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hyperbole / man / hyperbole.texi

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\input psfig.sty
\input texinfo
@c
@c FILE:         hyperbole.texi
@c SUMMARY:      The Hyperbole User Manual for V4
@c USAGE:        Hardcopy man from TeX; Info man from `texinfo-format-buffer'.
@c
@c AUTHOR:       Bob Weiner
@c
@c ORG:          BeOpen.com
@c               The Force for Open Source(TM)
@c
@c               Web:    www.beopen.com - Learn all about Open Source.
@c               E-mail: <info@beopen.com>  
@c
@c ORIG-DATE:     6-Nov-91 at 11:18:03
@c LAST-MOD:     14-Jul-99 at 18:37:57 by Bob Weiner

@c %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@setfilename hyperbole.info
@settitle BeOpen.com Hyperbole Manual
@c
@c Comment the @smallbook line out if you want to print on letter sized paper.
@c Smallbook formats for 7x9.25 inch book-sized printing.
@smallbook
@setchapternewpage odd
@direntry
* Hyperbole: (hyperbole). Everyday net-centric information management system.
@end direntry
@c %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@synindex vr fn

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@c @ifinfo
@c @format
@c START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
@c * Hyperbole::                       Everyday net-centric information management system.
@c      Use {C-h h d d} for a demonstration.  Includes context-sensitive
@c      mouse and keyboard support, a powerful contact manager, an autonumbered
@c      outliner with hyperlink anchors for each outline cell, and extensible
@c      hypertext facilities including hyperlinks in mail and news messages.
@c END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
@c @end format
@c @end ifinfo

@titlepage
@title BeOpen.com Hyperbole
@subtitle The Everyday Net-centric Information Manager
@sp 2
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/hyperbole-cv.ps,width=5in}}
@sp 2
@author Bob Weiner

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999  BeOpen.com
@sp 2
@format
Edition 4.18
Printed July 14, 1999.
@end format
@sp 1
@example
  Published by BeOpen.com
  E-mail:    <info@@beopen.com>
  Web:       www.beopen.com
@end example
@sp 1
All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective
holders.
@sp 1
Laura Bui designed the cover.  The body of the manual was written in
InfoDock and laid out using the GNU Texinfo markup language.
@sp 1
@cindex support
BeOpen.com sells professional releases, commercial support and upgrade
plans for Hyperbole and InfoDock (an industrial quality turnkey software
development and internet productivity suite).@refill
@sp 1
BeOpen.com distributes the Hyperbole software under the terms of version
one of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.  If
you need a copy, write to the Free Software Foundation, 675
Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
@sp 1
Hyperbole is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY, without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
@end titlepage

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Preface


@ifhtml
<CENTER><H1>BeOpen.com Hyperbole</H1></CENTER>

<CENTER><H2>The Everyday Net-centric Information Manager</H2></CENTER>

Copyright &copy; 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999  BeOpen.com

<P>Hyperbole is available for use, modification, and distribution under
the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) Version 1 as published
by the Free Software Foundation, with all rights and responsibilities
thereof.</P>

<P>Hyperbole is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.</P>

<PRE>
Edition 4.18
Printed July 14, 1999.

  Published by BeOpen.com
  E-mail:    &lt;info@beopen.com&gt;
  Web:       www.beopen.com
</PRE>

<P>All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective
holders.</P>

<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Screenshot of the Hyperbole Outliner, Demonstration and Rolo</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Hyperbole Screenshot" SRC="im/hyperbole-cv.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>

<P>BeOpen.com is the developer and chief support organization for
Hyperbole, InfoDock (a professional-quality turnkey software development
and internet productivity suite) and the OO-Browser (a fast, multi-language
object-oriented code browser).</P>

<P>BeOpen.com, in tandem with the Open Source community, builds, supports,
funds, and promotes Open Source Software (OSS) solutions for
organizational and individual use.  All of the software we index and
distribute at www.BeOpen.com is Open Source.  The more you visit this
site, the more OSS solutions we can bring you and the better we can
tailor the site to your needs.</P>
@end ifhtml

@ifinfo

@center BeOpen.com Hyperbole

@center The Everyday Net-centric Information Manager

@center Edition 4.18, July 14, 1999.

@sp 2
@noindent
Copyright @copyright{} 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999  BeOpen.com

Hyperbole is available for use, modification, and distribution under the
terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) Version 1 as published by the
Free Software Foundation, with all rights and responsibilities thereof.

Hyperbole is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY, without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
@sp 2

@example
  Published by BeOpen.com
  E-mail:    <info@@beopen.com>
  Web:       www.beopen.com
@end example

All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective
holders.

Mouse click on the following filename to view a sample Hyperbole
screenshot showing excerpts from the Outliner, the Demonstration and the
Rolo: @file{im/hyperbole-cv.gif}.  Under InfoDock, use the middle
mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole system loaded,
use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two button mouse.
Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.

