eudc / eudc.texi

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\input texinfo.tex
@c %**start of header
@setfilename eudc.info
@settitle Emacs Unified Directory Client (EUDC) Manual
@iftex
@afourpaper
@end iftex
@c %**end of header

@footnotestyle end

@ifinfo
@direntry
*eudc::   A client for directory servers (LDAP, PH)
@end direntry

This file documents EUDC v1.02

EUDC is part of XEmacs.

EUDC is the Emacs Unified Directory Client, a common interface
interface to directory servers using various protocols such as LDAP or
the CCSO white pages directory system (PH/QI)

Copyright @copyright{} 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
     
@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through TeX
and print the results, provided the printed document
carries a copying permission notice identical to this
one except for the removal of this paragraph (this
paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).
@end ignore

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
versions of this manual under the conditions for
verbatim copying and the terms of the ``GNU General
Public License'', and provided that the entire
resulting derived work is distributed under the terms
of a permission notice identical to this one.
     
Permission is granted to copy and distribute
translations of this manual into another language,
under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end ifinfo

@titlepage
@title{EUDC Manual}
@subtitle{The Emacs Unified Directory Client}
@author by Oscar Figueiredo
@code{1.0}

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1fill
     Copyright @copyright{} 1998 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
     copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
     this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
     
     @ignore
     Permission is granted to process this file through TeX
     and print the results, provided the printed document
     carries a copying permission notice identical to this
     one except for the removal of this paragraph (this
     paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).
     
     @end ignore

     Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
     versions of this manual under the conditions for
     verbatim copying and the terms of the ``GNU General 
     Public License'', and provided that the entire
     resulting derived work is distributed under the terms
     of a permission notice identical to this one.
     
     Permission is granted to copy and distribute
     translations of this manual into another language,
     under the above conditions for modified versions,
     except that this permission notice may be stated in a
     translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end titlepage

@ifinfo
@node     Top, Overview, (dir), (dir)
@comment  node-name,  next,         previous, up


This manual documents EUDC v1.02, the Emacs Unified Directory Client
A common interface interface to directory servers using various
protocols such as LDAP or the CCSO white pages directory system (PH/QI)

@end ifinfo

@menu
* Overview::                    Summary of eudc features
* Installation::                How to install eudc
* Usage::                       The various usage possibilities explained
* Credits::                     Who's done what
* Variables Index::             
@end menu





@node     Overview, Installation, Top, Top
@comment  node-name,   next,  previous,  up
@chapter Overview

EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user
interface to access directory servers using different directory
protocols. 

Currently supported protocols are:
@itemize @bullet
@item
LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
@item
CCSO PH/QI
@end itemize

EUDC provides a client interface to directory servers running one 
of these protocols.  Its main features are:

@itemize @bullet
@item 
Queries using a customizable form
@item
Inline query expansion (for instance you can expand a name
to an e-mail address in a mail message buffer using a server as an
address book)
@item
Fast minibuffer queries for e-mail addresses and phone numbers
@item
Interface to BBDB to let you insert server records into your own BBDB database
(@pxref{Top,,BBDB,bbdb,BBDB Manual})
@end itemize

@menu
* LDAP::                        What is LDAP ?
* CCSO PH/QI::                  What is CCSO, PH, QI ?
@end menu



@node LDAP, CCSO PH/QI, Overview, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section LDAP

LDAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, is a communication
protocol for directory applications defined in RFC 1777.

Quoted from RFC 1777:

   [LDAP] is designed to provide access to the X.500 Directory while not
   incurring the resource requirements of the Directory Access Protocol
   (DAP). This protocol is specifically targeted at simple management
   applications and browser applications that provide simple read/write
   interactive access to the X.500 Directory, and is intended to be a
   complement to the DAP itself.

LDAP servers usually store (but are not limited to) information about
people such as their name, phone number, e-mail address, office
location, etc@enddots{} More information about LDAP can be found at
@url{http://www.umich.edu/~dirsvcs/ldap/}

EUDC requires external support to access LDAP directory servers
(@pxref{LDAP Requirements})


@node CCSO PH/QI,  , LDAP, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section CCSO PH/QI

The Central Computing Services Office (CCSO) of the University of
Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC) created and freely distributes a
directory system that is currently in use in more than 300 organizations
around the world. The system records information about people such as
their address, phone number, e-mail, academic information or any other
details it was configured to.

