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The great Gnus 5.10.1 sync.

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+2003-05-02  Steve Youngs  <youngs@xemacs.org>
+
+	* Sync to upstream version 5.10.1.
+	See the ChangeLog.upstream files for details of changes.
+
+	* Makefile (AUTHOR_VERSION): Bump to 5.10.1.
+	(REQUIRES): Add pgg, net-utils, os-utils, dired, sieve.
+	(EXTRA_SOURCES): Add the upstream ChangeLogs.
+	(DATA_2_FILES): Add the .pbm files.
+	(DATA_4_FILES): Removed.
+	(DATA_4_DEST): Removed.
+	(DATA_5_FILES): Removed.
+	(DATA_5_DEST): Removed.
+	(EXTRA_TEXI_FILES): Remove 'gnusmail.texi', add
+	'doclicense.texi'. 
+
+	* package-info.in (provides): Update to include all provides.
+
 2003-03-27  Norbert Koch  <viteno@xemacs.org>
 
 	* Makefile (VERSION): XEmacs package 1.68 released.
 # Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
 
 VERSION = 1.68
-AUTHOR_VERSION = 5.8.8
+AUTHOR_VERSION = 5.10.1
 MAINTAINER = Steve Youngs <youngs@xemacs.org>
 PACKAGE = gnus
 PKG_TYPE = regular
 REQUIRES = gnus w3 mh-e mailcrypt rmail eterm mail-lib xemacs-base fsf-compat \
-	ecrypto tm apel
+	ecrypto tm apel pgg net-utils sh-script os-utils dired sieve
 CATEGORY = standard
 LISPFILES = $(wildcard lisp/*.el)
 ELCS = $(LISPFILES:.el=.elc)
 
-EXTRA_SOURCES = lisp/md5.el.upstream lisp/GNUS-NEWS
+EXTRA_SOURCES = $(wildcard lisp/*.upstream) lisp/GNUS-NEWS
 
 DATA_FILES = $(wildcard etc/sounds/*.au) $(wildcard etc/sounds/*.wav)
 DATA_DEST = sounds
-DATA_1_FILES = $(wildcard etc/message/*.x?m)
-DATA_1_DEST = message
-DATA_2_FILES = $(wildcard etc/smilies/*.x?m)
-DATA_2_DEST = smilies
-DATA_3_FILES = $(wildcard etc/gnus/*.x?m) etc/gnus/x-splash
+DATA_1_FILES = $(wildcard etc/smilies/*.x?m)
+DATA_1_DEST = smilies
+DATA_2_FILES = $(wildcard etc/gnus/*.[px]?m) etc/gnus/x-splash
+DATA_2_DEST = $(PACKAGE)
+DATA_3_FILES = etc/gnus-tut.txt
 DATA_3_DEST = $(PACKAGE)
-DATA_4_FILES = $(wildcard etc/gnusrefcard/[MRbgmqr]*)
-DATA_4_DEST = $(PACKAGE)/gnusrefcard
-DATA_5_FILES = etc/gnus-tut.txt
-DATA_5_DEST = $(PACKAGE)
 
 EXPLICIT_DOCS = texi/message.texi texi/gnus.texi texi/emacs-mime.texi
-EXTRA_TEXI_FILES = texi/gnus-faq.texi texi/gnusmail.texi
+EXTRA_TEXI_FILES = texi/gnus-faq.texi texi/doclicense.texi
 
 AUTOLOAD_PATH = lisp
 
 Gnus is a rewrite of GNUS 4.1, written by Masanobu Umeda.  The rewrite
 was done by moi, yours truly, your humble servant, Lars Magne
 Ingebrigtsen.  If you have a WWW browser, you can investigate to your
-heart's delight at <URL:http://www.ifi.uio.no/~larsi/larsi.html>.
+heart's delight at <URL:http://www.gnus.org/> and
+<URL:http://quimby.gnus.org/lmi/>.
 
 ;; Copyright (C) 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 
 
 There is absolutely no chance, whatsoever, of getting Gnus to work
 with Emacs 18.  It won't even work on Emacsen older than Emacs
-19.30/XEmacs 19.13.  Upgrade your Emacs or die.
+20.7/XEmacs 21.1.  Upgrade your Emacs or die.
 
 	
 From lars Thu Feb 23 23:20:38 1995
 
 Create the group by saying
 
-`M-a my.virtual.newsgroup<RET>nnvirtual<RET>^rec\.aquaria\.*<RET>'
+`G V my.virtual.newsgroup<RET>nnvirtual<RET>^rec\.aquaria\.*<RET>'
 
 This will create the group "nnvirtual:my.virtual.newsgroup", which
 will collect all articles from all the groups in the "rec.aquaria"
 is where to post the questions.
 