@cindex support
@cindex Hyperbole support
BeOpen.com is the developer and chief support organization for
Hyperbole, InfoDock (a professional-quality turnkey software development
and internet productivity suite) and the OO-Browser (a fast,
multi-language object-oriented code browser).@refill

BeOpen.com, in tandem with the Open Source community, builds, supports,
funds, and promotes Open Source Software (OSS) solutions for
organizational and individual use.  All of the software we index and
distribute at www.BeOpen.com is Open Source.  The more you visit this
site, the more OSS solutions we can bring you and the better we can
tailor the site to your needs.@refill
@sp 1
@center --------------------
@sp 1
@end ifinfo

Database vendors apply tremendous resources to help solve corporate
information management problems.  But the information that people deal
with in their everyday worklife is seldom stored away in neatly defined
database schemas.  Instead it is scattered among local and remote files,
e-mail messages, faxes, voice mail and web pages.

The rise of the web has demonstrated how hypertext technologies can be
used to build massive organized repositories of scattered information.
But assembling information for the web still remains a great challenge
to many and the data formats of the web are inherently still too
structured to deal with the great variety of information that people
process.  Modern web site development often requires the use of many
languages: HTML, Java, Javascript, and Perl.  This in itself prevents
its use as the prime means of organizing and interlinking the constant
flows of daily information.

Hyperbole takes a distinctly different approach.  It has its own
hypertext technology that can interface perfectly with web links but
which are much easier to create (simply drag from source to destination
of a link).  Hyperbole hyperbuttons not only can link to static
information but can perform arbitrary actions through the use of button
types written in a single, highly interactive language.  Hyperbole adds
all of this power to your written documents, e-mail, news articles,
contact management, outlines and requirements documents, directory
listings, and much more.

Unlock the power of Hyperbole to make your information work for you.
One system. One language.  One manual.  One company.  One solution.
Learn Hyperbole and start moving further, faster.

@sp 1
@center --------------------
@sp 1

@cindex credits
@cindex InfoDock, obtaining
@cindex Hyperbole, obtaining
@cindex anonymous ftp
Hyperbole was designed and written by Bob Weiner of BeOpen.com
Motorola, Inc.@: helped fund early work.  @xref{Obtaining}, for
information on how to obtain Hyperbole.

We hope you enjoy using Hyperbole and that it improves your
productivity.  If it does, consider sending us a quote that discusses
how it helps you, for use on our web site.  E-mail it to
<quotes@@beopen.com>.

Before we delve into Hyperbole, a number of acknowledgments are in
order.  Peter Wegner and Morris Moore encouraged the growth of this
work.  Doug Engelbart showed us the bigger picture and continues to
be an inspiration.  His life-long quest at augmenting individual and
team capabilities represents a model from which we are beginning to
draw. Chris Nuzum has used Hyperbole since its inception, often
demonstrating its power in creative ways.

@menu
* Introduction::                
* Smart Keys::                  
* Buttons::                     
* Menus::                       
* Outliner::                    
* Rolo::                        
* Window Configurations::       
* Developing with Hyperbole::   
* Glossary::                    
* Installation::                
* Smart Key Reference::         
* Outliner Keys::               
* Suggestion or Bug Reporting::  
* Questions and Answers::       
* Future Work::                 
* References::                  
* Key Index::                   
* Code and File Index::         
* Concept Index::               

@detailmenu --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Hyperbole Overview::          
* Hyperbole Buttons::           
* Discussion Forums::           
* Manual Overview::             

Smart Keys

* Smart Key Assignments::       
* Smart Key Operations::        
* Entering Arguments::          

Buttons

* Explicit Buttons::            
* Global Buttons::              
* Implicit Buttons::            
* Action Types::                
* Button Type Precedence::      
* Button Files::                
* Utilizing Explicit Buttons::  

Utilizing Explicit Buttons

* Creation::                    
* Renaming::                    
* Deletion::                    
* Modification::                
* Location::                    
* Buttons in Mail::             
* Buttons in News::             

Creation

* By Dragging::                 Creation Via Action Key Drags
* By Menu::                     Creation Via Menus

Outliner

* Menu Commands::               
* Creating Outlines::           
* Autonumbering::               
* Idstamps::                    
* Editing::                     
* Viewing::                     
* Links::                       
* Cell Attributes::             
* Outliner History::            

Editing

* Adding and Killing::          
* Relocating and Copying::      
* Moving Around::               
* Filling::                     
* Transposing::                 
* Splitting and Appending::     
* Inserting and Importing::     
* Exporting::                   

Viewing

* Hiding and Showing::          
* View Specs::                  

Rolo

* Rolo Concepts::               
* Rolo Menu::                   
* Rolo Searching::              
* Rolo Keys::                   
* Rolo Settings::               

Developing with Hyperbole

* Hook Variables::              
* Creating Types::              
* Explicit Button Technicalities::  
* Encapsulating Systems::       
* Embedding Hyperbole::         

Creating Types

* Action Type Creation::        
* Implicit Button Types::       

Explicit Button Technicalities

* Button Label Normalization::  
* Operational and Storage Formats::  
* Programmatic Button Creation::  

Installation

* Obtaining::                   
* Installing::                  
* Configuring::                 

Configuring

* Using URLs with Find-File::   
* Internal Viewers::            
* External Viewers::            
* Link Variable Substitution::  
* Button Colors::               

Smart Key Reference

* Smart Mouse Keys::            
* Smart Keyboard Keys::         

@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, Smart Keys, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction

This manual explains user operation and summarizes basic developer
facilities of Hyperbole.  Hyperbole version 4 provides convenient access
to information and control over its display.  The Hyperbole outliner
offers flexible views and structure manipulation within bodies of
information.

