CC Mode NEWS -- user visible changes. -*- outline -*-
* Changes in 5.28
** The hardcoded switch to "java" style in Java mode is gone.
CC Mode used to automatically set the style to "java" when Java mode
is entered. This has now been removed since it causes too much
However, to keep backward compatibility to a certain extent, the
default value for c-default-style now specifies the "java" style for
java-mode, but "gnu" for all other modes (as before). So you won't
notice the change if you haven't touched that variable.
** New cleanups, space-before-funcall and compact-empty-funcall.
Two new cleanups have been added to c-cleanup-list:
space-before-funcall causes a space to be inserted before the opening
parenthesis of a function call, which gives the style "foo (bar)".
compact-empty-funcall causes any space before a function call opening
parenthesis to be removed if there are no arguments to the function.
It's typically useful together with space-before-funcall to get the
style "foo (bar)" and "foo()".
** Some keywords now automatically trigger reindentation.
Keywords like "else", "while", "catch" and "finally" have been made
"electric" to make them reindent automatically when they continue an
earlier statement. An example:
for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
res += a[i]->offset;
Here, the "else" should be indented like the preceding "if", since it
continues that statement. CC Mode will automatically reindent it after
the "else" has been typed in full, since it's not until then it's
possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a continuation of
the preceding "if".
CC Mode uses Abbrev mode to achieve this, which is therefore turned on
** M-a and M-e now moves by sentence in multiline strings.
Previously these two keys only moved by sentence in comments, which
meant that sentence movement didn't work in strings containing
documentation or other natural language text.
The reason it's only activated in multiline strings (i.e. strings that
contain a newline, even when escaped by a '\') is to avoid stopping in
the short strings that often reside inside statements. Multiline
strings almost always contain text in a natural language, as opposed
to other strings that typically contain format specifications,
commands, etc. Also, it's not that bothersome that M-a and M-e misses
sentences in single line strings, since they're short anyway.
** Support for autodoc comments in Pike mode.
Autodoc comments for Pike are used to extract documentation from the
source, like Javadoc in Java. Pike mode now recognize this markup in
comment prefixes and paragraph starts.
** The comment prefix regexps on c-comment-prefix may be mode specific.
When c-comment-prefix is an association list, it specifies the comment
line prefix on a per-mode basis, like c-default-style does. This
change came about to support the special autodoc comment prefix in
Pike mode only.
** Better handling of syntactic errors.
The recovery after unbalanced parens earlier in the buffer has been
improved; CC Mode now reports them by dinging and giving a message
stating the offending line, but still recovers and indent the
following lines in a sane way (most of the time). An "else" with no
matching "if" is handled similarly. If an error is discovered while
indenting a region, the whole region is still indented and the error
is reported afterwards.
** Lineup functions may now return absolute columns.
A lineup function can give an absolute column to indent the line to by
returning a vector with the desired column as the first element.
** More robust and warning-free byte compilation.
Although this is strictly not a user visible change (well, depending
on the view of a user), it's still worth mentioning that CC Mode now
can be compiled in the standard ways without causing trouble. Some
code have also been moved between the subpackages to enhance the
modularity somewhat. Thanks to Martin Buchholz for doing the
* Changes in 5.27
Note: This is mostly a bugfix release. The features labeled
experimental in 5.26 remain and are now considered permanent.
** c-style-variables-are-local-p now defaults to t.
This is an incompatible change that has been made to make the behavior
of the style system wrt global variable settings less confusing for
non-advanced users. If you know what this variable does you might
want to set it to nil in your .emacs, otherwise you probably don't
have to bother.
Defaulting c-style-variables-are-local-p to t avoids the confusing
situation that occurs when a user sets some style variables globally
and edit both a Java and a non-Java file in the same Emacs session.
If the style variables aren't buffer local in this case, loading of
the second file will cause the default style (either "gnu" or "java"
by default) to override the global settings made by the user.
* Changes in 5.26
Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show up in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback. Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this
** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style. This
is different from the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings. This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.
By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system. This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described
Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function. When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values. In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the
function documentation for more info.
The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files. On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot. This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.
(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)
*** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.
This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized. This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
*** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.
** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments. For details see the new
chapter about this in the manual.
*** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments. It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.
*** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.
*** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.
It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (http://wonderworks.com/).
A new convenience function c-setup-filladapt sets up Filladapt for use
inside CC Mode.
Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does). A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (http://www.python.org/emacs/
*** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string
*** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments. If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL. E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.
** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.
*** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.
** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details. c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.
** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
previous line. It used to instead preserve comments that started in
the column specified by comment-column.
** c-lineup-C-comments handles "free form" text comments.
In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix. This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting. In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.
** The `c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup
** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.
** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don
** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.
* Changes in 5.25
This is a bug fix release only.
* Changes in 5.24
Note: See also changes in 5.23 to get the complete list of additions
since the last public release.
** c-default-style can now take an association list that maps major
modes to style names. When this variable is an alist, Java mode no
longer hardcodes a setting to "java" style. See the variable's
docstring for details.
** It's now possible to put a list as the offset on a syntactic
symbol. The list is evaluated recursively until a non-nil offset is
found. This is useful to combine several lineup functions to act in a
prioritized order on a single line. However, none of the supplied
lineup functions use this feature currently.
** New syntactic symbol catch-clause, which is used on the "catch" and
"finally" lines in try-catch constructs in C++ and Java.
** New cleanup brace-catch-brace on c-cleanup-list, which does for
"catch" lines what brace-elseif-brace does for "else if" lines.
** The braces of Java anonymous inner classes are treated separately
from the braces of other classes in auto-newline mode. Two new
symbols inexpr-class-open and inexpr-class-close may be used on
c-hanging-braces-alist to control the automatic newlines used for
** email@example.com is now the primary bug reporting address.
This is an alias for firstname.lastname@example.org.
* Changes in 5.23
Note: Due to the extensive changes, this version was a beta test
release that was never publicly announced.
** Support for the Pike language added, along with new Pike specific
syntactic symbols: inlambda, lambda-intro-cont
** Support for Java anonymous classes via new syntactic symbol
inexpr-class. New syntactic symbol inexpr-statement for Pike
support and gcc-style statements inside expressions. New lineup
** New syntactic symbol brace-entry-open which is used in brace lists
(i.e. static initializers) when a list entry starts with an open
brace. These used to be recognized as brace-list-entry's.
c-electric-brace also recognizes brace-entry-open braces
(brace-list-entry's can no longer be electrified).
** New command c-indent-line-or-region, not bound by default.
** Improvements to M-C-h (c-mark-function).
** `#' is only electric when typed in the indentation of a line.
** Parentheses are now electric (via the new command c-electric-paren)
for auto-reindenting lines when parens are typed.
** In "gnu" style, inline-open offset is now set to zero.
** Uniform handling of the inclass syntactic symbol. The indentation
associated with it is now always relative to the class opening brace.
This means that the indentation behavior has changed in some
circumstances, but only if you've put anything besides 0 on the
class-open syntactic symbol (none of the default styles do that).
** c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p is set to nil by default,
since for Emacs-friendly styles (i.e. where the top-level opening
brace starts in column zero) setting this variable to t can degrade
* Changes in 5.22
Note: There was no net release of 5.22! This version went only to the
XEmacs developers and was primarily a bug fix release.
* Changes in 5.21
This is a bug fix release only.
* Changes in 5.20
** Multiline macros are now handled, both as they affect indentation,
and as recognized syntax. New syntactic symbol cpp-macro-cont is
assigned to second and subsequent lines of a multiline macro
** A new style "user" which captures all non-hook-ified
(i.e. top-level) .emacs file variable settings and customizations.
Style "cc-mode" is an alias for "user" and is deprecated. "gnu" style
is still the default however.
** "java" style now conforms to Sun's JDK coding style.
** New commands c-beginning-of-defun, c-end-of-defun which are not
bound by default to C-M-a and C-M-e.
** New and improved implementations of M-a (c-beginning-of-statement)
and M-e (c-end-of-statement).
** C++ namespace blocks are supported, with new syntactic symbols
namespace-open, namespace-close, and innamespace.
** File local variable settings of c-file-style and c-file-offsets
makes the style variables local to that buffer only.
