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\input texinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@setfilename  cc-mode.info
@settitle     CC MODE Version 5 Documentation
@footnotestyle end

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment @setchapternewpage odd !! we don't want blank pages !!
@comment %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region)
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment 
@comment Texinfo manual for CC Mode
@comment Generated from the original README file by Krishna Padmasola
@comment <krishna@earth-gw.njit.edu>
@comment 
@comment Maintained by Barry A. Warsaw and Martin Stjernholm
@comment <bug-cc-mode@gnu.org> (or <cc-mode-help@python.org>)
@comment 
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The following line inserts the copyright notice 
@comment into the Info file.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ifinfo
Copyright @copyright{} 1995,96,97,98 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@end ifinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment !!!The titlepage section does not appear in the Info file.!!!
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@titlepage
@sp 10


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The title is printed in a large font.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@center @titlefont{CC Mode 5.25}
@sp 2
@center @subtitlefont{A GNU Emacs mode for editing C and C-like languages}
@sp 2
@center Barry A. Warsaw
@center Martin Stjernholm


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment  The following two commands start the copyright page
@comment  for the printed manual.  This will not appear in the Info file.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1995,96,97,98 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@end titlepage


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment The Top node contains the master menu for the Info file.
@comment This appears only in the Info file, not the printed manual.
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@node    Top,       Introduction, (dir),    (dir)
@comment node-name, next,          previous, up

@macro ccmode
CC Mode
@end macro

@ifinfo
@top @ccmode{}

@ccmode{} is a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C, C++,
Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL, and Pike code.  It provides syntax-based
indentation and has several handy commands and some minor modes to make
the editing easier.  Note that @ccmode{} does @emph{not} provide
font-locking; there are other Emacs packages for that.
@end ifinfo

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@menu
* Introduction::
* Getting Connected::
* New Indentation Engine::
* Minor Modes::
* Commands::
* Customizing Indentation::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Performance Issues::
* Frequently Asked Questions::
* Getting the latest CC Mode release::
* Sample .emacs File::
* Limitations and Known Bugs::
* Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports::

 --- Indices ---

* Concept Index::
* Command Index::
* Key Index::
* Variable Index::

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

New Indentation Engine

* Syntactic Analysis::
* Indentation Calculation::

Minor Modes

* Auto-newline insertion::
* Hungry-deletion of whitespace::
* Auto-fill mode interaction::

Commands

* Indentation Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Other Commands::

Customizing Indentation

* Interactive Customization::
* Permanent Customization::
* Styles::
* Advanced Customizations::

Auto-newline insertion

* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semi-colons and commas::
* Other electric commands::
* Clean-ups::

Styles

* Built-in Styles::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::

Advanced Customizations

* Custom Indentation Functions::
* Custom Brace and Colon Hanging::
* Customizing Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Special Indentations::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@node     Introduction, Getting Connected, Top,      Top
@comment  node-name,    next,            previous, up
@chapter  Introduction
@cindex   Introduction

@cindex BOCM

Welcome to @ccmode{}, a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C,
C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL, and Pike code.  This incarnation of
the mode is descendant from @file{c-mode.el} (also called "Boring Old C
Mode" or BOCM @t{:-)}, and @file{c++-mode.el} version 2, which Barry has
been maintaining since 1992.  @ccmode{} represents a significant
milestone in the mode's life.  It has been fully merged back with Emacs
19's @file{c-mode.el}. Also a new, more intuitive and flexible mechanism
for controlling indentation has been developed.  Late in 1997, Martin
joined the @ccmode{} Maintainers Team, and implemented the Pike support.

This manual describes @ccmode{}
@comment The following line must appear on its own, so that the automated
version 5.25.
@comment Release.py script can update the version number automatically

@ccmode{} supports the editing of K&R and ANSI C, @dfn{ARM}
@footnote{@cite{The Annotated C++ Reference Manual}, by Ellis and
Stroustrup.} C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA's Interface Definition
Language, and Pike@footnote{A C-like scripting language with its roots
in the LPC language used in some MUD engines.  See
@url{http://pike.idonex.se/}.} files.  In this way, you can easily set
up consistent coding styles for use in editing all of these languages.
@ccmode{} does @emph{not} handle font-locking (a.k.a. syntax coloring,
keyword highlighting) or anything of that nature, for any of these
modes.  Font-locking is handled by other Emacs packages.

This manual will describe the following:

@itemize @bullet
@item
How to get started using @ccmode{}.

@item
How the new indentation engine works.

@item
How to customize the new indentation engine.

@end itemize

@findex c-mode
@findex c++-mode
@findex objc-mode
@findex java-mode
@findex idl-mode
@findex pike-mode
Note that the name of this package is ``@ccmode{}'', but there is no top
level @code{cc-mode} entry point.  All of the variables, commands, and
functions in @ccmode{} are prefixed with @code{c-@var{<thing>}}, and
@code{c-mode}, @code{c++-mode}, @code{objc-mode}, @code{java-mode},
@code{idl-mode}, and @code{pike-mode} entry points are provided.  This
file is intended to be a replacement for @file{c-mode.el} and
@file{c++-mode.el}.

@cindex @file{cc-compat.el} file
This distribution also contains a file
called @file{cc-compat.el} which should ease your transition from BOCM
to @ccmode{}.  If you have a BOCM configuration you are really happy
with, and want to postpone learning how to configure @ccmode{}, take a
look at that file.  It maps BOCM configuration variables to @ccmode{}'s
new indentation model.  It is not actively supported so for the long
run, you should learn how to customize @ccmode{} to support your coding
style.

A special word of thanks goes to Krishna Padmasola for his work in
converting the original @file{README} file to Texinfo format.  I'd also
like to thank all the @ccmode{} victims who help enormously during the
early beta stages of @ccmode{}'s development.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@node     Getting Connected, New Indentation Engine, Introduction,      Top
@comment  node-name,       next,                   previous,          up
@chapter  Getting Connected
@cindex   Getting Connected

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you got this version of @ccmode{} with Emacs or XEmacs, it should
work just fine right out of the box.  Note however that you may not have
the latest @ccmode{} release and may want to upgrade your copy.

If you are upgrading an existing @ccmode{} installation, please see the
@file{README} file for installation details.  @ccmode{} may not work
with older versions of Emacs or XEmacs.  See the @ccmode{} release notes
Web pages for the latest information on Emacs version and package
compatibility (see @ref{Getting the latest CC Mode release}).

@cindex @file{cc-mode-18.el} file
@emph{Note that @ccmode{} no longer
works with Emacs 18!}, so if you haven't upgraded from Emacs 18 by now,
you are out of luck.

@findex c-version
@findex version (c-)
You can find out what version of @ccmode{} you are using by visiting a C
file and entering @kbd{M-x c-version RET}.  You should see this message in
the echo area:
@example

Using CC Mode version 5.XX

@end example

@noindent
where @samp{XX} is the minor release number.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     New Indentation Engine, Minor Modes, Getting Connected, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,        previous,          up

@chapter  New Indentation Engine
@cindex   New Indentation Engine
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} has a new indentation engine, providing a simplified, yet
flexible and general mechanism for customizing indentation. It separates
indentation calculation into two steps: first, @ccmode{} analyzes the
line of code being indented to determine the kind of language construct
it's looking at, then it applies user defined offsets to the current
line based on this analysis.

This section will briefly cover how indentation is calculated in
@ccmode{}. It is important to understand the indentation model
being used so that you will know how to customize @ccmode{} for
your personal coding style.

@menu
* Syntactic Analysis::
* Indentation Calculation::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Syntactic Analysis, Indentation Calculation, , New Indentation Engine
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up
@section  Syntactic Analysis
@cindex   Syntactic Analysis
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
@cindex relative buffer position
@cindex syntactic symbol
@cindex syntactic component
@cindex syntactic component list
@cindex relative buffer position
The first thing @ccmode{} does when indenting a line of code, is to
analyze the line, determining the @dfn{syntactic component list} of the
construct on that line.  A syntactic component consists of a pair of
information (in lisp parlance, a @emph{cons cell}), where the first part
is a @dfn{syntactic symbol}, and the second part is a @dfn{relative
buffer position}.  Syntactic symbols describe elements of C code
@footnote{Unless otherwise noted, the term ``C code'' to refers to all
the C-like languages.},
e.g. @code{statement}, @code{substatement}, @code{class-open},
@code{class-close}, etc.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols}, for a complete list
of currently recognized syntactic symbols and their semantics.  The
variable @code{c-offsets-alist} also contains the list of currently
supported syntactic symbols.

Conceptually, a line of C code is always indented relative to the
indentation of some line higher up in the buffer.  This is represented
by the relative buffer position in the syntactic component.

Here is an example.  Suppose we had the following code as the only thing
in a C++ buffer @footnote{The line numbers in this and future examples
don't actually appear in the buffer, of course!}:
@example
@group

  1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
  2: @{
  3:     int tmp = a;
  4:     a = b;
  5:     b = tmp;
  6: @}

@end group
@end example

@kindex C-c C-s
@findex c-show-syntactic-information
@findex show-syntactic-information (c-)
We can use the command @kbd{C-c C-s}
(@code{c-show-syntactic-information}) to simply report what the
syntactic analysis is for the current line.  Running this command on
line 4 of this example, we'd see in the echo area@footnote{With a universal
argument (i.e. @kbd{C-u C-c C-s}) the analysis is inserted into the
buffer as a comment
on the current line.}:
@example

((statement . 35))

@end example

This tells us that the line is a statement and it is indented relative
to buffer position 35, which happens to be the @samp{i} in @code{int} on
line 3.  If you were to move point to line 3 and hit @kbd{C-c C-s}, you
would see:
@example

((defun-block-intro . 29))

@end example

This indicates that the @samp{int} line is the first statement in a top
level function block, and is indented relative to buffer position 29,
which is the brace just after the function header.

Here's another example:
@example 
@group

  1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
  2: @{
  3:     if( doit )
  4:         @{
  5:             return( val + incr );
  6:         @}
  7:     return( val );
  8: @}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 gives us:
@example

((substatement-open . 46))

@end example

@cindex substatement
@cindex substatment block
@noindent
which tells us that this is a brace that @emph{opens} a substatement
block. @footnote{A @dfn{substatement} is the line after a
conditional statement, such as @code{if}, @code{else}, @code{while},
@code{do}, @code{switch}, etc.  A @dfn{substatement
block} is a brace block following one of these conditional statements.}

@cindex comment-only line
Syntactic component lists can contain more than one component, and
individual syntactic components need not have relative buffer positions.
The most common example of this is a line that contains a @dfn{comment
only line}.
@example
@group

  1: void draw_list( List<Drawables>& drawables )
  2: @{
  3:         // call the virtual draw() method on each element in list
  4:     for( int i=0; i < drawables.count(), ++i )
  5:     @{
  6:         drawables[i].draw();
  7:     @}
  8: @}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 3 of this example gives:
@example

((comment-intro) (defun-block-intro . 46))

@end example

@noindent
and you can see that the syntactic component list contains two syntactic
components.  Also notice that the first component,
@samp{(comment-intro)} has no relative buffer position.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Indentation Calculation, , Syntactic Analysis, New Indentation Engine
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up
@section  Indentation Calculation
@cindex   Indentation Calculation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
Indentation for a line is calculated using the syntactic
component list derived in step 1 above (see @ref{Syntactic Analysis}).
Each component contributes to the final total indentation of the line in
two ways.

First, the syntactic symbols are looked up in the @code{c-offsets-alist}
variable, which is an association list of syntactic symbols and the
offsets to apply for those symbols.  These offsets are added to a
running total.

Second, if the component has a relative buffer position, @ccmode{}
adds the column number of that position to the running total.  By adding
up the offsets and columns for every syntactic component on the list,
the final total indentation for the current line is computed.

Let's use our two code examples above to see how this works.  Here is
our first example again:
@example
@group

    1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
    2: @{
    3:     int tmp = a;
    4:     a = b;
    5:     b = tmp;
    6: @}

@end group
@end example

@kindex TAB
Let's say point is on line 3 and we hit the @kbd{TAB} key to re-indent
the line.  Remember that the syntactic component list for that
line is:
@example

((defun-block-intro . 29))

@end example

@noindent
@ccmode{} looks up @code{defun-block-intro} in the
@code{c-offsets-alist} variable.  Let's say it finds the value @samp{4};
it adds this to the running total (initialized to zero), yielding a
running total indentation of 4 spaces.

Next @ccmode{} goes to buffer position 29 and asks for the current
column.  This brace is in column zero, so @ccmode{}
adds @samp{0} to the running total.  Since there is only one syntactic
component on the list for this line, indentation calculation is
complete, and the total indentation for the line
is 4 spaces.

Here's another example:
@example
@group

    1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
    2: @{
    3:     if( doit )
    4:         @{
    5:             return( val + incr );
    6:         @}
    7:     return( val );
    8: @}

@end group
@end example

If we were to hit @kbd{TAB} on line 4 in the above example, the same
basic process is performed, despite the differences in the syntactic
component list.  Remember that the list for this line is:
@example

((substatement-open . 46))

@end example

Here, @ccmode{} first looks up the @code{substatement-open} symbol
in @code{c-offsets-alist}. Let's say it finds the value @samp{4}.  This
yields a running total of 4.  @ccmode{} then goes to
buffer position 46, which is the @samp{i} in @code{if} on line 3.  This
character is in the fourth column on that line so adding this to the
running total yields an indentation for the line of 8 spaces.

Simple, huh?

Actually, the mode usually just does The Right Thing without you having
to think about it in this much detail.  But when customizing
indentation, it's helpful to understand the general indentation model
being used.

@vindex c-echo-syntactic-information-p
@vindex echo-syntactic-information-p (c-)
@cindex TAB
As you configure @ccmode{}, you might want to set the variable
@code{c-echo-syntactic-information-p} to non-@code{nil} so that the
syntactic component list and calculated offset will always be echoed in
the minibuffer when you hit @kbd{TAB}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Minor Modes, Commands, New Indentation Engine, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Minor Modes
@cindex   Minor Modes
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains two minor-mode-like features that you should
find useful while you enter new C code.  The first is called
@dfn{auto-newline} mode, and the second is called @dfn{hungry-delete}
mode.  These minor modes can be toggled on and off independently, and
@ccmode{} can be configured so that it starts up with any
combination of these minor modes.  By default, both of these minor modes
are turned off.

The state of the minor modes is always reflected in the minor mode list
on the modeline of the @ccmode{} buffer.  When auto-newline mode is
enabled, you will see @samp{C/a} on the mode line @footnote{The @samp{C}
would be replaced with @samp{C++}, @samp{ObjC}, @samp{Java}, @samp{IDL},
or @samp{Pike} for the respective languages.}.  When hungry delete mode
is enabled you would see @samp{C/h} and when both modes are enabled,
you'd see @samp{C/ah}.