The system consists of two parts: a database server traditionally called
@code{qi} and a command-line client called
EUDC. @url{ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/packages/ph} is the
main distribution site.
@url{http://www.uiuc.edu/cgi-bin/ph/lookup?Query=.} provides a listing
of the QI servers in activity.

The original command-line @code{ph} client that comes with the
@code{ph/qi} distribution provides additional features like the
possibility to communicate with the server in login mode which makes it
possible to change records in the database. This is not implemented in
EUDC.





@node Installation, Usage, Overview, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Installation

EUDC is distributed as an XEmacs package.  Follow the rules for
the installation of XEmacs packages.

After installing EUDC as a package you will find (the next time
you launch XEmacs) a new @code{Directory} submenu in the @code{Tools}
menu that will let you access EUDC.

You may find useful to add the following to your individual
initialization file to add a shortcut for e-mail address expansion in
e-mail composition buffers (@pxref{Inline Query Expansion})

@lisp
(eval-after-load 
 "message"
 '(define-key message-mode-map [(control ?c) (tab)] 'eudc-expand-inline))
(eval-after-load 
 "mail"
 '(define-key mail-mode-map [(control ?c) (tab)] 'eudc-expand-inline))
@end lisp

@menu
* LDAP Requirements::           EUDC needs external support for LDAP
@end menu

@node LDAP Requirements,  , Installation, Installation
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section LDAP Requirements

EUDC requires LDAP support to be compiled in XEmacs to access
LDAP servers.  If LDAP support has not been compiled in your XEmacs
executable you will get that error message: @samp{Cannot open load file:
ldap-internal} 

LDAP support is automatically compiled in when you build XEmacs provided
appropriate LDAP libraries are installed on your system.  As of this
writing you can use either:

@itemize @bullet
@item
University of Michingan's LDAP Client software
(@url{http://www.umich.edu/~dirsvcs/ldap/})
@item
Netscape's LDAP SDK (@url{http://developer.netscape.com/one/directory/})
@end itemize







@node Usage, Credits, Installation, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Usage

This chapter describes the usage of EUDC. Most functions and
customization options are available through the @code{Directory}
sub-menu of the @code{Tools} sub-menu.

@menu
* Querying Servers::            How queries are performed and handled 
* Query Form::                  How to use and customize the query form
* Inline Query Expansion::      How to use and customize inline queries
* The Server Hotlist::          How to use and manage the server hotlist
* Creating BBDB Records::       How to insert query results into your BBDB
* Protocol Locals::             Protocol specific customizations
@end menu


@node Querying Servers, Query Form, Usage, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Querying Servers

EUDC's basic functionality is to let you query a directory server
and return the results back to you. There are several things you may
want to customize in this process.


@menu
* Selecting a Server::          The first thing to do
* Return Attributes::           Configuring what the server should return
* Duplicate Attributes::        What to do when records have duplicate attributes
@end menu

@node Selecting a Server, Return Attributes, Querying Servers, Querying Servers
@subsection Selecting a Server

Before doing any query you will need to set the directory server.  You
need to specify the name of the host machine running the server software
and the protocol to use. If you do not set the server in any fashion,
EUDC will ask you for one when you make your first query.

You can set the server by selecting one from your hotlist of servers
(@pxref{The Server Hotlist}) available in the @samp{Server} submenu or
by selecting @samp{New Server} in that same menu.

@defvar eudc-server
The name or IP address of the directory server. A TCP port number may be
specified by appending a colon and a number to the name of the
server. You will not need this unless your server runs on a port other
than the default (which depends on the protocol).
@end defvar

@defvar eudc-protocol
The directory protocol to use to query the server.  Currently supported
protocols in this version of EUDC are @samp{ph} and @samp{ldap}.
@end defvar

@deffn Command eudc-set-server
This command accessible from @samp{Server} submenu lets you specify a
new directory server and protocol.
@end deffn

@node Return Attributes, Duplicate Attributes, Selecting a Server, Querying Servers
@subsection Return Attributes

Directory servers may be configured to return a default set of attributes for
each record matching a query if the query specifies none. The variable
@code{eudc-default-return-attributes} controls the return attributes you want to 
see, if different from the server defaults.

@defvar eudc-default-return-attributes
A list of the default attributes to extract from directory entries.  If
set to the symbol @code{all} then all available attributes are returned. @code{nil}
returns the default attributes as configured in the server. Default is
@code{nil}
@end defvar

The server may return several matching records to a query. Some of the
records may however not contain all the attributes you requested. You can
chose to discard those records.

