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dictionary /

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               Emacs package for talking to a dictionary server
                                       
                                 Introduction
                                       
   In December 1998 I installed the [1]dictd server, which can be used to
   access several dictionaries using a simple protocol as defined in
   [2]RFC 2229 (Text Version).
   
   As my primary working environment is [3]XEmacs 21, I decided to write
   an Emacs-Lisp package for accessing this dictionary server. The older
   webster.el didn't worked with the newer protocol. After starting the
   implementation I was pointed to an already existing implementation,
   but this was basically a wrapper to the dict client program and didn't
   have all the features I wanted.
   
   If you didn't received this file from its original location you can
   visit it at [4]http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary.html
   
                                   Features
                                       
   The dictionary mode provides the following features:
     * looking up word definitions in all dictionaries
     * search for matching word
     * words/phrases marked with { } in the dictionary definitions are
       recognized as hyper links and browseable
     * easy selection of dictionary and search strategy
     * backward moving through the visited definitions
     * in the latest versions of GNU Emacs and XEmacs you get support for
       popup menus
     * in GNU Emacs 21 you can lookup words by simply pointing the mouse
       cursor to them (tool-tips)
       
   Here are three sample screenshot showing the dictionary mode in action
   within an Emacs 21 buffer:
   
   This buffer shows the result of searching the definition for Emacs.
   Two entries have been found. The bold text on the top are buttons for
   selecting action using the mouse or keyboard, the blue words are hyper
   links that points to the definitions of these words.
   
   This buffer shows the result of looking for matching words to
   possible. You can now select one of the found entries or ignore the
   search by pressing any mouse button outside the menu.
   
   This screenshot shows the tool-tips supported in GNU Emacs 21.
   Whenever the mouse cursor stands still for a certain time (about one
   second) the word at cursor is looked up in the configured dictionary.
   This example shows the german translation for originally, in this
   context not the right one, urspr�nglich would be better.
   
                           Download and Requirements
                                       
   I have tested the package with a native GNU Emacs 19.34.1 and XEmacs
   20.4. I implemented some hacks to work with the very very old
   custom.el file in the above GNU Emacs. Please update to the current
   version whenever possible. XEmacs 21 and Emacs 20 as well as Emacs 21
   have been tested too.
     * [5]Current version (1.5.1) of this package
     * [6]Version 1.4.1 of this package
     * [7]Version 1.3.3 of this package
     * [8]Version 1.2.1 of this package
     * [9]Version 1.1 of this package
     * [10]Initial version (1.0) of this package
       
   I you want to know more about the differences please look at the
   [11]ChangeLog.
   
   You will need the custom package to use this package. For full support
   please check if your system knows the defface function, if not please
   download the [12]current version.
   
   For best usability I suggest using the mouse, but it provide good
   keyboard support as well.
   
                             Unpacking the archive
                                       
   The package is distributed as tar.gz file. You unpack it using:
gzip -dc dictionary-1.5.1.tar.gz | tar xf -

   or
tar -xzf dictionary-1.5.1.tar.gz

   (with the version number subject to change) depending on whether you
   are using GNU tar which support the z flag for compression. After
   unpacking the archive a directory dictionary-1.5.1 has been created
   containing the necessary files.
   
                                 Installation
                                       
Debian

   If you are using a current Debian distribution (one that support the
   emacsen package system) and have the dpkg-dev installed (for running
   dpkg-buildpackage) you can use the supplied debian support.
make debian

   This will create a package named dictionary-1.5.1-1_i386.deb or
   similiar in the parent directory of dictionary-1.5.1. You can now
   install this package as root, it will automatically byte-compile
   itself for all installed emacs versions and provide a startup-file
   which autoloads this package. In the configuration example given below
   you can omit the autoload lines.
   