@kindex C-c C-a
@kindex C-c C-d
@kindex C-c C-t
@findex c-toggle-hungry-state
@findex c-toggle-auto-state
@findex c-toggle-auto-hungry-state
@findex toggle-hungry-state (c-)
@findex toggle-auto-state (c-)
@findex toggle-auto-hungry-state (c-)
@ccmode{} provides keybindings which allow you to toggle the minor
modes on the fly while editing code.  To toggle just the auto-newline
state, hit @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{c-toggle-auto-state}).  When you do
this, you should see the @samp{a} indicator either appear or disappear
on the modeline.  Similarly, to toggle just the hungry-delete state, use
@kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{c-toggle-hungry-state}), and to toggle both states,
use @kbd{C-c C-t} (@code{c-toggle-auto-hungry-state}).

To set up the auto-newline and hungry-delete states to your preferred
values, you would need to add some lisp to your @file{.emacs} file that
called one of the @code{c-toggle-*-state} functions directly.  When
called programmatically, each function takes a numeric value, where
a positive number enables the minor mode, a negative number disables the
mode, and zero toggles the current state of the mode.

So for example, if you wanted to enable both auto-newline and
hungry-delete for all your C file editing, you could add the following
to your @file{.emacs} file:
@example

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
	  '(lambda () (c-toggle-auto-hungry-state 1)))

@end example


@cindex electric characters

@menu
* Auto-newline insertion::
* Hungry-deletion of whitespace::
* Auto-fill mode interaction::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Auto-newline insertion, Hungry-deletion of whitespace, , Minor Modes
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Auto-newline insertion
@cindex   Auto-newline insertion
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex electric commands
Auto-newline minor mode works by enabling certain @dfn{electric
commands}.  Electric commands are typically bound to special characters
such as the left and right braces, colons, semi-colons, etc., which when
typed, perform some magic formatting in addition to inserting the typed
character.  As a general rule, electric commands are only electric when
the following conditions apply:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Auto-newline minor mode is enabled, as evidenced by a @samp{C/a} or
@samp{C/ah} indicator on the modeline.

@cindex literal
@cindex syntactic whitespace
@item
The character was not typed inside of a literal @footnote{A
@dfn{literal} is defined as any comment, string, or C preprocessor macro
definition.  These constructs are also known as @dfn{syntactic
whitespace} since they are usually ignored when scanning C code.}.

@item
@kindex C-u
No numeric argument was supplied to the command (i.e. it was typed as
normal, with no @kbd{C-u} prefix).

@end itemize

@menu
* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semi-colons and commas::
* Other electric commands::
* Clean-ups::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Hanging Braces, Hanging Colons, , Auto-newline insertion
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Hanging Braces
@cindex   Hanging Braces
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@findex c-electric-brace
@findex electric-brace (c-)
@vindex c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)
@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
When you type either an open or close brace (i.e. @kbd{@{} or @kbd{@}}),
the electric command @code{c-electric-brace} gets run.  This command has
two electric formatting behaviors.  First, it will perform some
re-indentation of the line the brace was typed on, and second, it will
add various newlines before and/or after the typed brace.
Re-indentation occurs automatically whenever the electric behavior is
enabled.  If the brace ends up on a line other than the one it was typed
on, then that line is also re-indented.

@cindex class-open syntactic symbol
@cindex class-close syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-open syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-close syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-open syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-open syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-entry-open syntactic symbol
@cindex block-open syntactic symbol
@cindex block-close syntactic symbol
@cindex substatement-open syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-close syntactic symbol
@cindex namespace-open symbol
@cindex namespace-close symbol
@cindex inexpr-class-open symbol
@cindex inexpr-class-close symbol

The insertion of newlines is controlled by the
@code{c-hanging-braces-alist} variable.  This variable contains a
mapping between syntactic symbols related to braces, and a list of
places to insert a newline.  The syntactic symbols that are useful for
this list are: @code{class-open}, @code{class-close}, @code{defun-open},
@code{defun-close}, @code{inline-open}, @code{inline-close},
@code{brace-list-open}, @code{brace-list-close},
@code{brace-list-intro}, @code{brace-entry-open}, @code{block-open},
@code{block-close}, @code{substatement-open},
@code{statement-case-open}, @code{extern-lang-open},
@code{extern-lang-close}, @code{namespace-open}, @code{namespace-close},
@code{inexpr-class-open}, and @code{inexpr-class-close}@footnote{Note
that the aggregate constructs in Pike mode, @samp{(@{}, @samp{@})},
@samp{([}, @samp{])}, and @samp{(<}, @samp{>)}, do not count as brace
lists in this regard, even though they do for normal indentation
purposes.  It's currently not possible to set automatic newlines on
these constructs.}.  @xref{Syntactic Symbols} for a more detailed
description of these syntactic symbols, except for
@code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, which aren't
actual syntactic symbols.

The braces of anonymous inner classes in Java are given the special
symbols @code{inexpr-class-open} and @code{inexpr-class-close}, so that
they can be distinguished from the braces of normal classes@footnote{The
braces of anonymous classes produces a combination of
@code{inexpr-class}, and @code{class-open} or @code{class-close} in
normal indentation analysis.}.

@cindex Custom Indentation Functions
The value associated with each syntactic symbol in this association list
is called an @var{ACTION} which can be either a function or a list.
@xref{Custom Brace and Colon Hanging} for a more detailed discussion of
using a function as a brace hanging @var{ACTION}.

When the @var{ACTION} is a list, it can contain any combination of the
symbols @code{before} and @code{after}, directing @ccmode{} where to
put newlines in relationship to the brace being inserted.  Thus, if the
list contains only the symbol @code{after}, then the brace is said to
@dfn{hang} on the right side of the line, as in:
@example
@group

// here, open braces always `hang'
void spam( int i ) @{
    if( i == 7 ) @{
        dosomething(i);
    @}
@}


@end group
@end example

When the list contains both @code{after} and @code{before}, the braces
will appear on a line by themselves, as shown by the close braces in the
above example.  The list can also be empty, in which case no newlines
are added either before or after the brace.

For example, the default value of @code{c-hanging-braces-alist} is:
@example
@group

  ((brace-list-open)
   (brace-entry-open)
   (substatement-open after)
   (block-close . c-snug-do-while)
   (extern-lang-open after)
   (inexpr-class-open after)
   (inexpr-class-close before))

@end group
@end example

@noindent which says that @code{brace-list-open} and
@code{brace-entry-open} braces should both hang on the right side, and
allow subsequent text to follow on the same line as the brace.  Also,
@code{substatement-open}, @code{extern-lang-open}, and
@code{inexpr-class-open} braces should hang on the right side, but
subsequent text should follow on the next line.  The opposite holds for
@code{inexpr-class-close} braces; they won't hang, but the following
text continues on the same line.  Here, in the @code{block-close} entry,
you also see an example of using a function as an @var{ACTION}.

A word of caution: it is not a good idea to hang top-level construct
introducing braces, such as @code{class-open} or @code{defun-open}.
Emacs makes an assumption that such braces will always appear in column
zero, hanging such braces can introduce performance problems.
@xref{Performance Issues} for more information.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Hanging Colons, Hanging Semi-colons and commas, Hanging Braces, Auto-newline insertion
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Hanging Colons
@cindex   Hanging Colons
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex hanging-colons-alist (c-)
@vindex c-hanging-colons-alist
Using a mechanism similar to brace hanging (see @ref{Hanging Braces}),
colons can also be made to hang using the variable
@code{c-hanging-colons-alist}.  The syntactic symbols appropriate for
this assocation list are: @code{case-label}, @code{label},
@code{access-label}, @code{member-init-intro}, and @code{inher-intro}.
Note however that for @code{c-hanging-colons-alist}, @var{ACTION}s as
functions are not supported. See also @ref{Custom Brace and Colon
Hanging} for details.

@cindex Clean-ups
In C++, double-colons are used as a scope operator but because these
colons always appear right next to each other, newlines before and after
them are controlled by a different mechanism, called @dfn{clean-ups} in
@ccmode{}.  @xref{Clean-ups} for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Hanging Semi-colons and commas, Other electric commands, Hanging Colons, Auto-newline insertion
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Hanging Semi-colons and commas
@cindex   Hanging Semi-colons and commas
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Semicolons and commas are also electric in @ccmode{}, but since
these characters do not correspond directly to syntactic symbols, a
different mechanism is used to determine whether newlines should be
automatically inserted after these characters.  @xref{Customizing
Semi-colons and Commas} for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Other electric commands, Clean-ups, Hanging Semi-colons and commas, Auto-newline insertion
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Other electric commands
@cindex   Other electric commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex #
@findex c-electric-pound
@vindex c-electric-pound-behavior
@findex electric-pound (c-)
@vindex electric-pound-behavior (c-)
@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
A few other keys also provide electric behavior.  For example
@kbd{#} (@code{c-electric-pound}) is electric when typed as
the first non-whitespace character on a line.  In this case, the
variable @code{c-electric-pound-behavior} is consulted for the electric
behavior.  This variable takes a list value, although the only element
currently defined is @code{alignleft}, which tells this command to force
the @samp{#} character into column zero.  This is useful for entering
C preprocessor macro definitions.

@findex c-electric-star
@findex c-electric-slash
@findex electric-star (c-)
@findex electric-slash (c-)
@cindex comment-only line
Stars and slashes (i.e. @kbd{*} and @kbd{/}, @code{c-electric-star} and
@code{c-electric-slash} respectively) are also electric under
certain circumstances.  If a star is inserted as the second character of
a C style block comment on a @dfn{comment-only} line, then the comment
delimiter is indented as defined by @code{c-offsets-alist}.  A
comment-only line is defined as a line which contains only a comment, as
in:
@example
@group

void spam( int i ) 
@{
        // this is a comment-only line...
    if( i == 7 )                             // but this is not
    @{
        dosomething(i);
    @}
@}

@end group
@end example

Likewise, if a slash is inserted as the second slash in a C++ style line
comment (also only on a comment-only line), then the line is indented as
defined by @code{c-offsets-alist}.

@findex c-electric-lt-gt
@findex electric-lt-gt (c-)
@kindex <
@kindex >
Less-than and greater-than signs (@code{c-electric-lt-gt}) are also
electric, but only in C++ mode.  Hitting the second of two @kbd{<} or
@kbd{>} keys re-indents the line if it is a C++ style stream operator.

@findex c-electric-paren
@findex electric-paren (c-)
@kindex (
@kindex )
The normal parenthesis characters @samp{(} and @samp{)} also reindent
the current line if they are used in normal code.  This is useful for
getting the closing parenthesis of an argument list aligned
automatically.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Clean-ups, , Other electric commands, Auto-newline insertion
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Clean-ups
@cindex   Clean-ups
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@dfn{Clean-ups} are a mechanism complementary to colon and brace
hanging.  On the surface, it would seem that clean-ups overlap the
functionality provided by the @code{c-hanging-*-alist} variables, and
similarly, clean-ups are only enabled when auto-newline minor mode is
enabled.  Clean-ups are used however to adjust code ``after-the-fact'',
i.e. to eliminate some whitespace that is inserted by electric
commands, or whitespace that contains intervening constructs.

@cindex literal
You can configure @ccmode{}'s clean-ups by setting the variable
@code{c-cleanup-list}, which is a list of clean-up symbols.  By default,
@ccmode{} cleans up only the @code{scope-operator} construct, which
is necessary for proper C++ support.  Note that clean-ups are only
performed when the construct does not occur within a literal (see
@ref{Auto-newline insertion}), and when there is nothing but whitespace
appearing between the individual components of the construct.

@vindex c-cleanup-list
@vindex cleanup-list (c-)
There are currently only five specific constructs that @ccmode{}
can clean up, as indicated by these symbols:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{brace-else-brace} --- cleans up @samp{@} else @{} constructs by
placing the entire construct on a single line.  Clean-up occurs when the
open brace after the @samp{else} is typed.  So for example, this:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 )
    @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else
    @{

@end group
@end example
@noindent
appears like this after the open brace is typed:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else @{

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{brace-elseif-brace} --- similar to the @code{brace-else-brace}
clean-up, but this cleans up @samp{@} else if (...) @{} constructs.  For
example:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 )
    @{
        dosomething();
    @}
    else if( i==3 ) @{

@end group
@end example
@noindent
appears like this after the open parenthesis is typed:
@example
@group

void spam(int i)
@{
    if( i==7 ) @{
        dosomething();
    @} else if( i==3 ) @{

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{brace-catch-brace} --- analogous to @code{brace-elseif-brace}, but
cleans up @samp{@} catch (...) @{} in C++ and Java mode.

@item
@code{empty-defun-braces} --- cleans up braces following a top-level
function or class definition that contains no body.  Clean up occurs
when the closing brace is typed.  Thus the following:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
is transformed into this when the close brace is typed:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{@}

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{defun-close-semi} --- cleans up the terminating semi-colon on
top-level function or class definitions when they follow a close
brace. Clean up occurs when the semi-colon is typed.
So for example, the following:
@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@}
;

@end group
@end example
@noindent
is transformed into this when the semi-colon is typed:

@example
@group

class Spam
@{
@};

@end group
@end example

@item
@code{list-close-comma} --- cleans up commas following braces in array
and aggregate initializers.  Clean up occurs when the comma is typed.

@item
@code{scope-operator} --- cleans up double colons which may designate a
C++ scope operator split across multiple lines@footnote{Certain C++
constructs introduce ambiguous situations, so @code{scope-operator}
clean-ups may not always be correct.  This usually only occurs when
scoped identifiers appear in switch label tags.}.  Clean up occurs when
the second colon is typed.  You will always want @code{scope-operator}
in the @code{c-cleanup-list} when you are editing C++ code.

@end itemize


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Hungry-deletion of whitespace, Auto-fill mode interaction, Auto-newline insertion, Minor Modes
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Hungry-deletion of whitespace
@cindex   Hungry-deletion of whitespace
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Hungry deletion of whitespace, or as it more commonly called,
@dfn{hungry-delete mode}, is a simple feature that some people find
extremely useful.  In fact, you might find yourself wanting
hungry-delete in @strong{all} your editing modes!

@kindex DEL
@kindex Backspace
In a nutshell, when hungry-delete mode is enabled, hitting the
@key{Backspace} key@footnote{I say ``hit the @key{Backspace} key'' but
what I really mean is ``when Emacs receives the @code{BackSpace} key
event''.  The difference usually isn't significant to most users, but
advanced users will realize that under window systems such as X, any
physical key (keycap) on the keyboard can be configured to generate any
keysym, and thus any Emacs key event.  Also, the use of Emacs on TTYs
will affect which keycap generates which key event.  From a pedantic
point of view, here we are only concerned with the key event that
Emacs receives.} will consume all preceding whitespace, including
newlines and tabs.  This can really cut down on the number of
@key{Backspace}'s you have to type if, for example you made a mistake on
the preceding line.

