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jjames-guest  committed c98a13d

Move term.texi here from core. See xemacs-beta message with ID
<870180fe1002121250w102b2e64te027b6ad36c251d3@mail.gmail.com> and also
<870180fe1002161047r2de8ce19kbd37b4dcd151581f@mail.gmail.com> in xemacs-patches.

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File ChangeLog

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+2010-02-16  Jerry James  <james@xemacs.org>
+	* .cvsignore: Restore contents, add term.info.
+	* Makefile (EXPLICIT_DOCS): Add term.texi.
+	* term.texi: Moved here from core.
 2005-06-27  Norbert Koch  <viteno@xemacs.org>
 	* Makefile (VERSION): XEmacs package 1.17 released.

File Makefile

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+EXPLICIT_DOCS = term.texi
 include ../../XEmacs.rules

File term.texi

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+@\input texinfo @c -*-texinfo-*-
+@setfilename ../info/term.info
+@settitle XEmacs Terminal Emulator Mode
+@sp 6
+@center @titlefont(XEmacs Terminal Emulator Mode)
+@end titlepage
+@dircategory XEmacs Editor
+* Term mode: (term).		XEmacs Terminal Emulator Mode.
+@end direntry
+@node Top, , (DIR)
+@top Terminal emulator mode
+@end ifinfo
+This is some notes about the term Emacs mode.
+* term mode::
+@end menu
+@node term mode
+@chapter XEmacs Terminal Emulator Mode
+* Overview::
+* Connecting to remote computers::
+* Paging::
+* Terminal escapes::
+@end menu
+The @code{term} package includes the major modes @code{term},
+@code{shell}, and @code{gud} (for running gdb or another debugger).
+It is a replacement for the comint mode of Emacs 19,
+as well as shell, gdb, terminal, and telnet modes.
+The package works best with recent releases of Emacs 19,
+but will also work reasonably well with Emacs 18 as well as Lucid Emacs 19.
+The file @code{nshell.el} is a wrapper to use unless term mode
+is built into Emacs.  If works around some of the missing
+in older Emacs versions.
+To use it, edit the paths in @code{nshell.el}, appropriately,
+and then @code{M-x load-file nshell.el RET}.
+This will also load in replacement shell and gud modes.
+@node Overview
+@section Overview
+The @code{term} mode is used to control a program (an "inferior process").
+It sends most keyboard input characters to the program,
+and displays output from the program in the buffer.
+This is similar to the traditional comint mode, and
+modes derived from it (such as shell and gdb modes).
+You can do with the new term-based shell the same sort
+of things you could do with the old shell mode,
+using more or less the same interface.  However, the
+new mode is more flexible, and works somewhat differently.
+* Output from the inferior::
+* subbuffer:: The sub-buffer
+* altsubbuffer:: The alternate sub-buffer
+* Input to the inferior::
+@end menu
+@node Output from the inferior
+@subsection Output from the inferior
+In typical usage, output from the inferior is
+added to the end of the buffer.  If needed, the window
+will be scrolled, just like a regular terminal.
+(Only one line at a time will be scrolled, just like
+regular terminals, and in contrast to the old shell mode.)
+Thus the buffer becomes a log of your interaction with the
+inferior, just like the old shell mode.
+Like a real terminal, term maintains a "cursor position."
+This is the @code{process-mark} of the inferior process.
+If the process-mark is not at the end of the buffer, output from
+the inferior will overwrite existing text in the buffer.
+This is like a real terminal, but unlike the old shell mode
+(which inserts the output, instead of overwriting).
+Some programs (such as Emacs itself) need to control the
+appearance on the screen in detail.  They do this by
+sending special control codes.  The exact control
+codes needed from terminal to terminal, but nowadays
+most terminals and terminal emulators (including xterm)
+understand the so-called "ANSI escape sequences" (first
+popularized by the Digital's VT100 family of terminal).
+The term mode also understands these escape sequences,
+and for each control code does the appropriate thing
+to change the buffer so that the appearance of the window
+will match what it would be on a real terminal.
+(In contrast, the old shell mode doesn't handle
+terminal control codes at all.)
+See <...> for the specific control codes.
+@node subbuffer
+@subsection The sub-buffer
+A program that talks to terminal expects the terminal to have a fixed size. 
+If the program is talking a terminal emulator program such as @code{xterm},
+that size can be changed (if the xterm window is re-sized), but programs
+still assume a logical terminal that has a fixed size independent
+of the amount of output transmitted by the programs.
+To programs that use it, the Emacs terminal emulator acts as if it