 
+From fschmitt Sat Mar 22 18:13:00 2003
+From: faq@my.gnus.org (Gnus FAQ team)
+Date: Sat Mar 22 18:13:00 2003
+Subject: Gnus FAQ
+Message-ID: <lars-doc8@eyesore.no>
+
+This is the text version of the Gnus FAQ, see http://my.gnus.org for
+the up to date version of this document, there you can also find a
+html version and various other formats. There's also a texinfo version 
+of the FAQ distributed with Gnus.
+
+Table of Contents
+
+Introduction
+Frequently Asked Questions with Answers
+Glossary
+
+Abstract
+
+This is the new Gnus Frequently Asked Questions list. If you have a
+Web browser, the official hypertext version is at http://
+my.gnus.org/FAQ/ [http://my.gnus.org/FAQ/], the Docbook source is
+available from http://sourceforge.net [http://sourceforge.net/
+projects/gnus/].
+
+Please submit features and suggestions to the FAQ discussion list
+[mailto:faq-discuss@my.gnus.org]. The list is protected against
+junk mail with qconfirm [http://smarden.org/qconfirm/index.html].
+As a subscriber, your submissions will automatically pass. You can
+also subscribe to the list by sending a blank email to
+faq-discuss-subscribe@my.gnus.org
+[mailto:faq-discuss-subscribe@my.gnus.org] and browse the archive.
+
+Introduction
+
+This is the Gnus Frequently Asked Questions list.
+
+Gnus is a Usenet Newsreader and Electronic Mail User Agent
+implemented as a part of Emacs. It's been around in some form for
+almost a decade now, and has been distributed as a standard part of
+Emacs for much of that time. Gnus 5 is the latest (and greatest)
+incarnation. The original version was called GNUS, and was written
+by Masanobu UMEDA. When autumn crept up in '94, Lars Magne
+Ingebrigtsen grew bored and decided to rewrite Gnus.
+
+Its biggest strength is the fact that it is extremely customizable.
+It is somewhat intimidating at first glance, but most of the
+complexity can be ignored until you're ready to take advantage of
+it. If you receive a reasonable volume of e-mail (you're on various
+mailing lists), or you would like to read high-volume mailing lists
+but cannot keep up with them, or read high volume newsgroups or are
+just bored, then Gnus is what you want.
+
+This FAQ was maintained by Justin Sheehy until March 2002. He would
+like to thank Steve Baur and Per Abrahamsen for doing a wonderful
+job with this FAQ before him. We would like to do the same -
+thanks, Justin!
+
+If you have a Web browser, the official hypertext version is at:
+http://my.gnus.org/FAQ/ [http://my.gnus.org/FAQ/]. This version is
+much nicer than the unofficial hypertext versions that are archived
+at Utrecht, Oxford, Smart Pages, Ohio State, and other FAQ
+archives. See the resources question below if you want information
+on obtaining it in another format.
+
+The information contained here was compiled with the assistance of
+the Gnus development mailing list, and any errors or misprints are
+the my.gnus.org team's fault, sorry.
+
+Frequently Asked Questions with Answers
+
+1. Installation FAQ
+
+    1.1. What is the latest version of Gnus?
+    1.2. What's new in 5.10.0?
+    1.3. Where and how to get Gnus?
+    1.4. What to do with the tarball now?
+    1.5. Which version of Emacs do I need?
+    1.6. How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?
+
+2. Startup / Group buffer
+
+    2.1. Every time I start Gnus I get a message "Gnus auto-save
+        file exists. Do you want to read it?", what does this mean
+        and how to prevent it?
+    2.2. Gnus doesn't remember which groups I'm subscribed to,
+        what's this?
+    2.3. How to change the format of the lines in Group buffer?
+    2.4. My group buffer becomes a bit crowded, is there a way to
+        sort my groups into categories so I can easier browse
+        through them?
+    2.5. How to manually sort the groups in Group buffer? How to
+        sort the groups in a topic?
+
+3. Getting Messages
+
+    3.1. I just installed Gnus, started it via M-x gnus but it only
+        says "nntp (news) open error", what to do?
+    3.2. I'm working under Windows and have no idea what ~/.gnus
+        means.
+    3.3. My news server requires authentication, how to store user
+        name and password on disk?
+    3.4. Gnus seems to start up OK, but I can't find out how to
+        subscribe to a group.
+    3.5. Gnus doesn't show all groups / Gnus says I'm not allowed
+        to post on this server as well as I am, what's that?
+    3.6. I want Gnus to fetch news from several servers, is this
+        possible?
+    3.7. And how about local spool files?
+    3.8. OK, reading news works now, but I want to be able to read
+        my mail with Gnus, too. How to do it?
+    3.9. And what about IMAP?
+    3.10. At the office we use one of those MS Exchange servers,
+        can I use Gnus to read my mail from it?
+    3.11. Can I tell Gnus not to delete the mails on the server it
+        retrieves via POP3?
+
+4. Reading messages
+
+    4.1. When I enter a group, all read messages are gone. How to
+        view them again?
+    4.2. How to tell Gnus to show an important message every time I
+        enter a group, even when it's read?
+    4.3. How to view the headers of a message?
+    4.4. How to view the raw unformatted message?
+    4.5. How can I change the headers Gnus displays by default at
+        the top of the article buffer?
+    4.6. I'd like Gnus NOT to render HTML-mails but show me the
+        text part if it's available. How to do it?
+    4.7. Can I use some other browser than w3 to render my
+        HTML-mails?
+    4.8. Is there anything I can do to make poorly formatted mails
+        more readable?
+    4.9. Is there a way to automatically ignore posts by specific
+        authors or with specific words in the subject? And can I
+        highlight more interesting ones in some way?
+    4.10. How can I disable threading in some (e.g. mail-) groups,
+        or set other variables specific for some groups?
+    4.11. Can I highlight messages written by me and follow-ups to
+        those?
+    4.12. The number of total messages in a group which Gnus
+        displays in group buffer is by far to high, especially in
+        mail groups. Is this a bug?
+    4.13. I don't like the layout of summary and article buffer,
+        how to change it? Perhaps even a three pane display?
+    4.14. I don't like the way the Summary buffer looks, how to
+        tweak it?
+    4.15. How to split incoming mails in several groups?
+
+5. Composing messages
+
+    5.1. What are the basic commands I need to know for sending
+        mail and postings?
+    5.2. How to enable automatic word-wrap when composing messages?
+    5.3. How to set stuff like From, Organization, Reply-To,
+        signature...?
+    5.4. Can I set things like From, Signature etc group based on
+        the group I post too?
+    5.5. Is there a spell-checker? Perhaps even on-the-fly
+        spell-checking?
+    5.6. Can I set the dictionary based on the group I'm posting
+        to?
+    5.7. Is there some kind of address-book, so I needn't remember
+        all those email addresses?
+    5.8. Sometimes I see little images at the top of article
+        buffer. What's that and how can I send one with my
+        postings, too?
+    5.9. Sometimes I accidentally hit r instead of f in newsgroups.
+        Can Gnus warn me, when I'm replying by mail in newsgroups?
+    5.10. How to tell Gnus not to generate a sender header?
+    5.11. I want gnus to locally store copies of my send mail and
+        news, how to do it?
+    5.12. People tell me my Message-IDs are not correct, why aren't
+        they and how to fix it?
+
+6. Old messages
+
+    6.1. How to import my old mail into Gnus?
+    6.2. How to archive interesting messages?
+    6.3. How to search for a specific message?
+    6.4. How to get rid of old unwanted mail?
+    6.5. I want that all read messages are expired (at least in
+        some groups). How to do it?
+    6.6. I don't want expiration to delete my mails but to move
+        them to another group.
+
+7. Gnus in a dial-up environment
+
+    7.1. I don't have a permanent connection to the net, how can I
+        minimize the time I've got to be connected?
+    7.2. So what was this thing about the Agent?
+    7.3. I want to store article bodies on disk, too. How to do it?
+    7.4. How to tell Gnus not to try to send mails / postings while
+        I'm offline?
+
+8. Getting help
+
+    8.1. How to find information and help inside Emacs?
+    8.2. I can't find anything in the Gnus manual about X (e.g.
+        attachments, PGP, MIME...), is it not documented?
+    8.3. Which websites should I know?
+    8.4. Which mailing lists and newsgroups are there?
+    8.5. Where to report bugs?
+    8.6. I need real-time help, where to find it?
+
+9. Tuning Gnus
+
+    9.1. Starting Gnus is really slow, how to speed it up?
+    9.2. How to speed up the process of entering a group?
+    9.3. Sending mail becomes slower and slower, what's up?
+
+1. Installation FAQ
+
+1.1.  What is the latest version of Gnus?
+
+      Jingle please: Gnus 5.10.0 is released, get it while it's hot! As
+      well as the step in version number is rather small, Gnus 5.10 has
+      tons of new features which you shouldn't miss, however if you are
+      cautious, you might prefer to stay with 5.8.8 respectively 5.9
+      (they are basically the same) until some bugfix releases are out.
+
+1.2.  What's new in 5.10.0?
+
+      First of all, you should have a look into the file GNUS-NEWS in the
+      toplevel directory of the Gnus tarball, there the most important
+      changes are listed. Here's a short list of the changes I find
+      especially important/interesting:
+
+        * Major rewrite of the Gnus agent, Gnus agent is now active by
+          default.
+
+          Many new article washing functions for dealing with ugly
+          formatted articles.
+
+          Anti Spam features.
+
+          message-utils now included in Gnus.
+
+          New format specifiers for summary lines, e.g. %B for a complex
+          trn-style thread tree.
+
+1.3.  Where and how to get Gnus?
+
+      The latest released version of Gnus isn't included in Emacs 21 and
+      until now it also isn't available through the package system of
