
direction.  When deleting a single character, or when @key{Backspace} is
hit in a literal (@pxref{Auto-newline Insertion}), or when hungry-delete
mode is disabled, the function contained in the
@code{c-backspace-function} variable is called with one argument (the
number of characters to delete).  This variable is set to
@code{backward-delete-char-untabify} by default.

@vindex delete-key-deletes-forward
@findex delete-char

The default behavior of the @key{Delete} key depends on the flavor of
Emacs you are using.  By default in XEmacs 20.3 and beyond, the
@key{Delete} key is bound to @code{c-electric-delete}.  You control the
direction that the @key{Delete} key deletes by setting the variable
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward}, a standard XEmacs variable.  When
this variable is non-@code{nil} and hungry-delete mode is enabled,
@code{c-electric-delete} will consume all whitespace @emph{following}
point.  When @code{delete-key-deletes-forward} is @code{nil}, it deletes
all whitespace @emph{preceding} point@footnote{i.e. it literally calls
@code{c-electric-backspace}.}  When deleting a single character, or if
@key{Delete} is hit in a literal, or hungry-delete mode is disabled, the
function contained in @code{c-delete-function} is called with one
argument: the number of characters to delete.  This variable is set to
@code{delete-char} by default.

In Emacs 19 or Emacs 20, both the @key{Delete} and @key{Backspace} keys
are bound to @code{c-electric-backspace}, however you can change this by
explicitly binding @code{[delete]}@footnote{E.g. to
@code{c-electric-delete} in your @file{.emacs} file.  Note however, that
Emacs 20 does not have a standard variable such as
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward}.}.

XEmacsen older than 20.3 behave similar to Emacs 19 and Emacs 20.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Text Filling and Line Breaking, Commands, Minor Modes, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Text Filling and Line Breaking
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since there's a lot of normal text in comments and string literals,
@ccmode{} provides features to edit these like in text mode.  The goal
is to do it as seamlessly as possible, i.e. you can use auto fill mode,
sentence and paragraph movement, paragraph filling, adaptive filling etc
wherever there's a piece of normal text without having to think much
about it.  @ccmode{} should keep the indentation, fix the comment line
decorations, and so on, for you.  It does that by hooking in on the
different line breaking functions and tuning relevant variables as
necessary.

@vindex c-comment-prefix-regexp
@vindex comment-prefix-regexp (c-)
@cindex comment line prefix
@vindex comment-start
@vindex comment-end
@vindex comment-start-skip
@vindex paragraph-start
@vindex paragraph-separate
@vindex paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix
@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@vindex adaptive-fill-regexp
@vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp
To make Emacs recognize comments and treat text in them as normal
paragraphs, @ccmode{} makes several standard
variables@footnote{@code{comment-start}, @code{comment-end},
@code{comment-start-skip}, @code{paragraph-start},
@code{paragraph-separate}, @code{paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix},
@code{adaptive-fill-mode}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp}, and
@code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}.} buffer local and modifies them
according to the language syntax and the style of line decoration that
starts every line in a comment.  The style variable
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} contains the regexp used to recognize
this @dfn{comment line prefix}.  The default is @samp{//+\\|\\**}, which
matches C++ style line comments like
@example

// blah blah

@end example

@noindent
with two or more slashes in front of them, and C style block comments
like
@example
@group

/*
 * blah blah
 */

@end group
@end example

@noindent
with zero or more stars at the beginning of every line.  If you change
that variable, please make sure it still matches the comment starter
(i.e. @code{//}) of line comments @emph{and} the line prefix inside
block comments.  Also note that since @ccmode{} uses the value of
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} to set up several other variables at mode
initialization, you need to reinitialize the program mode if you change
it inside a @ccmode{} buffer.

@findex auto-fill-mode
@cindex auto fill mode
@cindex paragraph fill
Line breaks are by default handled (almost) the same regardless whether
they are made by auto fill mode (@pxref{Auto Fill,,, emacs, The Emacs
Editor}), paragraph filling (e.g. with @kbd{M-q}), or explicitly with
@kbd{M-j} or similar methods.  In string literals, the new line gets the
same indentation as the previous nonempty line (may be changed with the
@code{string} syntactic symbol).  In comments, @ccmode{} uses
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} to adapt the line prefix from the other
lines in the comment.

@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@cindex adaptive fill mode
@ccmode{} uses adaptive fill mode (@pxref{Adaptive Fill,,, emacs, The
Emacs Editor}) to make Emacs correctly keep the line prefix when filling
paragraphs.  That also makes Emacs preserve the text indentation
@emph{inside} the comment line prefix.  E.g. in the following comment,
both paragraphs will be filled with the left margins kept intact:
@example
@group

/* Make a balanced b-tree of the nodes in the incoming
 * stream.  But, to quote the famous words of Donald E.
 * Knuth,
 *
 *     Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only
 *     proved it correct, not tried it.
 */

@end group
@end example

@findex c-setup-filladapt
@findex setup-filladapt (c-)
@findex filladapt-mode
@vindex filladapt-mode
@cindex Filladapt mode
It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages, notably Kyle
E. Jones' Filladapt package@footnote{It's available from
@uref{http://www.wonderworks.com/}.  As of version 2.12, it does however
lack a feature that makes it work suboptimally when
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} matches the empty string (which it does
by default).  A patch for that is available from
@uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net/,, the CC Mode site}.},
which handles things like bulleted lists nicely.  There's a convenience
function @code{c-setup-filladapt} that tunes the relevant variables in
Filladapt for use in @ccmode{}.  Call it from a mode hook, e.g. with
something like this in your @file{.emacs}:
@example
@group

(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  (c-setup-filladapt)
  (filladapt-mode 1))
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

@end group
@end example

@vindex c-block-comment-prefix
@vindex block-comment-prefix (c-)
@vindex c-comment-continuation-stars
@vindex comment-continuation-stars (c-)
Normally the comment line prefix inserted for a new line inside a
comment is deduced from other lines in it.  However there's one
situation when there's no clue about how the prefix should look, namely
when a block comment is broken for the first time.  The string in the
style variable @code{c-block-comment-prefix}@footnote{In versions before
5.26, this variable was called @code{c-comment-continuation-stars}.  As
a compatibility measure, @ccmode{} still uses the value on that variable
if it's set.} is used in that case.  It defaults to @samp{* }, which
makes a comment
@example

/* Got O(n^2) here, which is a Bad Thing. */

@end example

@noindent
break into
@example
@group

/* Got O(n^2) here,
 * which is a Bad Thing. */

@end group
@end example

Note that it won't work to justify the indentation by putting leading
spaces in the @code{c-block-comment-prefix} string, since @ccmode{}
still uses the normal indentation engine to indent the line.  Thus, the
right way to fix the indentation is by setting the @code{c} syntactic
symbol.  It defaults to @code{c-lineup-C-comments}, which handles the
indentation of most common comment styles, see @ref{Indentation
Functions}.

@vindex c-ignore-auto-fill
@vindex ignore-auto-fill (c-)
When auto fill mode is enabled, @ccmode{} can selectively ignore it
depending on the context the line break would occur in, e.g. to never
break a line automatically inside a string literal.  This behavior can
be controlled with the @code{c-ignore-auto-fill} variable.  It takes a
list of symbols for the different contexts where auto-filling never
should occur:

@itemize @bullet
@item @code{string} --- Inside a string or character literal.
@item @code{c} --- Inside a C style block comment.
@item @code{c++} --- Inside a C++ style line comment.
@item @code{cpp} --- Inside a preprocessor directive.
@item @code{code} --- Anywhere else, i.e. in normal code.
@end itemize

By default, @code{c-ignore-auto-fill} is set to @code{'(string cpp
code)}, which means that auto-filling only occurs in comments when
auto-fill mode is activated.  In literals, it's often desirable to have
explicit control over newlines.  In preprocessor directives, the
necessary @samp{\} escape character before the newline is not
automatically inserted, so an automatic line break would produce invalid
code.  In normal code, line breaks are normally dictated by some logical
structure in the code rather than the last whitespace character, so
automatic line breaks there will produce poor results in the current
implementation.

The commands that does the actual work follows.

@table @asis

@kindex M-q
@findex c-fill-paragraph
@findex fill-paragraph (c-)
@cindex Javadoc markup
@cindex Pike autodoc markup
@item @kbd{M-q} (@code{c-fill-paragraph})
This is the replacement for @code{fill-paragraph} in @ccmode{}
buffers. It's used to fill multiline string literals and both block and
line style comments.  In Java buffers, the Javadoc markup words are
recognized as paragraph starters.  The line oriented Pike autodoc markup
words are recognized in the same way in Pike mode.

The function keeps the comment starters and enders of block comments as
they were before the filling.  This means that a comment ender on the
same line as the paragraph being filled will be filled with the
paragraph, and one on a line by itself will stay as it is.  The comment
starter is handled similarly@footnote{This means that the variables
@code{c-hanging-comment-starter-p} and @code{c-hanging-comment-ender-p},
which controlled this behavior in earlier versions of @ccmode{}, are now
obsolete.}.

@kindex M-j
@findex c-indent-new-comment-line
@findex indent-new-comment-line (c-)
@item @kbd{M-j} (@code{c-indent-new-comment-line})
This is the replacement for @code{indent-new-comment-line}.  It breaks
the line at point and indents the new line like the current one.

@vindex comment-multi-line
If inside a comment and @code{comment-multi-line} is non-@code{nil}, the
indentation and line prefix are preserved.  If inside a comment and
@code{comment-multi-line} is @code{nil}, a new comment of the same type
is started on the next line and indented as appropriate for comments.

@findex c-context-line-break
@findex context-line-break (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-context-line-break}
This is a function that works like @code{indent-new-comment-line} in
comments and @code{newline-and-indent} elsewhere, thus combining those
two in a way that uses each one in the context it's best suited for.
I.e. in comments the comment line prefix and indentation is kept for the
new line, and in normal code it's indented according to context by the
indentation engine.

It's not bound to a key by default, but it's intended to be used on the
@kbd{RET} key.  If you like the behavior of @code{newline-and-indent} on
@kbd{RET}, you might consider switching to this function.

@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Commands, Customizing Indentation, Text Filling and Line Breaking, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@menu
* Indentation Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Other Commands::
@end menu

See also @ref{Text Filling and Line Breaking}, for commands concerning
that bit.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Commands, Movement Commands, , Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous,up
@section    Indentation Commands
@cindex indentation commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The following list of commands re-indent C constructs.  Note that when
you change your coding style, either interactively or through some other 
means, your file does @emph{not} automatically get re-indented.  You
will need to execute one of the following commands to see the effects of 
your changes.

@cindex GNU indent program
Also, variables like @code{c-hanging-*} and @code{c-cleanup-list}
only affect how on-the-fly code is formatted.  Changing the
``hanginess'' of a brace and then re-indenting, will not move the brace
to a different line.  For this, you're better off getting an external
program like GNU @code{indent}, which will re-arrange brace location,
among other things.

Re-indenting large sections of code can take a long time.  When
@ccmode{} reindents a region of code, it is essentially equivalent to
hitting @kbd{TAB} on every line of the region.  Especially vulnerable is 
code generator output@footnote{In particular, I have had people
complain about the speed with which @code{lex(1)} output is re-indented.
Lex, yacc, and other code generators usually output some pretty
perversely formatted code.  Re-indenting such code will be slow.}.

These commands are useful when indenting code:

@table @asis

@kindex TAB
@findex c-indent-command
@findex indent-command (c-)
@item @kbd{TAB} (@code{c-indent-command})
Indents the current line.  The actual behavior is controlled by several
variables, described below.  See @code{c-tab-always-indent},
@code{c-insert-tab-function}, and @code{indent-tabs-mode}.  With a
numeric argument, this command rigidly indents the region, preserving
the relative indentation among the lines.

@kindex M-C-q
@findex c-indent-exp
@findex indent-exp (c-)
@item @kbd{M-C-q} (@code{c-indent-exp})
Indent an entire balanced brace or parenthesis expression.  Note that
point must be on the opening brace or parenthesis of the expression you
want to indent.

@kindex C-c C-q
@findex c-indent-defun
@findex indent-defun (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{c-indent-defun})
Indents the entire top-level function or class definition encompassing
point.  It leaves point unchanged.  This function can't be used to
re-indent a nested brace construct, such as a nested class or function,
or a Java method.  The top-level construct being re-indented must be
complete, i.e. it must have both a beginning brace and an ending brace.

@kindex M-C-\
@findex indent-region
@item @kbd{M-C-\} (@code{indent-region})
Indents an arbitrary region of code.  This is a standard Emacs command,
tailored for C code in a @ccmode{} buffer.  Note that of course, point
and mark must delineate the region you want to indent.