+too has a fixed size.  The @dfn{sub-buffer} is the part of a @code{term}-mode
+buffer that corresponds to a "normal" terminal.  Most of the time
+(unless you explicitly scroll the window displaying the buffer),
+the sub-buffer is the part of the buffer that is displayed in a window.
+The sub-buffer is defined in terms of three buffer-local-variable:
+@defvar term-height
+The height of the sub-buffer, in screen lines.
+@end defvar
+@defvar term-width
+The width of the sub-buffer, in screen columns.
+@end defvar
+@defvar term-home-marker
+The "home" position, that is the top left corner of the sub-buffer.
+@end defvar
+The sub-buffer is assumed to be the end part of the buffer;
+the @code{term-home-marker} should never be more than
+@code{term-height} screen lines from the end of the buffer.
+@node altsubbuffer
+@subsection The alternate sub-buffer
+When a "graphical" program finishes, it is nice to
+restore the screen state to what it was before the program started.
+Many people are used to this behavior from @code{xterm}, and
+its also offered by the @code{term} emulator.
+@defun term-switch-to-alternate-sub-buffer set
+If @var{set} is true, and we're not already using the alternate sub-buffer,
+switch to it.  What this means is that the @code{term-home-marker}
+is saved (in the variable @code{term-saved-home-marker}), and the
+@code{term-home-marker} is set to the end of the buffer.
+If @var{set} is false and we're using the alternate sub-buffer,
+switch back to the saved sub-buffer.  What this means is that the
+(current, alternate) sub-buffer is deleted (using
+@code{(delete-region term-home-marker (point-max))}), and then the
+@code{term-home-marker} is restored (from @code{term-saved-home-marker}).
+@end defun
+@node Input to the inferior
+@subsection Input to the inferior
+Characters typed by the user are sent to the inferior.
+How this is done depends on whether the @code{term} buffer
+is in "character" mode or "line" mode.
+(A @code{term} buffer can also be in "pager" mode.
+This is discussed <later>.)
+Which of these is currently active is specified in the mode line.
+The difference between them is the key-bindings available.
+In character mode, one character (by default @key{C-c}) is special,
+and is a prefix for various commands.  All other characters are
+sent directly to the inferior process, with no interpretation by Emacs.
+Character mode looks and feels like a real terminal, or a conventional
+terminal emulator such as xterm.
+In line mode, key commands mostly have standard Emacs actions.
+Regulars characters insert themselves into the buffer.
+When return is typed, the entire current line of the buffer
+(except possibly the prompt) is sent to the inferior process.
+Line mode is basically the original shell mode from earlier Emacs versions.
+To switch from line mode to character mode type @kbd{C-c C-k}.
+To switch from character mode to line mode type @kbd{C-c C-j}.
+In either mode, "echoing" of user input is handled by the inferior.
+Therefor, in line mode after an input line at the end of the buffer
+is sent to the inferior, it is deleted from the buffer.
+This is so that the inferior can echo the input, if it wishes
+(which it normally does).
+@node Connecting to remote computers
+@section Connecting to remote computers
+If you want to login to a remove computer, you can do that just as
+you would expect, using whatever commands you would normally use.
+(This is worth emphasizing, because earlier versions of @code{shell}
+mode would not work properly if you tried to log in to some other
+computer, because of the way echoing was handled.  That is why
+there was a separate @code{telnet} mode to partially compensate for
+these problems.  The @code{telnet} mode is no longer needed, and
+is basically obsolete.)
+A program that asks you for a password will normally suppress
+echoing of the password, so the password will not show up in the buffer.
+This will happen just as if you were using a real terminal, if
+the buffer is in char mode.  If it is in line mode, the password
+will be temporarily visible, but will be erased when you hit return.
+(This happens automatically; there is no special password processing.)
+When you log in to a different machine, you need to specify the
+type of terminal your using.   If you are talking to a Bourne-compatible
+shell, and your system understands the @code{TERMCAP} variable,
+you can use the command @kbd{M-x shell-send-termcap}, which
+sends a string specifying the terminal type and size.
+(This command is also useful after the window has changed size.)
+If you need to specify the terminal type manually, you can try the
+terminal types "ansi" or "vt100".
+You can of course run gdb on that remote computer.  One useful
+trick:  If you invoke gdb with the @code{--fullname} option,