+      XEmacs 21.4, therefor you should get the Gnus tarball from http://
+      www.gnus.org/dist/gnus.tar.gz [http://www.gnus.org/dist/
+      gnus.tar.gz] or via anonymous FTP from ftp://ftp.gnus.org/pub/gnus/
+      gnus.tar.gz [ftp://ftp.gnus.org/pub/gnus/gnus.tar.gz].
+
+1.4.  What to do with the tarball now?
+
+      Untar it via tar xvzf gnus.tar.gz and do the common ./configure;
+      make; make install circle. (under MS-Windows either get the Cygwin
+      environment from http://www.cygwin.com [http://www.cygwin.com]
+      which allows you to do what's described above or unpack the tarball
+      with some packer (e.g. Winace from http://www.winace.com [http://
+      www.winace.com]) and use the batch-file make.bat included in the
+      tarball to install Gnus. If you don't want to (or aren't allowed
+      to) install Gnus system-wide, you can install it in your home
+      directory and add the following lines to your ~/.xemacs/init.el or
+      ~/.emacs:
+
+      (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/gnus/lisp")
+      (if (featurep 'xemacs)
+          (add-to-list 'Info-directory-list "/path/to/gnus/texi/")
+        (add-to-list 'Info-default-directory-list "/path/to/gnus/texi/"))
+
+
+      Make sure that you don't have any gnus related stuff before this
+      line, on MS Windows use something like "C:/path/to/lisp" (yes, "/
+      ").
+
+1.5.  Which version of Emacs do I need?
+
+      Gnus 5.10.0 requires an Emacs version that is greater than or equal
+      to Emacs 20.7 or XEmacs 21.1.
+
+1.6.  How do I run Gnus on both Emacs and XEmacs?
+
+      You can't use the same copy of Gnus in both as the Lisp files are
+      byte-compiled to a format which is different depending on which
+      Emacs did the compilation. Get one copy of Gnus for Emacs and one
+      for XEmacs.
+
+2. Startup / Group buffer
+
+2.1.  Every time I start Gnus I get a message "Gnus auto-save file
+      exists. Do you want to read it?", what does this mean and how to
+      prevent it?
+
+      This message means that the last time you used Gnus, it wasn't
+      properly exited and therefor couldn't write its informations to
+      disk (e.g. which messages you read), you are now asked if you want
+      to restore those informations from the auto-save file.
+
+      To prevent this message make sure you exit Gnus via q in group
+      buffer instead of just killing Emacs.
+
+2.2.  Gnus doesn't remember which groups I'm subscribed to, what's this?
+
+      You get the message described in the q/a pair above while starting
+      Gnus, right? It's an other symptom for the same problem, so read
+      the answer above.
+
+2.3.  How to change the format of the lines in Group buffer?
+
+      You've got to tweak the value of the variable
+      gnus-group-line-format. See the manual node "Group Line
+      Specification" for information on how to do this. An example for
+      this (guess from whose .gnus :-)):
+
+      (setq gnus-group-line-format "%P%M%S[%5t]%5y : %(%g%)\n")
+
+
+2.4.  My group buffer becomes a bit crowded, is there a way to sort my
+      groups into categories so I can easier browse through them?
+
+      Gnus offers the topic mode, it allows you to sort your groups in,
+      well, topics, e.g. all groups dealing with Linux under the topic
+      linux, all dealing with music under the topic music and all dealing
+      with scottish music under the topic scottish which is a subtopic of
+      music.
+
+      To enter topic mode, just hit t while in Group buffer. Now you can
+      use T n to create a topic at point and T m to move a group to a
+      specific topic. For more commands see the manual or the menu. You
+      might want to include the %P specifier at the beginning of your
+      gnus-group-line-format variable to have the groups nicely indented.
+
+2.5.  How to manually sort the groups in Group buffer? How to sort the
+      groups in a topic?
+
+      Move point over the group you want to move and hit C-k, now move
+      point to the place where you want the group to be and hit C-y.
+
+3. Getting Messages
+
+3.1.  I just installed Gnus, started it via M-x gnus but it only says
+      "nntp (news) open error", what to do?
+
+      You've got to tell Gnus where to fetch the news from. Read the
+      documentation for information on how to do this. As a first start,
+      put those lines in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "news.yourprovider.net"))
+      (setq user-mail-address "you@yourprovider.net")
+      (setq user-full-name "Your Name")
+
+
+3.2.  I'm working under Windows and have no idea what ~/.gnus means.
+
+      The ~/ means the home directory where Gnus and Emacs look for the
+      configuration files. However, you don't really need to know what
+      this means, it suffices that Emacs knows what it means :-) You can
+      type C-x C-f ~/.gnus RET (yes, with the forward slash, even on
+      Windows), and Emacs will open the right file for you. (It will most
+      likely be new, and thus empty.) However, I'd discourage you from
+      doing so, since the directory Emacs chooses will most certainly not
+      be what you want, so let's do it the correct way. The first thing
+      you've got to do is to create a suitable directory (no blanks in
+      directory name please) e.g. c:\myhome. Then you must set the
+      environment variable HOME to this directory. To do this under Win9x
+      or Me include the line
+
+      SET HOME=C:\myhome
+
+
+      in your autoexec.bat and reboot. Under NT, 2000 and XP, hit
+      Winkey+Pause/Break to enter system options (if it doesn't work, go
+      to Control Panel -> System). There you'll find the possibility to
+      set environment variables, create a new one with name HOME and
+      value C:\myhome, a reboot is not necessary.
+
+      Now to create ~/.gnus, say C-x C-f ~/.gnus RET C-x C-s. in Emacs.
+
+3.3.  My news server requires authentication, how to store user name and
+      password on disk?
+
+      Create a file ~/.authinfo which includes for each server a line
+      like this
+
+      machine news.yourprovider.net login YourUserName password YourPassword
+
+      . Make sure that the file isn't readable to others if you work on a
+      OS which is capable of doing so. (Under Unix say
+
+      chmod 600 ~/.authinfo
+
+      in a shell.)
+
+3.4.  Gnus seems to start up OK, but I can't find out how to subscribe to
+      a group.
+
+      If you know the name of the group say U name.of.group RET in group
+      buffer (use the tab-completion Luke). Otherwise hit ^ in group
+      buffer, this brings you to the server buffer. Now place point (the
+      cursor) over the server which carries the group you want, hit RET,
+      move point to the group you want to subscribe to and say u to
+      subscribe to it.
+
+3.5.  Gnus doesn't show all groups / Gnus says I'm not allowed to post on
+      this server as well as I am, what's that?
+
+      Some providers allow restricted anonymous access and full access
+      only after authorization. To make Gnus send authinfo to those
+      servers append
+
+      force yes
+
+      to the line for those servers in ~/.authinfo.
+
+3.6.  I want Gnus to fetch news from several servers, is this possible?
+
+      Of course. You can specify more sources for articles in the
+      variable gnus-secondary-select-methods. Add something like this in
+      ~/.gnus:
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods '(nntp "news.yourSecondProvider.net"))
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods '(nntp "news.yourThirdProvider.net"))
+
+
+3.7.  And how about local spool files?
+
+      No problem, this is just one more select method called nnspool, so
+      you want this:
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods '(nnspool ""))
+
+
+      Or this if you don't want an NNTP Server as primary news source:
+
+      (setq gnus-select-method '(nnspool ""))
+
+
+      Gnus will look for the spool file in /usr/spool/news, if you want
+      something different, change the line above to something like this:
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods
+                   '(nnspool "" (nnspool-directory "/usr/local/myspoolddir")))
+
+
+      This sets the spool directory for this server only. You might have
+      to specify more stuff like the program used to post articles, see
+      the Gnus manual on how to do this.
+
+3.8.  OK, reading news works now, but I want to be able to read my mail
+      with Gnus, too. How to do it?
+
+      That's a bit harder since there are many possible sources for mail,
+      many possible ways for storing mail and many different ways for
+      sending mail. The most common cases are these: 1: You want to read
+      your mail from a pop3 server and send them directly to a SMTP
+      Server 2: Some program like fetchmail retrieves your mail and
+      stores it on disk from where Gnus shall read it. Outgoing mail is
+      sent by Sendmail, Postfix or some other MTA. Sometimes, you even
+      need a combination of the above cases.
+
+      However, the first thing to do is to tell Gnus in which way it
+      should store the mail, in Gnus terminology which back end to use.
+      Gnus supports many different back ends, the most commonly used one
+      is nnml. It stores every mail in one file and is therefor quite
+      fast. However you might prefer a one file per group approach if
+      your file system has problems with many small files, the nnfolder
+      back end is then probably the choice for you. To use nnml add the
+      following to ~/.gnus:
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods '(nnml ""))
+
+
+      As you might have guessed, if you want nnfolder, it's
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods '(nnfolder ""))
+
+
+      Now we need to tell Gnus, where to get it's mail from. If it's a
+      POP3 server, then you need something like this:
+
+      (eval-after-load "mail-source"
+        '(add-to-list 'mail-sources '(pop :server "pop.YourProvider.net"
+                                          :user "yourUserName"
+                                          :password "yourPassword"))
+
+