@kindex M-C-h
@findex c-mark-function
@findex mark-function (c-)
@item @kbd{M-C-h} (@code{c-mark-function})
While not strictly an indentation command, this is useful for marking
the current top-level function or class definition as the current
region.  As with @code{c-indent-defun}, this command operates on
top-level constructs, and can't be used to mark say, a Java method.

@end table

These variables are also useful when indenting code:

@table @code

@vindex c-tab-always-indent
@vindex tab-always-indent (c-)
@kindex TAB
@cindex literal
@item c-tab-always-indent
This variable controls how @kbd{TAB} @code{c-indent-command} operates.
When this variable is @code{t}, @kbd{TAB} always just indents the
current line.  When it is @code{nil}, the line is indented only if point
is at the left margin, or on or before the first non-whitespace
character on the line, otherwise some whitespace is inserted.  If this
variable is the symbol @code{other}, then some whitespace is inserted
only within strings and comments (literals), an inside preprocessor
directives, but the line is always reindented.

@vindex c-insert-tab-function
@vindex insert-tab-function (c-)
@findex tab-to-tab-stop
@item c-insert-tab-function
When ``some whitespace'' is inserted as described above, what actually
happens is that the function stored in @code{c-insert-tab-function} is
called.  Normally, this just inserts a real tab character, or the
equivalent number of spaces, depending on @code{indent-tabs-mode}.
Some people, however, set @code{c-insert-tab-function} to
@code{tab-to-tab-stop} so as to get hard tab stops when indenting.

@vindex indent-tabs-mode
@item indent-tabs-mode
This is a standard Emacs variable that controls how line indentation is
composed.  When this variable is non-@code{nil}, then tabs can be used
in a line's indentation, otherwise only spaces can be used.

@vindex c-progress-interval
@vindex progress-interval (c-)
@item c-progress-interval
When indenting large regions of code, this variable controls how often a 
progress message is displayed.  Set this variable to @code{nil} to
inhibit the progress messages, or set it to an integer which is the
interval in seconds that progress messages are displayed.

@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Movement Commands, Other Commands, Indentation Commands, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Movement Commands
@cindex movement commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains some useful command for moving around in C
code.

@table @asis

@findex c-beginning-of-defun
@findex beginning-of-defun (c-)
@findex beginning-of-defun
@item @kbd{M-x c-beginning-of-defun}
Moves point back to the least-enclosing brace.  This function is
analogous to the Emacs built-in command @code{beginning-of-defun},
except it eliminates the constraint that the top-level opening brace
must be in column zero.  See @code{beginning-of-defun} for more
information.

Depending on the coding style being used, you might prefer
@code{c-beginning-of-defun} to @code{beginning-of-defun}.  If so,
consider binding @kbd{C-M-a} to the former instead.  For backwards
compatibility reasons, the default binding remains in effect.

@findex c-end-of-defun
@findex end-of-defun (c-)
@findex end-of-defun
@item @kbd{M-x c-end-of-defun}
Moves point to the end of the current top-level definition.  This
function is analogous to the Emacs built-in command @code{end-of-defun},
except it eliminates the constraint that the top-level opening brace of
the defun must be in column zero.  See @code{beginning-of-defun} for more
information.

Depending on the coding style being used, you might prefer
@code{c-end-of-defun} to @code{end-of-defun}.  If so,
consider binding @kbd{C-M-e} to the former instead.  For backwards
compatibility reasons, the default binding remains in effect.

@kindex C-c C-u
@findex c-up-conditional
@findex up-conditional (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{c-up-conditional})
Move point back to the containing preprocessor conditional, leaving the
mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move point forward to the end of the containing
preprocessor conditional.

@samp{#elif} is treated like @samp{#else} followed by @samp{#if}, so the
function stops at them when going backward, but not when going forward.

@findex c-up-conditional-with-else
@findex up-conditional-with-else (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-up-conditional-with-else}
A variety of @code{c-up-conditional} that also stops at @samp{#else}
lines.  Normally those lines are ignored.

@findex c-down-conditional
@findex down-conditional (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-down-conditional}
Move point forward into the next nested preprocessor conditional,
leaving the mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.
With a negative argument, move point backward into the previous
nested preprocessor conditional.

@samp{#elif} is treated like @samp{#else} followed by @samp{#if}, so the
function stops at them when going forward, but not when going backward.

@findex c-down-conditional-with-else
@findex down-conditional-with-else (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-down-conditional-with-else}
A variety of @code{c-down-conditional} that also stops at @samp{#else}
lines.  Normally those lines are ignored.

@kindex C-c C-p
@findex c-backward-conditional
@findex backward-conditional (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{c-backward-conditional})
Move point back over a preprocessor conditional, leaving the mark
behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move forward.

@kindex C-c C-n
@findex c-forward-conditional
@findex forward-conditional (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{c-forward-conditional})
Move point forward across a preprocessor conditional, leaving the mark
behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move backward.

@kindex M-a
@findex c-beginning-of-statement
@findex beginning-of-statement (c-)
@item @kbd{M-a} (@code{c-beginning-of-statement})
Move point to the beginning of the innermost C statement.  If point is
already at the beginning of a statement, move to the beginning of the
closest preceding statement, even if that means moving into a block (you
can use @kbd{M-C-b} to move over a balanced block).  With prefix
argument @var{n}, move back @var{n} @minus{} 1 statements.

If point is within or next to a comment or a string which spans more
than one line, this command moves by sentences instead of statements.

When called from a program, this function takes three optional
arguments: the repetition count, a buffer position limit which is the
farthest back to search for the syntactic context, and a flag saying
whether to do sentence motion in or near comments and multiline strings.

@kindex M-e
@findex c-end-of-statement
@findex end-of-statement (c-)
@item @kbd{M-e} (@code{c-end-of-statement})
Move point to the end of the innermost C statement.  If point is at the
end of a statement, move to the end of the next statement, even if it's
inside a nested block (use @kbd{M-C-f} to move to the other side of the
block).  With prefix argument @var{n}, move forward @var{n} @minus{} 1
statements.

If point is within or next to a comment or a string which spans more
than one line, this command moves by sentences instead of statements.

When called from a program, this function takes three optional
arguments: the repetition count, a buffer position limit which is the
farthest back to search for the syntactic context, and a flag saying
whether to do sentence motion in or near comments and multiline strings.

@findex c-forward-into-nomenclature
@findex forward-into-nomenclature (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-forward-into-nomenclature}
A popular programming style, especially for object-oriented languages
such as C++ is to write symbols in a mixed case format, where the first
letter of each word is capitalized, and not separated by underscores.
E.g. @samp{SymbolsWithMixedCaseAndNoUnderlines}.

This command moves point forward to next capitalized word.  With prefix
argument @var{n}, move @var{n} times.

@findex c-backward-into-nomenclature
@findex backward-into-nomenclature (c-)
@item @kbd{M-x c-backward-into-nomenclature}
Move point backward to beginning of the next capitalized
word.  With prefix argument @var{n}, move @var{n} times.  If
@var{n} is negative, move forward.

@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Other Commands, , Movement Commands, Commands
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Other Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains a few other useful commands:

@table @asis

@kindex C-c :
@findex c-scope-operator
@findex scope-operator (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c :} (@code{c-scope-operator})
In C++, it is also sometimes desirable to insert the double-colon scope
operator without performing the electric behavior of colon insertion.
@kbd{C-c :} does just this.

@kindex C-c C-\
@findex c-backslash-region
@findex backslash-region (c-)
@item @kbd{C-c C-\} (@code{c-backslash-region})
This function is handy when editing macros split over several lines by
ending each line with a backslash.  It inserts and aligns, or deletes
these end-of-line backslashes in the current region.

@vindex c-backslash-column
@vindex backslash-column (c-)
With no prefix argument, it inserts any missing backslashes and aligns
them to the column specified by the @code{c-backslash-column} style
variable.  With a prefix argument, it deletes any backslashes.

The function does not modify blank lines at the start of the region.  If
the region ends at the start of a line, it always deletes the backslash
(if any) at the end of the previous line.

@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Customizing Indentation, Syntactic Symbols, Commands, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Customizing Indentation
@cindex customizing indentation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
The style variable @code{c-offsets-alist} contains the mappings between
syntactic symbols and the offsets to apply for those symbols.  It's set
at mode initialization from a @emph{style} you may specify.  Styles are
groupings of syntactic symbol offsets and other style variable values.
Most likely, you'll find that one of the pre-defined styles will suit
your needs.  @xref{Styles}, for an explanation of how to set up named
styles.

Only syntactic symbols not already bound on @code{c-offsets-alist} will
be set from styles.  This means that any association you set on it, be
it before or after mode initialization, will not be changed.  The
@code{c-offsets-alist} variable may therefore be used from e.g. the
Customization interface@footnote{Available in Emacs 20 and later, and
XEmacs 19.15 and later.} to easily change indentation offsets without
having to bother about styles.  Initially @code{c-offsets-alist} is
empty, so that all syntactic symbols are set by the style system.

@kindex C-c C-o
@findex c-set-offset
@findex set-offset (c-)
You can use the command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{c-set-offset}) as the way
to set offsets, both interactively and from your mode
hook@footnote{Obviously, you use the keybinding interactively, and the
function call programmatically!}.

@vindex c-basic-offset
@vindex basic-offset (c-)
The offset associated with any particular syntactic symbol can be any of
an integer, a function or lambda expression, a variable name, a vector,
a list, or one of the following symbols: @code{+}, @code{-}, @code{++},
@code{--}, @code{*}, or @code{/}.

Those last special symbols describe an offset in multiples of the value
of the style variable @code{c-basic-offset}.  By defining a style's
indentation in terms of this fundamental variable, you can change the
amount of whitespace given to an indentation level while maintaining the
same basic shape of your code.  Here are the values that the special
symbols correspond to:

@table @code

@item +
@code{c-basic-offset} times 1
@item -
@code{c-basic-offset} times -1
@item ++
@code{c-basic-offset} times 2
@item --
@code{c-basic-offset} times -2
@item *
@code{c-basic-offset} times 0.5
@item /
@code{c-basic-offset} times -0.5

@end table

@cindex indentation functions

When a function is used as offset, it's called an @dfn{indentation
function}.  Such functions are useful when more context than just the
syntactic symbol is needed to get the desired indentation.
@xref{Indentation Functions}, and @ref{Custom Indentation Functions},
for details about them.

If the offset is a vector, its first element sets the absolute
indentation column, which will override any relative indentation.

@vindex c-strict-syntax-p
@vindex strict-syntax-p (c-)
The offset can also be a list, in which case it is evaluated recursively
using the semantics described above.  The first element of the list that
returns a non-@code{nil} value succeeds and the evaluation stops.  If
none of the list elements return a non-@code{nil} value, then an offset
of 0 (zero) is used@footnote{There is however a variable
@code{c-strict-syntax-p} that, when set to non-@code{nil}, will cause an
error to be signalled in that case.  It's now considered obsolete since
it doesn't work well with some of the alignment functions that now
returns @code{nil} instead of zero to be more usable in lists.  You
should therefore leave @code{c-strict-syntax-p} set to @code{nil}.}.

So, for example, because most of the default offsets are defined in
terms of @code{+}, @code{-}, and @code{0}, if you like the general
indentation style, but you use 4 spaces instead of 2 spaces per level,
you can probably achieve your style just by changing
@code{c-basic-offset} like so@footnote{You can try this interactively in
a C buffer by typing the text that appears in italics.}:
@example

@emph{M-x set-variable RET}
Set variable: @emph{c-basic-offset RET}
Set c-basic-offset to value: @emph{4 RET}

@end example

@noindent
This would change
@example
@group

int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
@{
  if( doit )
    @{
      return( val + incr );
    @}
  return( val );
@}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
to
@example
@group

int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
@{
    if( doit )
        @{
            return( val + incr );
        @}
    return( val );
@}

@end group
@end example

To change indentation styles more radically, you will want to change the
offsets associated with other syntactic symbols.  First, I'll show you
how to do that interactively, then I'll describe how to make changes to
your @file{.emacs} file so that your changes are more permanent.