@findex c-electric-backspace
@findex electric-backspace (c-)
@vindex c-backspace-function
@vindex backspace-function (c-)

@findex c-electric-delete
@findex electric-delete (c-)
@vindex c-delete-function
@vindex delete-function (c-)
@cindex literal

@findex backward-delete-char-untabify

By default, when you hit the @key{Backspace} key
@ccmode{} runs the command @code{c-electric-backspace}, which deletes
text in the backwards direction.  When deleting a single character, or
when @key{Backspace} is hit in a literal
(see @ref{Auto-newline insertion}), 
or when hungry-delete mode is disabled, the function
contained in the @code{c-backspace-function} variable is called with one
argument (the number of characters to delete).  This variable is set to
@code{backward-delete-char-untabify} by default.

@vindex delete-key-deletes-forward
@findex delete-char

The default behavior of the @key{Delete} key depends on the flavor of
Emacs you are using.  By default in XEmacs 20.3 and beyond, the
@key{Delete} key is bound to @code{c-electric-delete}.  You control the
direction that the @key{Delete} key deletes by setting the variable
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward}, a standard XEmacs variable.  When
this variable is non-@code{nil} and hungry-delete mode is enabled,
@code{c-electric-delete} will consume all whitespace @emph{following}
point.  When @code{delete-key-deletes-forward} is @code{nil}, it deletes
all whitespace @emph{preceding} point@footnote{i.e. it literally calls
@code{c-electric-backspace}.}  When deleting a single character, or if
@key{Delete} is hit in a literal, or hungry-delete mode is disabled, the
function contained in @code{c-delete-function} is called with one
argument: the number of characters to delete.  This variable is set to
@code{delete-char} by default.

In Emacs 19 or Emacs 20, both the @key{Delete} and @key{Backspace} keys
are bound to @code{c-electric-backspace}, however you can change this by
explicitly binding @code{[delete]}@footnote{e.g. to
@code{c-electric-delete} in your @file{.emacs} file.  Note however, that
Emacs 20 does not have a standard variable such as
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward}.}.

XEmacsen older than 20.3 behave similar to Emacs 19 and Emacs 20.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Auto-fill mode interaction, , Hungry-deletion of whitespace, Minor Modes
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Auto-fill mode interaction
@cindex   Auto-fill mode interaction
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

One other note about minor modes is worth mentioning here.  CC Mode now
works much better with auto-fill mode (a standard Emacs minor mode) by
correctly auto-filling both line (e.g. C++ style) and block (e.g. C
style) oriented comments.  When @code{auto-fill-mode} is enabled, line
oriented comments will also be auto-filled by inserting a newline at the 
line break, and inserting @samp{//} at the start of the next line.

@vindex c-comment-continuation-stars
@vindex comment-continuation-stars (c-)
@vindex comment-line-break-function
When auto-filling block oriented comments, the behavior is dependent on
the value of the variable @code{c-comment-continuation-stars}.  When
this variable is @code{nil}, the old behavior for auto-filling C
comments is in effect.  In this case, the line is broken by closing the
comment and starting a new comment on the next line.

If you set @code{c-comment-continuation-stars} to a string, then a long
C block comment line is broken by inserting a newline at the line break
position, and inserting this string at the beginning of the next comment
line.  The default value for @code{c-comment-continuation-stars} is
@samp{* } (a star followed by a single space)@footnote{To get block
comment continuation lines indented under the block comment starter
(e.g. the @samp{/*}), it is not enough to set
@code{c-comment-continuation-stars} to the empty string.  You need to do
this, but you also need to set the offset for the @code{c} syntactic
symbol to be zero.}.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Commands, Customizing Indentation, Minor Modes, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Commands
@cindex   Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@menu
* Indentation Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Other Commands::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Indentation Commands, Movement Commands, , Commands
@comment  node-name, next, previous,up

@section  Indentation Commands
@cindex   Indentation Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The following list of commands re-indent C constructs.  Note that when
you change your coding style, either interactively or through some other 
means, your file does @emph{not} automatically get re-indented.  You
will need to execute one of the following commands to see the effects of 
your changes.

@cindex GNU indent program
Also, variables like @code{c-hanging-*} and @code{c-cleanup-list}
only affect how on-the-fly code is formatted.  Changing the
``hanginess'' of a brace and then re-indenting, will not move the brace
to a different line.  For this, you're better off getting an external
program like GNU @code{indent}, which will re-arrange brace location,
among other things.

Re-indenting large sections of code can take a long time.  When
@ccmode{} reindents a region of code, it is essentially equivalent to
hitting @kbd{TAB} on every line of the region.  Especially vulnerable is 
code generator output@footnote{In particular, I have had people
complain about the speed with which @code{lex(1)} output is re-indented.
Lex, yacc, and other code generators usually output some pretty
perversely formatted code.  Re-indenting such code will be slow.}.

These commands are useful when indenting code:

@table @code

@kindex TAB
@findex c-indent-command
@findex indent-command (c-)
@item TAB (c-indent-command)
Indents the current line.  The actual behavior is controlled by several
variables, described below.  See @code{c-tab-always-indent},
@code{c-insert-tab-function}, and @code{indent-tabs-mode}.  With a
numeric argument, this command rigidly indents the region, preserving
the relative indentation among the lines.

@kindex M-C-q
@findex c-indent-exp
@findex indent-exp (c-)
@item M-C-q (c-indent-exp)
Indent an entire balanced brace or parenthesis expression.  Note that
point must be on the opening brace or parenthesis of the expression you
want to indent.

@kindex C-c C-q
@findex c-indent-defun
@findex indent-defun (c-)
@item C-c C-q (c-indent-defun)
Indents the entire top-level function or class definition encompassing
point.  It leaves point unchanged.  This function can't be used to
re-indent a nested brace construct, such as a nested class or function,
or a Java method.  The top-level construct being re-indented must be
complete, i.e. it must have both a beginning brace and an ending brace.

@kindex M-C-\
@findex indent-region
@item M-C-\ (indent-region)
Indents an arbitrary region of code.  This is a standard Emacs command,
tailored for C code in a @ccmode{} buffer.  Note that of course, point
and mark must delineate the region you want to indent.

@kindex M-C-h
@findex c-mark-function
@findex mark-function (c-)
@item M-C-h (c-mark-function)
While not strictly an indentation command, this is useful for marking
the current top-level function or class definition as the current
region.  As with @code{c-indent-defun}, this command operates on
top-level constructs, and can't be used to mark say, a Java method.

@end table

These variables are also useful when indenting code:

@table @code

@vindex c-tab-always-indent
@vindex tab-always-indent (c-)
@kindex TAB
@cindex literal
@item c-tab-always-indent
This variable controls how @kbd{TAB} @code{c-indent-command} operates.
When this variable is @code{t}, @kbd{TAB} always just indents the
current line.  When it is @code{nil}, the line is indented only if point
is at the left margin, or on or before the first non-whitespace
character on the line, otherwise some whitespace is inserted.  If this
variable is the symbol @code{other}, then some whitespace is inserted
only within strings and comments (literals), an inside preprocessor
directives, but the line is always reindented.

@vindex c-insert-tab-function
@vindex insert-tab-function (c-)
@findex tab-to-tab-stop
@item c-insert-tab-function
When ``some whitespace'' is inserted as described above, what actually
happens is that the function stored in @code{c-insert-tab-function} is
called.  Normally, this just inserts a real tab character, or the
equivalent number of spaces, depending on @code{indent-tabs-mode}.
Some people, however, set @code{c-insert-tab-function} to
@code{tab-to-tab-stop} so as to get hard tab stops when indenting.

@vindex indent-tabs-mode
@item indent-tabs-mode
This is a standard Emacs variable that controls how line indentation is
composed.  When this variable is non-@code{nil}, then tabs can be used
in a line's indentation, otherwise only spaces can be used.

@vindex c-progress-interval
@vindex progress-interval (c-)
@item c-progress-interval
When indenting large regions of code, this variable controls how often a 
progress message is displayed.  Set this variable to @code{nil} to
inhibit the progress messages, or set it to an integer which is the
interval in seconds that progress messages are displayed.

@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Movement Commands, Other Commands, Indentation Commands, Commands
@comment  node-name, next, previous,up

@section  Movement Commands
@cindex   Movement Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains some useful command for moving around in C
code.

@table @code
@findex c-beginning-of-defun
@findex beginning-of-defun (c-)
@findex beginning-of-defun
@item M-x c-beginning-of-defun
Moves point back to the least-enclosing brace.  This function is
analogous to the Emacs built-in command @code{beginning-of-defun},
except it eliminates the constraint that the top-level opening brace
must be in column zero.  See @code{beginning-of-defun} for more
information.

Depending on the coding style being used, you might prefer
@code{c-beginning-of-defun} to @code{beginning-of-defun}.  If so,
consider binding @kbd{C-M-a} to the former instead.  For backwards
compatibility reasons, the default binding remains in effect.

@findex c-end-of-defun
@findex end-of-defun (c-)
@findex end-of-defun
@item M-x c-end-of-defun
Moves point to the end of the current top-level definition.  This
function is analogous to the Emacs built-in command @code{end-of-defun},
except it eliminates the constraint that the top-level opening brace of
the defun must be in column zero.  See @code{beginning-of-defun} for more
information.

Depending on the coding style being used, you might prefer
@code{c-end-of-defun} to @code{end-of-defun}.  If so,
consider binding @kbd{C-M-e} to the former instead.  For backwards
compatibility reasons, the default binding remains in effect.

@kindex C-c C-u
@findex c-up-conditional
@findex up-conditional (c-)
@item C-c C-u (c-up-conditional)
Move point back to the containing preprocessor conditional, leaving the
mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move point forward to the end of the containing
preprocessor conditional.  When going backwards, @code{#elif} is treated
like @code{#else} followed by @code{#if}.  When going forwards,
@code{#elif} is ignored.@refill

@kindex C-c C-p
@findex c-backward-conditional
@findex backward-conditional (c-)
@item C-c C-p (c-backward-conditional)
Move point back over a preprocessor conditional, leaving the mark
behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move forward.

@kindex C-c C-n
@findex c-forward-conditional
@findex forward-conditional (c-)
@item C-c C-n (c-forward-conditional)
Move point forward across a preprocessor conditional, leaving the mark
behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a negative
argument, move backward.

@kindex ESC a
@findex c-beginning-of-statement
@findex beginning-of-statement (c-)
@item M-a (c-beginning-of-statement)
Move point to the beginning of the innermost C statement.  If point is
already at the beginning of a statement, it moves to the beginning of
the closest preceding statement, even if that means moving into a block
(you can use @kbd{M-C-b} to move over a balanced block).  With prefix
argument @var{n}, move back @var{n} @minus{} 1 statements.

If point is within a comment, or next to a comment, this command moves
by sentences instead of statements.

When called from a program, this function takes three optional
arguments: the numeric prefix argument, a buffer position limit (used as
a starting point for syntactic parsing and as a limit for backward
movement), and a flag to indicate whether movement should be by
statements (if @code{nil}) or sentence (if non-@code{nil}).

@kindex ESC e
@findex c-end-of-statement
@findex end-of-statement (c-)
@item M-e (c-end-of-statement)
Move point to the end of the innermost C statement.  If point is at the
end of a statement, move to the end of the next statement, even if it's
inside a nested block (use @kbd{M-C-f} to move to the other side of the
block).  With prefix argument @var{n}, move forward @var{n} @minus{} 1
statements.

If point is within a comment, or next to a comment, this command moves
by sentences instead of statements.

When called from a program, this function takes three optional
arguments: the numeric prefix argument, a buffer position limit (used as
a starting point for syntactic parsing and as a limit for backward
movement), and a flag to indicate whether movement should be by
statements (if @code{nil}) or sentence (if non-@code{nil}).

@findex c-forward-into-nomenclature
@findex forward-into-nomenclature (c-)
@item M-x c-forward-into-nomenclature
A popular programming style, especially for object-oriented languages
such as C++ is to write symbols in a mixed case format, where the first
letter of each word is capitalized, and not separated by underscores.
E.g. @samp{SymbolsWithMixedCaseAndNoUnderlines}.

This command moves point forward to next capitalized word.  With prefix
argument @var{n}, move @var{n} times.

@findex c-backward-into-nomenclature
@findex backward-into-nomenclature (c-)
@item M-x c-backward-into-nomenclature
Move point backward to beginning of the next capitalized
word.  With prefix argument @var{n}, move @var{n} times.  If
@var{n} is negative, move forward.

@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Other Commands, , Movement Commands, Commands
@comment  node-name,  next, previous,up

@section  Other Commands
@cindex   Other Commands
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} contains a few other useful commands:

@table @code

@kindex C-c :
@findex c-scope-operator
@findex scope-operator (c-)
@item C-c : (c-scope-operator)
In C++, it is also sometimes desirable to insert the double-colon scope
operator without performing the electric behavior of colon insertion.
@kbd{C-c :} does just this.

@kindex ESC q
@findex fill-paragraph
@vindex c-hanging-comment-starter-p
@vindex c-hanging-comment-ender-p
@vindex hanging-comment-starter-p (c-)
@vindex hanging-comment-ender-p (c-)
@item M-q (fill-paragraph)
The command is used to fill a block style (C) or line style (C++)
comment, in much the same way that text in the various text modes can be
filled@footnote{You should not use specialized filling packages such as
@code{filladapt} with CC Mode.  They don't work as well for filling as
@code{c-fill-paragraph}.}.  In Java buffers, the Javadoc markup words
are recognized as paragraph starters.  Two variables control how C style
block comments are filled, specifically how the comment start and end
delimiters are handled.

The variable @code{c-hanging-comment-starter-p} controls whether comment
start delimiters which appear on a line by themselves, end up on a line
by themselves after the fill.  When the value is @code{nil}, the comment
starter will remain on its own line@footnote{It will not be placed on a
separate line if it is not already on a separate line.}.  Otherwise,
text on the next line will be put on the same line as the comment
starter.  This is called @dfn{hanging} because the following text hangs
on the line with the comment starter@footnote{This variable is @code{t}
by default, except in @code{java-mode}.  Hanging comment starters mess
up Javadoc style comments.}

The variable @code{c-hanging-comment-ender-p} controls the analogous
behavior for the block comment end delimiter.  When the value is
@code{nil}, the comment ender will remain on its own line after the
file@footnote{The same caveat as above holds true.}.  Otherwise, the
comment end delimiter will be placed at the end of the previous line.