+      Make sure ~/.gnus isn't readable to others if you store your
+      password there. If you want to read your mail from a traditional
+      spool file on your local machine, it's
+
+      (eval-after-load "mail-source"
+        '(add-to-list 'mail-sources '(file :path "/path/to/spool/file"))
+
+
+      If it's a Maildir, with one file per message as used by postfix,
+      Qmail and (optionally) fetchmail it's
+
+      (eval-after-load "mail-source"
+        '(add-to-list 'mail-sources '(maildir :path "/path/to/Maildir/"
+                                              :subdirs ("cur" "new")))
+
+
+      And finally if you want to read your mail from several files in one
+      directory, for example because procmail already split your mail,
+      it's
+
+      (eval-after-load "mail-source"
+        '(add-to-list 'mail-sources '(directory :path "/path/to/procmail-dir/"
+                                                :suffix ".prcml"))
+
+
+      Where :suffix ".prcml" tells Gnus only to use files with the suffix
+      .prcml.
+
+      OK, now you only need to tell Gnus how to send mail. If you want to
+      send mail via sendmail (or whichever MTA is playing the role of
+      sendmail on your system), you don't need to do anything. However,
+      if you want to send your mail to an SMTP Server you need the
+      following in your ~/.gnus
+
+      (setq send-mail-function 'smtpmail-send-it)
+      (setq message-send-mail-function 'smtpmail-send-it)
+      (setq smtpmail-default-smtp-server "smtp.yourProvider.net")
+
+
+3.9.  And what about IMAP?
+
+      There are two ways of using IMAP with Gnus. The first one is to use
+      IMAP like POP3, that means Gnus fetches the mail from the IMAP
+      server and stores it on disk. If you want to do this (you don't
+      really want to do this) add the following to ~/.gnus
+
+      (add-to-list 'mail-sources '(imap :server "mail.mycorp.com"
+                                        :user "username"
+                                        :pass "password"
+                                        :stream network
+                                        :authentication login
+                                        :mailbox "INBOX"
+                                        :fetchflag "\\Seen"))
+
+
+      You might have to tweak the values for stream and/or
+      authentification, see the Gnus manual node "Mail Source Specifiers"
+      for possible values.
+
+      If you want to use IMAP the way it's intended, you've got to follow
+      a different approach. You've got to add the nnimap back end to your
+      select method and give the information about the server there.
+
+      (add-to-list 'gnus-secondary-select-methods
+                               '(nnimap "Give the baby a name"
+                                        (nnimap-address "imap.yourProvider.net")
+                                        (nnimap-port 143)
+                                        (nnimap-list-pattern "archive.*")))
+
+
+      Again, you might have to specify how to authenticate to the server
+      if Gnus can't guess the correct way, see the Manual Node "IMAP" for
+      detailed information.
+
+3.10. At the office we use one of those MS Exchange servers, can I use
+      Gnus to read my mail from it?
+
+      Offer your administrator a pair of new running shoes for activating
+      IMAP on the server and follow the instructions above.
+
+3.11. Can I tell Gnus not to delete the mails on the server it retrieves
+      via POP3?
+
+      First of all, that's not the way POP3 is intended to work, if you
+      have the possibility, you should use the IMAP Protocol if you want
+      your messages to stay on the server. Nevertheless there might be
+      situations where you need the feature, but sadly Gnus itself has no
+      predefined functionality to do so.
+
+      However this is Gnus county so there are possibilities to achieve
+      what you want. The easiest way is to get an external program which
+      retrieves copies of the mail and stores them on disk, so Gnus can
+      read it from there. On Unix systems you could use e.g. fetchmail
+      for this, on MS Windows you can use Hamster, an excellent local
+      news and mail server.
+
+      The other solution would be, to replace the method Gnus uses to get
+      mail from POP3 servers by one which is capable of leaving the mail
+      on the server. If you use XEmacs, get the package mail-lib, it
+      includes an enhanced pop3.el, look in the file, there's
+      documentation on how to tell Gnus to use it and not to delete the
+      retrieved mail. For GNU Emacs look for the file epop3.el which can
+      do the same (If you know the home of this file, please send me an
+      e-mail). You can also tell Gnus to use an external program (e.g.
+      fetchmail) to fetch your mail, see the info node "Mail Source
+      Specifiers" in the Gnus manual on how to do it.
+
+4. Reading messages
+
+4.1.  When I enter a group, all read messages are gone. How to view them
+      again?
+
+      If you enter the group by saying RET in summary buffer with point
+      over the group, only unread and ticked messages are loaded. Say C-u
+      RET instead to load all available messages. If you want only the
+      e.g. 300 newest say C-u 300 RET
+
+      Loading only unread messages can be annoying if you have threaded
+      view enabled, say
+
+      (setq gnus-fetch-old-headers 'some)
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus to load enough old articles to prevent teared threads,
+      replace 'some with t to load all articles (Warning: Both settings
+      enlarge the amount of data which is fetched when you enter a group
+      and slow down the process of entering a group).
+
+      If you already use Gnus 5.10.0, you can say /o N In summary buffer
+      to load the last N messages, this feature is not available in 5.8.8
+
+      If you don't want all old messages, but the parent of the message
+      you're just reading, you can say ^, if you want to retrieve the
+      whole thread the message you're just reading belongs to, A T is
+      your friend.
+
+4.2.  How to tell Gnus to show an important message every time I enter a
+      group, even when it's read?
+
+      You can tick important messages. To do this hit u while point is in
+      summary buffer over the message. When you want to remove the mark,
+      hit either d (this deletes the tick mark and set's unread mark) or
+      M c (which deletes all marks for the message).
+
+4.3.  How to view the headers of a message?
+
+      Say t to show all headers, one more t hides them again.
+
+4.4.  How to view the raw unformatted message?
+
+      Say C-u g to show the raw message g returns to normal view.
+
+4.5.  How can I change the headers Gnus displays by default at the top of
+      the article buffer?
+
+      The variable gnus-visible-headers controls which headers are shown,
+      its value is a regular expression, header lines which match it are
+      shown. So if you want author, subject, date, and if the header
+      exists, Followup-To and MUA / NUA say this in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (setq gnus-visible-headers
+      "^\\(From:\\|Subject:\\|Date:\\|Followup-To:\\|X-Newsreader:\\|User-Agent:\\|X-Mailer:\\)")
+
+
+4.6.  I'd like Gnus NOT to render HTML-mails but show me the text part if
+      it's available. How to do it?
+
+      Say
+
+      (eval-after-load "mm-decode"
+       '(progn
+            (add-to-list 'mm-discouraged-alternatives "text/html")
+            (add-to-list 'mm-discouraged-alternatives "text/richtext")))
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus. If you don't want HTML rendered, even if there's no
+      text alternative add
+
+      (setq mm-automatic-display (remove "text/html" mm-automatic-display))
+
+
+      too.
+
+4.7.  Can I use some other browser than w3 to render my HTML-mails?
+
+      Only if you use Gnus 5.10.0 or younger. In this case you've got the
+      choice between w3, w3m, links, lynx and html2text, which one is
+      used can be specified in the variable mm-text-html-renderer, so if
+      you want links to render your mail say
+
+      (setq mm-text-html-renderer 'links)
+
+
+4.8.  Is there anything I can do to make poorly formatted mails more
+      readable?
+
+      Gnus offers you several functions to "wash" incoming mail, you can
+      find them if you browse through the menu, item Article->Washing.
+      The most interesting ones are probably "Wrap long lines" ( W w ),
+      "Decode ROT13" ( W r ) and "Outlook Deuglify" which repairs the
+      dumb quoting used by many users of Microsoft products ( W Y f gives
+      you full deuglify. See W Y C-h or have a look at the menus for
+      other deuglifications). Outlook deuglify is only available since
+      Gnus 5.10.0.
+
+4.9.  Is there a way to automatically ignore posts by specific authors or
+      with specific words in the subject? And can I highlight more
+      interesting ones in some way?
+
+      You want Scoring. Scoring means, that you define rules which assign
+      each message an integer value. Depending on the value the message
+      is highlighted in summary buffer (if it's high, say +2000) or
+      automatically marked read (if the value is low, say -800) or some
+      other action happens.
+
+      There are basically three ways of setting up rules which assign the
+      scoring-value to messages. The first and easiest way is to set up
+      rules based on the article you are just reading. Say you're reading
+      a message by a guy who always writes nonsense and you want to
+      ignore his messages in the future. Hit L, to set up a rule which
+      lowers the score. Now Gnus asks you which the criteria for lowering
+      the Score shall be. Hit ? twice to see all possibilities, we want a
+      which means the author (the from header). Now Gnus wants to know
+      which kind of matching we want. Hit either e for an exact match or
+      s for substring-match and delete afterwards everything but the name
+      to score down all authors with the given name no matter which email
+      address is used. Now you need to tell Gnus when to apply the rule