@menu
* Interactive Customization::
* Permanent Customization::
* Hooks::
* Styles::
* Advanced Customizations::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Interactive Customization, Permanent Customization, , Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Interactive Customization
@cindex interactive customization
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

As an example of how to customize indentation, let's change the
style of this example@footnote{In this an subsequent examples, the
original code is formatted using the @samp{gnu} style unless otherwise
indicated.  @xref{Styles}.}:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:     @{
5:       return( val + incr );
6:     @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
to:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:   @{
5:     return( val + incr );
6:   @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example

In other words, we want to change the indentation of braces that open a
block following a condition so that the braces line up under the
conditional, instead of being indented.  Notice that the construct we
want to change starts on line 4.  To change the indentation of a line,
we need to see which syntactic components affect the offset calculations
for that line.  Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 yields:
@example

((substatement-open . 44))

@end example

@noindent
so we know that to change the offset of the open brace, we need to
change the indentation for the @code{substatement-open} syntactic
symbol.  To do this interactively, just hit @kbd{C-c C-o}.  This prompts
you for the syntactic symbol to change, providing a reasonable default.
In this case, the default is @code{substatement-open}, which is just the
syntactic symbol we want to change!

After you hit return, @ccmode{} will then prompt you for the new
offset value, with the old value as the default.  The default in this
case is @samp{+}, but we want no extra indentation so enter
@samp{0} and @kbd{RET}.  This will associate the offset 0 with the
syntactic symbol @code{substatement-open}.

To check your changes quickly, just hit @kbd{C-c C-q}
(@code{c-indent-defun}) to reindent the entire function.  The example
should now look like:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:   @{
5:     return( val + incr );
6:   @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example

Notice how just changing the open brace offset on line 4 is all we
needed to do.  Since the other affected lines are indented relative to
line 4, they are automatically indented the way you'd expect.  For more
complicated examples, this may not always work.  The general approach to
take is to always start adjusting offsets for lines higher up in the
file, then re-indent and see if any following lines need further
adjustments.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Permanent Customization, Hooks, Interactive Customization, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Permanent Customization
@cindex permanent customization
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

To make your changes permanent, you need to add some lisp code to your
@file{.emacs} file.  @ccmode{} supports many different ways to be
configured, from the straightforward way by setting variables globally
in @file{.emacs} or in the Customization interface, to the complex and
precisely controlled way by using styles and hook functions.

The simplest way of customizing @ccmode{} permanently is to set the
variables in your @file{.emacs} with @code{setq} and similar commands.
So to make the setting of @code{substatement-open} permanent, add this
to the @file{.emacs} file:
@example
@group

(require 'cc-mode)
(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)

@end group
@end example

The @code{require} line is only needed once in the beginning to make
sure @ccmode{} is loaded so that the @code{c-set-offset} function is
defined.

You can also use the more user friendly Customization interface, but
this manual does not cover how that works.

Variables set like this at the top level in @file{.emacs} take effect in
all @ccmode{} buffers, regardless of language.  The indentation style
related variables, e.g. @code{c-basic-offset}, that you don't set this
way get their value from the style system (@pxref{Styles}), and they
therefore depend on the setting of @code{c-default-style}.  Note that if
you use Customize, this means that the greyed-out default values
presented there might not be the ones you actually get, since the actual
values depend on the style, which may very well be different for
different languages.

If you want to make more advanced configurations, e.g. language-specific
customization, global variable settings isn't enough.  For that you can
use the language hooks, see @ref{Hooks}, and/or the style system, see
@ref{Styles}.

@vindex c-style-variables-are-local-p
@vindex style-variables-are-local-p (c-)
By default, all style variables are global, so that every buffer will
share the same style settings.  This is fine if you primarily edit one
style of code, but if you edit several languages and want to use
different styles for them, you need finer control by making the style
variables buffer local.  The recommended way to do this is to set the
variable @code{c-style-variables-are-local-p} to @code{t}.  The
variables will be made buffer local when @ccmode{} is activated in a
buffer for the first time in the Emacs session.  Note that once the
style variables are made buffer local, they cannot be made global again,
without restarting Emacs.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Hooks, Styles, Permanent Customization, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Hooks
@cindex hooks
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-mode-common-hook
@vindex mode-common-hook (c-)
@vindex c-mode-hook
@vindex c++-mode-hook
@vindex objc-mode-hook
@vindex java-mode-hook
@vindex idl-mode-hook
@vindex pike-mode-hook
@vindex c-initialization-hook
@vindex initialization-hook (c-)
@ccmode{} provides several hooks that you can use to customize the mode
according to your coding style.  Each language mode has its own hook,
adhering to standard Emacs major mode conventions.  There is also one
general hook and one package initialization hook:

@itemize @bullet

@item
@code{c-mode-hook} --- For C buffers only.
@item
@code{c++-mode-hook} --- For C++ buffers only.
@item
@code{objc-mode-hook} --- For Objective-C buffers only.
@item
@code{java-mode-hook} --- For Java buffers only.
@item
@code{idl-mode-hook} --- For CORBA IDL buffers only.
@item
@code{pike-mode-hook} --- For Pike buffers only.
@item
@code{c-mode-common-hook} --- Common across all languages.
@item
@code{c-initialization-hook} --- Hook run only once per Emacs session,
when @ccmode{} is initialized.

@end itemize

The language hooks get run as the last thing when you enter that
language mode.  The @code{c-mode-common-hook} is run by all supported
modes @emph{before} the language specific hook, and thus can contain
customizations that are common across all languages.  Most of the
examples in this section will assume you are using the common hook.

Note that all the language-specific mode setup that CC Mode does is done
prior to both @code{c-mode-common-hook} and the language specific hook.
That includes installing the indentation style, which can be mode
specific (and also is by default for Java mode).  Thus, any style
settings done in @code{c-mode-common-hook} will override whatever
language-specific style is chosen by @code{c-default-style}.

Here's a simplified example of what you can add to your @file{.emacs}
file to do things whenever any @ccmode{} language is edited.  See the
Emacs manuals for more information on customizing Emacs via hooks.
@xref{Sample .emacs File}, for a more complete sample @file{.emacs}
file.
@example
@group

(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; my customizations for all of c-mode and related modes
  (no-case-fold-search)
  )
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

@end group
@end example


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Styles, Advanced Customizations, Hooks, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Styles
@cindex styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Most people only need to edit code formatted in just a few well-defined
and consistent styles.  For example, their organization might impose a
``blessed'' style that all its programmers must conform to.  Similarly,
people who work on GNU software will have to use the GNU coding style.
Some shops are more lenient, allowing a variety of coding styles, and as
programmers come and go, there could be a number of styles in use.  For
this reason, @ccmode{} makes it convenient for you to set up logical
groupings of customizations called @dfn{styles}, associate a single name
for any particular style, and pretty easily start editing new or
existing code using these styles.

@cindex style variables
The variables that the style system affect are called @dfn{style
variables}.  They are handled specially in several ways:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Style variables are by default global variables, i.e. they have the same
value in all Emacs buffers.  However, they can instead be made always
buffer local by setting @code{c-style-variables-are-local-p} to
non-@code{nil} before @ccmode{} is initialized.

@vindex c-old-style-variable-behavior
@vindex old-style-variable-behavior (c-)
@item
The default value of any style variable (with two exceptions --- see
below) is the special symbol @code{set-from-style}.  Variables that are
still set to that symbol when a @ccmode{} buffer is initialized will be
set according to the current style, otherwise they will keep their
current value@footnote{This is a big change from versions of @ccmode{}
earlier than 5.26, where such settings would get overridden by the style
system unless special precautions were taken.  That was changed since it
was counterintuitive and confusing, especially to novice users.  If your
configuration depends on the old overriding behavior, you can set the
variable @code{c-old-style-variable-behavior} to non-@code{nil}.}.

Note that when we talk about the ``default value'' for a style variable,
we don't mean the @code{set-from-style} symbol that all style variables
are set to initially, but instead the value it will get at mode
initialization when neither a style nor a global setting has set its
value.

The style variable @code{c-offsets-alist} is handled a little
differently from the other style variables.  It's an association list,
and is thus by default set to the empty list, @code{nil}.  When the
style system is initialized, any syntactic symbols already on it are
kept --- only the missing ones are filled in from the chosen style.

The style variable @code{c-special-indent-hook} is also handled in a
special way.  Styles may only add more functions on this hook, so the
global settings on it are always preserved@footnote{This did not change
in version 5.26.}.

@item
The global settings of style variables get captured in the special
@code{user} style, which is used as the base for all the other styles.
@xref{Built-in Styles}, for details.

@end itemize

The style variables are:
@code{c-basic-offset},
@code{c-comment-only-line-offset},
@code{c-block-comment-prefix},
@code{c-comment-prefix-regexp},
@code{c-cleanup-list},
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist},
@code{c-hanging-colons-alist},
@code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria},
@code{c-backslash-column},
@code{c-special-indent-hook},
@code{c-label-minimum-indentation}, and
@code{c-offsets-alist}.

@menu
* Built-in Styles::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Built-in Styles, Adding Styles, , Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Built-in Styles
@cindex built-in styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you're lucky, one of @ccmode{}'s built-in styles might be just
what you're looking for.  These include:

@itemize @bullet
@cindex GNU style
@item
@code{gnu} --- Coding style blessed by the Free Software Foundation
for C code in GNU programs.

@cindex K&R style
@item
@code{k&r} --- The classic Kernighan and Ritchie style for C code.

@cindex BSD style
@item
@code{bsd} --- Also known as ``Allman style'' after Eric Allman.

@cindex Whitesmith style
@item
@code{whitesmith} --- Popularized by the examples that came with
Whitesmiths C, an early commercial C compiler.

@cindex Stroustrup style
@item
@code{stroustrup} --- The classic Stroustrup style for C++ code.

@cindex Ellemtel style
@item
@code{ellemtel} --- Popular C++ coding standards as defined by
``Programming in C++, Rules and Recommendations'', Erik Nyquist and Mats
Henricson, Ellemtel@footnote{This document is available at
@uref{http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/lab/cplus/c++.rules/} among other
places.}.

@cindex Linux style
@item
@code{linux} --- C coding standard for Linux development.

@cindex Python style
@item
@code{python} --- C coding standard for Python extension
modules@footnote{Python is a high level scripting language with a C/C++
foreign function interface.  For more information, see
@uref{http://www.python.org/}.}.

@cindex Java style
@findex java-mode
@item
@code{java} --- The style for editing Java code.  Note that the default
value for @code{c-default-style} installs this style when you enter
@code{java-mode}.

@cindex User style
@item
@code{user} --- This is a special style for several reasons.  First, the
@ccmode{} customizations you do by using either the Customization
interface, or by writing @code{setq}'s at the top level of your
@file{.emacs} file, will be captured in the @code{user} style.  Also,
all other styles implicitly inherit their settings from @code{user}
style.  This means that for any styles you add via @code{c-add-style}
(@pxref{Adding Styles}) you need only define the differences between
your new style and @code{user} style.

@end itemize

@vindex c-default-style
@vindex default-style (c-)
The default style in all newly created buffers is @code{gnu}, but you
can change this by setting variable @code{c-default-style}.  Although
the @code{user} style is not the default style, any style variable
settings you do with the Customization interface or on the top level in
your @file{.emacs} file will by default override the style system, so
you don't need to set @code{c-default-style} to @code{user} to see the
effect of these settings.

@code{c-default-style} takes either a style name string, or an
association list of major mode symbols to style names.  Thus you can
control exactly which default style is used for which @ccmode{} language
mode.  Here are the rules:

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
@vindex c-mode-common-hook
@vindex mode-common-hook (c-)
@enumerate
@item
When @code{c-default-style} is a string, it must be an existing style
name as found in @code{c-style-alist}.  This style is then used for all
modes.

@item
When @code{c-default-style} is an association list, the current major
mode is looked up to find a style name string.  In this case, this style 
is always used exactly as specified and an error will occur if the named 
style does not exist.

@item
If @code{c-default-style} is an association list, but the current major
mode isn't found, then the special symbol @samp{other} is looked up.  If 
this value is found, the associated style is used.

@item
If @samp{other} is not found, then the @samp{gnu} style is used.

@item
In all cases, the style described in @code{c-default-style} is installed 
@emph{before} the language hooks are run, so you can always override
this setting by including an explicit call to @code{c-set-style} in your 
language mode hook, or in @code{c-mode-common-hook}.

@end enumerate

@findex c-set-style
@findex set-style (c-)
@kindex C-c .
If you'd like to experiment with these built-in styles you can simply
type the following in a @ccmode{} buffer:
@example
@group

@kbd{C-c . @var{STYLE-NAME} RET}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
@kbd{C-c .} runs the command @code{c-set-style}.  Note that all style
names are case insensitive, even the ones you define.

Setting a style in this way does @emph{not} automatically re-indent your
file.  For commands that you can use to view the effect of your changes,
see @ref{Commands}.