@end table

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Customizing Indentation, Syntactic Symbols, Commands, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Customizing Indentation
@cindex   Customizing Indentation
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
@cindex c-set-offset
@cindex set-offset (c-)
The variable @code{c-offsets-alist} contains the mappings between
syntactic symbols and the offsets to apply for those symbols.  You
should never modify this variable directly though.  The first step in
customizing your indentations is to decide what additional offset you
want to add for every syntactic symbol.

You can use the command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{c-set-offset}) as the way
to set offsets, both interactively and from your mode
hook@footnote{Obviously, you use the keybinding interactively, and the
function call programmatically!}.  You can set up @emph{styles} of
indentation, which are groupings of syntactic symbol offsets and other
variable values.  Most likely, you'll find that one of the pre-defined
styles will suit your needs.  @xref{Styles} for an
explanation of how to set up named styles.

@cindex c-basic-offset
@cindex basic-offset (c-)
The offset associated with any particular syntactic symbol can be any of
an integer, a function or lambda expression, a variable name, or one of
the following symbols: @code{+}, @code{-}, @code{++}, @code{--},
@code{*}, or @code{/}.  These latter describe offset in multiples of the
value of the variable @code{c-basic-offset}.  By defining a style's
indentation in terms of this fundamental variable, you can change the
amount of whitespace given to an indentation level while maintaining the
same basic shape of your code.  Here are the values that the special
symbols correspond to:

@table @code

@item +
@code{c-basic-offset} times 1
@item -
@code{c-basic-offset} times -1
@item ++
@code{c-basic-offset} times 2
@item --
@code{c-basic-offset} times -2
@item *
@code{c-basic-offset} times 0.5
@item /
@code{c-basic-offset} times -0.5

@end table

@vindex c-strict-syntax-p
@vindex strict-syntax-p (c-)
The offset can also be a list, in which case it is evaluated recursively
using the semantics described above.  The first element of the list that
returns a non-@code{nil} value succeeds and the evaluation stops.  If
none of the list elements return a non-@code{nil} value, then what
happens depends on the value of @code{c-strict-syntax-p}.  When
@code{c-strict-syntax-p} is @code{nil}, then an offset of 0 (zero) is
used, otherwise @ccmode{} issues an error.

@vindex c-style-variables-are-local-p
@vindex style-variables-are-local-p (c-)
@noindent
So, for example, because most of the default offsets are defined in
terms of @code{+}, @code{-}, and @code{0}, if you like the general
indentation style, but you use 4 spaces instead of 2 spaces per level,
you can probably achieve your style just by changing
@code{c-basic-offset} like so@footnote{You can try this interactively in
a C buffer by typing the text that appears in italics.}:
@example

@emph{M-x set-variable RET}
Set variable: @emph{c-basic-offset RET}
Set c-basic-offset to value: @emph{4 RET}

@end example

@noindent
This would change
@example
@group

int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
@{
  if( doit )
    @{
      return( val + incr );
    @}
  return( val );
@}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
to
@example
@group

int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
@{
    if( doit )
        @{
            return( val + incr );
        @}
    return( val );
@}

@end group
@end example

To change indentation styles more radically, you will want to change the
offsets associated with other syntactic symbols.  First, I'll show you
how to do that interactively, then I'll describe how to make changes to
your @file{.emacs} file so that your changes are more permanent.

@menu
* Interactive Customization::
* Permanent Customization::
* Styles::
* Advanced Customizations::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Interactive Customization, Permanent Customization, , Customizing Indentation
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Interactive Customization
@cindex   Interactive Customization
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

As an example of how to customize indentation, let's change the
style of this example@footnote{In this an subsequent examples, the
original code is formatted using the @samp{gnu} style unless otherwise
indicated. @xref{Styles}.}:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:     @{
5:       return( val + incr );
6:     @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
to:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:   @{
5:     return( val + incr );
6:   @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example

In other words, we want to change the indentation of braces that open a
block following a condition so that the braces line up under the
conditional, instead of being indented.  Notice that the construct we
want to change starts on line 4.  To change the indentation of a line,
we need to see which syntactic components affect the offset calculations
for that line.  Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 4 yields:
@example

((substatement-open . 44))

@end example

@findex c-set-offset
@findex set-offset (c-)
@kindex C-c C-o
@noindent
so we know that to change the offset of the open brace, we need to
change the indentation for the @code{substatement-open} syntactic
symbol.  To do this interactively, just hit @kbd{C-c C-o}.  This prompts
you for the syntactic symbol to change, providing a reasonable default.
In this case, the default is @code{substatement-open}, which is just the
syntactic symbol we want to change!

After you hit return, @ccmode{} will then prompt you for the new
offset value, with the old value as the default.  The default in this
case is @samp{+}, but we want no extra indentation so enter
@samp{0} and @kbd{RET}.  This will associate the offset 0 with the
syntactic symbol @code{substatement-open}.

@findex c-indent-defun
@findex indent-defun (c-)
@kindex C-c C-q
To check your changes quickly, just hit @kbd{C-c C-q}
(@code{c-indent-defun}) to reindent the entire function.  The example
should now look like:
@example
@group

1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
2: @{
3:   if( doit )
4:   @{
5:     return( val + incr );
6:   @}
7:   return( val );
8: @}

@end group
@end example

Notice how just changing the open brace offset on line 4 is all we
needed to do.  Since the other affected lines are indented relative to
line 4, they are automatically indented the way you'd expect.  For more
complicated examples, this may not always work.  The general approach to
take is to always start adjusting offsets for lines higher up in the
file, then re-indent and see if any following lines need further
adjustments.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Permanent Customization, Styles, Interactive Customization, Customizing Indentation
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Permanent Customization
@cindex   Permanent Customization
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-mode-common-hook
@vindex c-mode-hook
@vindex c++-mode-hook
@vindex objc-mode-hook
@vindex java-mode-hook
@vindex idl-mode-hook
@vindex pike-mode-hook
@vindex c-initialization-hook
@vindex initialization-hook (c-)
@cindex hooks
To make your changes permanent, you need to add some lisp code to your
@file{.emacs} file, but first you need to decide whether your styles
should be global and shared in all buffers, or local to each specific
buffer.

If you edit primarily one style of code, you may want to make the
@ccmode{} style variables have global values so that every buffer will
share the same style settings.  This will allow you to set the @ccmode{}
variables at the top level of your @file{.emacs} file, and is the
way @ccmode{} works by default.

@vindex c-mode-common-hook
@vindex mode-common-hook (c-)
@vindex c-style-variables-are-local-p
@vindex style-variables-are-local-p (c-)
If you edit many different styles of code at
the same time, you might want to make the @ccmode{} style variables
have buffer local values.  If you do this, then you will need to set any
@ccmode{} style variables in a hook function (e.g. off of
@code{c-mode-common-hook} instead of at the top level of your
@file{.emacs} file).  The recommended way to do this is to set the
variable @code{c-style-variables-are-local-p} to @code{t}
@strong{before} @ccmode{} is loaded into your Emacs session.  Note that
once the style variables are made buffer-local, they cannot be made
global again, without restarting Emacs.

@ccmode{} provides several hooks that you can
use to customize the mode according to your coding style.  Each language
mode has its own hook, adhering to standard Emacs major mode
conventions.  There is also one general hook and one package
initialization hook:

@itemize @bullet

@item
@code{c-mode-hook} --- for C buffers only
@item
@code{c++-mode-hook} --- for C++ buffers only
@item
@code{objc-mode-hook} --- for Objective-C buffers only
@item
@code{java-mode-hook} --- for Java buffers only
@item
@code{idl-mode-hook} --- for CORBA IDL buffers only
@item
@code{pike-mode-hook} --- for Pike buffers only
@item
@code{c-mode-common-hook} --- common across all languages
@item
@code{c-initialization-hook} --- hook run only once per Emacs session,
when @ccmode{} is initialized.

@end itemize

The language hooks get run as the last thing when you enter that
language mode.  The @code{c-mode-common-hook} is run by all
supported modes @emph{before} the language specific hook, and thus can
contain customizations that are common across all languages.  Most of
the examples in this section will assume you are using the common
hook@footnote{@code{java-mode} and the hook
variables interact in a slightly different way than the other modes.
@code{java-mode} sets the style of the buffer to
@samp{java} @emph{before} running the @code{c-mode-common-hook} or
@code{java-mode-hook}.  You need to be aware of this so that style
settings in @code{c-mode-common-hook} don't clobber your Java style.}.

Here's a simplified example of what you can add to your @file{.emacs}
file to make the changes described in the previous section
more permanent.  See the Emacs manuals
for more information on customizing Emacs via hooks.  @xref{Sample
.emacs File} for a more complete sample @file{.emacs} file.
@example
@group

(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; my customizations for all of c-mode and related modes
  (c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)
  ;; other customizations can go here
  )
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

@end group
@end example

If you are sharing a single style across all @ccmode{} buffers and want
to make these changes in the top level of your @file{.emacs} file, you
can add this instead:
@example
@group

(setq c-default-style '((other . "user")))
(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)

@end group
@end example

Any time you make @ccmode{} customizations at the top-level of your
@file{.emacs} file, either through the use of @code{setq}'s or as above,
or when you use the Custom interface, you will need to include the first
line.  @xref{Built-in Styles} for details.

For complex customizations, you will probably want to set up a
@emph{style} that groups all your customizations under a single
name.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Styles, Advanced Customizations, Permanent Customization, Customizing Indentation
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Styles
@cindex   Styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Most people only need to edit code formatted in just a few well-defined
and consistent styles.  For example, their organization might impose a
``blessed'' style that all its programmers must conform to.  Similarly,
people who work on GNU software will have to use the GNU coding style.
Some shops are more lenient, allowing a variety of coding styles, and as
programmers come and go, there could be a number of styles in use.  For
this reason, @ccmode{} makes it convenient for you to set up logical
groupings of customizations called @dfn{styles}, associate a single name
for any particular style, and pretty easily start editing new or
existing code using these styles.

@menu
* Built-in Styles::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::
@end menu


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Built-in Styles, Adding Styles, , Styles
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Built-in Styles
@cindex   Built-in Styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

If you're lucky, one of @ccmode{}'s built-in styles might be just
what you're looking for.  These include:

@itemize @bullet
@cindex GNU style
@item
@code{gnu} --- coding style blessed by the Free Software Foundation
for C code in GNU programs.

@cindex K&R style
@item
@code{k&r} --- The classic Kernighan and Ritchie style for C code.

@cindex BSD style
@item
@code{bsd} --- Also known as ``Allman style'' after Eric Allman.

@cindex Whitesmith style
@item
@code{whitesmith} --- Popularized by the examples that came with
Whitesmiths C, an early commercial C compiler.

@cindex Stroustrup style
@item
@code{stroustrup} --- The classic Stroustrup style for C++ code.

@cindex Ellemtel style
@item
@code{ellemtel} --- Popular C++ coding standards as defined by
``Programming in C++, Rules and Recommendations'', Erik Nyquist and Mats
Henricson, Ellemtel @footnote{This document is ftp'able from
@code{euagate.eua.ericsson.se}}.

@cindex Linux style
@item
@code{linux} --- C coding standard for Linux development.

@cindex Python style
@item
@code{python} --- C coding standard for Python extension
modules@footnote{Python is a high level scripting language with a C/C++
foreign function interface.  For more information, see
@code{<http://www.python.org/>}.}.

@cindex Java style
@cindex java-mode
@item
@code{java} --- The style for editing Java code.  Note that this style is
automatically installed when you enter @code{java-mode}.

@cindex User style
@cindex .emacs file
@vindex c-default-style
@vindex default-style (c-)
@item
@code{user} --- This is a special style for several reasons.  First, if
you customize @ccmode{} by using either the new Custom
interface@footnote{Available in Emacs 20, XEmacs 19.15 and XEmacs 20.}
or by doing @code{setq}'s at the top level of your @file{.emacs} file,
these settings will be captured in the @code{user} style.  Also, all
other styles implicitly inherit their settings from @code{user} style.
This means that for any styles you add via @code{c-add-style}
(@xref{Adding Styles}) you need only define the differences between your
new style and @code{user} style.

Note however that @code{user} style is @emph{not} the default style.
@code{gnu} is the default style for all newly created buffers, but you
can change this by setting variable @code{c-default-style}.  Be careful
if you customize @ccmode{} as described above; since your changes will
be captured in the @code{user} style, you will also have to change
@code{c-default-style} to "user" to see the effect of your
customizations.

@end itemize

@code{c-default-style} actually takes either a style name string, or an
association list of major mode symbols to style names.  Thus you can
control exactly which default style is used for which CC Mode language
mode.  Here are the rules:

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
@vindex c-mode-common-hook
@vindex mode-common-hook (c-)
@cindex c-set-style
@cindex set-style (c-)
@enumerate
@item
When @code{c-default-style} is a string, it must be an existing style
name as found in @code{c-style-alist}.  This style is then used for all
modes @emph{except} @code{java-mode}, where the style @samp{java} is
used by default@footnote{This is for backwards compatibility reasons.
The hard-coding of @code{java-mode} style is admittedly bogus!}.

@item
When @code{c-default-style} is an association list, the current major
mode is looked up to find a style name string.  In this case, this style 
is always used exactly as specified and an error will occur if the named 
style does not exist.

@item
If @code{c-default-style} is an association list, but the current major
mode isn't found, then the special symbol @samp{other} is looked up.  If 
this value is found, the associated style is used.

@item
If @samp{other} is not found, then the @samp{gnu} style is used.

@item
In all cases, the style described in @code{c-default-style} is installed 
@emph{before} the language hooks are run, so you can always override
this setting by including an explicit call to @code{c-set-style} in your 
language mode hook, or in @code{c-mode-common-hook}.

@end enumerate


@findex c-set-style
@findex set-style (c-)
@kindex C-c .
If you'd like to experiment with these built-in styles you can simply
type the following in a @ccmode{} buffer:
@example
@group

@kbd{C-c . @var{STYLE-NAME} RET}

@end group
@end example
@noindent
@kbd{C-c .} runs the command @code{c-set-style}.  Note that all style
names are case insensitive, even the ones you define.

Setting a style in this way does @emph{not} automatically re-indent your
file.  For commands that you can use to view the effect of your changes,
see @ref{Commands}.