+      and how long it should last, hit e.g. p to apply the rule now and
+      let it last forever. If you want to raise the score instead of
+      lowering it say I instead of L.
+
+      You can also set up rules by hand. To do this say V f in summary
+      buffer. Then you are asked for the name of the score file, it's
+      name.of.group.SCORE for rules valid in only one group or all.Score
+      for rules valid in all groups. See the Gnus manual for the exact
+      syntax, basically it's one big list whose elements are lists again.
+      the first element of those lists is the header to score on, then
+      one more list with what to match, which score to assign, when to
+      expire the rule and how to do the matching. If you find me very
+      interesting, you could e.g. add the following to your all.Score:
+
+      (("references" ("hschmi22.userfqdn.rz-online.de" 500 nil s))
+       ("message-id" ("hschmi22.userfqdn.rz-online.de" 999 nil s)))
+
+
+      This would add 999 to the score of messages written by me and 500
+      to the score of messages which are a (possibly indirect) answer to
+      a message written by me. Of course nobody with a sane mind would do
+      this :-)
+
+      The third alternative is adaptive scoring. This means Gnus watches
+      you and tries to find out what you find interesting and what
+      annoying and sets up rules which reflect this. Adaptive scoring can
+      be a huge help when reading high traffic groups. If you want to
+      activate adaptive scoring say
+
+      (setq gnus-use-adaptive-scoring t)
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus.
+
+4.10. How can I disable threading in some (e.g. mail-) groups, or set
+      other variables specific for some groups?
+
+      While in group buffer move point over the group and hit G c, this
+      opens a buffer where you can set options for the group. At the
+      bottom of the buffer you'll find an item that allows you to set
+      variables locally for the group. To disable threading enter
+      gnus-show-threads as name of variable and nil as value. Hit button
+      done at the top of the buffer when you're ready.
+
+4.11. Can I highlight messages written by me and follow-ups to those?
+
+      Stop those "Can I ..." questions, the answer is always yes in Gnus
+      Country :-). It's a three step process: First we make faces
+      (specifications of how summary-line shall look like) for those
+      postings, then we'll give them some special score and finally we'll
+      tell Gnus to use the new faces. You can find detailed instructions
+      on how to do it on my.gnus.org [http://my.gnus.org/Members/dzimmerm
+      /HowTo%2C2002-07-25%2C1027619165012198456/view]
+
+4.12. The number of total messages in a group which Gnus displays in
+      group buffer is by far to high, especially in mail groups. Is this
+      a bug?
+
+      No, that's a matter of design of Gnus, fixing this would mean
+      reimplementation of major parts of Gnus' back ends. Gnus thinks
+      "highest-article-number - lowest-article-number =
+      total-number-of-articles". This works OK for Usenet groups, but if
+      you delete and move many messages in mail groups, this fails. To
+      cure the symptom, enter the group via C-u RET (this makes Gnus get
+      all messages), then hit M P b to mark all messages and then say B m
+      name.of.group to move all messages to the group they have been in
+      before, they get new message numbers in this process and the count
+      is right again (until you delete and move your mail to other groups
+      again).
+
+4.13. I don't like the layout of summary and article buffer, how to
+      change it? Perhaps even a three pane display?
+
+      You can control the windows configuration by calling the function
+      gnus-add-configuration. The syntax is a bit complicated but
+      explained very well in the manual node "Window Layout". Some
+      popular examples:
+
+      Instead 25% summary 75% article buffer 35% summary and 65% article
+      (the 1.0 for article means "take the remaining space"):
+
+      (gnus-add-configuration '(article (vertical 1.0 (summary .35 point) (article 1.0))))
+
+
+      A three pane layout, Group buffer on the left, summary buffer
+      top-right, article buffer bottom-right:
+
+      (gnus-add-configuration
+       '(article
+         (horizontal 1.0
+                     (vertical 25
+                               (group 1.0))
+                     (vertical 1.0
+                               (summary 0.25 point)
+                               (article 1.0)))))
+      (gnus-add-configuration
+       '(summary
+         (horizontal 1.0
+                     (vertical 25
+                               (group 1.0))
+                     (vertical 1.0
+                               (summary 1.0 point)))))
+
+
+4.14. I don't like the way the Summary buffer looks, how to tweak it?
+
+      You've got to play around with the variable
+      gnus-summary-line-format. It's value is a string of symbols which
+      stand for things like author, date, subject etc. A list of the
+      available specifiers can be found in the manual node "Summary
+      Buffer Lines" and the often forgotten node "Formatting Variables"
+      and it's sub-nodes. There you'll find useful things like
+      positioning the cursor and tabulators which allow you a summary in
+      table form, but sadly hard tabulators are broken in 5.8.8.
+
+      Since 5.10.0, Gnus offers you some very nice new specifiers, e.g.
+      %B which draws a thread-tree and %&user-date which gives you a date
+      where the details are dependent of the articles age. Here's an
+      example which uses both:
+
+      (setq gnus-summary-line-format ":%U%R %B %s %-60=|%4L |%-20,20f |%&user-date; \n")
+
+
+      resulting in:
+
+      :O     Re: [Richard Stallman] rfc2047.el          |  13 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:06
+      :O     Re: Revival of the ding-patches list       |  13 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:12
+      :R  >  Re: Find correct list of articles for a gro|  25 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:16
+      :O  \->  ...                                      |  21 |Kai Grossjohann      | 0:01
+      :R  >  Re: Cry for help: deuglify.el - moving stuf|  28 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:34
+      :O  \->  ...                                      | 115 |Raymond Scholz       | 1:24
+      :O    \->  ...                                    |  19 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |15:33
+      :O     Slow mailing list                          |  13 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:49
+      :O     Re: `@' mark not documented                |  13 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:50
+      :R  >  Re: Gnus still doesn't count messages prope|  23 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt |Sat 23:57
+      :O  \->  ...                                      |  18 |Kai Grossjohann      | 0:35
+      :O    \->  ...                                    |  13 |Lars Magne Ingebrigt | 0:56
+
+
+4.15. How to split incoming mails in several groups?
+
+      Gnus offers two possibilities for splitting mail, the easy
+      nnmail-split-methods and the more powerful Fancy Mail Splitting.
+      I'll only talk about the first one, refer to the manual, node
+      "Fancy Mail Splitting" for the latter.
+
+      The value of nnmail-split-methods is a list, each element is a list
+      which stands for a splitting rule. Each rule has the form "group
+      where matching articles should go to", "regular expression which
+      has to be matched", the first rule which matches wins. The last
+      rule must always be a general rule (regular expression .*) which
+      denotes where articles should go which don't match any other rule.
+      If the folder doesn't exist yet, it will be created as soon as an
+      article lands there. By default the mail will be send to all groups
+      whose rules match. If you don't want that (you probably don't
+      want), say
+
+      (setq nnmail-crosspost nil)
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus.
+
+      An example might be better than thousand words, so here's my
+      nnmail-split-methods. Note that I send duplicates in a special
+      group and that the default group is spam, since I filter all mails
+      out which are from some list I'm subscribed to or which are
+      addressed directly to me before. Those rules kill about 80% of the
+      Spam which reaches me (Email addresses are changed to prevent
+      spammers from using them):
+
+      (setq nnmail-split-methods
+        '(("duplicates" "^Gnus-Warning:.*duplicate")
+          ("XEmacs-NT" "^\\(To:\\|CC:\\).*localpart@xemacs.bla.*")
+          ("Gnus-Tut" "^\\(To:\\|CC:\\).*localpart@socha.bla.*")
+          ("tcsh" "^\\(To:\\|CC:\\).*localpart@mx.gw.bla.*")
+          ("BAfH" "^\\(To:\\|CC:\\).*localpart@.*uni-muenchen.bla.*")
+          ("Hamster-src" "^\\(CC:\\|To:\\).*hamster-sourcen@yahoogroups.\\(de\\|com\\).*")
+          ("Tagesschau" "^From: tagesschau <localpart@www.tagesschau.bla>$")
+          ("Replies" "^\\(CC:\\|To:\\).*localpart@Frank-Schmitt.bla.*")
+          ("EK" "^From:.*\\(localpart@privateprovider.bla\\|localpart@workplace.bla\\).*")
+          ("Spam" "^Content-Type:.*\\(ks_c_5601-1987\\|EUC-KR\\|big5\\|iso-2022-jp\\).*")
+          ("Spam" "^Subject:.*\\(This really work\\|XINGA\\|ADV:\\|XXX\\|adult\\|sex\\).*")
+          ("Spam" "^Subject:.*\\(\=\?ks_c_5601-1987\?\\|\=\?euc-kr\?\\|\=\?big5\?\\).*")
+          ("Spam" "^X-Mailer:\\(.*BulkMailer.*\\|.*MIME::Lite.*\\|\\)")
+          ("Spam" "^X-Mailer:\\(.*CyberCreek Avalanche\\|.*http\:\/\/GetResponse\.com\\)")
+          ("Spam" "^From:.*\\(verizon\.net\\|prontomail\.com\\|money\\|ConsumerDirect\\).*")
+          ("Spam" "^Delivered-To: GMX delivery to spamtrap@gmx.bla$")
+          ("Spam" "^Received: from link2buy.com")
+          ("Spam" "^CC: .*azzrael@t-online.bla")
+          ("Spam" "^X-Mailer-Version: 1.50 BETA")
+          ("Uni" "^\\(CC:\\|To:\\).*localpart@uni-koblenz.bla.*")
+          ("Inbox" "^\\(CC:\\|To:\\).*\\(my\ name\\|address@one.bla\\|adress@two.bla\\)")