   If you no longer want to use this package, you can remove it using:
dpkg -r dictionary

XEmacs 21

   The XEmacs version 21 support so called xemacs packages. These
   packages are also supported, you can create them using:
make EMACS=xemacs package

   The created package will be named dictionary-1.5-pkg.tar.gz and stored
   within the current directory. If you don't want to install this
   package manually, you can use the following command, provided you have
   sufficient privileges (if unsure, login as super user):
make EMACS=xemacs package-install

   If you have more than one XEmacs versions installed make sure the
   EMACS argument to make points to the current binary.
   
Manually

  Byte compiling
  
   For faster loading and executing of the package I strongly suggest
   that you byte-compile the files. Emacs user please call make within
   the create subdirectory, XEmacs user has to specify there favorite
   tool using make EMACS=xemacs. If your custom package is not up-to-date
   expect some warnings about free variables.
   
  Installing the files
  
   To install the files into your GNU Emacs/XEmacs installation please
   copy the *.elc files into a directory being in your load-path
   variable. On most installations /usr/lib/emacs/site-lisp or
   /usr/local/lib/emacs/site-lisp are suitable locations.
   
                              Loading the package
                                       
   You have to insert some instructions into your .emacs file to load the
   dictionary package whenever needed. If you installed this dictionary
   package as Debian package or XEmacs package you don't need the
   autoloads, they are already supplied. Other users I suggest using the
   following lines:
(autoload 'dictionary-search "dictionary"
  "Ask for a word and search it in all dictionaries" t)
(autoload 'dictionary-match-words "dictionary"
  "Ask for a word and search all matching words in the dictionaries" t)
(autoload 'dictionary-lookup-definition "dictionary"
  "Unconditionally lookup the word at point." t)
(autoload 'dictionary "dictionary"
  "Create a new dictionary buffer" t)
(autoload 'dictionary-mouse-popup-matching-words "dictionary"
  "Display entries matching the word at the cursor" t)
(autoload 'dictionary-popup-matching-words "dictionary"
  "Display entries matching the word at the point" t)
(autoload 'dictionary-tooltip-mode "dictionary"
  "Display tooltips for the current word" t)
(autoload 'global-dictionary-tooltip-mode "dictionary"
  "Enable/disable dictionary-tooltip-mode for all buffers" t)

   In addition, some key bindings for faster access can be useful. I use
   the following ones in my installation:
;; key bindings
(global-set-key "\C-cs" 'dictionary-search)
(global-set-key "\C-cm" 'dictionary-match-words)

   I will describe the user-callable functions and the key bindings
   within dictionary mode later in this document.
   
                               Using the package
                                       
Glossary

   Before I start describing how you use this package, please let me
   explain some words as they are used in this text:
   
   word
          This is a word you want to lookup in the dictionaries verbatim.
          
   pattern
          This is used for looking up matching words. A pattern can be as
          simple as a single word but also as complex as a POSIX regular
          expression. The meaning of a pattern depends on the strategy
          used for matching words.
          
   dictionary
          The server can handle several distinct dictionaries. You can
          select specific dictionaries or ask the server to search in all
          dictionaries or until matches or definitions are found. To
          search in all dictionaries the special name * is used, the
          special name ! requests to search until definitions are found.
          For more details please take a look at the standards
          definition.
          
   definition
          A dictionary entry that can be the result of a word search.
          
   search
          The operation of looking up a word in the dictionaries.
          
   match
          The operation of comparing a pattern to all words in the
          dictionary.
          
   strategy
          While matching in a dictionary serveral methods for comparing
          words can be used. These methods are named strategies and
          include exact match, regular expression match, and soundex
          match. The available strategies depends on the server, but a
          special name . can be used to denote a server-default strategy.
          
Invoking

   There are five different (documented) ways of invoking the package. By
   calling dictionary you can start a new dictionary buffer waiting for
   your commands. If you want to create multiple buffers for searching
   the dictionary, you can run this function multiple times.
   dictionary-search will ask for a word a search defaulting to the word
   at point and present all definitions found.
   
   If you want to lookup the word near the point without further
   confirmation use the dictionary-lookup-definition function. The last
   one is dictionary-match-words which will ask for a pattern and display
   all matching words.
   