Once you find a built-in style you like, you can make the change
permanent by adding some lisp to your @file{.emacs} file.  Let's say for
example that you want to use the @samp{ellemtel} style in all your
files.  You would add this:
@example
@group

(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; use Ellemtel style for all C like languages
  (c-set-style "ellemtel")
  ;; other customizations can go here
  )
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

@end group
@end example

@vindex c-indentation-style
@vindex indentation-style (c-)
Note that for BOCM compatibility, @samp{gnu} is the default
style, and any non-style based customizations you make (i.e. in
@code{c-mode-common-hook} in your
@file{.emacs} file) will be based on @samp{gnu} style unless you do
a @code{c-set-style} as the first thing in your hook.  The variable
@code{c-indentation-style} always contains the buffer's current style name,
as a string.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Adding Styles, File Styles, Built-in Styles, Styles
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Adding Styles
@cindex   Adding Styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
@findex c-add-style
@findex add-style (c-)
If none of the built-in styles is appropriate, you'll probably want to
add a new @dfn{style definition}.  Styles are kept in the
@code{c-style-alist} variable, but you should never modify this variable
directly.  Instead, @ccmode{} provides the function
@code{c-add-style} that you can use to easily add new styles or change
existing styles.  This function takes two arguments, a @var{stylename}
string, and an association list @var{description} of style
customizations.  If @var{stylename} is not already in
@code{c-style-alist}, the new style is added, otherwise the style is
changed to the new @var{description}.
This function also takes an optional third argument, which if
non-@code{nil}, automatically applies the new style to the current
buffer.

@comment TBD: The next paragraph is bogus.  I really need to better
@comment document adding styles, including setting up inherited styles.

The sample @file{.emacs} file provides a concrete example of how a new
style can be added and automatically set.  @xref{Sample .emacs File}.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     File Styles, ,  Adding Styles, Styles
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  File Styles
@cindex   File Styles
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex local variables

The Emacs manual describes how you can customize certain variables on a
per-file basis by including a @dfn{Local Variable} block at the end of
the file.  So far, you've only seen a functional interface to @ccmode{}
customization, which is highly inconvenient for use in a Local Variable
block.  @ccmode{} provides two variables that make it easier for you to
customize your style on a per-file basis@footnote{Note that this feature
doesn't work with Emacs versions before XEmacs 19.12 and Emacs 19.29.
It works via the standard Emacs hook variable
@code{hack-local-variables-hook}.}

@vindex c-file-style
@vindex file-style (c-)
@vindex c-file-offsets
@vindex file-offsets (c-)

The variable @code{c-file-style} can be set to a style name string.
When the file is visited, @ccmode{} will automatically set the
file's style to this style using @code{c-set-style}.

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
@findex c-set-offset
@findex set-offset (c-)
Another variable, @code{c-file-offsets}, takes an association list
similar to what is allowed in @code{c-offsets-alist}.  When the file is
visited, @ccmode{} will automatically institute these offsets using
@code{c-set-offset}.

Note that file style settings (i.e. @code{c-file-style}) are applied
before file offset settings (i.e. @code{c-file-offsets}).  Also, if
either of these are set in a file's local variable section, all the
style variable values are made local to that buffer.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Advanced Customizations, , Styles, Customizing Indentation
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@section  Advanced Customizations
@cindex   Advanced Customizations
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-style-alist
@vindex style-alist (c-)
@vindex c-basic-offset
@vindex basic-offset (c-)
For most users, @ccmode{} will support their coding styles with
very little need for more advanced customizations.  Usually, one of the
standard styles defined in @code{c-style-alist} will do the trick.  At
most, perhaps one of the syntactic symbol offsets will need to be
tweaked slightly, or maybe @code{c-basic-offset} will need to be
changed.  However, some styles require a more flexible framework for
customization, and one of the real strengths of @ccmode{} is that
the syntactic analysis model provides just such a framework. This allows
you to implement custom indentation calculations for situations not
handled by the mode directly.

@menu
* Custom Indentation Functions::
* Custom Brace and Colon Hanging::
* Customizing Semi-colons and Commas::
* Other Special Indentations::
@end menu

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Custom Indentation Functions, Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, , Advanced Customizations
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Custom Indentation Functions
@cindex   Custom Indentation Functions
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex Custom Indentation Functions
The most flexible way to customize @ccmode{} is by writing @dfn{custom
indentation functions} and associating them with specific syntactic
symbols (see @ref{Syntactic Symbols}).  @ccmode{} itself uses custom
indentation functions to provide more sophisticated indentation, for
example when lining up C++ stream operator blocks:
@example
@group

1: void main(int argc, char**)
2: @{
3:   cout << "There were "
4:     << argc
5:     << "arguments passed to the program"
6:     << endl;
7: @}

@end group
@end example

In this example, lines 4 through 6 are assigned the @code{stream-op}
syntactic symbol.  Here, @code{stream-op} has an offset of @code{+}, and
with a @code{c-basic-offset} of 2, you can see that lines 4 through 6
are simply indented two spaces to the right of line 3.  But perhaps we'd
like @ccmode{} to be a little more intelligent so that it aligns
all the @samp{<<} symbols in lines 3 through 6.  To do this, we have
to write a custom indentation function which finds the column of first
stream operator on the first line of the statement.  Here is sample 
lisp code implementing this:
@example
@group

(defun c-lineup-streamop (langelem)
  ;; lineup stream operators
  (save-excursion
    (let* ((relpos (cdr langelem))
           (curcol (progn (goto-char relpos)
                          (current-column))))
      (re-search-forward "<<\\|>>" (c-point 'eol) 'move)
      (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
      (- (current-column) curcol))))

@end group
@end example
@noindent
Custom indent functions take a single argument, which is a syntactic
component cons cell (see @ref{Syntactic Analysis}).  The
function returns an integer offset value that will be added to the
running total indentation for the line.  Note that what actually gets
returned is the difference between the column that the first stream
operator is on, and the column of the buffer relative position passed in
the function's argument.  Remember that @ccmode{} automatically
adds in the column of the component's relative buffer position and we
don't the column offset added in twice.

@cindex stream-op syntactic symbol
@findex c-lineup-streamop
@findex lineup-streamop (c-)
Now, to associate the function @code{c-lineup-streamop} with the
@code{stream-op} syntactic symbol, we can add something like the
following to our @code{c++-mode-hook}@footnote{It probably makes more
sense to add this to @code{c++-mode-hook} than @code{c-mode-common-hook}
since stream operators are only relevant for C++.}:
@example

(c-set-offset 'stream-op 'c-lineup-streamop)

@end example

@kindex C-c C-q
Now the function looks like this after re-indenting (using @kbd{C-c
C-q}):
@example
@group

1: void main(int argc, char**)
2: @{
3:   cout << "There were "
4:        << argc
5:        << "arguments passed to the program"
6:        << endl;
7: @}

@end group
@end example

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)
Custom indentation functions can be as simple or as complex as you like,
and any syntactic symbol that appears in @code{c-offsets-alist} can have
a custom indentation function associated with it.  @ccmode{} comes
with many standard custom indentation functions, not all of which are
used by the default styles.

@itemize @bullet
@findex c-lineup-arglist
@findex lineup-arglist (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-arglist} --- lines up function argument lines under the
argument on the previous line.

@findex c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren} --- similar to
@code{c-lineup-arglist}, but works for argument lists that begin with an
open parenthesis followed by a newline.

@findex c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren
@findex lineup-arglist-close-under-paren (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren} --- set your
@code{arglist-close} syntactic symbol to this line-up function so that
parentheses that close argument lists will line up under the parenthesis
that opened the argument list.

@findex c-lineup-close-paren
@findex lineup-close-paren (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-close-paren} --- lines up the closing parenthesis under
its corresponding open parenthesis if that one is followed by code.
Otherwise, if the open parenthesis ends its line, no indentation is
added.  Works with any @code{@dots{}-close} symbol.

@findex c-lineup-streamop
@findex lineup-streamop (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-streamop} --- lines up C++ stream operators
(e.g. @samp{<<} and @samp{>>}).

@findex c-lineup-multi-inher
@findex lineup-multi-inher (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-multi-inher} --- lines up multiple inheritance lines.

@findex c-indent-one-line-block
@findex indent-one-line-block (c-)
@item
@code{c-indent-one-line-block} --- adds @code{c-basic-offset} to the
indentation if the line is a one line block, otherwise 0.  Intended to
be used with any opening brace symbol, e.g. @code{substatement-open}.

@findex c-lineup-C-comments
@findex lineup-C-comments (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-C-comments} --- lines up C block comment continuation
lines.

@findex c-lineup-comment
@findex lineup-comment (c-)
@vindex c-comment-only-line-offset
@vindex comment-only-line-offset (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-comment} --- lines up comment only lines according to
the variable @code{c-comment-only-line-offset}.

@findex c-lineup-runin-statements
@findex lineup-runin-statements (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-runin-statements} --- lines up @code{statement}s for coding
standards which place the first statement in a block on the same line as
the block opening brace@footnote{Run-in style doesn't really work too
well.  You might need to write your own custom indentation functions to
better support this style.}.

@findex c-lineup-math
@findex lineup-math (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-math} --- lines up math @code{statement-cont} lines under
the previous line after the equals sign.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-call
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-call (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-call} --- for Objective-C code, lines up
selector arguments just after the message receiver.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-args
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-args} --- for Objective-C code, aligns
argument separating colons vertically.

@findex c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2
@findex lineup-ObjC-method-args-2 (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2} --- similar to
@code{c-lineup-ObjC-method-args} but lines up the colon on the current
line with the colon on the previous line.

@findex c-lineup-inexpr-block
@findex lineup-inexpr-block (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-inexpr-block} --- this can be used with the in-expression
block symbols, i.e. @code{inexpr-statement}, @code{inexpr-class} and
@code{inlambda}, to indent the whole block to the column where the
construct is started.  E.g. for Java anonymous classes, this lines up
the class under the @code{new} keyword.

@findex c-lineup-dont-change
@findex lineup-dont-change (c-)
@item
@code{c-lineup-dont-change} --- this lineup function returns the
indentation of the current line.  Think of it as an identity function
for lineups; it is used for @code{cpp-macro-cont} lines.

@end itemize

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Custom Indentation Functions, Advanced Customizations
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Custom Brace and Colon Hanging
@cindex   Custom Brace and Colon Hanging
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-hanging-braces-alist
@vindex hanging-braces-alist (c-)
Syntactic symbols aren't the only place where you can customize
@ccmode{} with the lisp equivalent of callback functions.  Brace
``hanginess'' can also be determined by custom functions associated with
syntactic symbols on the @code{c-hanging-braces-alist} variable.
Remember that @var{ACTION}'s are typically a list containing some
combination of the symbols @code{before} and @code{after} (see
@ref{Hanging Braces}).  However, an @var{ACTION} can also be a function
which gets called when a brace matching that syntactic symbol is
entered.

@cindex customizing brace hanging
These @var{ACTION} functions are called with two arguments: the
syntactic symbol for the brace, and the buffer position at which the
brace was inserted.  The @var{ACTION} function is expected to return a
list containing some combination of @code{before} and @code{after},
including neither of them (i.e. @code{nil}).  This return value has the
normal brace hanging semantics.

As an example, @ccmode{} itself uses this feature to dynamically
determine the hanginess of braces which close ``do-while''
constructs:
@example
@group

void do_list( int count, char** atleast_one_string )
@{
    int i=0;
    do @{
        handle_string( atleast_one_string[i] );
        i++;
    @} while( i < count );
@}

@end group
@end example

@findex c-snug-do-while
@findex snug-do-while (c-)
@ccmode{} assigns the @code{block-close} syntactic symbol to the
brace that closes the @code{do} construct, and normally we'd like the
line that follows a @code{block-close} brace to begin on a separate
line.  However, with ``do-while'' constructs, we want the
@code{while} clause to follow the closing brace.  To do this, we
associate the @code{block-close} symbol with the @var{ACTION} function
@code{c-snug-do-while}:
@example

(defun c-snug-do-while (syntax pos)
  "Dynamically calculate brace hanginess for do-while statements.
Using this function, `while' clauses that end a `do-while' block will
remain on the same line as the brace that closes that block.

See `c-hanging-braces-alist' for how to utilize this function as an
ACTION associated with `block-close' syntax."
  (save-excursion
    (let (langelem)
      (if (and (eq syntax 'block-close)
               (setq langelem (assq 'block-close c-syntactic-context))
               (progn (goto-char (cdr langelem))
                      (if (= (following-char) ?@{)
                          (forward-sexp -1))
                      (looking-at "\\<do\\>[^_]")))
          '(before)
        '(before after)))))

@end example

This function simply looks to see if the brace closes a ``do-while''
clause and if so, returns the list @samp{(before)} indicating
that a newline should be inserted before the brace, but not after it.
In all other cases, it returns the list @samp{(before after)} so
that the brace appears on a line by itself.

@vindex c-syntactic-context
@vindex syntactic-context (c-)
During the call to the brace hanging @var{ACTION} function, the variable
@code{c-syntactic-context} is bound to the full syntactic analysis list.

@cindex customizing colon hanging
@vindex c-hanging-colon-alist
@vindex hanging-colon-alist (c-)
Note that for symmetry, colon hanginess should be customizable by
allowing function symbols as @var{ACTION}s on the
@code{c-hanging-colon-alist} variable.  Since no use has actually been
found for this feature, it isn't currently implemented!

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Other Special Indentations, Custom Brace and Colon Hanging, Advanced Customizations
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Customizing Semi-colons and Commas
@cindex   Customizing Semi-colons and Commas
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@cindex Customizing Semi-colons and Commas
@vindex c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria
@vindex hanging-semi&comma-criteria (c-)
You can also customize the insertion of newlines after semi-colons and
commas, when the auto-newline minor mode is enabled (see @ref{Minor
Modes}).  This is controlled by the variable
@code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria}, which contains a list of functions
that are called in the order they appear.  Each function is called with
zero arguments, and is expected to return one of the following values:

@itemize @bullet
@item
non-@code{nil} --- A newline is inserted, and no more functions from the
list are called.

@item
@code{stop} --- No more functions from the list are called, but no
newline is inserted.

@item
@code{nil} --- No determination is made, and the next function in the
list is called.

@end itemize

If every function in the list is called without a determination being
made, then no newline is added. The default value for this variable is a
list containing a single function which inserts newlines only after
semi-colons which do not appear inside parenthesis lists (i.e. those
that separate @code{for}-clause statements).

@findex c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks (c-)
Here's an example of a criteria function, provided by @ccmode{}, that
will prevent newlines from being inserted after semicolons when there is
a non-blank following line.  Otherwise, it makes no determination.  To
use, add this to the front of the @code{c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria}
list.

@example
@group

(defun c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks ()
  (save-excursion
    (if (and (eq last-command-char ?\;)
             (zerop (forward-line 1))
             (not (looking-at "^[ \t]*$")))
        'stop
      nil)))

@end group
@end example

@findex c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist
@findex c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners
@findex semi&comma-inside-parenlist (c-)
@findex semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners (c-)
The function @code{c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist} is what prevents
newlines from being inserted inside the parenthesis list of @code{for}
statements.  In addition to
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks} described above,
@ccmode{} also comes with the criteria function
@code{c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners}, which suppresses
newlines after semicolons inside one-line inline method definitions
(i.e. in C++ or Java).