+          ("Spam" "")))
+
+
+5. Composing messages
+
+5.1.  What are the basic commands I need to know for sending mail and
+      postings?
+
+      To start composing a new mail hit m either in Group or Summary
+      buffer, for a posting, it's either a in Group buffer and filling
+      the Newsgroups header manually or a in the Summary buffer of the
+      group where the posting shall be send to. Replying by mail is r if
+      you don't want to cite the author, or import the cited text
+      manually and R to cite the text of the original message. For a
+      follow up to a newsgroup, it's f and F (analog to r and R.
+
+      Enter new headers above the line saying "--text follows this
+      line--", enter the text below the line. When ready hit C-c C-c, to
+      send the message, if you want to finish it later hit C-c C-d to
+      save it in the drafts group, where you can start editing it again
+      by saying D e.
+
+5.2.  How to enable automatic word-wrap when composing messages?
+
+      Say
+
+      (add-hook 'message-mode-hook
+            (lambda ()
+                 (setq fill-column 72)
+                 (turn-on-auto-fill)))
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus. You can reformat a paragraph by hitting M-q (as usual)
+
+5.3.  How to set stuff like From, Organization, Reply-To, signature...?
+
+      There are other ways, but you should use posting styles for this.
+      (See below why). This example should make the syntax clear:
+
+      (setq gnus-posting-styles
+        '((".*"
+           (name "Frank Schmitt")
+           (address "me@there.bla")
+           (organization "Hamme net, kren mer och nimmi")
+           (signature-file "~/.signature")
+           ("X-SampleHeader" "foobar")
+           (eval (setq some-variable "Foo bar")))))
+
+
+      The ".*" means that this settings are the default ones (see below),
+      valid values for the first element of the following lists are
+      signature, signature-file, organization, address, name or body. The
+      attribute name can also be a string. In that case, this will be
+      used as a header name, and the value will be inserted in the
+      headers of the article; if the value is `nil', the header name will
+      be removed. You can also say (eval (foo bar)), then the function
+      foo will be evaluated with argument bar and the result will be
+      thrown away.
+
+5.4.  Can I set things like From, Signature etc group based on the group
+      I post too?
+
+      That's the strength of posting styles. Before, we used ".*" to set
+      the default for all groups. You can use a regexp like "^gmane" and
+      the following settings are only applied to postings you send to the
+      gmane hierarchy, use ".*binaries" instead and they will be applied
+      to postings send to groups containing the string binaries in their
+      name etc.
+
+      You can instead of specifying a regexp specify a function which is
+      evaluated, only if it returns true, the corresponding settings take
+      effect. Two interesting candidates for this are message-news-p
+      which returns t if the current Group is a newsgroup and the
+      corresponding message-mail-p.
+
+      Note that all forms that match are applied, that means in the
+      example below, when I post to gmane.mail.spam.spamassassin.general,
+      the settings under ".*" are applied and the settings under
+      message-news-p and those under "^gmane" and those under "^gmane\
+      \.mail\\.spam\\.spamassassin\\.general$". Because of this put
+      general settings at the top and specific ones at the bottom.
+
+      (setq gnus-posting-styles
+        '((".*"  ;;default
+           (name "Frank Schmitt")
+           (organization "Hamme net, kren mer och nimmi")
+           (signature-file "~/.signature")    )
+          ((message-news-p)  ;;Usenet news?
+           (address "mySpamTrap@Frank-Schmitt.bla")
+           ("Reply-To" "hereRealRepliesOnlyPlease@Frank-Schmitt.bla")    )
+          ((message-mail-p)  ;;mail?
+           (address "usedForMails@Frank-Schmitt.bla")    )
+          ("^gmane" ;;this is mail, too in fact
+           (address "usedForMails@Frank-Schmitt.net")
+           ("Reply-To" nil)    )
+          ("^gmane.mail.spam.spamassassin.general$"
+           (eval (setq mail-envelope-from "Azzrael@rz-online.de"))
+           (address "Azzrael@rz-online.de")) ))
+
+
+5.5.  Is there a spell-checker? Perhaps even on-the-fly spell-checking?
+
+      You can use ispell.el to spell-check stuff in Emacs. So the first
+      thing to do is to make sure that you've got either ispell [http://
+      fmg-www.cs.ucla.edu/fmg-members/geoff/ispell.html] or aspell [http:
+      //aspell.sourceforge.net/] installed and in your Path. Then you
+      need ispell.el [http://www.kdstevens.com/~stevens/ispell-page.html]
+      and for on-the-fly spell-checking flyspell.el [http://
+      www-sop.inria.fr/mimosa/personnel/Manuel.Serrano/flyspell/
+      flyspell.html]. Ispell.el is shipped with Gnus Emacs and available
+      through the Emacs package system, flyspell.el is shipped with Emacs
+      and part of XEmacs text-modes package which is available through
+      the package system, so there should be no need to install them
+      manually.
+
+      Ispell.el assumes you use ispell, if you choose aspell say
+
+      (setq ispell-program-name "aspell")
+
+      in your Emacs configuration file.
+
+      If you want your outgoing messages to be spell-checked, say
+
+      (add-hook 'message-send-hook 'ispell-message)
+
+      In your ~/.gnus, if you prefer on-the-fly spell-checking say
+
+      (add-hook 'message-mode-hook (lambda () (flyspell-mode 1)))
+
+5.6.  Can I set the dictionary based on the group I'm posting to?
+
+      Yes, say something like
+
+      (add-hook 'gnus-select-group-hook
+                (lambda ()
+                  (cond
+                   ((string-match
+                     "^de\\." (gnus-group-real-name gnus-newsgroup-name))
+                    (ispell-change-dictionary "deutsch8"))
+                   (t
+                    (ispell-change-dictionary "english")))))
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus. Change "^de\\." and "deutsch8" to something that suits
+      your needs.
+
+5.7.  Is there some kind of address-book, so I needn't remember all those
+      email addresses?
+
+      There's an very basic solution for this, mail aliases. You can
+      store your mail addresses in a ~/.mailrc file using a simple alias
+      syntax:
+
+      alias al        "Al <al@english-heritage.bla>"
+
+
+      Then typing your alias (followed by a space or punctuation
+      character) on a To: or Cc: line in the message buffer will cause
+      gnus to insert the full address for you. See the node "Mail
+      Aliases" in Message (not Gnus) manual for details.
+
+      However, what you really want is the Insidious Big Brother Database
+      bbdb. Get it through the XEmacs package system or from bbdb's
+      homepage [http://bbdb.sourceforge.net/]. Now place the following in
+      ~/.gnus, to activate bbdb for Gnus:
+
+      (require 'bbdb)
+      (bbdb-initialize 'gnus 'message)
+
+
+      Now you probably want some general bbdb configuration, place them
+      in ~/.emacs:
+
+      (require 'bbdb)
+      ;;If you don't live in Northern America, you should disable the
+      ;;syntax check for telephone numbers by saying
+      (setq bbdb-north-american-phone-numbers-p nil)
+      ;;Tell bbdb about your email address:
+      (setq bbdb-user-mail-names
+            (regexp-opt '("Your.Email@here.bla"
+                          "Your.other@mail.there.bla")))
+      ;;cycling while completing email addresses
+      (setq bbdb-complete-name-allow-cycling t)
+      ;;No popup-buffers
+      (setq bbdb-use-pop-up nil)
+
+
+      Now you should be ready to go. Say M-x bbdb RET RET to open a bbdb
+      buffer showing all entries. Say c to create a new entry, b to
+      search your BBDB and C-o to add a new field to an entry. If you
+      want to add a sender to the BBDB you can also just hit `:' on the
+      posting in the summary buffer and you are done. When you now
+      compose a new mail, hit TAB to cycle through know recipients.
+
+5.8.  Sometimes I see little images at the top of article buffer. What's
+      that and how can I send one with my postings, too?
+
+      Those images are called X-Faces. They are 48*48 pixel b/w pictures,
+      encoded in a header line. If you want to include one in your posts,
+      you've got to convert some image to a X-Face. So fire up some image
+      manipulation program (say Gimp), open the image you want to
+      include, cut out the relevant part, reduce color depth to 1 bit,
+      resize to 48*48 and save as bitmap. Now you should get the compface
+      package from this site [ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu:/pub/faces/]. and
+      create the actual X-face by saying
+
+      cat file.xbm | xbm2ikon |compface > file.face
+      cat ./file.face | sed 's/\\/\\\\/g' | sed 's/\"/\\\"/g' > ./file.face.quoted
+
+
+      if you can't use compface, there's an online X-face converter at
+      http://www.dairiki.org/xface/ [http://www.dairiki.org/xface/]. If
+      you use MS Windows, you could also use the WinFace program from
+      http://www.xs4all.nl/~walterln/winface/ [http://www.xs4all.nl/
+      ~walterln/winface/]. Now you only have to tell Gnus to include the
+      X-face in your postings by saying
+
+      (setq message-default-headers
+              (with-temp-buffer
+                (insert "X-Face: ")
+                (insert-file-contents "~/.xemacs/xface")
+                (buffer-string)))
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus.
+
+5.9.  Sometimes I accidentally hit r instead of f in newsgroups. Can Gnus
+      warn me, when I'm replying by mail in newsgroups?
+
+      Put this in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (setq gnus-confirm-mail-reply-to-news t)
+
+
+      if you already use Gnus 5.10.0, if you still use 5.8.8 or 5.9 try
+      this instead:
+
+      (defadvice gnus-summary-reply (around reply-in-news activate)
+             (interactive)