   You can also display a popup menu showing the definition for a certain
   word. You just place the mouse cursor above the word you want to
   lookup and press the assigned mouse button. The sample definition in
   section [13]Customizing binds this command to the right mouse button
   in GNU Emacs and to ctrl + right mouse button in XEmacs. For mouse
   invocation use dictionary-mouse-popup-matching-words, for assigning to
   a key combination use the dictionary-popup-matching-words function.
   The latter function search for the word located at point.
   
   I have tested this feature in Emacs 21 and XEmacs 21. Emacs 20 do not
   support this kind of popup menus (you will get an error message if you
   try anyway), XEmacs 20 or prior has not been tested yet.
   
   A new feature of version 1.5 is the tool-tip support. This will only
   work in GNU Emacs 21, XEmacs uses a different mechanism (called
   balloon help) which can not easily be adapted. Please note, the
   tool-tip mode may slow down your Emacs, especially if you prefer using
   the mouse.
   
   First you have to define the dictionary for looking up words to
   display in the tool-tip window. You could use * to search in all
   dictionaries, however tool-tip window should be rather small. I use an
   english to german dictionary for myself, which is called eng-deu (you
   can find out the name if you look into contents of the square brackets
   within the dictionary buffer; for example, the line From WordNet (r)
   1.6[wn]: tells you the name of this dictionary is wn).
(setq dictionary-tooltip-dictionary "eng-deu")

   Next you have to decide if you want tool-tip support in the current
   buffer only or in all buffers. For the first use the
   dictionary-tooltip-mode command, for the latter
   global-dictionary-tooltip-mode.
;; choose on of the following lines
(global-dictionary-tooltip-mode 1)
(dictionary-tooltip-mode 1)

   To turn the tool-tip support off, call these functions with a numeric
   argument of 0.
   
   If you get an error message that the server could not be contacted,
   please check the values of the variables dictionary-server and
   dictionary-port. The port should usually be 2628, the default server
   as distributed is dict.org.
   
   You can have multiple independent dictionary buffer. If the above
   functions are called from within dictionary mode they reuse the
   existing buffer. Otherwise they create a new buffer.
   
Quitting

   Once a dictionary buffer is created you can close it by simply typing
   q (dictionary-close) or pressing the [Quit] button on the top.
   Another, more cruel, way is to use the kill-buffer function which is
   handled correctly.
   
   The dictionary mode save the window configuration on startup and try
   to reestablish it when the buffer is being closed.
   
Using the buffer

   After a successful search the buffer is divided into two sections. The
   first one is the button area at the top, the other one is the text
   buffer displaying the result. By pressing the buttons you can select
   some functions that are otherwise inaccessible with the mouse.
   
   In the text are each definition is introduced by the name of the
   database that contains it. In the default configuration this text is
   in italic face. The definition itself can contains hyper links that
   are marked using blue foreground and both sensitive to clicking with
   the mouse and pressing return while being within the link.
   
   Each link selection or otherwise selected new search or match will
   create a new buffer showing the new result. You can use the [Back]
   button on the top or the l key (dictionary-previous) to return the
   previous buffer contents.
   
   Pressing Meta while clicking on a link to start the search will extent
   the search to all dictionaries (dictionary-default-dictionary to be
   more precisely).
   
   If you prefer using the keyboard it can be very frustrating to use the
   cursor key to position the point before pressing return to visit the
   link is possible. Therefore, I defined the Tab and the n keys to jump
   to the next link (dictionary-next-link) and the Shift-Tab and p keys
   to jump to the previous one (dictionary-prev-link). Please note that
   the Shift-Tab key may be the same as the Tab key when running Emacs
   within a tty (in contrast to a windowing system like X11). There is no
   way for a application to differ Shift-Tab from Tab in this case,
   please use the p key to visit the previous link if you run into this
   problem.
   