@vindex c-indentation-style
@vindex indentation-style (c-)
Note that for BOCM compatibility, @samp{gnu} is the default style, and
any non-style based customizations you make (i.e. in
@code{c-mode-common-hook} in your @file{.emacs} file) will be based on
@samp{gnu} style unless you set @code{c-default-style} or do a
@code{c-set-style} as the first thing in your hook.  The variable
@code{c-indentation-style} always contains the buffer's current style
name, as a string.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Adding Styles, File Styles, Built-in Styles, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Adding Styles
@cindex adding styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
@findex c-add-style
@findex add-style (c-)
If none of the built-in styles is appropriate, you'll probably want to
add a new @dfn{style definition}.  Styles are kept in the
@code{c-style-alist} variable, but you should never modify this variable
directly.  Instead, @ccmode{} provides the function
@code{c-add-style} that you can use to easily add new styles or change
existing styles.  This function takes two arguments, a @var{stylename}
string, and an association list @var{description} of style
customizations.  If @var{stylename} is not already in
@code{c-style-alist}, the new style is added, otherwise the style is
changed to the new @var{description}.
This function also takes an optional third argument, which if
non-@code{nil}, automatically applies the new style to the current
buffer.

@comment TBD: The next paragraph is bogus.  I really need to better
@comment document adding styles, including setting up inherited styles.

The sample @file{.emacs} file provides a concrete example of how a new
style can be added and automatically set.  @xref{Sample .emacs File}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    File Styles, , Adding Styles, Styles
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection File Styles
@cindex file styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex local variables

The Emacs manual describes how you can customize certain variables on a
per-file basis by including a @dfn{Local Variable} block at the end of
the file.  So far, you've only seen a functional interface to @ccmode{}
customization, which is highly inconvenient for use in a Local Variable
block.  @ccmode{} provides two variables that make it easier for you to
customize your style on a per-file basis.

@vindex c-file-style
@vindex file-style (c-)
@vindex c-file-offsets
@vindex file-offsets (c-)

The variable @code{c-file-style} can be set to a style name string.
When the file is visited, @ccmode{} will automatically set the
file's style to this style using @code{c-set-style}.

Another variable, @code{c-file-offsets}, takes an association list
similar to what is allowed in @code{c-offsets-alist}.  When the file is
visited, @ccmode{} will automatically institute these offsets using
@code{c-set-offset}.

Note that file style settings (i.e. @code{c-file-style}) are applied
before file offset settings (i.e. @code{c-file-offsets}).  Also, if
either of these are set in a file's local variable section, all the
style variable values are made local to that buffer.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Advanced Customizations, , Styles, Customizing Indentation
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@section    Advanced Customizations
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
For most users, @ccmode{} will support their coding styles with
very little need for more advanced customizations.  Usually, one of the
standard styles defined in @code{c-style-alist} will do the trick.  At
most, perhaps one of the syntactic symbol offsets will need to be
tweaked slightly, or maybe @code{c-basic-offset} will need to be
changed.  However, some styles require a more flexible framework for
customization, and one of the real strengths of @ccmode{} is that
the syntactic analysis model provides just such a framework. This allows
you to implement custom indentation calculations for situations not
handled by the mode directly.

@menu
* Custom Indentation Functions::
* Custom Brace and Colon Hanging::
* Customizing Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Special Indentations::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Indentation Functions, Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, , Advanced Customizations
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Custom Indentation Functions
@cindex custom indentation functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The most flexible way to customize @ccmode{} is by writing custom
indentation functions, and associating them with specific syntactic
symbols (@pxref{Syntactic Symbols}).  @ccmode{} itself uses indentation
functions to provide more sophisticated indentation, for example when
lining up C++ stream operator blocks:
@example
@group

1: void main(int argc, char**)
2: @{
3:   cout << "There were "
4:     << argc
5:     << "arguments passed to the program"
6:     << endl;
7: @}

@end group
@end example

In this example, lines 4 through 6 are assigned the @code{stream-op}
syntactic symbol.  Here, @code{stream-op} has an offset of @code{+}, and
with a @code{c-basic-offset} of 2, you can see that lines 4 through 6
are simply indented two spaces to the right of line 3.  But perhaps we'd
like @ccmode{} to be a little more intelligent so that it aligns
all the @samp{<<} symbols in lines 3 through 6.  To do this, we have
to write a custom indentation function which finds the column of first
stream operator on the first line of the statement.  Here is sample 
lisp code implementing this:
@example
@group

(defun c-lineup-streamop (langelem)
  ;; lineup stream operators
  (save-excursion
    (let* ((relpos (cdr langelem))
           (curcol (progn (goto-char relpos)
                          (current-column))))
      (re-search-forward "<<\\|>>" (c-point 'eol) 'move)
      (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
      (- (current-column) curcol))))

@end group
@end example
@noindent
Indentation functions take a single argument, which is a syntactic
component cons cell (@pxref{Syntactic Analysis}).  The function returns
an integer offset value that will be added to the running total
indentation for the line.  Note that what actually gets returned is the
difference between the column that the first stream operator is on, and
the column of the buffer relative position passed in the function's
argument.  Remember that @ccmode{} automatically adds in the column of
the component's relative buffer position and we don't the column offset
added in twice.

The function should return @code{nil} if it's used in a situation where
it doesn't want to do any decision.  If the function is used in a list
expression (@pxref{Customizing Indentation}), that will cause @ccmode{}
to go on and check the next entry in the list.

@cindex stream-op syntactic symbol
@findex c-lineup-streamop
@findex lineup-streamop (c-)
Now, to associate the function @code{c-lineup-streamop} with the
@code{stream-op} syntactic symbol, we can add something like the
following to our @code{c++-mode-hook}@footnote{It probably makes more
sense to add this to @code{c++-mode-hook} than @code{c-mode-common-hook}
since stream operators are only relevant for C++.}:
@example

(c-set-offset 'stream-op 'c-lineup-streamop)

@end example

Now the function looks like this after re-indenting (using @kbd{C-c
C-q}):
@example
@group

1: void main(int argc, char**)
2: @{
3:   cout << "There were "
4:        << argc
5:        << " arguments passed to the program"
6:        << endl;
7: @}

@end group
@end example

Custom indentation functions can be as simple or as complex as you like,
and any syntactic symbol that appears in @code{c-offsets-alist} can have
a custom indentation function associated with it.

@ccmode{} comes with an extensive set of predefined indentation
functions, not all of which are used by the default styles.  So there's
a good chance the function you want already exists.  @xref{Indentation
Functions}, for a list of them.  If you have written an indentation
function that you think is generally useful, you're very welcome to
contribute it; please contact @email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Custom Indentation Functions, Advanced Customizations
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Custom Brace and Colon Hanging
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)
Syntactic symbols aren't the only place where you can customize
@ccmode{} with the lisp equivalent of callback functions.  Brace
``hanginess'' can also be determined by custom functions associated with
syntactic symbols on the @code{c-hanging-braces-alist} style variable.
Remember that @var{ACTION}'s are typically a list containing some
combination of the symbols @code{before} and @code{after}
(@pxref{Hanging Braces}).  However, an @var{ACTION} can also be a
function which gets called when a brace matching that syntactic symbol
is entered.

@cindex customizing brace hanging
These @var{ACTION} functions are called with two arguments: the
syntactic symbol for the brace, and the buffer position at which the
brace was inserted.  The @var{ACTION} function is expected to return a
list containing some combination of @code{before} and @code{after},
including neither of them (i.e. @code{nil}).  This return value has the
normal brace hanging semantics.

As an example, @ccmode{} itself uses this feature to dynamically
determine the hanginess of braces which close ``do-while''
constructs:
@example
@group

void do_list( int count, char** atleast_one_string )
@{
    int i=0;
    do @{
        handle_string( atleast_one_string[i] );
        i++;
    @} while( i < count );
@}

@end group
@end example

@findex c-snug-do-while
@findex snug-do-while (c-)
@ccmode{} assigns the @code{block-close} syntactic symbol to the
brace that closes the @code{do} construct, and normally we'd like the
line that follows a @code{block-close} brace to begin on a separate
line.  However, with ``do-while'' constructs, we want the
@code{while} clause to follow the closing brace.  To do this, we
associate the @code{block-close} symbol with the @var{ACTION} function
@code{c-snug-do-while}:
@example

(defun c-snug-do-while (syntax pos)
  "Dynamically calculate brace hanginess for do-while statements.
Using this function, `while' clauses that end a `do-while' block will
remain on the same line as the brace that closes that block.

See `c-hanging-braces-alist' for how to utilize this function as an
ACTION associated with `block-close' syntax."
  (save-excursion
    (let (langelem)
      (if (and (eq syntax 'block-close)
               (setq langelem (assq 'block-close c-syntactic-context))
               (progn (goto-char (cdr langelem))
                      (if (= (following-char) ?@{)
                          (forward-sexp -1))
                      (looking-at "\\<do\\>[^_]")))
          '(before)
        '(before after)))))

@end example

This function simply looks to see if the brace closes a ``do-while''
clause and if so, returns the list @samp{(before)} indicating
that a newline should be inserted before the brace, but not after it.
In all other cases, it returns the list @samp{(before after)} so
that the brace appears on a line by itself.

@vindex c-syntactic-context
@vindex syntactic-context (c-)
During the call to the brace hanging @var{ACTION} function, the variable
@code{c-syntactic-context} is bound to the full syntactic analysis list.

@cindex customizing colon hanging
@vindex c-hanging-colon-alist
@vindex hanging-colon-alist (c-)
Note that for symmetry, colon hanginess should be customizable by
allowing function symbols as @var{ACTION}s on the
@code{c-hanging-colon-alist} style variable.  Since no use has actually
been found for this feature, it isn't currently implemented!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Other Special Indentations, Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, Advanced Customizations
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Customizing Semi-colons and Commas
@cindex customizing semi-colons and commas
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria
@vindex hanging-semi&comma-criteria (c-)
You can also customize the insertion of newlines after semi-colons and
commas, when the auto-newline minor mode is enabled (@pxref{Minor
Modes}).  This is controlled by the style variable
@code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria}, which contains a list of functions
that are called in the order they appear.  Each function is called with
zero arguments, and is expected to return one of the following values:

@itemize @bullet
@item
non-@code{nil} --- A newline is inserted, and no more functions from the
list are called.

@item
@code{stop} --- No more functions from the list are called, but no
newline is inserted.

@item
@code{nil} --- No determination is made, and the next function in the
list is called.

@end itemize

If every function in the list is called without a determination being
made, then no newline is added. The default value for this variable is a
list containing a single function which inserts newlines only after
semi-colons which do not appear inside parenthesis lists (i.e. those
that separate @code{for}-clause statements).

@findex c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks (c-)
Here's an example of a criteria function, provided by @ccmode{}, that
will prevent newlines from being inserted after semicolons when there is
a non-blank following line.  Otherwise, it makes no determination.  To
use, add this to the front of the @code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria}
list.

@example
@group

(defun c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks ()
  (save-excursion
    (if (and (eq last-command-char ?\;)
             (zerop (forward-line 1))
             (not (looking-at "^[ \t]*$")))
        'stop
      nil)))

@end group
@end example

@findex c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist
@findex c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners
@findex semi&comma-inside-parenlist (c-)
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners (c-)
The function @code{c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist} is what prevents
newlines from being inserted inside the parenthesis list of @code{for}
statements.  In addition to
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks} described above,
@ccmode{} also comes with the criteria function
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners}, which suppresses
newlines after semicolons inside one-line inline method definitions
(i.e. in C++ or Java).


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Other Special Indentations, , Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Advanced Customizations
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@subsection Other Special Indentations
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-label-minimum-indentation
@vindex label-minimum-indentation (c-)
In @samp{gnu} style (@pxref{Built-in Styles}), a minimum indentation
is imposed on lines inside top-level constructs.  This minimum
indentation is controlled by the style variable
@code{c-label-minimum-indentation}.  The default value for this variable
is 1.

@vindex c-special-indent-hook
@vindex special-indent-hook (c-)
One other customization variable is available in @ccmode{}: The style
variable @code{c-special-indent-hook}.  This is a standard hook variable
that is called after every line is indented by @ccmode{}.  You can use
it to do any special indentation or line adjustments your style
dictates, such as adding extra indentation to constructors or destructor
declarations in a class definition, etc.  Note however, that you should
not change point or mark inside your @code{c-special-indent-hook}
functions (i.e. you'll probably want to wrap your function in a
@code{save-excursion}).

Setting @code{c-special-indent-hook} in your style definition is handled
slightly differently than other variables.  In your style definition,
you should set the value for
@code{c-special-indent-hook} to a function or list of functions, which
will be appended to @code{c-special-indent-hook} using @code{add-hook}.
That way, the current setting for the buffer local value of
@code{c-special-indent-hook} won't be overridden.