+              (when (or (not (gnus-news-group-p gnus-newsgroup-name))
+                        (y-or-n-p "Really reply? "))
+               ad-do-it))
+
+
+5.10. How to tell Gnus not to generate a sender header?
+
+      Since 5.10.0 Gnus doesn't generate a sender header by default. For
+      older Gnus' try this in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (eval-after-load "message"
+            '(add-to-list 'message-syntax-checks '(sender . disabled)))
+
+
+5.11. I want gnus to locally store copies of my send mail and news, how
+      to do it?
+
+      You must set the variable gnus-message-archive-group to do this.
+      You can set it to a string giving the name of the group where the
+      copies shall go or like in the example below use a function which
+      is evaluated and which returns the group to use.
+
+      (setq gnus-message-archive-group
+              '((if (message-news-p)
+                    "nnml:Send-News"
+                  "nnml:Send-Mail")))
+
+
+5.12. People tell me my Message-IDs are not correct, why aren't they and
+      how to fix it?
+
+      The message-ID is an unique identifier for messages you send. To
+      make it unique, Gnus need to know which machine name to put after
+      the "@". If the name of the machine where Gnus is running isn't
+      suitable (it probably isn't at most private machines) you can tell
+      Gnus what to use by saying:
+
+      (defun message-make-message-id()
+         (concat "<"(message-unique-id)"@yourmachine.yourdomain.tld>"))
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus. If you have no idea what to insert for
+      "yourmachine.yourdomain.tld", you've got several choices. You can
+      either ask your provider if he allows you to use something like
+      yourUserName.userfqdn.provider.net, or you can use
+      somethingUnique.yourdomain.tld if you own the domain
+      yourdomain.tld, or you can register at a service which gives
+      private users a FQDN for free, e.g. http://www.stura.tu-freiberg.de
+      /~dlx/addfqdn.html [http://www.stura.tu-freiberg.de/~dlx/
+      addfqdn.html]. (Sorry but this website is in German, if you know of
+      an English one offering the same, drop me a note).
+
+      Finally you can tell Gnus not to generate a Message-ID for News at
+      all (and letting the server do the job) by saying
+
+      (setq message-required-news-headers
+        (remove' Message-ID message-required-news-headers))
+
+
+      you can also tell Gnus not to generate Message-IDs for mail by
+      saying
+
+      (setq message-required-mail-headers
+        (remove' Message-ID message-required-mail-headers))
+
+
+      , however some mail servers don't generate proper Message-IDs, too,
+      so test if your Mail Server behaves correctly by sending yourself a
+      Mail and looking at the Message-ID.
+
+6. Old messages
+
+6.1.  How to import my old mail into Gnus?
+
+      The easiest way is to tell your old mail program to export the
+      messages in mbox format. Most Unix mailers are able to do this, if
+      you come from the MS Windows world, you may find tools at http://
+      mbx2mbox.sourceforge.net/ [http://mbx2mbox.sourceforge.net/].
+
+      Now you've got to import this mbox file into Gnus. To do this,
+      create a nndoc group based on the mbox file by saying G f /path/
+      file.mbox RET in Group buffer. You now have read-only access to
+      your mail. If you want to import the messages to your normal Gnus
+      mail groups hierarchy, enter the nndoc group you've just created by
+      saying C-u RET (thus making sure all messages are retrieved), mark
+      all messages by saying M P b and either copy them to the desired
+      group by saying B c name.of.group RET or send them through
+      nnmail-split-methods (respool them) by saying B r.
+
+6.2.  How to archive interesting messages?
+
+      If you stumble across an interesting message, say in gnu.emacs.gnus
+      and want to archive it there are several solutions. The first and
+      easiest is to save it to a file by saying O f. However, wouldn't it
+      be much more convenient to have more direct access to the archived
+      message from Gnus? If you say yes, put this snippet by Frank Haun
+      <pille3003@fhaun.de> in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (defun my-archive-article (&optional n)
+        "Copies one or more article(s) to a corresponding `nnml:' group, e.g.
+      `gnus.ding' goes to `nnml:1.gnus.ding'. And `nnml:List-gnus.ding' goes
+      to `nnml:1.List-gnus-ding'.
+
+      Use process marks or mark a region in the summary buffer to archive
+      more then one article."
+        (interactive "P")
+        (let ((archive-name
+               (format
+                "nnml:1.%s"
+                (if (featurep 'xemacs)
+                    (replace-in-string gnus-newsgroup-name "^.*:" "")
+                  (replace-regexp-in-string "^.*:" "" gnus-newsgroup-name)))))
+          (gnus-summary-copy-article n archive-name)))
+
+
+      You can now say M-x my-archive-article in summary buffer to archive
+      the article under the cursor in a nnml group. (Change nnml to your
+      preferred back end)
+
+      Of course you can also make sure the cache is enabled by saying
+
+      (setq gnus-use-cache t)
+
+
+      then you only have to set either the tick or the dormant mark for
+      articles you want to keep, setting the read mark will remove them
+      from cache.
+
+6.3.  How to search for a specific message?
+
+      There are several ways for this, too. For a posting from a Usenet
+      group the easiest solution is probably to ask groups.google.com
+      [http://groups.google.com], if you found the posting there, tell
+      Google to display the raw message, look for the message-id, and say
+      M-^ the@message.id RET in a summary buffer. Since Gnus 5.10.0
+      there's also a Gnus interface for groups.google.com which you can
+      call with G W) in group buffer.
+
+      Another idea which works for both mail and news groups is to enter
+      the group where the message you are searching is and use the
+      standard Emacs search C-s, it's smart enough to look at articles in
+      collapsed threads, too. If you want to search bodies, too try M-s
+      instead. Further on there are the gnus-summary-limit-to-foo
+      functions, which can help you, too.
+
+      Of course you can also use grep to search through your local mail,
+      but this is both slow for big archives and inconvenient since you
+      are not displaying the found mail in Gnus. Here comes nnir into
+      action. Nnir is a front end to search engines like swish-e or
+      swish++ and others. You index your mail with one of those search
+      engines and with the help of nnir you can search trough the indexed
+      mail and generate a temporary group with all messages which met
+      your search criteria. If this sound cool to you get nnir.el from
+      ftp://ls6-ftp.cs.uni-dortmund.de/pub/src/emacs/ [ftp://
+      ls6-ftp.cs.uni-dortmund.de/pub/src/emacs/] or ftp://
+      ftp.is.informatik.uni-duisburg.de/pub/src/emacs/ [ftp://
+      ftp.is.informatik.uni-duisburg.de/pub/src/emacs/]. Instructions on
+      how to use it are at the top of the file.
+
+6.4.  How to get rid of old unwanted mail?
+
+      You can of course just mark the mail you don't need anymore by
+      saying # with point over the mail and then say B DEL to get rid of
+      them forever. You could also instead of actually deleting them,
+      send them to a junk-group by saying B m nnml:trash-bin which you
+      clear from time to time, but both are not the intended way in Gnus.
+
+      In Gnus, we let mail expire like news expires on a news server.
+      That means you tell Gnus the message is expirable (you tell Gnus "I
+      don't need this mail anymore") by saying E with point over the mail
+      in summary buffer. Now when you leave the group, Gnus looks at all
+      messages which you marked as expirable before and if they are old
+      enough (default is older than a week) they are deleted.
+
+6.5.  I want that all read messages are expired (at least in some
+      groups). How to do it?
+
+      If you want all read messages to be expired (e.g. in mailing lists
+      where there's an online archive), you've got two choices:
+      auto-expire and total-expire. Auto-expire means, that every article
+      which has no marks set and is selected for reading is marked as
+      expirable, Gnus hits E for you every time you read a message.
+      Total-expire follows a slightly different approach, here all
+      article where the read mark is set are expirable.
+
+      To activate auto-expire, include auto-expire in the Group
+      parameters for the group. (Hit G c in summary buffer with point
+      over the group to change group parameters). For total-expire add
+      total-expire to the group-parameters.
+
+      Which method you choose is merely a matter of taste: Auto-expire is
+      faster, but it doesn't play together with Adaptive Scoring, so if
+      you want to use this feature, you should use total-expire.
+
+      If you want a message to be excluded from expiration in a group
+      where total or auto expire is active, set either tick (hit u) or
+      dormant mark (hit u), when you use auto-expire, you can also set
+      the read mark (hit d).
+
+6.6.  I don't want expiration to delete my mails but to move them to
+      another group.
+
+      Say something like this in ~/.gnus:
+
+      (setq nnmail-expiry-target "nnml:expired")
+
+
+      (If you want to change the value of nnmail-expiry-target on a per
+      group basis see the question "How can I disable threading in some
+      (e.g. mail-) groups, or set other variables specific for some
+      groups?")
+
+7. Gnus in a dial-up environment
+
+7.1.  I don't have a permanent connection to the net, how can I minimize
+      the time I've got to be connected?
+
+      You've got basically two options: Either you use the Gnus Agent
+      (see below) for this, or you can install programs which fetch your
+      news and mail to your local disk and Gnus reads the stuff from your
+      local machine.
+