Searching

   The search operation can be invoked by using the [Search Definition]
   button on the top or by pressing s (dictionary-search). It will ask
   for a word to search and will default to the word near point. This
   allows you to edit the word before starting the search. The found
   definitions will be displayed inside the buffer. If no entries could
   not be found an error message will be displayed.
   
   If you want to quickly lookup the word at the point without further
   confirmation use the d key (dictionary-lookup-definition). Except for
   not allowing to edit the search word before asking the server it
   behaves the same way as the normal search operation.
   
Matching

   The match operation is started upon pressing the [Matching Words]
   button or pressing the m key (dictionary-match-words). It will use the
   current database and the current strategy and list matching words for
   the one you entered at the prompt. The output is grouped by dictionary
   and each found word can be looked up by clicking the word or pressing
   return. Please note that in some cases not only the requested
   definition but some similiar definitions are shown. This behaviour is
   caused by the keyword lookup in the server. E.g., when you ask for the
   definition of from in Webster you will presented with the definitions
   of from and Thrust, the latter includes the phrase To thrust away or
   from which causes the display.
   
Selecting dictionary

   By default all dictionaries (special name is "*") are searched for a
   word definition or for matching words. You can select a specific word
   for both modi by pressing the [Select Default Dictionary] button or
   the D key (dictionary-select-dictionary). You will get a message about
   successful selection.
   
   If you hold Meta while selecting a dictionary you will get more
   information displayed instead.
   
   If you want to restore the original behaviour select All dictionaries.
   The first matching dictionary is a special dictionary (named "!")
   where the search will stop at the first dictionary with found
   definitions or matching words.
   
Selection search strategy

   While searching matching words to the pattern you entered the server
   can use different comparison algorithm (aka search strategy). Every
   server provides a default strategy which is internally known as ".".
   
   After pressing the [Select Match Strategy] button or pressing the M
   key (dictionary-select-strategy) all available strategies on this
   server are presented. As in the "select dictionary" mode you can
   select it by pressing the mouse button 2 or typing return.
   
Going backward

   If you visited a link and want to go back to the previous definition,
   simply choose the [Back] button or press the l key
   (dictionary-previous). The buffer contents and cursor position will be
   restored. If you intented to go beyond the first definition an error
   message will appear.
   
Getting Help

   If you are totally confused what all the keys do in your dictionary
   buffer some help will displayed by pressing the h key. Within XEmacs
   you can exit the help screen by pressing q, in GNU Emacs you have to
   switch to the help window using C-x o (other-window) first. This help
   buffer will display the default key bindings only as I had problems
   with displaying multiple bindings for a single function (e.g., both
   button2 and return select a link). Any suggestions are welcome.
   
                                  Customizing
                                       
   If you have an sufficient recent custom version installed (e.g., the
   one provided in XEmacs 20.4) you can use the customize-group with the
   dictionary group to customize this package. For using the customize
   buffer please refer to its online help.
   
   Of course you can set all the variables and hooks you want in the
   startup file. Here is a little example that I use for selecting the
   server on my local machine and for binding some function to the
   user-reserved keys starting from C-c a to C-c z. It also shows how to
   invoke popup menus (using the right button in GNU Emacs or ctrl+right
   button in XEmacs) and installs the global tooltip-mode.
(global-set-key "\C-cs" 'dictionary-search)
(global-set-key "\C-cm" 'dictionary-match-words)
(setq dictionary-server "localhost")

;; Popup menu for GNU Emacs 21, and XEmacs 21
(if (boundp 'running-xemacs)
    (global-set-key [(control button3)] 'dictionary-mouse-popup-matching-words)
   (global-set-key [mouse-3] 'dictionary-mouse-popup-matching-words))

;; Tool-tip support for GNU Emacs 21
(setq dictionary-tooltip-dictionary "eng-deu")
(global-dictionary-tooltip-mode 1)

                                    Thanks
                                       
   I want to thank Sam Steingold, Baoqiu Cui, Bruce Ravel, Pavel Jan�k,
   Sergei Pokrovsky, Jeff Mincy, Serge Boiko, Enrico Scholz, Reuben
   Thomas, and Rui Zhu for their valuable suggestions (including patches)
   for improving this package.
   