@kindex M-;
@findex indent-for-comment
@vindex c-indent-comments-syntactically-p
@vindex indent-comments-syntactically-p (c-)
@vindex comment-column
Normally, the standard Emacs command @kbd{M-;}
(@code{indent-for-comment}) will indent comment only lines to
@code{comment-column}.  Some users however, prefer that @kbd{M-;} act
just like @kbd{TAB} for purposes of indenting comment-only lines;
i.e. they want the comments to always indent as they would for normal
code, regardless of whether @kbd{TAB} or @kbd{M-;} were used.  This
behavior is controlled by the variable
@code{c-indent-comments-syntactically-p}.  When @code{nil} (the
default), @kbd{M-;} indents comment-only lines to @code{comment-column}, 
otherwise, they are indented just as they would be if @kbd{TAB} were
typed.

Note that this has no effect for comment lines that are inserted with
@kbd{M-;} at the end of regular code lines.  These comments will always
start at @code{comment-column}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Syntactic Symbols, Indentation Functions, Customizing Indentation, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Syntactic Symbols
@cindex syntactic symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
Here is a complete list of the recognized syntactic symbols as described
in the @code{c-offsets-alist} style variable, along with a brief
description.  More detailed descriptions follow.

@table @code
@item string
Inside a multi-line string.
@item c
Inside a multi-line C style block comment.
@item defun-open
Brace that opens a top-level function definition.
@item defun-close
Brace that closes a top-level function definition.
@item defun-block-intro
The first line in a top-level defun.
@item class-open
Brace that opens a class definition.
@item class-close
Brace that closes a class definition.
@item inline-open
Brace that opens an in-class inline method.
@item inline-close
Brace that closes an in-class inline method.
@item func-decl-cont
The region between a function definition's argument list and the
function opening brace (excluding K&R argument declarations).  In C, you
cannot put anything but whitespace and comments in this region, however
in C++ and Java, @code{throws} declarations and other things can appear
here.
@item knr-argdecl-intro
First line of a K&R C argument declaration.
@item knr-argdecl
Subsequent lines in a K&R C argument declaration.
@item topmost-intro
The first line in a ``topmost'' definition.
@item topmost-intro-cont
Topmost definition continuation lines.
@item member-init-intro
First line in a member initialization list.
@item member-init-cont
Subsequent member initialization list lines.
@item inher-intro
First line of a multiple inheritance list.
@item inher-cont
Subsequent multiple inheritance lines.
@item block-open
Statement block open brace.
@item block-close
Statement block close brace.
@item brace-list-open
Open brace of an enum or static array list.
@item brace-list-close
Close brace of an enum or static array list.
@item brace-list-intro
First line in an enum or static array list.
@item brace-list-entry
Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list.
@item brace-entry-open
Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list where the line begins
with an open brace.
@item statement
A statement.
@item statement-cont
A continuation of a statement.
@item statement-block-intro
The first line in a new statement block.
@item statement-case-intro
The first line in a case block.
@item statement-case-open
The first line in a case block that starts with a brace.
@item substatement
The first line after a conditional or loop construct.
@item substatement-open
The brace that opens a substatement block.
@item case-label
A @code{case} or @code{default} label.
@item access-label
C++ access control label.
@item label
Any non-special C label.
@item do-while-closure
The @code{while} line that ends a @code{do}-@code{while} construct.
@item else-clause
The @code{else} line of an @code{if}-@code{else} construct.
@item catch-clause
The @code{catch} or @code{finally} (in Java) line of a
@code{try}-@code{catch} construct.
@item comment-intro
A line containing only a comment introduction.
@item arglist-intro
The first line in an argument list.
@item arglist-cont
Subsequent argument list lines when no arguments follow on the same line
as the arglist opening paren.
@item arglist-cont-nonempty
Subsequent argument list lines when at least one argument follows on the
same line as the arglist opening paren.
@item arglist-close
The solo close paren of an argument list.
@item stream-op
Lines continuing a stream operator (C++ only).
@item inclass
The line is nested inside a class definition.
@item cpp-macro
The start of a C preprocessor macro definition.
@item cpp-macro-cont
Subsequent lines of a multi-line C preprocessor macro definition.
@item friend
A C++ friend declaration.
@item objc-method-intro
The first line of an Objective-C method.  definition.
@item objc-method-args-cont
Lines continuing an Objective-C method.  definition
@item objc-method-call-cont
Lines continuing an Objective-C method call.
@item extern-lang-open
Brace that opens an external language block.
@item extern-lang-close
Brace that closes an external language block.
@item inextern-lang
Analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol, but used inside external
language blocks (e.g. @code{extern "C" @{}).
@item namespace-open
Brace that opens a C++ namespace block.
@item namespace-close
Brace that closes a C++ namespace block.
@item innamespace
Analogous to @code{inextern-lang} syntactic symbol, but used inside C++
namespace blocks.
@item template-args-cont
C++ template argument list continuations.
@item inlambda
Analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol, but used inside lambda
(i.e. anonymous) functions.  Only used in Pike mode.
@item lambda-intro-cont
Lines continuing the header of a lambda function, i.e. between the
@code{lambda} keyword and the function body.  Only used in Pike mode.
@item inexpr-statement
A statement block inside an expression.  The gcc C extension of this is
recognized.  It's also used for the special functions that takes a
statement block as an argument in Pike.
@item inexpr-class
A class definition inside an expression.  This is used for anonymous
classes in Java.  It's also used for anonymous array initializers in
Java.
@end table

@cindex -open syntactic symbols
@cindex -close syntactic symbols
Most syntactic symbol names follow a general naming convention.  When a
line begins with an open or close brace, the syntactic symbol will
contain the suffix @code{-open} or @code{-close} respectively.

@cindex -intro syntactic symbols
@cindex -cont syntactic symbols
@cindex -block-intro syntactic symbols
Usually, a distinction is made between the first line that introduces a
construct and lines that continue a construct, and the syntactic symbols
that represent these lines will contain the suffix @code{-intro} or
@code{-cont} respectively.  As a sub-classification of this scheme, a
line which is the first of a particular brace block construct will
contain the suffix @code{-block-intro}.

Let's look at some examples to understand how this works.  Remember that
you can check the syntax of any line by using @kbd{C-c C-s}.
@example
@group

  1: void
  2: swap( int& a, int& b )
  3: @{
  4:     int tmp = a;
  5:     a = b;
  6:     b = tmp;
  7:     int ignored =
  8:         a + b;
  9: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex topmost-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex topmost-intro-cont syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-open syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-close syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-block-intro syntactic symbol
Line 1 shows a @code{topmost-intro} since it is the first line that
introduces a top-level construct.  Line 2 is a continuation of the
top-level construct introduction so it has the syntax
@code{topmost-intro-cont}.  Line 3 shows a @code{defun-open} since it is
the brace that opens a top-level function definition.  Line 9 is the
corresponding
@code{defun-close} since it contains the brace that closes the top-level
function definition.  Line 4 is a @code{defun-block-intro}, i.e. it is
the first line of a brace-block, enclosed in a
top-level function definition.

@cindex statement syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-cont syntactic symbol
Lines 5, 6, and 7 are all given @code{statement} syntax since there
isn't much special about them.  Note however that line 8 is given
@code{statement-cont} syntax since it continues the statement begun
on the previous line.

Here's another example, which illustrates some C++ class syntactic
symbols:
@example
@group

   1: class Bass
   2:     : public Guitar,
   3:       public Amplifiable
   4: @{
   5: public:
   6:     Bass()
   7:         : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
   8:           aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
   9:           dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
  10:           gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
  11:     @{
  12:         eString.tune( 'E' );
  13:         aString.tune( 'A' );
  14:         dString.tune( 'D' );
  15:         gString.tune( 'G' );
  16:     @}
  17:     friend class Luthier;
  18: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex class-open syntactic symbol
@cindex class-close syntactic symbol
As in the previous example, line 1 has the @code{topmost-intro} syntax.
Here however, the brace that opens a C++ class definition on line 4 is
assigned the @code{class-open} syntax.  Note that in C++, classes,
structs, and unions are essentially equivalent syntactically (and are
very similar semantically), so replacing the @code{class} keyword in the
example above with @code{struct} or @code{union} would still result in a
syntax of @code{class-open} for line 4 @footnote{This is the case even
for C and Objective-C.  For consistency, structs in all supported
languages are syntactically equivalent to classes.  Note however that
the keyword @code{class} is meaningless in C and Objective-C.}.
Similarly, line 18 is assigned @code{class-close} syntax.

@cindex inher-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex inher-cont syntactic symbol
Line 2 introduces the inheritance list for the class so it is assigned
the @code{inher-intro} syntax, and line 3, which continues the
inheritance list is given @code{inher-cont} syntax.

@cindex access-label syntactic symbol
@cindex inclass syntactic symbol
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 5 shows the following analysis:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (access-label . 67))}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
The primary syntactic symbol for this line is @code{access-label} as
this a label keyword that specifies access protection in C++.  However,
because this line is also a top-level construct inside a class
definition, the analysis actually shows two syntactic symbols.  The
other syntactic symbol assigned to this line is @code{inclass}.
Similarly, line 6 is given both @code{inclass} and @code{topmost-intro}
syntax:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (topmost-intro . 60))}

@end group
@end example

@cindex member-init-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex member-init-cont syntactic symbol
Line 7 introduces a C++ member initialization list and as such is given
@code{member-init-intro} syntax.  Note that in this case it is
@emph{not} assigned @code{inclass} since this is not considered a
top-level construct.  Lines 8 through 10 are all assigned
@code{member-init-cont} since they continue the member initialization
list started on line 7.

@cindex in-class inline methods
@cindex inline-open syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-close syntactic symbol
Line 11's analysis is a bit more complicated:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (inline-open))}

@end group
@end example

This line is assigned a syntax of both @code{inline-open} and
@code{inclass} because it opens an @dfn{in-class} C++ inline method
definition.  This is distinct from, but related to, the C++ notion of an
inline function in that its definition occurs inside an enclosing class
definition, which in C++ implies that the function should be inlined.
If though, the definition of the @code{Bass} constructor appeared
outside the class definition, the construct would be given the
@code{defun-open} syntax, even if the keyword @code{inline} appeared
before the method name, as in:
@example
@group

class Bass
    : public Guitar,
      public Amplifiable
@{
public:
    Bass();
@}

inline
Bass::Bass()
    : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
      aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
      dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
      gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
@{
    eString.tune( 'E' );
    aString.tune( 'A' );
    dString.tune( 'D' );
    gString.tune( 'G' );
@}

@end group
@end example

@cindex friend syntactic symbol
Returning to the previous example, line 16 is given @code{inline-close}
syntax, while line 12 is given @code{defun-block-open} syntax, and lines
13 through 15 are all given @code{statement} syntax.  Line 17 is
interesting in that its syntactic analysis list contains three
elements:

@example

@code{((friend) (inclass . 58) (topmost-intro . 380))}

@end example

The @code{friend} syntactic symbol is a modifier that typically does not
have a relative buffer position.

Template definitions introduce yet another syntactic symbol:

@example
@group

   1: ThingManager <int,
   2:    Framework::Callback *,
   3:    Mutex> framework_callbacks;

@end group
@end example

Here, line 1 is analyzed as a @code{topmost-intro}, but lines 2 and 3
are both analyzed as @code{template-args-cont} lines.

Here is another (totally contrived) example which illustrates how syntax
is assigned to various conditional constructs:
@example
@group

   1: void spam( int index )
   2: @{
   3:     for( int i=0; i<index; i++ )
   4:     @{
   5:         if( i == 10 )
   6:         @{
   7:             do_something_special();
   8:         @}
   9:         else
  10:             do_something( i );
  11:     @}
  12:     do @{
  13:         another_thing( i-- );
  14:     @}
  15:     while( i > 0 );
  16: @}


@end group
@end example

@noindent
Only the lines that illustrate new syntactic symbols will be discussed.

@cindex substatement-open syntactic symbol
@cindex substatement-block-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex block-close syntactic symbol
Line 4 has a brace which opens a conditional's substatement block.  It
is thus assigned @code{substatement-open} syntax, and since line 5 is
the first line in the substatement block, it is assigned
@code{substatement-block-intro} syntax.  Lines 6 and 7 are assigned
similar syntax.  Line 8 contains the brace that closes the inner
substatement block.  It is given the syntax @code{block-close},
as are lines 11 and 14.