@defopt eudc-strict-return-matches
If non-@code{nil}, entries that do not contain all the requested return
attributes are ignored.  Default is @code{t}.
@end defopt

@node Duplicate Attributes,  , Return Attributes, Querying Servers
@subsection Duplicate Attributes

Directory standards may authorize different instances of the same
attribute in a record. For instance the record of a person may contain
several e-mail fields containing different e-mail addresses. When using
a QI directory server this is difficult to distinguish from attributes
having multi-line values such as the postal address that may contain a
line for the street and another one for the zip code and city name. In
both cases, EUDC will considers the attribute be duplicated.

EUDC has several methods to deal with duplicated attributes. The
available methods are:

@table @code
@item list
Makes a list with the different values of the duplicate attribute. The
record is returned with only one instance of the attribute with a list
of all the different values as a value. This is the default method that
is used to handle duplicate fields for which no other method has been
specified.
@item first
Discards all the duplicate values of the field keeping only the first
one.
@item concat
Concatenates the different values using @code{\n} as a separator. The
record keeps only one instance of the field the value of which is a
single multi-line string.
@item duplicate
Duplicates the whole record into as many instances as there are different
values for the field. This is the default for the e-mail field. Thus a
record containing 3 different e-mail addresses is duplicated into three
different records each having a single e-mail address. This is
particularly useful in combination with @code{select} as the method to
handle multiple matches in inline expansion queries (@pxref{Inline Query
Expansion}) because you are presented with the 3 addresses in a
selection buffer
@end table

Because a method may not be applicable to all fields, the variable
@code{eudc-duplicate-attribute-handling-method} lets you specify either a
default method for all fields or a method for each individual field.

@defvar eudc-duplicate-attribute-handling-method
A method to handle entries containing duplicate attributes.  This is
either an alist (@var{attr} . @var{method}) or a symbol @var{method}.
The alist form of the variable associates a method to an individual
attribute name, the second form specifies a method applicable to all
attribute names. Available methods are: @code{list}, @code{first}, @code{concat},
@code{duplicate} (see above).  Defaults to @code{list}.
@end defvar



@node Query Form, Inline Query Expansion, Querying Servers, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Query Form

The simplest way to query your directory server is to use the query
form. You display the query form with the @code{Query with Form} menu
item or by invoking the command @kbd{eudc-query-form}. The attribute
names presented in this form are defined by the
@code{eudc-query-form-attributes} variable (unless a non-@code{nil}
argument is supplied to @code{eudc-query-form}).

Since the different directory protocols to which eudc interfaces may
have different names for equivalent attributes, EUDC defines its
own set of attribute names and a mapping between these names and
their protocol-specific equivalent through the variable
@code{eudc-protocol-attributes-translation-alist}.  Names currently
defined by EUDC are @samp{name}, @samp{email} and @samp{phone}. 

@defvar eudc-query-form-attributes
A list of attributes presented in the query form.  Attribut names in
this list should be either EUDC attribute names or valid attribute
names.  You can get a list of valid attribute names for the current
protocol with the @code{List Valid Attribute Names} menu item or the
@kbd{eudc-get-attribute-list} command. Defaults to @code{name},
@code{email} and @code{phone}.
@end defvar

@deffn Command eudc-query-form get-fields-from-server
Display a form to query the CCSO PH/QI Nameserver.
If given a non-nil argument the function first queries the  server 
for the existing fields and displays a corresponding form.
@end deffn

Since the names of the fields may not be explicit enough or adapted to
be directly displayed as prompt strings in the form, the variable
@code{eudc-user-attribute-names-alist} lets you define more explicit
names for directory attribute names.  This variable is ignored if
@code{eudc-use-raw-directory-names} is non-@code{nil}.

@defvar eudc-user-attribute-names-alist
This is an alist user-defined names for directory attributes used in
query/response forms. Prompt strings for attributes that are not in this
alist are derived by splitting the attribute name at underscores and
capitalizing the individual words.
@end defvar

@defvar eudc-use-raw-directory-names
If non-@code{nil}, use attributes names as defined in the directory.
Otherwise, directory query/response forms display the user attribute
names defined in @code{eudc-user-attribute-names-alist}.
@end defvar

Upon successful completion the command will display a buffer containing
the results of the query. The fields that are returned for each record
are controlled by @code{eudc-default-return-attributes} (@pxref{Return
Attributes}) 

@node Inline Query Expansion, The Server Hotlist, Query Form, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Inline Query Expansion