                                    License
                                       
   This file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
   Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any
   later version.
   
   This file is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
   General Public License for more details.
   
   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
   version 2 along with this package; see the file GPL.
   
                                  ChangeLogs
                                       
Version 1.5 - 1.5.1

     * fixed bug with non-working dictionary-previous (found by Rui Zhu)
     * fixed key bindings in link.el
       
Version 1.4.1 - 1.5

     * tool-tip support for GNU Emacs 21
       
Version 1.4 - 1.4.1

     * changed recognition of utf-8 support (suggested by Enrico Scholz)
       
Version 1.3.3 - 1.4

     * added popup menu for easier lookup of words
       
Version 1.3.2 - 1.3.3

     * added support for XEmacs 21 packages to ease installation for
       those users (suggested and reviewed by Enrico Scholz)
       
Version 1.3.1 - 1.3.2

     * replaced set-text-properties by remove-text-properties and
       add-text-properties because this function is not recommended
       within XEmacs (reported by Serge Boiko)
       
Version 1.3 - 1.3.1

     * small fix in dictionary function to check for availability of the
       utf-8 encoding to prevent problems in certain xemacs versions
       (reported by Jeff Mincy)
     * added debian support (use dpkg-buildpackage to build a package)
       
Version 1.2.1 - 1.3

     * Implemented an automatic detection for line ends CR/LF and LF. The
       variable connection-broken-end-of-line is no longer necessary and
       its value ignored.
     * Added utf-8 support, the native character set of the dictionary
       protocol. Using ISO-8859-1 (aka latin-1) was just a necessary
       work-around.
       
Version 1.2 - 1.2.1

     * Corrected dictionary command to draw the button bar.
     * Improved documentation on dictionary to explicitly mention the use
       of multiple buffers.
       
Version 1.1.1 - 1.2

     * Some users reported problems with GNU Emacs 20.3 and MULE. So I
       introduced a new variable connection-broken-end-of-line which
       controls whether a line is ended by \n or by \r\n. You can use the
       customize-group command on dictionary to change the setting of the
       variable.
       
Version 1.1 - 1.1.1

     * dictionary-search now allows editing the word to search for
     * dictionary-search-word-near-point has been removed, you can use
       dictionary-lookup-definition instead. It behaves like
       dictionary-search but don't allow the search word to be edited (to
       speed up looking up words).
       
Version 1.0 - 1.1

     * all dictionary buffers now share a single connection
     * added kill-all-local-variables
     * use cons instead of list where possible
     * dictionary-search now:
          + use word as point as default (implementing
            dictionary-search-word-near-point too)
          + asks for dictionary with prefix argument
     * added help-echo tags which are used in XEmacs
     * mark has been replaced by generic marker
     * added messages for communications to the dictionary server that
       may take a while
     * fixed bug with going to the previous link
     * replaced word-at-point by current-word
     _________________________________________________________________
   
   
    [14]Torsten Hilbrich
    
   Last modified: Tue Jul 17 21:22:58 CEST 2001

References

   Visible links
   1. http://www.dict.org/
   2. http://www.dict.org/rfc2229.txt
   3. http://www.xemacs.org/
   4. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary.html
   5. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.5.1.tar.gz
   6. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.4.1.tar.gz
   7. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.3.3.tar.gz
   8. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.2.1.tar.gz
   9. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.1.tar.gz
  10. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.0.tar.gz
  11. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary.html#changelog
  12. http://www.dina.kvl.dk/~abraham/custom/
  13. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary.html#Customizing
  14. mailto:dictionary@myrkr.in-berlin.de

   Hidden links:
  15. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-1.png
  16. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-2.png
  17. http://www.myrkr.in-berlin.de/dictionary-3.png
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