@cindex else-clause syntactic symbol
@cindex catch-clause syntactic symbol
Line 9 is a little different --- since it contains the keyword
@code{else} matching the @code{if} statement introduced on line 5, it is
given the @code{else-clause} syntax.  The @code{try}-@code{catch}
constructs in C++ and Java are treated this way too, with the only
difference that the @code{catch}, and in Java also @code{finally}, is
marked with @code{catch-clause}.

@cindex substatement syntactic symbol
Line 10 is also slightly different.  Because @code{else} is considered a
conditional introducing keyword @footnote{The list of conditional
keywords are (in C, C++, Objective-C, Java, and Pike): @code{for},
@code{if}, @code{do}, @code{else}, @code{while}, and @code{switch}.  C++
and Java have two additional conditional keywords: @code{try} and
@code{catch}.  Java also has the @code{finally} and @code{synchronized}
keywords.}, and because the following substatement is not a brace block,
line 10 is assigned the @code{substatement} syntax.

@cindex do-while-closure syntactic symbol
One other difference is seen on line 15.  The @code{while} construct
that closes a @code{do} conditional is given the special syntax
@code{do-while-closure} if it appears on a line by itself.  Note that if
the @code{while} appeared on the same line as the preceding close brace,
that line would have been assigned @code{block-close} syntax instead.

Switch statements have their own set of syntactic symbols.  Here's an
example:
@example
@group

   1: void spam( enum Ingredient i )
   2: @{
   3:     switch( i ) @{
   4:     case Ham:
   5:         be_a_pig();
   6:         break;
   7:     case Salt:
   8:         drink_some_water();
   9:         break;
  10:     default:
  11:         @{
  12:             what_is_it();
  13:             break;
  14:         @}
  15:     @}
  14: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex case-label syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-open syntactic symbol
Here, lines 4, 7, and 10 are all assigned @code{case-label} syntax,
while lines 5 and 8 are assigned @code{statement-case-intro}.  Line 11
is treated slightly differently since it contains a brace that opens a
block --- it is given @code{statement-case-open} syntax.

@cindex brace lists
There are a set of syntactic symbols that are used to recognize
constructs inside of brace lists.  A brace list is defined as an
@code{enum} or aggregate initializer list, such as might statically
initialize an array of structs.  The three special aggregate constructs
in Pike, @code{(@{ @})}, @code{([ ])} and @code{(< >)}, are treated as
brace lists too.  An example:
@example
@group

  1: static char* ingredients[] =
  2: @{
  3:     "Ham",
  4:     "Salt",
  5:     NULL
  6: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex brace-list-open syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-entry syntactic symbol
Following convention, line 2 in this example is assigned
@code{brace-list-open} syntax, and line 3 is assigned
@code{brace-list-intro} syntax.  Likewise, line 6 is assigned
@code{brace-list-close} syntax.  Lines 4 and 5 however, are assigned
@code{brace-list-entry} syntax, as would all subsequent lines in this
initializer list.

@cindex brace-entry-open syntactic symbol
Your static initializer might be initializing nested structures, for
example:
@example
@group

  1: struct intpairs[] =
  2: @{
  3:     @{ 1, 2 @},
  4:     @{
  5:         3,
  6:         4
  7:     @}
  8:     @{ 1,
  9:       2 @},
 10:     @{ 3, 4 @}
 11: @}

@end group
@end example

Here, you've already seen the analysis of lines 1, 2, 3, and 11.  On
line 4, things get interesting; this line is assigned
@code{brace-entry-open} syntactic symbol because it's a bracelist entry
line that starts with an open brace.  Lines 5 and 6 (and line 9) are
pretty standard, and line 7 is a @code{brace-list-close} as you'd
expect.  Once again, line 8 is assigned as @code{brace-entry-open} as is
line 10.

External language definition blocks also have their own syntactic
symbols.  In this example:
@example
@group

   1: extern "C" 
   2: @{
   3:     int thing_one( int );
   4:     int thing_two( double );
   5: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex extern-lang-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-close syntactic symbol
@cindex inextern-lang syntactic symbol
@cindex inclass syntactic symbol
@noindent
line 2 is given the @code{extern-lang-open} syntax, while line 5 is given
the @code{extern-lang-close} syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:
@code{((inextern-lang) (topmost-intro . 14))}, where
@code{inextern-lang} is a modifier similar in purpose to @code{inclass}.

Similarly, C++ namespace constructs have their own associated syntactic
symbols.  In this example:
@example
@group

   1: namespace foo
   2: @{
   3:     void xxx() @{@}
   4: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex namespace-open syntactic symbol
@cindex namespace-close syntactic symbol
@cindex innamespace syntactic symbol
@noindent
line 2 is given the @code{namespace-open} syntax, while line 4 is given
the @code{namespace-close} syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:
@code{((innamespace) (topmost-intro . 17))}, where @code{innamespace} is 
a modifier similar in purpose to @code{inextern-lang} and @code{inclass}.

A number of syntactic symbols are associated with parenthesis lists,
a.k.a argument lists, as found in function declarations and function
calls.  This example illustrates these:
@example
@group

   1: void a_function( int line1,
   2:                  int line2 );
   3: 
   4: void a_longer_function(
   5:     int line1,
   6:     int line2
   7:     );
   8: 
   9: void call_them( int line1, int line2 )
  10: @{
  11:     a_function(
  12:         line1,
  13:         line2
  14:         );
  15: 
  16:     a_longer_function( line1,
  17:                        line2 );
  18: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex arglist-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex arglist-close syntactic symbol
Lines 5 and 12 are assigned @code{arglist-intro} syntax since they are
the first line following the open parenthesis, and lines 7 and 14 are
assigned @code{arglist-close} syntax since they contain the parenthesis
that closes the argument list.

@cindex arglist-cont-nonempty syntactic symbol
@cindex arglist-cont syntactic symbol
Lines that continue argument lists can be assigned one of two syntactic
symbols.  For example, Lines 2 and 17
are assigned @code{arglist-cont-nonempty} syntax.  What this means
is that they continue an argument list, but that the line containing the
parenthesis that opens the list is @emph{not empty} following the open
parenthesis.  Contrast this against lines 6 and 13 which are assigned
@code{arglist-cont} syntax.  This is because the parenthesis that opens
their argument lists is the last character on that line.

Note that there is no @code{arglist-open} syntax.  This is because any
parenthesis that opens an argument list, appearing on a separate line,
is assigned the @code{statement-cont} syntax instead.

A few miscellaneous syntactic symbols that haven't been previously
covered are illustrated by this C++ example:
@example
@group

   1: void Bass::play( int volume )
   2: const
   3: @{
   4:     /* this line starts a multi-line
   5:      * comment.  This line should get `c' syntax */
   6: 
   7:     char* a_multiline_string = "This line starts a multi-line \
   8: string.  This line should get `string' syntax.";
   9: 
  10:   note:
  11:     @{
  12: #ifdef LOCK
  13:         Lock acquire();
  14: #endif // LOCK
  15:         slap_pop();
  16:         cout << "I played "
  17:              << "a note\n";
  18:     @}
  19: @}

@end group
@end example

The lines to note in this example include:

@itemize @bullet

@cindex func-decl-cont syntactic symbol
@item
Line 2 is assigned the @code{func-decl-cont} syntax.

@cindex comment-intro syntactic symbol
@item
Line 4 is assigned both @code{defun-block-intro} @emph{and}
@code{comment-intro} syntax.

@cindex c syntactic symbol
@item
Line 5 is assigned @code{c} syntax.

@item
@cindex syntactic whitespace
Line 6 which, even though it contains nothing but whitespace, is
assigned @code{defun-block-intro}.  Note that the appearance of the
comment on lines 4 and 5 do not cause line 6 to be assigned
@code{statement} syntax because comments are considered to be
@dfn{syntactic whitespace}, which are ignored when analyzing
code.

@cindex string syntactic symbol
@item
Line 8 is assigned @code{string} syntax.

@cindex label syntactic symbol
@item
Line 10 is assigned @code{label} syntax.

@cindex block-open syntactic symbol
@item
Line 11 is assigned @code{block-open} syntax.

@cindex cpp-macro syntactic symbol
@cindex cpp-macro-cont syntactic symbol
@item
Lines 12 and 14 are assigned @code{cpp-macro} syntax in addition to the
normal syntactic symbols (@code{statement-block-intro} and
@code{statement}, respectively).  Normally @code{cpp-macro} is
configured to cancel out the normal syntactic context to make all
preprocessor directives stick to the first column, but that's easily
changed if you want preprocessor directives to be indented like the rest
of the code.

@cindex stream-op syntactic symbol
@item
Line 17 is assigned @code{stream-op} syntax.

@end itemize

@cindex multi-line macros
@cindex syntactic whitespace
Multi-line C preprocessor macros are now (somewhat) supported.  At least
@ccmode{} now recognizes the fact that it is inside a multi-line macro,
and it properly skips such macros as syntactic whitespace.  In this
example:
@example
@group

   1: #define LIST_LOOP(cons, listp)                           \
   2:   for (cons = listp; !NILP (cons); cons = XCDR (cons))   \
   3:      if (!CONSP (cons))                                  \
   4:        signal_error ("Invalid list format", listp);      \
   5:      else

@end group
@end example
@noindent
line 1 is given the syntactic symbol @code{cpp-macro}.  This first line
of a macro is always given this symbol.  The second and subsequent lines 
(e.g. lines 2 through 5) are given the @code{cpp-macro-cont} syntactic
symbol, with a relative buffer position pointing to the @code{#} which
starts the macro definition.

In Objective-C buffers, there are three additional syntactic symbols
assigned to various message calling constructs.  Here's an example
illustrating these:
@example
@group

  1: - (void)setDelegate:anObject
  2:           withStuff:stuff
  3: @{
  4:     [delegate masterWillRebind:self
  5:               toDelegate:anObject
  6:               withExtraStuff:stuff];
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex objc-method-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex objc-method-args-cont syntactic symbol
@cindex objc-method-call-cont syntactic symbol
Here, line 1 is assigned @code{objc-method-intro} syntax, and line 2 is
assigned @code{objc-method-args-cont} syntax.  Lines 5 and 6 are both
assigned @code{objc-method-call-cont} syntax.

Java has a concept of anonymous classes, which may look something like
this:
@example
@group

  1: public void watch(Observable o) @{
  2:     o.addObserver(new Observer() @{
  3:             public void update(Observable o, Object arg) @{
  4:                 history.addElement(arg);
  5:             @}
  6:         @});
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex inexpr-class syntactic symbol
The brace following the @code{new} operator opens the anonymous class.
Lines 3 and 6 are assigned the @code{inexpr-class} syntax, besides the
@code{inclass} symbol used in normal classes.  Thus, the class will be
indented just like a normal class, with the added indentation given to
@code{inexpr-class}.

There are a few occasions where a statement block may be used inside an
expression.  One is in C code using the gcc extension for this, e.g:
@example
@group

  1: int res = (@{
  2:         int y = foo (); int z;
  3:         if (y > 0) z = y; else z = - y;
  4:         z;
  5:     @});

@end group
@end example

@cindex inexpr-statement syntactic symbol
Lines 2 and 5 get the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, besides the
symbols they'd get in a normal block.  Therefore, the indentation put on
@code{inexpr-statement} is added to the normal statement block
indentation.

In Pike code, there are a few other situations where blocks occur inside
statements, as illustrated here:
@example
@group

  1: array itgob()
  2: @{
  3:     string s = map (backtrace()[-2][3..],
  4:                     lambda
  5:                         (mixed arg)
  6:                     @{
  7:                         return sprintf ("%t", arg);
  8:                     @}) * ", " + "\n";
  9:     return catch @{
 10:             write (s + "\n");
 11:         @};
 12: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex inlambda syntactic symbol
@cindex lambda-intro-cont syntactic symbol
Lines 4 through 8 contain a lambda function, which @ccmode{} recognizes
by the @code{lambda} keyword.  If the function argument list is put
on a line of its own, as in line 5, it gets the @code{lambda-intro-cont}
syntax.  The function body is handled as an inline method body, with the
addition of the @code{inlambda} syntactic symbol.  This means that line
6 gets @code{inlambda} and @code{inline-open}, and line 8 gets
@code{inline-close}@footnote{You might wonder why it doesn't get
@code{inlambda} too.  It's because the closing brace is relative to the
opening brace, which stands on its own line in this example.  If the
opening brace was hanging on the previous line, then the closing brace
would get the @code{inlambda} syntax too to be indented correctly.}.