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node     Other Special Indentations, , Customizing Semi-colons and Commas, Advanced Customizations
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@subsection  Other Special Indentations
@cindex   Customizing Semi-colons and Commas
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-label-minimum-indentation
@vindex label-minimum-indentation (c-)
In @samp{gnu} style (see @ref{Built-in Styles}), a minimum indentation
is imposed on lines inside top-level constructs.  This minimum
indentation is controlled by the variable
@code{c-label-minimum-indentation}.  The default value for this variable
is 1.

@vindex c-special-indent-hook
@vindex special-indent-hook (c-)
One other customization variable is available in @ccmode{}:
@code{c-special-indent-hook}.  This is a standard hook variable that is
called after every line is indented by @ccmode{}.  You can use it
to do any special indentation or line adjustments your style dictates,
such as adding extra indentation to constructors or destructor
declarations in a class definition, etc.  Note however, that you should
not change point or mark inside your @code{c-special-indent-hook}
functions (i.e. you'll probably want to wrap your function in a
@code{save-excursion}).

Setting @code{c-special-indent-hook} in your style definition is handled
slightly differently than other variables.  In your style definition,
you should set the value for
@code{c-special-indent-hook} to a function or list of functions, which
will be appended to @code{c-special-indent-hook} using @code{add-hook}.
That way, the current setting for the buffer local value of
@code{c-special-indent-hook} won't be overridden.

@kindex M-;
@findex indent-for-comment
@vindex c-indent-comments-syntactically-p
@vindex indent-comments-syntactically-p (c-)
@vindex comment-column
Normally, the standard Emacs command @kbd{M-;}
(@code{indent-for-comment}) will indent comment only lines to
@code{comment-column}.  Some users however, prefer that @kbd{M-;} act
just like @kbd{TAB} for purposes of indenting comment-only lines;
i.e. they want the comments to always indent as they would for normal
code, regardless of whether @kbd{TAB} or @kbd{M-;} were used.  This
behavior is controlled by the variable
@code{c-indent-comments-syntactically-p}.  When @code{nil} (the
default), @kbd{M-;} indents comment-only lines to @code{comment-column}, 
otherwise, they are indented just as they would be if @kbd{TAB} were
typed.

Note that this has no effect for comment lines that are inserted with
@kbd{M-;} at the end of regular code lines.  These comments will always
start at @code{comment-column}.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Syntactic Symbols, Performance Issues, Customizing Indentation, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Syntactic Symbols
@cindex   Syntactic Symbols
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@vindex c-offsets-alist
@vindex offsets-alist (c-)

Here is a complete list of the recognized syntactic symbols as described
in the @code{c-offsets-alist} variable, along with a brief description.
More detailed descriptions follow.

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{string} --- inside a multi-line string
@item
@code{c} --- inside a multi-line C style block comment
@item
@code{defun-open} --- brace that opens a top-level function definition
@item
@code{defun-close} --- brace that closes a top-level function definition
@item
@code{defun-block-intro} --- the first line in a top-level defun
@item
@code{class-open} --- brace that opens a class definition
@item
@code{class-close} --- brace that closes a class definition
@item
@code{inline-open} --- brace that opens an in-class inline method
@item
@code{inline-close} --- brace that closes an in-class inline method
@item
@code{func-decl-cont} --- the region between a function definition's
argument list and the function opening brace (excluding K&R argument
declarations).  In C, you cannot put anything but whitespace and
comments in this region, however in C++ and Java, @code{throws}
declarations and other things can appear here.
@item
@code{knr-argdecl-intro} --- first line of a K&R C argument declaration
@item
@code{knr-argdecl} --- subsequent lines in a K&R C argument declaration
@item
@code{topmost-intro} --- the first line in a ``topmost'' definition
@item
@code{topmost-intro-cont} --- topmost definition continuation lines
@item
@code{member-init-intro} --- first line in a member initialization list
@item
@code{member-init-cont} --- subsequent member initialization list lines
@item
@code{inher-intro} --- first line of a multiple inheritance list
@item
@code{inher-cont} --- subsequent multiple inheritance lines
@item
@code{block-open} --- statement block open brace
@item
@code{block-close} --- statement block close brace
@item
@code{brace-list-open} --- open brace of an enum or static array list
@item
@code{brace-list-close} --- close brace of an enum or static array list
@item
@code{brace-list-intro} --- first line in an enum or static array list
@item
@code{brace-list-entry} --- subsequent lines in an enum or static array list
@item
@code{brace-entry-open} --- subsequent lines in an enum or static array
list where the line begins with an open brace
@item
@code{statement} --- a C statement
@item
@code{statement-cont} --- a continuation of a C statement
@item
@code{statement-block-intro} --- the first line in a new statement block
@item
@code{statement-case-intro} --- the first line in a case `block'
@item
@code{statement-case-open} --- the first line in a case block starting
with brace
@item
@code{substatement} --- the first line after a conditional or loop construct
@item
@code{substatement-open} --- the brace that opens a substatement block
@item
@code{case-label} --- a @code{case} or @code{default} label
@item
@code{access-label} --- C++ access control label
@item
@code{label} --- any non-special C label
@item
@code{do-while-closure} --- the @code{while} line that ends a
@code{do}-@code{while} construct
@item
@code{else-clause} --- the @code{else} line of an @code{if}-@code{else}
construct
@item
@code{catch-clause} --- the @code{catch} or @code{finally} (in Java)
line of a @code{try}-@code{catch} construct
@item
@code{comment-intro} --- a line containing only a comment introduction
@item
@code{arglist-intro} --- the first line in an argument list
@item
@code{arglist-cont} --- subsequent argument list lines when no arguments
follow on the same line as the the arglist opening paren
@item
@code{arglist-cont-nonempty} --- subsequent argument list lines when at
least one argument follows on the same line as the arglist opening paren
@item
@code{arglist-close} --- the solo close paren of an argument list
@item
@code{stream-op} --- lines continuing a stream operator (C++ only)
@item
@code{inclass} --- the line is nested inside a class definition
@item
@code{cpp-macro} --- the start of a C preprocessor macro definition
@item
@code{cpp-macro-cont} --- subsequent lines of a multi-line C
preprocessor macro definition
@item
@code{friend} --- a C++ friend declaration
@item
@code{objc-method-intro} --- the first line of an Objective-C method definition
@item
@code{objc-method-args-cont} --- lines continuing an Objective-C method
definition 
@item
@code{objc-method-call-cont} --- lines continuing an Objective-C method call
@item
@code{extern-lang-open} --- brace that opens an external language block
@item
@code{extern-lang-close} --- brace that closes an external language block
@item
@code{inextern-lang} --- analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol,
but used inside external language blocks (e.g. @code{extern "C" @{}).
@item
@code{namespace-open} --- brace that opens a C++ namespace block.
@item
@code{namespace-close} --- brace that closes a C++ namespace block.
@item
@code{innamespace} --- analogous to @code{inextern-lang} syntactic
symbol, but used inside C++ namespace blocks.
@item
@code{template-args-cont} --- C++ template argument list continuations
@item
@code{inlambda} --- analogous to @code{inclass} syntactic symbol, but
used inside lambda (i.e. anonymous) functions.  Only used in Pike mode.
@item
@code{lambda-intro-cont} --- lines continuing the header of a lambda
function, i.e. between the @code{lambda} keyword and the function body.
Only used in Pike mode.
@item
@code{inexpr-statement} --- a statement block inside an expression.  The
gcc C extension of this is recognized.  It's also used for the special
functions that takes a statement block as an argument in Pike.
@item
@code{inexpr-class} --- a class definition inside an expression.  This
is used for anonymous classes in Java.  It's also used for anonymous
array initializers in Java.
@end itemize

@cindex -open syntactic symbols
@cindex -close syntactic symbols
Most syntactic symbol names follow a general naming convention.  When a
line begins with an open or close brace, the syntactic symbol will
contain the suffix @code{-open} or @code{-close} respectively.

@cindex -intro syntactic symbols
@cindex -cont syntactic symbols
@cindex -block-intro syntactic symbols
Usually, a distinction is made between the first line that introduces a
construct and lines that continue a construct, and the syntactic symbols
that represent these lines will contain the suffix @code{-intro} or
@code{-cont} respectively.  As a sub-classification of this scheme, a
line which is the first of a particular brace block construct will
contain the suffix @code{-block-intro}.

@kindex C-c C-s
Let's look at some examples to understand how this works.  Remember that
you can check the syntax of any line by using @kbd{C-c C-s}.
@example
@group

  1: void
  2: swap( int& a, int& b )
  3: @{
  4:     int tmp = a;
  5:     a = b;
  6:     b = tmp;
  7:     int ignored =
  8:         a + b;
  9: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex topmost-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex topmost-intro-cont syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-open syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-close syntactic symbol
@cindex defun-block-intro syntactic symbol
Line 1 shows a @code{topmost-intro} since it is the first line that
introduces a top-level construct.  Line 2 is a continuation of the
top-level construct introduction so it has the syntax
@code{topmost-intro-cont}.  Line 3 shows a @code{defun-open} since it is
the brace that opens a top-level function definition.  Line 9 is the
corresponding
@code{defun-close} since it contains the brace that closes the top-level
function definition.  Line 4 is a @code{defun-block-intro}, i.e. it is
the first line of a brace-block, enclosed in a
top-level function definition.

@cindex statement syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-cont syntactic symbol
Lines 5, 6, and 7 are all given @code{statement} syntax since there
isn't much special about them.  Note however that line 8 is given
@code{statement-cont} syntax since it continues the statement begun
on the previous line.

Here's another example, which illustrates some C++ class syntactic
symbols:
@example
@group

   1: class Bass
   2:     : public Guitar,
   3:       public Amplifiable
   4: @{
   5: public:
   6:     Bass()
   7:         : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
   8:           aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
   9:           dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
  10:           gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
  11:     @{
  12:         eString.tune( 'E' );
  13:         aString.tune( 'A' );
  14:         dString.tune( 'D' );
  15:         gString.tune( 'G' );
  16:     @}
  17:     friend class Luthier;
  18: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex class-open syntactic symbol
@cindex class-close syntactic symbol
As in the previous example, line 1 has the @code{topmost-intro} syntax.
Here however, the brace that opens a C++ class definition on line 4 is
assigned the @code{class-open} syntax.  Note that in C++, classes,
structs, and unions are essentially equivalent syntactically (and are
very similar semantically), so replacing the @code{class} keyword in the
example above with @code{struct} or @code{union} would still result in a
syntax of @code{class-open} for line 4 @footnote{This is the case even
for C and Objective-C.  For consistency, structs in all supported
languages are syntactically equivalent to classes.  Note however that
the keyword @code{class} is meaningless in C and Objective-C.}.
Similarly, line 18 is assigned @code{class-close} syntax.

@cindex inher-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex inher-cont syntactic symbol
Line 2 introduces the inheritance list for the class so it is assigned
the @code{inher-intro} syntax, and line 3, which continues the
inheritance list is given @code{inher-cont} syntax.

@cindex access-label syntactic symbol
@cindex inclass syntactic symbol
Hitting @kbd{C-c C-s} on line 5 shows the following analysis:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (access-label . 67))}

@end group
@end example

@noindent
The primary syntactic symbol for this line is @code{access-label} as
this a label keyword that specifies access protection in C++.  However,
because this line is also a top-level construct inside a class
definition, the analysis actually shows two syntactic symbols.  The
other syntactic symbol assigned to this line is @code{inclass}.
Similarly, line 6 is given both @code{inclass} and @code{topmost-intro}
syntax:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (topmost-intro . 60))}

@end group
@end example

@cindex member-init-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex member-init-cont syntactic symbol
Line 7 introduces a C++ member initialization list and as such is given
@code{member-init-intro} syntax.  Note that in this case it is
@emph{not} assigned @code{inclass} since this is not considered a
top-level construct.  Lines 8 through 10 are all assigned
@code{member-init-cont} since they continue the member initialization
list started on line 7.

@cindex in-class inline methods
@cindex inline-open syntactic symbol
@cindex inline-close syntactic symbol
Line 11's analysis is a bit more complicated:

@example
@group

@code{((inclass . 58) (inline-open))}

@end group
@end example

This line is assigned a syntax of both @code{inline-open} and
@code{inclass} because it opens an @dfn{in-class} C++ inline method
definition.  This is distinct from, but related to, the C++ notion of an
inline function in that its definition occurs inside an enclosing class
definition, which in C++ implies that the function should be inlined.
If though, the definition of the @code{Bass} constructor appeared
outside the class definition, the construct would be given the
@code{defun-open} syntax, even if the keyword @code{inline} appeared
before the method name, as in:
@example
@group

class Bass
    : public Guitar,
      public Amplifiable
@{
public:
    Bass();
@}

inline
Bass::Bass()
    : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
      aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
      dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
      gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
@{
    eString.tune( 'E' );
    aString.tune( 'A' );
    dString.tune( 'D' );
    gString.tune( 'G' );
@}

@end group
@end example

@cindex friend syntactic symbol
Returning to the previous example, line 16 is given @code{inline-close}
syntax, while line 12 is given @code{defun-block-open} syntax, and lines
13 through 15 are all given @code{statement} syntax.  Line 17 is
interesting in that its syntactic analysis list contains three
elements:

@example

@code{((friend) (inclass . 58) (topmost-intro . 380))}

@end example

The @code{friend} syntactic symbol is a modifier that typically does not
have a relative buffer position.

Template definitions introduce yet another syntactic symbol:

@example
@group

   1: ThingManager <int,
   2:    Framework::Callback *,
   3:    Mutex> framework_callbacks;

@end group
@end example

Here, line 1 is analyzed as a @code{topmost-intro}, but lines 2 and 3
are both analyzed as @code{template-args-cont} lines.

Here is another (totally contrived) example which illustrates how syntax
is assigned to various conditional constructs:
@example
@group

   1: void spam( int index )
   2: @{
   3:     for( int i=0; i<index; i++ )
   4:     @{
   5:         if( i == 10 )
   6:         @{
   7:             do_something_special();
   8:         @}
   9:         else
  10:             do_something( i );
  11:     @}
  12:     do @{
  13:         another_thing( i-- );
  14:     @}
  15:     while( i > 0 );
  16: @}


@end group
@end example

@noindent
Only the lines that illustrate new syntactic symbols will be discussed.