+it will send special commands to Emacs that will cause Emacs to
+pop up the source files you're debugging.  This will work
+whether or not gdb is running on a different computer than Emacs,
+assuming can access the source files specified by gdb.
+@node Paging
+@section Paging
+When the pager is enabled, Emacs will "pause" after each screenful
+of output (since the last input sent to the inferior).
+It will enter "pager" mode, which feels a lot like the "more"
+program:  Typing a space requests another screenful of output.
+Other commands request more or less output, or scroll backwards
+in the @code{term} buffer.  In pager mode, type @kbd{h} or @kbd{?}
+to display a help message listing all the available pager mode commands.
+In either character or line mode, type @kbd{C-c p} to enable paging,
+and @kbd{C-c D} to disable it.
+@node Terminal escapes
+@section Terminal Escape sequences
+A program that does "graphics" on a terminal controls the
+terminal by sending strings called @dfn{terminal escape sequences}
+that the terminal (or terminal emulator) interprets as special commands.
+The @code{term} mode includes a terminal emulator that understands
+standard ANSI escape sequences, originally popularized by VT100 terminals,
+and now used by the @code{xterm} program and most modern terminal
+emulator software.
+* Cursor motion:: Escape sequences to move the cursor
+* Erasing:: Escape commands for erasing text
+* Inserting and deleting:: Escape sequences to insert and delete text
+* Scrolling:: Escape sequences to scroll part of the visible window
+* Command hook::
+* Miscellaneous escapes::
+@end menu
+printing chars
+@node Cursor motion
+@subsection Escape sequences to move the cursor
+@table @kbd
+@item RETURN
+Moves to the beginning of the current screen line.
+@item C-b
+Moves backwards one column.  (Tabs are broken up if needed.)
+@comment Line wrap FIXME
+@item Esc [ R ; C H
+Move to screen row R, screen column C, where (R=1) is the top row,
+and (C=1) is the leftmost column.  Defaults are R=1 and C=1.
+@item Esc [ N A
+Move N (default 1) screen lines up.
+@item Esc [ N B
+Move N (default 1) screen lines down.
+@item Esc [ N C
+Move N (default 1) columns right.
+@item Esc [ N D
+Move N (default 1) columns left.
+@end table
+@node Erasing
+@subsection Escape commands for erasing text
+These commands "erase" part of the sub-buffer.
+Erasing means replacing by white space; it is not the same as deleting.
+The relative screen positions of things that are not erased remain
+unchanged with each other, as does the relative cursor position.
+@table @kbd
+@item E [ J
+Erase from cursor to end of screen.
+@item E [ 0 J
+Same as E [ J.
+@item E [ 1 J
+Erase from home position to point.
+@item E [ 2 J
+Erase whole sub-buffer.
+@item E [ K
+Erase from point to end of screen line.
+@item E [ 0 K
+Same as E [ K.
+@item E [ 1 K
+Erase from beginning of screen line to point.
+@item E [ 2 K
+Erase whole screen line.
+@end table
+@node Inserting and deleting
+@subsection Escape sequences to insert and delete text
+@table @kbd
+@item Esc [ N L
+Insert N (default 1) blank lines.
+@item Esc [ N M
+Delete N (default 1) lines.
+@item Esc [ N P
+Delete N (default 1) characters.
+@item Esc [ N @@
+Insert N (default 1) spaces.
+@end table
+@node Scrolling
+@subsection Escape sequences to scroll part of the visible window
+@table @kbd
+@item Esc D
+Scroll forward one screen line.
+@item Esc M
+Scroll backwards one screen line.
+@item Esc [ T ; B r
+Set the scrolling region to be from lines T down to line B inclusive,
+where line 1 is the topmost line.
+@end table
+@node Command hook
+@subsection Command hook
+If @kbd{C-z} is seen, any text up to a following @key{LF} is scanned.
+The text in between (not counting the initial C-z or the final LF)
+is passed to the function that is the value of @code{term-command-hook}.
+The default value of the @code{term-command-hook} variable
+is the function @code{term-command-hook}, which handles the following:
+@table @kbd
+Set term-pending-frame to @code{(cons "FILENAME" LINENUMBER)}.
+When the buffer is displayed in the current window, show
+the FILENAME in the other window, and show an arrow at LINENUMBER.
+Gdb emits these strings when invoked with the flag --fullname.
+This is used by gdb mode; you can also invoke gdb with this flag
+from shell mode.
+@item C-z / DIRNAME LF
+Set the directory of the term buffer to DIRNAME
+@item C-z ! LEXPR LF
+Read and evaluate LEXPR as a Lisp expression.
+The result is ignored.
+@end table
+@node Miscellaneous escapes
+@subsection Miscellaneous escapes
+@table @kbd
+@item C-g (Bell)
+Calls @code{(beep t)}.
+@item Esc 7
+Save cursor.
+@item Esc 8
+Restore cursor.
+@item Esc [ 47 h
+Switch to the alternate sub-buffer,
+@item Esc [ 47 l
+Switch back to the regular sub-buffer,
+@end table