@cindex inexpr-statement syntactic symbol
On line 9, @code{catch} is a special function taking a statement block
as its argument.  The block is handled as an in-expression statement
with the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, just like the gcc extended C
example above.  The other similar special function, @code{gauge}, is
handled like this too.

@cindex knr-argdecl-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex knr-argdecl syntactic symbol
Two other syntactic symbols can appear in old style, non-prototyped C
code @footnote{a.k.a. K&R C, or Kernighan & Ritchie C}:
@example
@group

  1: int add_three_integers(a, b, c)
  2:      int a;
  3:      int b;
  4:      int c;
  5: @{
  6:     return a + b + c;
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

Here, line 2 is the first line in an argument declaration list and so is
given the @code{knr-argdecl-intro} syntactic symbol.  Subsequent lines
(i.e. lines 3 and 4 in this example), are given @code{knr-argdecl}
syntax.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Indentation Functions, Performance Issues, Syntactic Symbols, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Indentation Functions
@cindex indentation functions
@cindex line-up functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Often there are cases when a simple offset setting on a syntactic symbol
isn't enough to get the desired indentation.  Therefore, it's also
possible to use a @dfn{indentation function} (a.k.a. line-up function)
for a syntactic symbol.

@ccmode{} comes with many predefined indentation functions for common
situations.  If none of these does what you want, you can write your
own, see @ref{Custom Indentation Functions}.  If you do, it's probably a
good idea to start working from one of these predefined functions, they
can be found in the file @file{cc-align.el}.

For every function below there is a ``works with'' list that indicates
which syntactic symbols the function is intended to be used with.

@macro workswith
@emph{Works with:@ }
@end macro
@ifinfo
@unmacro workswith
@macro workswith
Works with:
@end macro
@end ifinfo

@table @code

@findex c-lineup-arglist
@findex lineup-arglist (c-)
@item c-lineup-arglist
Line up the current argument line under the first argument.

@workswith @code{arglist-cont-nonempty}.

@findex c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren (c-)
@item c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren
Line up a line just after the open paren of the surrounding paren or
brace block.

@workswith @code{defun-block-intro}, @code{brace-list-intro},
@code{statement-block-intro}, @code{statement-case-intro},
@code{arglist-intro}.

@findex c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-close-under-paren (c-)
@item c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren
Set e.g. your @code{arglist-close} syntactic symbol to this line-up
function so that parentheses that close argument lists will line up
under the parenthesis that opened the argument list.

@workswith @code{defun-close}, @code{class-close}, @code{inline-close},
@code{block-close}, @code{brace-list-close}, @code{arglist-close},
@code{extern-lang-close}, @code{namespace-close} (for most of these, a
zero offset will normally produce the same result, though).

@findex c-lineup-close-paren
@findex lineup-close-paren (c-)
@item c-lineup-close-paren
Line up the closing paren under its corresponding open paren if the
open paren is followed by code.  If the open paren ends its line, no
indentation is added.  E.g:
@example
@group

main (int,
      char **           
     )                   // c-lineup-close-paren

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

main (
    int, char **
)                        // c-lineup-close-paren

@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{defun-close}, @code{class-close}, @code{inline-close},
@code{block-close}, @code{brace-list-close}, @code{arglist-close},
@code{extern-lang-close}, @code{namespace-close}.

@findex c-lineup-streamop
@findex lineup-streamop (c-)
@item c-lineup-streamop
Line up C++ stream operators (i.e. @samp{<<} and @samp{>>}).

@workswith @code{stream-op}.

@findex c-lineup-multi-inher
@findex lineup-multi-inher (c-)
@item c-lineup-multi-inher
Line up the classes in C++ multiple inheritance clauses and member
initializers under each other.  E.g:
@example
@group

Foo::Foo (int a, int b):
    Cyphr (a),
    Bar (b)              // c-lineup-multi-inher

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

class Foo
    : public Cyphr,
      public Bar         // c-lineup-multi-inher

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

Foo::Foo (int a, int b)
    : Cyphr (a)
    , Bar (b)            // c-lineup-multi-inher

@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{inher-cont}, @code{member-init-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-java-inher
@findex lineup-java-inher (c-)
@item c-lineup-java-inher
Line up Java implements and extends declarations.  If class names
follows on the same line as the @samp{implements}/@samp{extends}
keyword, they are lined up under each other.  Otherwise, they are
indented by adding @code{c-basic-offset} to the column of the keyword.
E.g:
@example
@group

class Foo
    extends           
        Bar              // c-lineup-java-inher

    <--> c-basic-offset

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

class Foo
    extends Cyphr,
            Bar          // c-lineup-java-inher

@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{inher-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-java-throws
@findex lineup-java-throws (c-)
@item c-lineup-java-throws
Line up Java throws declarations.  If exception names follows on the
same line as the throws keyword, they are lined up under each other.
Otherwise, they are indented by adding @code{c-basic-offset} to the
column of the @samp{throws} keyword.  The @samp{throws} keyword itself
is also indented by @code{c-basic-offset} from the function declaration
start if it doesn't hang.  E.g:
@example
@group

int foo()
    throws               // c-lineup-java-throws
        Bar              // c-lineup-java-throws

<--><--> c-basic-offset

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

int foo() throws Cyphr,
                 Bar,    // c-lineup-java-throws
                 Vlod    // c-lineup-java-throws

@end group
@end example

@workswith @code{func-decl-cont}.

@findex c-indent-one-line-block
@findex indent-one-line-block (c-)
@item c-indent-one-line-block
Indent a one line block @code{c-basic-offset} extra.  E.g:
@example
@group

if (n > 0)
    @{m+=n; n=0;@}         // c-indent-one-line-block
                           
<--> c-basic-offset        

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

if (n > 0)
@{                        // c-indent-one-line-block
    m+=n; n=0;
@}

@end group
@end example

The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
@code{nil} is returned if the line doesn't start with a one line block,
which makes the function usable in list expressions.

@workswith Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
@code{-open} symbols.

@findex c-indent-multi-line-block
@findex indent-multi-line-block (c-)
@item c-indent-multi-line-block
Indent a multi line block @code{c-basic-offset} extra.  E.g:
@example
@group

int *foo[] = @{
    NULL,                 
    @{17@},                // c-indent-multi-line-block

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

int *foo[] = @{
    NULL,
        @{                // c-indent-multi-line-block
        17
        @},

    <--> c-basic-offset

@end group
@end example

The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
@code{nil} is returned if the line doesn't start with a multi line
block, which makes the function usable in list expressions.

@workswith Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
@code{-open} symbols.

@findex c-lineup-C-comments
@findex lineup-C-comments (c-)
@item c-lineup-C-comments
Line up C block comment continuation lines.  Various heuristics are used
to handle most of the common comment styles.  Some examples:
@example

@group
/*                 /**               /*
 * text             * text             text
 */                 */               */
@end group

@group
/* text            /*                /**
   text            ** text            ** text
*/                 */                 */
@end group

@group
/**************************************************
 * text
 *************************************************/
@end group

@vindex comment-start-skip
@group
/**************************************************
    Free form text comments:
 In comments with a long delimiter line at the
 start, the indentation is kept unchanged for lines
 that start with an empty comment line prefix.  The
 delimiter line is whatever matches the
 @code{comment-start-skip} regexp.
**************************************************/
@end group

@end example

The style variable @code{c-comment-prefix-regexp} is used to recognize
the comment line prefix, e.g. the @samp{*} that usually starts every
line inside a comment.

@workswith The @code{c} syntactic symbol.

@findex c-lineup-comment
@findex lineup-comment (c-)
@item c-lineup-comment
Line up a comment-only line according to the style variable
@code{c-comment-only-line-offset}.  If the comment is lined up with a
comment starter on the previous line, that alignment is preserved.

@vindex c-comment-only-line-offset
@vindex comment-only-line-offset (c-)
@code{c-comment-only-line-offset} specifies the extra offset for the
line.  It can contain an integer or a cons cell of the form
@example

 (@r{<non-anchored-offset>} . @r{<anchored-offset>})

@end example

@noindent
where @var{non-anchored-offset} is the amount of offset given to
non-column-zero anchored lines, and @var{anchored-offset} is the amount
of offset to give column-zero anchored lines.  Just an integer as value
is equivalent to @code{(@r{<value>} . -1000)}.

@workswith @code{comment-intro}.

@findex c-lineup-runin-statements
@findex lineup-runin-statements (c-)
@item c-lineup-runin-statements
Line up statements for coding standards which place the first statement
in a block on the same line as the block opening brace@footnote{Run-in
style doesn't really work too well.  You might need to write your own
custom indentation functions to better support this style.}.  E.g:
@example
@group

int main()
@{ puts (\"Hello world!\");
  return 0;              // c-lineup-runin-statements
@}

@end group
@end example

If there is no statement after the opening brace to align with,
@code{nil} is returned.  This makes the function usable in list
expressions.

@workswith The @code{statement} syntactic symbol.

@findex c-lineup-math
@findex lineup-math (c-)
@item c-lineup-math
Line up the current line after the equal sign on the first line in the
statement.  If there isn't any, indent with @code{c-basic-offset}.  If
the current line contains an equal sign too, try to align it with the
first one.

@workswith @code{statement-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-template-args
@findex lineup-template-args (c-)
@item c-lineup-template-args
Line up the arguments of a template argument list under each other, but
only in the case where the first argument is on the same line as the
opening @samp{<}.

To allow this function to be used in a list expression, @code{nil} is
returned if there's no template argument on the first line.

@workswith @code{template-args-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-call
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-call (c-)
@item c-lineup-ObjC-method-call
For Objective-C code, line up selector args as @code{elisp-mode} does
with function args: go to the position right after the message receiver,
and if you are at the end of the line, indent the current line
c-basic-offset columns from the opening bracket; otherwise you are
looking at the first character of the first method call argument, so
lineup the current line with it.

@workswith @code{objc-method-call-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-args
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args (c-)
@item c-lineup-ObjC-method-args
For Objective-C code, line up the colons that separate args.  The colon
on the current line is aligned with the one on the first line.

@workswith @code{objc-method-args-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args-2 (c-)
@item c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2
Similar to @code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-args} but lines up the colon on
the current line with the colon on the previous line.

@workswith @code{objc-method-args-cont}.

@findex c-lineup-inexpr-block
@findex lineup-inexpr-block (c-)
@item c-lineup-inexpr-block
This can be used with the in-expression block symbols to indent the
whole block to the column where the construct is started.  E.g. for Java
anonymous classes, this lines up the class under the @samp{new} keyword,
and in Pike it lines up the lambda function body under the @samp{lambda}
keyword.  Returns @code{nil} if the block isn't part of such a
construct.

@workswith @code{inlambda}, @code{inexpr-statement},
@code{inexpr-class}.

@findex c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
@findex lineup-whitesmith-in-block (c-)
@item c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
Line up lines inside a block in Whitesmith style.  It's done in a way
that works both when the opening brace hangs and when it doesn't.  E.g:
@example
@group

something
    @{
    foo;                 // c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
    @}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
and
@example
@group

something @{
    foo;                 // c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
    @}

<--> c-basic-offset

@end group
@end example

In the first case the indentation is kept unchanged, in the second
@code{c-basic-offset} is added.

@workswith @code{defun-close}, @code{defun-block-intro},
@code{block-close}, @code{brace-list-close}, @code{brace-list-intro},
@code{statement-block-intro}, @code{inclass}, @code{inextern-lang},
@code{innamespace}.

@findex c-lineup-dont-change
@findex lineup-dont-change (c-)
@item c-lineup-dont-change
This lineup function makes the line stay at whatever indentation it
already has; think of it as an identity function for lineups.  It is
used for @code{cpp-macro-cont} lines.

@workswith Any syntactic symbol.

@end table


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Performance Issues, Limitations and Known Bugs, Indentation Functions, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Performance Issues
@cindex performance issues
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

C and its derivative languages are highly complex creatures.  Often,
ambiguous code situations arise that require @ccmode{} to scan
large portions of the buffer to determine syntactic context.  Such
pathological code@footnote{such as the output of @code{lex(1)}!}
can cause @ccmode{} to perform fairly badly.
This section identifies some of the coding styles to watch out for, and
suggests some workarounds that you can use to improve performance.

Because @ccmode{} has to scan the buffer backwards from the current
insertion point, and because C's syntax is fairly difficult to parse in
the backwards direction, @ccmode{} often tries to find the nearest
position higher up in the buffer from which to begin a forward scan.
The farther this position is from the current insertion point, the
slower the mode gets.  Some coding styles can even force @ccmode{}
to scan from the beginning of the buffer for every line of code!