@cindex substatement-open syntactic symbol
@cindex substatement-block-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex block-close syntactic symbol
Line 4 has a brace which opens a conditional's substatement block.  It
is thus assigned @code{substatement-open} syntax, and since line 5 is
the first line in the substatement block, it is assigned
@code{substatement-block-intro} syntax.  Lines 6 and 7 are assigned
similar syntax.  Line 8 contains the brace that closes the inner
substatement block.  It is given the syntax @code{block-close},
as are lines 11 and 14.

@cindex else-clause syntactic symbol
@cindex catch-clause syntactic symbol
Line 9 is a little different --- since it contains the keyword
@code{else} matching the @code{if} statement introduced on line 5, it is
given the @code{else-clause} syntax.  The @code{try}-@code{catch}
constructs in C++ and Java are treated this way too, with the only
difference that the @code{catch}, and in Java also @code{finally}, is
marked with @code{catch-clause}.

@cindex substatement syntactic symbol
Line 10 is also slightly different.  Because @code{else} is considered a
conditional introducing keyword @footnote{The list of conditional
keywords are (in C, C++, Objective-C, Java, and Pike): @code{for},
@code{if}, @code{do}, @code{else}, @code{while}, and @code{switch}.  C++
and Java have two additional conditional keywords: @code{try} and
@code{catch}.  Java also has the @code{finally} and @code{synchronized}
keywords.}, and because the following substatement is not a brace block,
line 10 is assigned the @code{substatement} syntax.

@cindex do-while-closure syntactic symbol
One other difference is seen on line 15.  The @code{while} construct
that closes a @code{do} conditional is given the special syntax
@code{do-while-closure} if it appears on a line by itself.  Note that if
the @code{while} appeared on the same line as the preceding close brace,
that line would have been assigned @code{block-close} syntax instead.

Switch statements have their own set of syntactic symbols.  Here's an
example:
@example
@group

   1: void spam( enum Ingredient i )
   2: @{
   3:     switch( i ) @{
   4:     case Ham:
   5:         be_a_pig();
   6:         break;
   7:     case Salt:
   8:         drink_some_water();
   9:         break;
  10:     default:
  11:         @{
  12:             what_is_it();
  13:             break;
  14:         @}
  15:     @}
  14: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex case-label syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex statement-case-open syntactic symbol
Here, lines 4, 7, and 10 are all assigned @code{case-label} syntax,
while lines 5 and 8 are assigned @code{statement-case-intro}.  Line 11
is treated slightly differently since it contains a brace that opens a
block --- it is given @code{statement-case-open} syntax.

@cindex brace lists
There are a set of syntactic symbols that are used to recognize
constructs inside of brace lists.  A brace list is defined as an
@code{enum} or aggregate initializer list, such as might statically
initialize an array of structs.  The three special aggregate constructs
in Pike, @code{(@{ @})}, @code{([ ])} and @code{(< >)}, are treated as
brace lists too.  An example:
@example
@group

  1: static char* ingredients[] =
  2: @{
  3:     "Ham",
  4:     "Salt",
  5:     NULL
  6: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex brace-list-open syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-close syntactic symbol
@cindex brace-list-entry syntactic symbol
Following convention, line 2 in this example is assigned
@code{brace-list-open} syntax, and line 3 is assigned
@code{brace-list-intro} syntax.  Likewise, line 6 is assigned
@code{brace-list-close} syntax.  Lines 4 and 5 however, are assigned
@code{brace-list-entry} syntax, as would all subsequent lines in this
initializer list.

@cindex brace-entry-open syntactic symbol
Your static initializer might be initializing nested structures, for
example:
@example
@group

  1: struct intpairs[] =
  2: @{
  3:     @{ 1, 2 @},
  4:     @{
  5:         3,
  6:         4
  7:     @}
  8:     @{ 1,
  9:       2 @},
 10:     @{ 3, 4 @}
 11: @}

@end group
@end example

Here, you've already seen the analysis of lines 1, 2, 3, and 11.  On
line 4, things get interesting; this line is assigned
@code{brace-entry-open} syntactic symbol because it's a bracelist entry
line that starts with an open brace.  Lines 5 and 6 (and line 9) are
pretty standard, and line 7 is a @code{brace-list-close} as you'd
expect.  Once again, line 8 is assigned as @code{brace-entry-open} as is
line 10.

External language definition blocks also have their own syntactic
symbols.  In this example:
@example
@group

   1: extern "C" 
   2: @{
   3:     int thing_one( int );
   4:     int thing_two( double );
   5: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex extern-lang-open syntactic symbol
@cindex extern-lang-close syntactic symbol
@cindex inextern-lang syntactic symbol
@cindex inclass syntactic symbol
@noindent
line 2 is given the @code{extern-lang-open} syntax, while line 5 is given
the @code{extern-lang-close} syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:
@code{((inextern-lang) (topmost-intro . 14))}, where
@code{inextern-lang} is a modifier similar in purpose to @code{inclass}.

Similarly, C++ namespace constructs have their own associated syntactic
symbols.  In this example:
@example
@group

   1: namespace foo
   2: @{
   3:     void xxx() @{@}
   4: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex namespace-open syntactic symbol
@cindex namespace-close syntactic symbol
@cindex innamespace syntactic symbol
@noindent
line 2 is given the @code{namespace-open} syntax, while line 4 is given
the @code{namespace-close} syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:
@code{((innamespace) (topmost-intro . 17))}, where @code{innamespace} is 
a modifier similar in purpose to @code{inextern-lang} and @code{inclass}.

A number of syntactic symbols are associated with parenthesis lists,
a.k.a argument lists, as found in function declarations and function
calls.  This example illustrates these:
@example
@group

   1: void a_function( int line1,
   2:                  int line2 );
   3: 
   4: void a_longer_function(
   5:     int line1,
   6:     int line2
   7:     );
   8: 
   9: void call_them( int line1, int line2 )
  10: @{
  11:     a_function(
  12:         line1,
  13:         line2
  14:         );
  15: 
  16:     a_longer_function( line1,
  17:                        line2 );
  18: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex arglist-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex arglist-close syntactic symbol
Lines 5 and 12 are assigned @code{arglist-intro} syntax since they are
the first line following the open parenthesis, and lines 7 and 14 are
assigned @code{arglist-close} syntax since they contain the parenthesis
that closes the argument list.

@cindex arglist-cont-nonempty syntactic symbol
@cindex arglist-cont syntactic symbol
Lines that continue argument lists can be assigned one of two syntactic
symbols.  For example, Lines 2 and 17
are assigned @code{arglist-cont-nonempty} syntax.  What this means
is that they continue an argument list, but that the line containing the
parenthesis that opens the list is @emph{not empty} following the open
parenthesis.  Contrast this against lines 6 and 13 which are assigned
@code{arglist-cont} syntax.  This is because the parenthesis that opens
their argument lists is the last character on that line.

Note that there is no @code{arglist-open} syntax.  This is because any
parenthesis that opens an argument list, appearing on a separate line,
is assigned the @code{statement-cont} syntax instead.

A few miscellaneous syntactic symbols that haven't been previously
covered are illustrated by this C++ example:
@example
@group

   1: void Bass::play( int volume )
   2: const
   3: @{
   4:     /* this line starts a multi-line
   5:      * comment.  This line should get `c' syntax */
   6: 
   7:     char* a_multiline_string = "This line starts a multi-line \
   8: string.  This line should get `string' syntax.";
   9: 
  10:   note:
  11:     @{
  12: #ifdef LOCK
  13:         Lock acquire();
  14: #endif // LOCK
  15:         slap_pop();
  16:         cout << "I played "
  17:              << "a note\n";
  18:     @}
  19: @}

@end group
@end example

The lines to note in this example include:

@itemize @bullet

@cindex func-decl-cont syntactic symbol
@item
line 2, assigned the @code{func-decl-cont} syntax;

@cindex comment-intro syntactic symbol
@item
line 4, assigned both @code{defun-block-intro} @emph{and}
@code{comment-intro} syntax;

@cindex c syntactic symbol
@item
line 5, assigned @code{c} syntax;

@item
@cindex syntactic whitespace
line 6 which, even though it contains nothing but whitespace, is
assigned @code{defun-block-intro}.  Note that the appearance of the
comment on lines 4 and 5 do not cause line 6 to be assigned
@code{statement} syntax because comments are considered to be
@dfn{syntactic whitespace}, which are ignored when analyzing
code;

@cindex string syntactic symbol
@item
line 8, assigned @code{string} syntax;

@cindex label syntactic symbol
@item
line 10, assigned @code{label} syntax;

@cindex block-open syntactic symbol
@item
line 11, assigned @code{block-open} syntax;

@cindex cpp-macro syntactic symbol
@cindex cpp-macro-cont syntactic symbol
@item
lines 12 and 14, assigned @code{cpp-macro} syntax.

@cindex stream-op syntactic symbol
@item
line 17, assigned @code{stream-op} syntax.

@end itemize

@cindex multi-line macros
@cindex syntactic whitespace
Multi-line C preprocessor macros are now (somewhat) supported.  At least
CC Mode now recognizes the fact that it is inside a multi-line macro,
and it properly skips such macros as syntactic whitespace.  In this
example:
@example
@group

   1: #define LIST_LOOP(cons, listp)                           \
   2:   for (cons = listp; !NILP (cons); cons = XCDR (cons))   \
   3:      if (!CONSP (cons))                                  \
   4:        signal_error ("Invalid list format", listp);      \
   5:      else

@end group
@end example
@noindent
line 1 is given the syntactic symbol @code{cpp-macro}.  This first line
of a macro is always given this symbol.  The second and subsequent lines 
(e.g. lines 2 through 5) are given the @code{cpp-macro-cont} syntactic
symbol, with a relative buffer position pointing to the @code{#} which
starts the macro definition.

In Objective-C buffers, there are three additional syntactic symbols
assigned to various message calling constructs.  Here's an example
illustrating these:
@example
@group

  1: - (void)setDelegate:anObject
  2:           withStuff:stuff
  3: @{
  4:     [delegate masterWillRebind:self
  5:               toDelegate:anObject
  6:               withExtraStuff:stuff];
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex objc-method-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex objc-method-args-cont syntactic symbol
@cindex objc-method-call-cont syntactic symbol
Here, line 1 is assigned @code{objc-method-intro} syntax, and line 2 is
assigned @code{objc-method-args-cont} syntax.  Lines 5 and 6 are both
assigned @code{objc-method-call-cont} syntax.

Java has a concept of anonymous classes, which may look something like
this:
@example
@group

  1: public void watch(Observable o) @{
  2:     o.addObserver(new Observer() @{
  3:             public void update(Observable o, Object arg) @{
  4:                 history.addElement(arg);
  5:             @}
  6:         @});
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex inexpr-class syntactic symbol
The brace following the @code{new} operator opens the anonymous class.
Lines 3 and 6 are assigned the @code{inexpr-class} syntax, besides the
@code{inclass} symbol used in normal classes.  Thus, the class will be
indented just like a normal class, with the added indentation given to
@code{inexpr-class}.

There are a few occasions where a statement block may be used inside an
expression.  One is in C code using the gcc extension for this, e.g:
@example
@group

  1: int res = (@{
  2:         int y = foo (); int z;
  3:         if (y > 0) z = y; else z = - y;
  4:         z;
  5:     @});

@end group
@end example

@cindex inexpr-statement syntactic symbol
Lines 2 and 5 get the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, besides the
symbols they'd get in a normal block.  Therefore, the indentation put on
@code{inexpr-statement} is added to the normal statement block
indentation.

In Pike code, there are a few other situations where blocks occur inside
statements, as illustrated here:
@example
@group

  1: array itgob()
  2: @{
  3:     string s = map (backtrace()[-2][3..],
  4:                     lambda
  5:                         (mixed arg)
  6:                     @{
  7:                         return sprintf ("%t", arg);
  8:                     @}) * ", " + "\n";
  9:     return catch @{
 10:             write (s + "\n");
 11:         @};
 12: @}

@end group
@end example

@cindex inlambda syntactic symbol
@cindex lambda-intro-cont syntactic symbol
Lines 4 through 8 contain a lambda function, which CC Mode recognizes
by the @code{lambda} keyword.  If the function argument list is put
on a line of its own, as in line 5, it gets the @code{lambda-intro-cont}
syntax.  The function body is handled as an inline method body, with the
addition of the @code{inlambda} syntactic symbol.  This means that line
6 gets @code{inlambda} and @code{inline-open}, and line 8 gets
@code{inline-close}@footnote{You might wonder why it doesn't get
@code{inlambda} too.  It's because the closing brace is relative to the
opening brace, which stands on its own line in this example.  If the
opening brace was hanging on the previous line, then the closing brace
would get the @code{inlambda} syntax too to be indented correctly.}.

@cindex inexpr-statement syntactic symbol
On line 9, @code{catch} is a special function taking a statement block
as its argument.  The block is handled as an in-expression statement
with the @code{inexpr-statement} syntax, just like the gcc extended C
example above.  The other similar special function, @code{gauge}, is
handled like this too.

@cindex knr-argdecl-intro syntactic symbol
@cindex knr-argdecl syntactic symbol
Two other syntactic symbols can appear in old style, non-prototyped C
code @footnote{a.k.a. K&R C, or Kernighan & Ritchie C}:
@example
@group

  1: int add_three_integers(a, b, c)
  2:      int a;
  3:      int b;
  4:      int c;
  5: @{
  6:     return a + b + c;
  7: @}

@end group
@end example

Here, line 2 is the first line in an argument declaration list and so is
given the @code{knr-argdecl-intro} syntactic symbol.  Subsequent lines
(i.e. lines 3 and 4 in this example), are given @code{knr-argdecl}
syntax.

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Performance Issues, Frequently Asked Questions, Syntactic Symbols, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Performance Issues
@cindex   Performance Issues
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

C and its derivative languages are highly complex creatures.  Often,
ambiguous code situations arise that require @ccmode{} to scan
large portions of the buffer to determine syntactic context.  Such
pathological code@footnote{such as the output of @code{lex(1)}!}
can cause @ccmode{} to perform fairly badly.
This section identifies some of the coding styles to watch out for, and
suggests some workarounds that you can use to improve performance.

Because @ccmode{} has to scan the buffer backwards from the current
insertion point, and because C's syntax is fairly difficult to parse in
the backwards direction, @ccmode{} often tries to find the nearest
position higher up in the buffer from which to begin a forward scan.
The farther this position is from the current insertion point, the
slower the mode gets.  Some coding styles can even force @ccmode{}
to scan from the beginning of the buffer for every line of code!