Inline query expansion is a powerful method to get completion from your
directory server. The most common usage is for expanding names to e-mail
addresses in mail message buffers. The expansion is performed by the
command @code{eudc-expand-inline} which is available from the
@samp{Directory} menu but can also be conveniently bound to a key
shortcut (@pxref{Installation})  The operation is controlled by the
variables @code{eudc-inline-expansion-format},
@code{eudc-inline-query-format-list},
@code{eudc-expanding-overwrites-query} and
@code{eudc-multiple-match-handling-method}

@deffn Command eudc-expand-inline replace-p
Query the server and expand the query string before point.  The query
string consists of the buffer substring from the point back to the
preceding comma, colon or beginning of
line. @code{eudc-inline-query-format-list} controls how individual words
are mapped onto directory attribute names.  After querying the server
for the given string, the expansion specified by
@code{eudc-inline-expansion-format} is inserted in the buffer at
point. If @var{replace-p} is @code{t} then this expansion replaces the
query string in the buffer.  If @code{eudc-expanding-overwrites-query}
is non-@code{nil} then the meaning of @var{replace-p} is negated.
@end deffn

@defvar eudc-inline-query-format-list
Format of an inline expansion query.  This list specifies how individual
words in the inline query string are associated to directory attribute
names.  If @code{nil} all the words will be mapped onto the server
default attribute name (generally @code{name}). Default is @code{nil}.
@end defvar

@defvar eudc-inline-expansion-format
This variable lets you control what is exactly inserted into the buffer
upon an inline expansion request. It is a list whose first element is a
string passed to @code{format}. Remaining elements are symbols
corresponding directory attribute names, corresponding attribute values
are passed as additional arguments to format. Default is @code{("%s"
email)} but you may want to consider a value like @code{("%s <%s>" name
email)}
@end defvar

@defvar eudc-multiple-match-handling-method
This variable controls what to do when multiple entries match a query
for an inline expansion.  Possible values are:
@table @code
@item first
The first match is considered as being the only one, the others are
discarded.
@item select
A selection buffer pops-up where you can choose a particular match. This 
is the default value of the variable.
@item all
The expansion uses all records successively
@item abort
An error is signaled. The expansion aborts.
@end table


Defaults to @code{select}
@end defvar



@node The Server Hotlist, Creating BBDB Records, Inline Query Expansion, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The Server Hotlist

EUDC lets you maintain a list of frequently used servers so that you 
can easily switch from one to another. This hotlist appears in the
@code{Server} sub-menu. You select a server in this list by clicking on
its name. You can add the current server to the list with the command
@code{eudc-bookmark-current-server}. The list is contained in the variable
@code{eudc-server-hotlist} which is stored in and retrieved from the file
designated by @code{eudc-options-file}.

@deffn Command eudc-bookmark-server server
Add @var{server} to the hotlist of servers
@end deffn

@deffn Command eudc-bookmark-current-server
Add the current server to the hotlist of servers
@end deffn

@defvar eudc-options-file
The name of a file where EUDC stores its internal variables
(currently only the hotlist is stored there). EUDC will try to load 
that file upon initialization so, if you choose a file name
different from the defaults @file{~/.eudc-options}, be sure to set this
variable to the appropriate value @emph{before} EUDC is itself
loaded.
@end defvar

There is currently no way to remove a server from the list other than
editing directly the @code{eudc-options-file}.


@node Creating BBDB Records, Protocol Locals, The Server Hotlist, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Creating BBDB Records

With EUDC, you can automatically create BBDB records
(@pxref{Top,,BBDB,bbdb,BBDB Manual}) from records you get from a
directory server. You do this by moving the point to the appropriate
record in a query result display buffer and invoking the command
@code{eudc-insert-record-at-point-into-bbdb} with the corresponding
keyboard binding, @kbd{b} @footnote{This keybinding does not actually
call @code{eudc-insert-record-at-point-into-bbdb} but uses
@code{eudc-try-bbdb-insert} instead.} or with the menu. EUDC
cannot update an existing BBDB record and will signal an error if you
try to insert a record matching an existing one.

Because directory systems may not enforce a strict record format, local
server installations may use different attribute names and have
different ways to organize the information. Furthermore BBDB has its own
record structure. For these reasons converting a record from its
external directory format to the BBDB format is a highly customizable
process.