** New indentation functions c-lineup-close-paren,
** Various Imenu patches (thanks to Masatake Yamato, Jan Dubois, and
** Performance improvements. Some improvements affect only Emacs or
only XEmacs (see the variable c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p).
** Improvements (hopefully!) to the way CC Mode is loaded. You should
now be able to do a (require 'cc-mode) to get the entire package
loaded properly for customization in your .emacs file. A new variable
c-initialize-on-load controls this and is set to t by default.
* Changes in 5.19
** extern-lang-close relative buffer positions have changed. The used
to point to the extern's open brace, but they now point to the first
non-whitespace character on the line with the open brace.
** c-progress-interval's semantics have changed slightly. When set to
nil, indentation proceeds silently. Previously, even when nil, the
start and end messages were printed.
* Changes in 5.18
** M-a and M-e should now properly move into comments when point is
before or after a comment, and move by sentences when inside a
** c-electric-slash should be bound in all modes now. Also,
c-expand-macro is not bound in Java or IDL modes.
** Imenu enhancements: Objective-C support donated by Masatake (jet)
YAMATO; a fix to Java support given by Ake Stenhoff; and improvements
to C++ support given by Jan Dubois.
* Changes in 5.17
** Recognition of enum declarations in K&R argdecls.
** Changes to "python" style to more closely match Python C API coding
** / is bound to c-electric-slash in all modes, and C-c C-e is bound
to c-expand-macro in all languages except Java and IDL.
* Changes in 5.16
This is primarily a bug fix release. Users of XEmacs 19.15 and Emacs
19.34 are highly encouraged to pick up this release.
* Changes in 5.15
** A new syntactic symbol: template-args-cont, used in C++ template
declarations where the argument list spans multiple lines.
** In "java" style, c-hanging-comment-starter-p defaults to nil to
preserve Javadoc starter lines.
** Line oriented comments (i.e. C++ style comments) are now recognized
by default in all modes, including C mode (as per the ANSI 9X C draft
standard). Thus the function c-enable-//-in-c-mode has been removed.
** Auto-filling of comments has been improved. CC Mode will now
properly auto-fill both line and block oriented comments, and allows
you to choose the leader string on block oriented continued comments,
via the variable c-comment-continuation-stars. See the CC Mode manual
** c-electric-slash is electric in all modes.
** The need for c-mode-19.el is automatically detected now. You do
not need to load or require it in your .emacs file.
* Changes in 5.14
** Support for CORBA's IDL language. There is now a new mode called
idl-mode, with all the expected hooks, abbreviation tables, etc.
** In "java" style, c-hanging-comment-starter-p is set to nil by
default to preserve Javadoc comments.
** A new hook variable: c-initialization-hook. This is called only
once an X/Emacs session, when the CC Mode package is initialized.
* Changes in version 5
CC Mode version 5 was a major upgrade, as evidenced by the change in
major revision number. Here is a list of the important user visible
changes in CC Mode 5.
** CC Mode 5 will not work with Emacs 18, and will only work with the
latest Emacs and XEmacs releases.
** c-mode-map is no longer the base keymap for all modes. This was
incompatible with the way Emacs 19 supports menus, so now
c-mode-base-map is the base map for all modes (including c-mode-map).
If you are installing custom keybindings into c-mode-map and expecting
them to be present in all other modes, this will break. Put your
keybindings in c-mode-base-map instead.
** The function c-electric-delete and variable c-delete-function are
handled differently now, in order to accommodate the separation of the
BackSpace and Delete keysyms. CC Mode now binds only the Delete
keysym to c-electric-delete (which runs c-delete-function), and the
BackSpace keysym to c-electric-backspace (which runs
c-backspace-function). See the CC Mode manual for details.
** The single cc-mode.el file was simply too unwieldy so I have split
the file up. See the MANIFEST file for details.
** Also, all user variables have been converted to Per Abrahamsen's
Custom library, and all support for older Emacsen have been ripped
out. See the release notes for details of running CC Mode 5 in your
version of Emacs.
** All style variables are now global by default. Specifically, the
default value for c-style-variables-are-local-p is nil. The same
rules apply as before, only reversed: if you want the style variables
to be buffer local, you should set c-style-variables-are-local-p to t
before you load CC Mode.