@findex beginning-of-defun
@findex defun-prompt-regexp
One of the simplest things you can do to reduce scan time, is make sure
any brace that opens a top-level construct@footnote{e.g. a function in
C, or outermost class definition in C++ or Java.} always appears in the
leftmost column.  This is actually an Emacs constraint, as embodied in
the @code{beginning-of-defun} function which @ccmode{} uses heavily.  If
you insist on hanging top-level open braces on the right side of the
line, then you might want to set the variable @code{defun-prompt-regexp}
to something reasonable @footnote{Note that this variable is only
defined in Emacs 19 and beyond.}, however that ``something reasonable''
is difficult to define, so @ccmode{} doesn't do it for you.

@vindex c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp
@vindex Java-defun-prompt-regexp (c-)
A special note about @code{defun-prompt-regexp} in Java mode: while much
of the early sample Java code seems to encourage a style where the brace
that opens a class is hung on the right side of the line, this is not a
good style to pursue in Emacs.  @ccmode{} comes with a variable
@code{c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp} which tries to define a regular
expression usable for this style, but there are problems with it.  In
some cases it can cause @code{beginning-of-defun} to hang@footnote{This
has been observed in Emacs 19.34 and XEmacs 19.15.}.  For this reason,
it is not used by default, but if you feel adventurous, you can set
@code{defun-prompt-regexp} to it in your mode hook.  In any event,
setting and rely on @code{defun-prompt-regexp} will definitely slow
things down anyway because you'll be doing regular expression searches
for every line you indent, so you're probably screwed either way!

@vindex c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p
@vindex enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p (c-)
Another alternative for XEmacs users, is to set the variable
@code{c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p} to non-@code{nil}.  This
tells @ccmode{} to use XEmacs-specific built-in functions which, in some
circumstances, can locate the top-most opening brace much quicker than
@code{beginning-of-defun}.  Preliminary testing has shown that for
styles where these braces are hung (e.g. most JDK-derived Java styles),
this hack can improve performance of the core syntax parsing routines
from 3 to 60 times.  However, for styles which @emph{do} conform to
Emacs' recommended style of putting top-level braces in column zero,
this hack can degrade performance by about as much.  Thus this variable
is set to @code{nil} by default, since the Emacs-friendly styles
should be more common (and
encouraged!).  Note that this variable has no effect in Emacs since the
necessary built-in functions don't exist (in Emacs 20.2 or 20.3 as of
this writing 27-Apr-1998).

You will probably notice pathological behavior from @ccmode{} when
working in files containing large amounts of C preprocessor macros.
This is because Emacs cannot skip backwards over these lines as quickly
as it can comments.

@vindex c-recognize-knr-p
@vindex recognize-knr-p (c-)
Previous versions of @ccmode{} had potential performance problems
when recognizing K&R style function argument declarations.  This was
because there are ambiguities in the C syntax when K&R style argument
lists are used@footnote{It is hard to distinguish them from top-level
declarations.}.  @ccmode{} has adopted BOCM's convention for
limiting the search: it assumes that argdecls are indented at least one
space, and that the function headers are not indented at all.  With
current versions of @ccmode{}, user customization of
@code{c-recognize-knr-p} is deprecated.  Just don't put argdecls in
column zero!

@cindex @file{cc-lobotomy.el} file
@vindex cc-lobotomy-pith-list
You might want to investigate the speed-ups contained in the
file @file{cc-lobotomy.el}, which comes as part of the @ccmode{}
distribution, but is completely unsupported.
As mentioned previous, @ccmode{} always trades speed for accuracy,
however it is recognized that sometimes you need speed and can sacrifice
some accuracy in indentation.  The file @file{cc-lobotomy.el} contains
hacks that will ``dumb down'' @ccmode{} in some specific ways, making
that trade-off of accurancy for speed.  I won't go into details of its
use here; you should read the comments at the top of the file, and look
at the variable @code{cc-lobotomy-pith-list} for details.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Frequently Asked Questions, Getting the latest CC Mode release, Performance Issues, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Frequently Asked Questions
@cindex   Frequently Asked Questions
@comment FAQ
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex C-x h
@kindex ESC C-\
@kindex ESC C-x
@kindex C-c C-q
@kindex ESC C-q
@kindex ESC C-u
@kindex RET
@kindex C-j
@findex newline-and-indent
@quotation

@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the whole file?}

@strong{A.} Visit the file and hit @kbd{C-x h} to mark the whole
buffer. Then hit @kbd{ESC C-\}.
@sp 1

@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the entire function?
@kbd{ESC C-x} doesn't work.}

@strong{A.} @kbd{ESC C-x} is reserved for future Emacs use.
To re-indent the entire function hit @kbd{C-c C-q}.
@sp 1

@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I re-indent the current block?}

@strong{A.} First move to the brace which opens the block with
@kbd{ESC C-u}, then re-indent that expression with
@kbd{ESC C-q}.
@sp 1

@strong{Q.} @emph{Why doesn't the @kbd{RET} key indent the new line?}

@strong{A.} Emacs' convention is that @kbd{RET} just adds a newline,
and that @kbd{C-j} adds a newline and indents it.  You can make
@kbd{RET} do this too by adding this to your
@code{c-mode-common-hook}:
@example

(define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'newline-and-indent)

@end example

This is a very common question.  If you want this to be the default
behavior, don't lobby me, lobby RMS!  @t{:-)}
@sp 1

@strong{Q.} @emph{I put @code{(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)}
in my @file{.emacs} file but I get an error saying that
@code{c-set-offset}'s function definition is void.}

@strong{A.} This means that @ccmode{} wasn't loaded into your
Emacs session by the time the @code{c-set-offset} call was reached,
mostly likely because @ccmode{} is being autoloaded.  Instead
of putting the @code{c-set-offset} line in your top-level
@file{.emacs} file, put it in your @code{c-mode-common-hook}, or
simply add the following to the top of your @file{.emacs} file:
@example

(require 'cc-mode)

@end example

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{I put @code{(setq c-basic-offset 4)} in my
@file{.emacs} file, but code still gets indented to 2 spaces.}

@strong{A.} This setting is getting captured in the @samp{user} style,
but the @samp{gnu} style is the default.  You should also add a setting
of @code{c-default-style} to your @file{.emacs} file, like so:
@example

(setq c-default-style '((other . "user")))
(setq c-basic-offset 4)

@end example

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{My style settings works in all the @ccmode{} language
modes except for Java, where I still get e.g. 4 column indentation.}

@strong{A.} Java mode switches to the @samp{java} style by default for
historical reasons.  You can override it by putting an association list
on @code{c-default-style}:
@example

(setq c-default-style '((other . "my-style")))

@end example
@noindent
The @samp{other} symbol says that @ccmode{} should use "my-style" in all
modes not explicitly listed.  Since there's nothing else on the list
this causes "my-style" to be used in every mode.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{How do I make strings, comments, keywords, and other
constructs appear in different colors, or in bold face, etc.?}

@strong{A.} ``Syntax Colorization'' is a standard Emacs feature,
controlled by @code{font-lock-mode}.  @ccmode{} does not contain
font-lock definitions for any of its supported languages.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{@kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} used to move over entire
balanced brace lists, but now they move into blocks.  How do I get the
old behavior back?}

@strong{A.} Use @kbd{C-M-f} and @kbd{C-M-b} to move over balanced brace
blocks.  Use @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} to move by statements, which will
also move into blocks.

@sp 1
@strong{Q.} @emph{Whenever I try to indent a line or type an
``electric'' key such as @kbd{;}, @kbd{@{}, or @kbd{@}}, I get an error
that look like this: @code{Invalid function: (macro . #[...}. What
gives?}

@strong{A.} This is a common error when @ccmode{} hasn't been compiled
correctly, especially under Emacs 19.34@footnote{Technically, it's
because some macros wasn't defined during the compilation, so the byte
compiler put in function calls instead of the macro expansions. Later,
when the interpreter tries to call the macros as functions, it shows
this (somewhat cryptic) error message.}. If you are using the standalone
@ccmode{} distribution, try recompiling it according to the instructions
in the @file{README} file.

@end quotation


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Getting the latest CC Mode release, Sample .emacs File, Frequently Asked Questions, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Getting the latest CC Mode release
@cindex   Getting the latest CC Mode release
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ccmode{} is standard with the last versions of Emacs and XEmacs 19
(19.34 and 19.16 respectively), as well as with NTEmacs 19.34. 
@ccmode{} is also the standard for any new Emacsen, including Emacs
20.2, XEmacs 20.4, and XEmacs 21 (not yet released as of
this writing 23-Apr-1998).

Due to release schedule skew, it is likely that all of these Emacsen
have old versions of @ccmode{} and so should be upgraded.  Access to the 
@ccmode{} source code, as well as more detailed information on Emacsen
compatibility, etc. are all available via the Web at:

@example
@group

        @url{http://www.python.org/emacs/cc-mode/}

@end group
@end example

@emph{Old URLs, including the FTP URLs should no longer be used.}

There are many files under these directories; you can pick up the entire
distribution (named @code{cc-mode.tar.gz}; a gzip'd tar file), or any of
the individual files, including PostScript documentation.


@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Sample .emacs File, Limitations and Known Bugs, Getting the latest CC Mode release, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up

@chapter  Sample .emacs file
@cindex   Sample .emacs file
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@example
;; Here's a sample .emacs file that might help you along the way.  Just
;; copy this region and paste it into your .emacs file.  You may want to
;; change some of the actual values.

(defconst my-c-style
  '((c-tab-always-indent        . t)
    (c-comment-only-line-offset . 4)
    (c-hanging-braces-alist     . ((substatement-open after)
                                   (brace-list-open)))
    (c-hanging-colons-alist     . ((member-init-intro before)
                                   (inher-intro)
                                   (case-label after)
                                   (label after)
                                   (access-label after)))
    (c-cleanup-list             . (scope-operator
                                   empty-defun-braces
                                   defun-close-semi))
    (c-offsets-alist            . ((arglist-close . c-lineup-arglist)
                                   (substatement-open . 0)
                                   (case-label        . 4)
                                   (block-open        . 0)
                                   (knr-argdecl-intro . -)))
    (c-echo-syntactic-information-p . t)
    )
  "My C Programming Style")

;; Customizations for all modes in CC Mode.
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; add my personal style and set it for the current buffer
  (c-add-style "PERSONAL" my-c-style t)
  ;; offset customizations not in my-c-style
  (c-set-offset 'member-init-intro '++)
  ;; other customizations
  (setq tab-width 8
        ;; this will make sure spaces are used instead of tabs
        indent-tabs-mode nil)
  ;; we like auto-newline and hungry-delete
  (c-toggle-auto-hungry-state 1)
  ;; keybindings for all supported languages.  We can put these in
  ;; c-mode-base-map because c-mode-map, c++-mode-map, objc-mode-map,
  ;; java-mode-map, idl-mode-map, and pike-mode-map inherit from it.
  (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'newline-and-indent)
  )

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)
@end example

@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Limitations and Known Bugs, Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Sample .emacs File, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up
@chapter  Limitations and Known Bugs
@cindex   Limitations and Known Bugs
@comment * Limitations and Known Bugs
@comment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@itemize @bullet
@item
Re-indenting large regions or expressions can be slow.

@item
Add-on fill packages may not work as well as @ccmode{}'s built-in
filling routines.  I no longer recommend you use @code{filladapt} to
fill comments.

@cindex c-indent-exp
@cindex indent-exp (c-)
@item
@code{c-indent-exp} has not been fully optimized.  It essentially
equivalent to hitting @kbd{TAB} (@code{c-indent-command}) on every
line.  Some information is cached from line to line, but such caching
invariable causes inaccuracies in analysis in some bizarre situations.

@vindex signal-error-on-buffer-boundary
@item
XEmacs versions from 19.15 until (as of this writing 12-Mar-1998) 20.4
contain a variable called @code{signal-error-on-buffer-boundary}.  This
was intended as a solution to user interface problems associated with
buffer movement and the @code{zmacs-region} deactivation on errors.
However, setting this variable to a non-default value had the
deleterious side effect of breaking many built-in primitive functions.
Most users will not be affected since they never change the value of
this variable.  @strong{Do not set this variable to @code{nil}}; you
will cause serious problems in @ccmode{} and probably other XEmacs
packages!  As of at least XEmacs 20.4, the effects this variable tried
to correct have been fixed in other, better ways.

@end itemize

@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node  Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Concept Index, Limitations and Known Bugs, Top
@comment  node-name,              next,                    previous,up
@chapter  Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports
@cindex   Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports
@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@kindex C-c C-b
@findex c-submit-bug-report
@findex submit-bug-report (c-)
@cindex beta testers mailing list
@cindex announcement mailing list
To report bugs, use the @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{c-submit-bug-report})
command.  This provides vital information we need to reproduce your
problem.  Make sure you include a concise, but complete code example.
Please try to boil your example down to just the essential code needed
to reproduce the problem, and include an exact recipe of steps needed to
expose the bug.  Be especially sure to include any code that appears
@emph{before} your bug example, if you think it might affect our ability
to reproduce it.

Bug reports are now sent to the following email addresses:
@email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org} and @email{bug-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org}; the
latter is mirrored on the Usenet newsgroup @code{gnu.emacs.bug}.  You
can send other questions and suggestions (kudos? @t{;-)} to
@email{bug-cc-mode@@gnu.org}, or @email{help-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} which is
mirrored on newsgroup @code{gnu.emacs.help}.  The old contact address
@email{cc-mode-help@@python.org} is still active, but its use is
discouraged.

If you want to get announcements of new CC Mode releases, send the word
@emph{subscribe} in the body of a message to
@email{cc-mode-announce-request@@python.org}.  Announcements will also
be posted to the Usenet newsgroups @code{gnu.emacs.sources},
@code{comp.emacs}, @code{comp.emacs.xemacs}, and possibly some of the
language oriented newsgroups.  Note that the
@code{cc-mode-victims@@python.org} mailing list was recently
decommissioned.

@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Concept Index, Command Index,  Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports, Top
@comment node-name,    next,  previous,      up
@unnumbered Concept Index
@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@printindex cp


@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Command Index, Key Index,  Concept Index, Top
@comment node-name,    next,  previous,      up
@unnumbered Command Index
@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ifinfo

@end ifinfo
Since all @ccmode{} commands are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{<thing>}} name and its
@code{@var{<thing>} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex fn


@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Key Index, Variable Index,  Command Index, Top
@comment node-name,    next,  previous,      up
@unnumbered Key Index
@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@printindex ky


@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
@node    Variable Index,    ,  Key Index, Top
@comment node-name,    next,  previous,      up
@unnumbered Variable Index
@c !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

@ifinfo

@end ifinfo
Since all @ccmode{} variables are prepended with the string
@samp{c-}, each appears under its @code{c-@var{<thing>}} name and its
@code{@var{<thing>} (c-)} name.
@iftex
@sp 2
@end iftex
@printindex vr
@page
@summarycontents
@contents
@bye