+      If you want to follow the second approach, you need a program which
+      fetches news and offers them to Gnus, a program which does the same
+      for mail and a program which receives the mail you write from Gnus
+      and sends them when you're online.
+
+      Let's talk about Unix systems first: For the news part, the easiest
+      solution is a small nntp server like Leafnode [http://
+      www.leafnode.org/] or sn [http://infa.abo.fi/~patrik/sn/], of
+      course you can also install a full featured news server like inn
+      [http://www.isc.org/products/INN/]. Then you want to fetch your
+      Mail, popular choices are fetchmail [http://www.catb.org/~esr/
+      fetchmail/] and getmail [http://www.qcc.ca/~charlesc/software/
+      getmail-3.0/]. You should tell those to write the mail to your disk
+      and Gnus to read it from there. Last but not least the mail sending
+      part: This can be done with every MTA like sendmail [http://
+      www.sendmail.org/], postfix [http://www.qmail.org/], exim [http://
+      www.exim.org/] or qmail [http://www.qmail.org/].
+
+      On windows boxes I'd vote for Hamster [http://www.tglsoft.de/],
+      it's a small freeware, open-source program which fetches your mail
+      and news from remote servers and offers them to Gnus (or any other
+      mail and/or news reader) via nntp respectively POP3 or IMAP. It
+      also includes a smtp server for receiving mails from Gnus.
+
+7.2.  So what was this thing about the Agent?
+
+      The Gnus agent is part of Gnus, it allows you to fetch mail and
+      news and store them on disk for reading them later when you're
+      offline. It kind of mimics offline newsreaders like e.g. Forte
+      Agent. If you want to use the Agent place the following in ~/.gnus
+      if you are still using 5.8.8 or 5.9 (it's the default since
+      5.10.0):
+
+      (setq gnus-agent t)
+
+
+      Now you've got to select the servers whose groups can be stored
+      locally. To do this, open the server buffer (that is press ^ while
+      in the group buffer). Now select a server by moving point to the
+      line naming that server. Finally, agentize the server by typing J a
+      . If you make a mistake, or change your mind, you can undo this
+      action by typing J r. When you're done, type 'q' to return to the
+      group buffer. Now the next time you enter a group on a agentized
+      server, the headers will be stored on disk and read from there the
+      next time you enter the group.
+
+7.3.  I want to store article bodies on disk, too. How to do it?
+
+      You can tell the agent to automatically fetch the bodies of
+      articles which fulfill certain predicates, this is done in a
+      special buffer which can be reached by saying J c in group buffer.
+      Please refer to the documentation for information which predicates
+      are possible and how exactly to do it.
+
+      Further on you can tell the agent manually which articles to store
+      on disk. There are two ways to do this: Number one: In the summary
+      buffer, process mark a set of articles that shall be stored in the
+      agent by saying # with point over the article and then type J s.
+      The other possibility is to set, again in the summary buffer,
+      downloadable (%) marks for the articles you want by typing @ with
+      point over the article and then typing J u. What's the difference?
+      Well, process marks are erased as soon as you exit the summary
+      buffer while downloadable marks are permanent. You can actually set
+      downloadable marks in several groups then use fetch session ('J s'
+      in the GROUP buffer) to fetch all of those articles. The only
+      downside is that fetch session also fetches all of the headers for
+      every selected group on an agentized server. Depending on the
+      volume of headers, the initial fetch session could take hours.
+
+7.4.  How to tell Gnus not to try to send mails / postings while I'm
+      offline?
+
+      All you've got to do is to tell Gnus when you are online (plugged)
+      and when you are offline (unplugged), the rest works automatically.
+      You can toggle plugged/unplugged state by saying J j in group
+      buffer. To start Gnus unplugged say M-x gnus-unplugged instead of
+      M-x gnus. Note that for this to work, the agent must be active.
+
+8. Getting help
+
+8.1.  How to find information and help inside Emacs?
+
+      The first stop should be the Gnus manual (Say C-h i d m Gnus RET to
+      start the Gnus manual, then walk through the menus or do a
+      full-text search with s). Then there are the general Emacs help
+      commands starting with C-h, type C-h ? ? to get a list of all
+      available help commands and their meaning. Finally M-x
+      apropos-command lets you search through all available functions and
+      M-x apropos searches the bound variables.
+
+8.2.  I can't find anything in the Gnus manual about X (e.g. attachments,
+      PGP, MIME...), is it not documented?
+
+      There's not only the Gnus manual but also the manuals for message,
+      emacs-mime, sieve and pgg. Those packages are distributed with Gnus
+      and used by Gnus but aren't really part of core Gnus, so they are
+      documented in different info files, you should have a look in those
+      manuals, too.
+
+8.3.  Which websites should I know?
+
+      The two most important ones are the official Gnus website [http://
+      www.gnus.org]. and it's sister site my.gnus.org (MGO) [http://
+      my.gnus.org], hosting an archive of lisp snippets, howtos, a (not
+      really finished) tutorial and this FAQ.
+
+      Tell me about other sites which are interesting.
+
+8.4.  Which mailing lists and newsgroups are there?
+
+      There's the newsgroup gnu.emacs.gnus (pull it from e.g.
+      news.gnus.org) which deals with general questions and the ding
+      mailing list (ding@gnus.org) dealing with development of Gnus. You
+      can read the ding list via NNTP, too under the name gnus.ding from
+      news.gnus.org.
+
+      If you want to stay in the big8, news.software.newssreaders is also
+      read by some Gnus users (but chances for qualified help are much
+      better in the above groups) and if you speak German, there's
+      de.comm.software.gnus.
+
+8.5.  Where to report bugs?
+
+      Say M-x gnus-bug, this will start a message to the gnus bug mailing
+      list [mailto:bugs@gnus.org] including information about your
+      environment which make it easier to help you.
+
+8.6.  I need real-time help, where to find it?
+
+      Point your IRC client to irc.my.gnus.org channel #mygnus. Don't be
+      afraid if people there speak German, they are willing and capable
+      of switching to English when people from outside Germany enter.
+
+9. Tuning Gnus
+
+9.1.  Starting Gnus is really slow, how to speed it up?
+
+      The reason for this could be the way Gnus reads it's active file,
+      see the node "The Active File" in the Gnus manual for things you
+      might try to speed the process up. An other idea would be to byte
+      compile your ~/.gnus (say M-x byte-compile-file RET ~/.gnus RET to
+      do it). Finally, if you have require statements in your .gnus, you
+      could replace them with eval-after-load, which loads the stuff not
+      at startup time, but when it's needed. Say you've got this in your
+      ~/.gnus:
+
+      (require 'message)
+      (add-to-list 'message-syntax-checks '(sender . disabled))
+
+
+      then as soon as you start Gnus, message.el is loaded. If you
+      replace it with
+
+      (eval-after-load "message"
+            '(add-to-list 'message-syntax-checks '(sender . disabled)))
+
+
+      it's loaded when it's needed.
+
+9.2.  How to speed up the process of entering a group?
+
+      A speed killer is setting the variable gnus-fetch-old-headers to
+      anything different from nil, so don't do this if speed is an issue.
+      To speed up building of summary say
+
+      (gnus-compile)
+
+
+      at the bottom of your ~/.gnus, this will make gnus byte-compile
+      things like gnus-summary-line-format. then you could increase the
+      value of gc-cons-threshold by saying something like
+
+      (setq gc-cons-threshold 3500000)
+
+
+      in ~/.emacs. If you don't care about width of CJK characters or use
+      Gnus 5.10.0 or younger together with a recent GNU Emacs, you should
+      say
+
+      (setq gnus-use-correct-string-widths nil)
+
+
+      in ~/.gnus (thanks to Jesper harder for the last two suggestions).
+      Finally if you are still using 5.8.8 or 5.9 and experience speed
+      problems with summary buffer generation, you definitely should
+      update to 5.10.0 since there quite some work on improving it has
+      been done.
+
+9.3.  Sending mail becomes slower and slower, what's up?
+
+      The reason could be that you told Gnus to archive the messages you
+      wrote by setting gnus-message-archive-group. Try to use a nnml
+      group instead of an archive group, this should bring you back to
+      normal speed.
+
+Glossary
+
+~/.gnus
+
+    When the term ~/.gnus is used it just means your Gnus
+    configuration file. You might as well call it ~/.gnus.el or
+    specify another name.
+
+Back End
+
+    In Gnus terminology a back end is a virtual server, a layer
+    between core Gnus and the real NNTP-, POP3-, IMAP- or
+    whatever-server which offers Gnus a standardized interface to
+    functions like "get message", "get Headers" etc.
+
+Emacs
+
+    When the term Emacs is used in this FAQ, it means either GNU
+    Emacs or XEmacs.
+
+Message
+
+    In this FAQ message means a either a mail or a posting to a
+    Usenet Newsgroup or to some other fancy back end, no matter of
+    which kind it is.
+
+MUA
+
+    MUA is an acronym for Mail User Agent, it's the program you use
+    to read and write e-mails.
+
+NUA
+
+    NUA is an acronym for News User Agent, it's the program you use
+    to read and write Usenet news.
Added
New image
Added
New image
+/* XPM */
+static char * catchup_xpm[] = {
+"24 24 6 1",
+" 	c None",
+".	c #FFFFFFFFFFFF",
+"X	c #E1E1E0E0E0E0",
+"o	c #A5A5A5A59595",
+"O	c #999999999999",
+"+	c #000000000000",
+"                        ",