* Changes from 4.322 to 4.353
** Better control over the buffer localness of the indentation variables.
In previous version of cc-mode the variables that control indentation
were always buffer local. This was applauded by those who edited
files in many different styles, but reviled by those who usually edit
files of only one style.
You can now control whether these variables are buffer local or not,
by setting the variable c-style-variables-are-local-p. This variable
only has effect at the time cc-mode.el is loaded. If this variable is
non-nil, then all indentation style related variables will be made
buffer local. Otherwise, they will remain global, so that users can
actually use setq in their top-level .emacs file without having to use
a mode hook.
Note that once the variables are made buffer local, they cannot be
made global again; they will remain buffer local for the rest of the
current Emacs session. The list of variables that are buffer
For backwards compatibility, the default value of
c-style-variables-are-local-p is non-nil, meaning the variables are
buffer local by default. This may change in the future.
** New variable c-indentation-style which holds the current style name
of the buffer.
** Menus are not installed when running in Infodock.
** Improvements to the alignment of C block comments.
The variable c-block-comments-indent-p has been removed.
I have improved the c-lineup-C-comments function, which is responsible
for lining up subsequent lines in C block comments. It should now do
the Right Thing for most comment styles that use some combination of
stars at the beginning of comment lines (including zero stars! :-).
For example, the following styles are aligned correctly by default:
For this reason, the variable c-block-comments-indent-p has been
** New indentation style python.
The blessed standard for writing Python extension modules in C.
** New c-cleanup-list option: brace-elseif-brace
* Changes from 4.282 to 4.322
** A new style linux has been added.
**The following variables have been removed from the default cc-mode
** External language declaration blocks are now handled properly.
Three new syntactic symbols have been added:
The brace that opens an extern block. Hangable via
The brace that closes an extern block. Hangable via
A modifier (with no relative buffer position) which is added to
topmost-intro syntax lines that occur within an extern block. See the
texinfo manual for details.
** New variable: c-label-minimum-indentation which defines the minimum
indentation a label can have in gnu style. This variable has no
effect in other styles.
** c-special-indent-hook is handled slightly differently when it
appears in a style definition; the functions in the style definition
are appended to the global value of c-special-indent-hook.
** c-style-alist is defconst'd now.
This should eliminate problems people had with Java mode.
** Lambda expressions (anonymous functions) can now be used as custom
** Whitespace is allowed between the protection keyword (public,
private, protected) and the trailing colon in C++.
** Java mode now recognizes the finally and synchronized keywords.
** New lineup function: c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren.
Try setting arglist-close to this function.
** The variable c-recognize-knr-p is deprecated.
Now by default, c-mode will always recognize K&R argument declarations
with no performance penalty. cc-mode has adopted BOCM's approach
which assumes that argdecls will always be indented at least one
space, while the function headers they are associated with will not be
indented at all. If your programming style differs from this, you may
have trouble. You should remove any setting of this variable from
your cc-mode configurations!
** New variable c-insert-tab-function, normally just inserts a tab
character when indicated by c-tab-always-indent and indent-tabs-mode.
You could set this to run tab-to-tab-stop instead.
** C-s C-s (c-show-syntactic-information) now takes an optional
universal argument, which inserts the analysis into the buffer on the
current line, as a comment.
** c-mark-function has been moved to C-c C-m.
** In addition, I have made a change to the way braces which are given
inline-open syntax are handled.
In the following sample:
1: class Outer
3: void a_function( int a )
5: do_something( a );
7: class Inner
9: void b_function( int b )
11: do_something( b );
cc-mode 4.282 would have analyzed line 4 as ((inline-open . 1)), and
line 10 as ((inline-open . 87)). So the fact that this brace opened
an inclass-inline method which should be given extra indentation, was
implicit in the syntactic symbol.
Some people have argued that the inclass modifier should be added to
the analysis of such lines. This release implements this change so
that line 4 is now analyzed as ((inclass . 1) (inline-open)) and line
10 as ((inclass . 87) (inline-open)). The inline-open symbol has no
relative buffer position so that braces in nested classes would not be
indented too much.