@findex beginning-of-defun
@findex defun-prompt-regexp
One of the simplest things you can do to reduce scan time, is make sure
any brace that opens a top-level construct@footnote{E.g. a function in
C, or outermost class definition in C++ or Java.} always appears in the
leftmost column.  This is actually an Emacs constraint, as embodied in
the @code{beginning-of-defun} function which @ccmode{} uses heavily.  If
you insist on hanging top-level open braces on the right side of the
line, then you might want to set the variable @code{defun-prompt-regexp}
to something reasonable, however that ``something reasonable'' is
difficult to define, so @ccmode{} doesn't do it for you.

@vindex c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp
@vindex Java-defun-prompt-regexp (c-)
A special note about @code{defun-prompt-regexp} in Java mode: while much
of the early sample Java code seems to encourage a style where the brace
that opens a class is hung on the right side of the line, this is not a
good style to pursue in Emacs.  @ccmode{} comes with a variable
@code{c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp} which tries to define a regular
expression usable for this style, but there are problems with it.  In
some cases it can cause @code{beginning-of-defun} to hang@footnote{This
has been observed in Emacs 19.34 and XEmacs 19.15.}.  For this reason,
it is not used by default, but if you feel adventurous, you can set
@code{defun-prompt-regexp} to it in your mode hook.  In any event,
setting and rely on @code{defun-prompt-regexp} will definitely slow
things down anyway because you'll be doing regular expression searches
for every line you indent, so you're probably screwed either way!

@vindex c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p
@vindex enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p (c-)
Another alternative for XEmacs users, is to set the variable
@code{c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p} to non-@code{nil}.  This
tells @ccmode{} to use XEmacs-specific built-in functions which, in some
circumstances, can locate the top-most opening brace much quicker than
@code{beginning-of-defun}.  Preliminary testing has shown that for
styles where these braces are hung (e.g. most JDK-derived Java styles),
this hack can improve performance of the core syntax parsing routines
from 3 to 60 times.  However, for styles which @emph{do} conform to
Emacs' recommended style of putting top-level braces in column zero,
this hack can degrade performance by about as much.  Thus this variable
is set to @code{nil} by default, since the Emacs-friendly styles
should be more common (and
encouraged!).  Note that this variable has no effect in Emacs since the
necessary built-in functions don't exist (in Emacs 20.2 or 20.3 as of
this writing 27-Apr-1998).

You will probably notice pathological behavior from @ccmode{} when
working in files containing large amounts of C preprocessor macros.
This is because Emacs cannot skip backwards over these lines as quickly
as it can comments.

@vindex c-recognize-knr-p
@vindex recognize-knr-p (c-)
Previous versions of @ccmode{} had potential performance problems
when recognizing K&R style function argument declarations.  This was
because there are ambiguities in the C syntax when K&R style argument
lists are used@footnote{It is hard to distinguish them from top-level
declarations.}.  @ccmode{} has adopted BOCM's convention for
limiting the search: it assumes that argdecls are indented at least one
space, and that the function headers are not indented at all.  With
current versions of @ccmode{}, user customization of
@code{c-recognize-knr-p} is deprecated.  Just don't put argdecls in
column zero!

@cindex @file{cc-lobotomy.el} file
@vindex cc-lobotomy-pith-list
You might want to investigate the speed-ups contained in the
file @file{cc-lobotomy.el}, which comes as part of the @ccmode{}
distribution, but is completely unsupported.
As mentioned previous, @ccmode{} always trades speed for accuracy,
however it is recognized that sometimes you need speed and can sacrifice
some accuracy in indentation.  The file @file{cc-lobotomy.el} contains
hacks that will ``dumb down'' @ccmode{} in some specific ways, making
that trade-off of accurancy for speed.  I won't go into details of its
use here; you should read the comments at the top of the file, and look
at the variable @code{cc-lobotomy-pith-list} for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Limitations and Known Bugs, Frequently Asked Questions, Performance Issues, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@chapter    Limitations and Known Bugs
@cindex limitations
@cindex bugs
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@itemize @bullet
@item
Re-indenting large regions or expressions can be slow.

@findex c-indent-exp
@findex indent-exp (c-)
@item
@code{c-indent-exp} has not been fully optimized.  It essentially
equivalent to hitting @kbd{TAB} (@code{c-indent-command}) on every
line.  Some information is cached from line to line, but such caching
invariable causes inaccuracies in analysis in some bizarre situations.

@vindex signal-error-on-buffer-boundary
@item
XEmacs versions from 19.15 until (as of this writing 12-Mar-1998) 20.4
contain a variable called @code{signal-error-on-buffer-boundary}.  This
was intended as a solution to user interface problems associated with
buffer movement and the @code{zmacs-region} deactivation on errors.
However, setting this variable to a non-default value had the
deleterious side effect of breaking many built-in primitive functions.
Most users will not be affected since they never change the value of
this variable.  @strong{Do not set this variable to @code{nil}}; you
will cause serious problems in @ccmode{} and probably other XEmacs
packages!  As of at least XEmacs 20.4, the effects this variable tried
to correct have been fixed in other, better ways.

@end itemize


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Frequently Asked Questions, Getting the Latest CC Mode Release, Limitations and Known Bugs, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Frequently Asked Questions
@cindex frequently asked questions
@cindex FAQ
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex C-x h
@kindex C-M-\
@kindex C-M-x
@kindex C-M-q
@kindex C-M-u
@kindex RET
@kindex C-j
@quotation

@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the whole file?}

@strong{A.} Visit the file and hit @kbd{C-x h} to mark the whole
buffer. Then hit @kbd{C-M-\}.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the entire function?
@kbd{C-M-x} doesn't work.}

@strong{A.} @kbd{C-M-x} is reserved for future Emacs use.
To re-indent the entire function hit @kbd{C-c C-q}.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the current block?}

@strong{A.} First move to the brace which opens the block with
@kbd{C-M-u}, then re-indent that expression with
@kbd{C-M-q}.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{Why doesn't the @kbd{RET} key indent the new line?}

@strong{A.} Emacs' convention is that @kbd{RET} just adds a newline,
and that @kbd{C-j} adds a newline and indents it.  You can make
@kbd{RET} do this too by adding this to your
@code{c-mode-common-hook}:
@example

(define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break)

@end example

This is a very common question.  If you want this to be the default
behavior, don't lobby me, lobby RMS!  @t{:-)}

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{I put @code{(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)}
in my @file{.emacs} file but I get an error saying that
@code{c-set-offset}'s function definition is void.}

@strong{A.} This means that @ccmode{} wasn't loaded into your
Emacs session by the time the @code{c-set-offset} call was reached,
most likely because @ccmode{} is being autoloaded.  Instead
of putting the @code{c-set-offset} line in your top-level
@file{.emacs} file, put it in your @code{c-mode-common-hook}, or
simply modify @code{c-offsets-alist} directly:
@example

(setq c-offsets-alist '((substatement-open . 0)))

@end example

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I make strings, comments, keywords, and other
constructs appear in different colors, or in bold face, etc.?}

@strong{A.} ``Syntax Colorization'' is a standard Emacs feature,
controlled by @code{font-lock-mode}.  @ccmode{} does not contain
font-lock definitions for any of its supported languages.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{@kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} used to move over entire
balanced brace lists, but now they move into blocks.  How do I get the
old behavior back?}

@strong{A.} Use @kbd{C-M-f} and @kbd{C-M-b} to move over balanced brace
blocks.  Use @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} to move by statements, which will
also move into blocks.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{Whenever I try to indent a line or type an
``electric'' key such as @kbd{;}, @kbd{@{}, or @kbd{@}}, I get an error
that look like this: @code{Invalid function: (macro . #[...}. What
gives?}

@strong{A.} This is a common error when @ccmode{} hasn't been compiled
correctly, especially under Emacs 19.34@footnote{Technically, it's
because some macros wasn't defined during the compilation, so the byte
compiler put in function calls instead of the macro expansions. Later,
when the interpreter tries to call the macros as functions, it shows
this (somewhat cryptic) error message.}. If you are using the standalone
@ccmode{} distribution, try recompiling it according to the instructions
in the @file{README} file.

@end quotation


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Getting the Latest CC Mode Release, Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Frequently Asked Questions, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Getting the Latest CC Mode Release
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} is standard with all versions of Emacs since 19.34 and of
XEmacs since 19.16.

Due to release schedule skew, it is likely that all of these Emacsen
have old versions of @ccmode{} and so should be upgraded.  Access to the 
@ccmode{} source code, as well as more detailed information on Emacsen
compatibility, etc. are all available via the Web at:

@example
@group

        @uref{http://cc-mode.sourceforge.net/}

@end group
@end example

@emph{Old URLs, including the FTP URLs, should no longer be used.}

There are many files under these directories; you can pick up the entire
distribution (named @code{cc-mode.tar.gz}; a gzip'd tar file), or any of
the individual files, including PostScript documentation.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Sample .emacs File, Getting the Latest CC Mode Release, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports
@cindex mailing lists
@cindex reporting bugs
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex C-c C-b
@findex c-submit-bug-report
@findex submit-bug-report (c-)
To report bugs, use the @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{c-submit-bug-report})
command.  This provides vital information we need to reproduce your
problem.  Make sure you include a concise, but complete code example.
Please try to boil your example down to just the essential code needed
to reproduce the problem, and include an exact recipe of steps needed to
expose the bug.  Be especially sure to include any code that appears
@emph{before} your bug example, if you think it might affect our ability
to reproduce it.

Please try to produce the problem in an Emacs instance without any
customizations loaded (i.e. start it with the @code{-q -no-site-file}
arguments).  If it works correctly there, the problem might be caused by
faulty customizations in either your own or your site configuration.  In
that case, we'd appreciate if you isolate the Emacs Lisp code that trigs
the bug and include it in your report.

@cindex bug report mailing list
Bug reports are now sent to the following email addresses:
@email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org} and @email{bug-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org}; the
latter is mirrored on the Usenet newsgroup @code{gnu.emacs.bug}.  You
can send other questions and suggestions (kudos? @t{;-)} to
@email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}.

@cindex announcement mailing list
If you want to get announcements of new @ccmode{} releases, send the
word @emph{subscribe} in the body of a message to
@email{cc-mode-announce-request@@lists.sourceforge.net}.  Announcements
will also be posted to the Usenet newsgroups @code{gnu.emacs.sources},
@code{comp.emacs} and @code{comp.emacs.xemacs}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Sample .emacs File, Concept Index, Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@appendix Sample .emacs file
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@example
;; Here's a sample .emacs file that might help you along the way.  Just
;; copy this region and paste it into your .emacs file.  You may want to
;; change some of the actual values.

(defconst my-c-style
  '((c-tab-always-indent        . t)
    (c-comment-only-line-offset . 4)
    (c-hanging-braces-alist     . ((substatement-open after)
                                   (brace-list-open)))
    (c-hanging-colons-alist     . ((member-init-intro before)
                                   (inher-intro)
                                   (case-label after)
                                   (label after)
                                   (access-label after)))
    (c-cleanup-list             . (scope-operator
                                   empty-defun-braces
                                   defun-close-semi))
    (c-offsets-alist            . ((arglist-close . c-lineup-arglist)
                                   (substatement-open . 0)
                                   (case-label        . 4)
                                   (block-open        . 0)
                                   (knr-argdecl-intro . -)))
    (c-echo-syntactic-information-p . t)
    )
  "My C Programming Style")

;; offset customizations not in my-c-style
(setq c-offsets-alist '((member-init-intro . ++)))

;; Customizations for all modes in CC Mode.
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; add my personal style and set it for the current buffer
  (c-add-style "PERSONAL" my-c-style t)
  ;; other customizations
  (setq tab-width 8
        ;; this will make sure spaces are used instead of tabs
        indent-tabs-mode nil)
  ;; we like auto-newline and hungry-delete
  (c-toggle-auto-hungry-state 1)
  ;; keybindings for all supported languages.  We can put these in
  ;; c-mode-base-map because c-mode-map, c++-mode-map, objc-mode-map,
  ;; java-mode-map, idl-mode-map, and pike-mode-map inherit from it.
  (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break)
  )

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)
@end example


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Concept Index, Command Index, Sample .emacs File, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Concept Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@printindex cp


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Command Index, Key Index, Concept Index, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Command Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since most @ccmode{} commands are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{<thing>}} name and its
@code{@var{<thing>} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex fn


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Key Index, Variable Index, Command Index, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Key Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@printindex ky


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Variable Index, , Key Index, Top
@comment node-name, next, previous, up
@unnumbered Variable Index
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Since most @ccmode{} variables are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{<thing>}} name and its
@code{@var{<thing>} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex vr

@iftex
@page
@summarycontents
@contents
@end iftex

@bye