@defvar eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist
The value of this variable should be a symbol naming an alist defining a
mapping between BBDB field names onto directory attribute names records.
This is a protocol-local variable and is initialized upon protocol
switch (@pxref{Protocol Locals})  The alist is made of cells of the
form @code{(}@var{bbdb-field} . @var{spec-or-list}@code{)}. 
@var{bbdb-field} is the name of a field
that must be defined in your BBDB environment (standard field names are
@code{name}, @code{company}, @code{net}, @code{phone}, @code{address}
and @code{notes}). 
@var{spec-or-list} is either a single mapping specification or a list of
mapping specifications. Lists of mapping specifications are valid for
the @code{phone} and @code{address} BBDB fields only. @var{spec}s are
actually s-expressions which are evaluated as follows:

@table @asis
@item a string 
evaluates to itself
@item a symbol
evaluates to the symbol value. Symbols corresponding to directory
attribute names present in the record evaluate to the value of the field
in the record
@item a form
is evaluated as a function. The argument list may contain attribute 
names which evaluate to the corresponding values in the record. The form
evaluation should return something appropriate for the particular
@var{bbdb-field} (see @code{bbdb-create-internal}).
@code{eudc-bbdbify-phone} and @code{eudc-bbdbify-address} are provided as
convenience functions to parse phones and addresses.
@end table
@end defvar

The default value of the PH-specific value of that variable is
@code{eudc-ph-bbdb-conversion-alist}:

@lisp
((name . name)
 (net . email)
 (address . (eudc-bbdbify-address address "Address"))
 (phone . ((eudc-bbdbify-phone phone "Phone")
           (eudc-bbdbify-phone office_phone "Office Phone"))))
@end lisp

This means that:

@itemize @bullet
@item 
the @code{name} field of the BBDB record gets its value
from the @code{name} attribute of the directory record
@item
the @code{net} field of the BBDB record gets its value
from the @code{email} attribute of the directory record
@item
the @code{address} field of the BBDB record is obtained by parsing the
@code{address} attribute of the directory record with the function
@code{eudc-bbdbify-address}
@item
two @code{phone} fields are created (when possible) in the BBDB record.
The first one has "Phone" for location and its value is obtained by
parsing the @code{phone} attribute of the PH/QI record with the function
@code{eudc-bbdbify-phone}. The second one has "Office Phone" for location
its value is obtained by parsing the @code{office_phone} attribute of the
PH/QI record with the function @code{eudc-bbdbify-phone}.
@end itemize

@defun eudc-bbdbify-phone @var{phone} @var{location}
This is a convenience function provided for use in
@code{eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist}. It parses @var{phone} into a vector
compatible with @code{bbdb-create-internal}. @var{phone} is either a string
supposedly containing a phone number or a list of such strings which are
concatenated. @var{location} is used as the phone location for BBDB.
@end defun

@defun eudc-bbdbify-address @var{addr} @var{location}
This is a convenience function provided for use in
@code{eudc-bbdb-conversion-alist}. It parses @var{addr} into a vector
compatible with @code{bbdb-create-internal}. @var{addr} should be an
address string of no more than four lines or a list of lines. The last
line is searched for the zip code, city and state name. @var{location}
is used as the phone location for BBDB.
@end defun

Note that only a subset of the attributes you selected with
@code{eudc-default-return-attributes} and that are actually displayed may
actually be inserted as part of the newly created BBDB record.


@node Protocol Locals,  , Creating BBDB Records, Usage
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Protocol Locals

EUDC can be customized independently for each directory protocol.  Each
time you switch to another protocol, EUDC initializes some variables
with their protocol specific values.

@menu
* LDAP Locals::                 LDAP Local Variables
* PH Locals::                   PH/QI Local Variables
@end menu

@node LDAP Locals, PH Locals, Protocol Locals, Protocol Locals
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection LDAP Locals

@defvar eudc-ldap-bbdb-conversion-alist
An alist defining the mapping from BBDB to LDAP atribute names.
(@pxref{Creating BBDB Records})
@end defvar

@node PH Locals,  , LDAP Locals, Protocol Locals
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection PH Locals

@defvar eudc-ph-bbdb-conversion-alist
An alist defining the mapping from BBDB to PH/QI atribute names.
(@pxref{Creating BBDB Records})
@end defvar



@node Credits, Variables Index, Usage, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Credits

EUDC was written by Oscar Figueiredo based on @code{ph.el} by the 
same author.

Thanks to Soren Dayton for his suggestions, his enthusiasm and his help
in testing and proofreading the code and docs of @code{ph.el}.

@node Variables Index,  , Credits, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Variables Index

@printindex vr

@contents
@bye
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