Throughout this manual, sequences of keystrokes are delimited by curly
braces @{ @}, function names are delimited by parentheses ( ), and 
variable names are @var{emphasized}.@refill

This chapter describes Hyperbole, lists some of its potential
applications, explains how to subscribe to its mail lists, and then
summarizes the structure of the rest of the manual.

@menu
* Hyperbole Overview::          
* Hyperbole Buttons::           
* Discussion Forums::           
* Manual Overview::             
@end menu

@node Hyperbole Overview, Hyperbole Buttons, Introduction, Introduction
@section   Hyperbole Overview

This edition of the Hyperbole Manual is for use with any version
4.17 or greater of Hyperbole.

@cindex Hyperbole
@cindex hypertext
@cindex Emacs Lisp
@cindex Emacs 19
@cindex XEmacs
Hyperbole (pronounced Hi-per-bo-lee) is an open, efficient, and
programmable hypertextual information management and outliner system.
It is intended for everyday work on any UNIX, Windows, DOS or Mac
platform and runs as a subsystem of InfoDock or Emacs, the powerful text
editing environment.  It works well with InfoDock and the versions of
Emacs that support multiple X or NEXTSTEP windows: Emacs 19 or XEmacs.
Hyperbole allows hypertext buttons to be embedded within unstructured
and structured files, mail messages and news articles.  It offers
intuitive mouse-based control of information display within multiple
windows.  It also provides point-and-click access to Info manuals, ftp
archives, Wide-Area Information Servers (WAIS), and the World-Wide Web
(WWW) hypertext system through encapsulations of software that support
these protocols.

@noindent
Hyperbole consists of four parts:

@table @emph
@item Info Management
an interactive information management interface, including a powerful
rolo, which anyone can use.  It is easy to learn to use since it
introduces only a few new mechanisms and has a menu interface, which may
be operated from the keyboard or the mouse;

@item Hypertext Outliner
an outliner with multi-level autonumbering and permanent identifiers
attached to each outline node for use as hypertext link anchors, plus
flexible view specifications that can be embedded within links or used
interactively;

@item Button Types
a set of hyper-button types that provides core hypertext and other
behaviors.  Users can make simple changes to button types.  Emacs Lisp
programmers can quickly prototype and deliver new types;

@item Programming Library
a set of programming library classes for system developers who want to
integrate Hyperbole with another user interface or as a back-end to a
distinct system.  (All of Hyperbole is written in Emacs Lisp for ease of
modification.  It has been engineered for real-world usage and is well
structured.)
@end table

@cindex GNU Emacs
@kindex C-h t
@vindex file, DEMO
@cindex demonstration
@cindex button demo
Hyperbole may be used simply for browsing through documents
pre-configured with Hyperbole buttons, in which case, one can safely
ignore most of the information in this manual.  The @file{DEMO} file
included in the Hyperbole distribution demonstrates many of Hyperbole's
standard facilities.  It offers a much less technical introduction for
Hyperbole users by supplying good examples of how buttons may be
used and an introduction to the outliner.

@iftex
@sp 2
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Hyperbole Minibuffer Menu and Demo Sample}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/demo.ps,width=5in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Hyperbole Minibuffer Menu and Demo Sample</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Hyperbole Demo" SRC="im/demo.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/demo.gif}.  Under InfoDock, use the
middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole system
loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two button
mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo


So if this manual is too detailed for your taste, skip it entirely and
jump right into the demonstration, normally by typing
@{@kbd{C-h h d d}@}, assuming Hyperbole has already been installed at
your site.  @xref{Installation}, otherwise, for Hyperbole installation
and configuration information.

Many users, however, will want to do more than browse with Hyperbole,
e.g.@: create their own buttons.  The standard Hyperbole button editing
user interface is Emacs-based, so a basic familiarity with the Emacs
editing model is useful.  The material covered in the Emacs
tutorial, normally bound to @{@kbd{C-h t}@}, is more than
sufficient as background.  @xref{Glossary,,,xemacs,the XEmacs Manual},
if some emacs-related terms are unfamiliar to you.


@node Hyperbole Buttons, Discussion Forums, Hyperbole Overview, Introduction
@section   Hyperbole Buttons

@cindex button
A Hyperbole user works with chunks of information that need to
be organized, interlinked, and processed.  Such chunks can be
hyperbuttons, rolo entries, nodes in an outline, or even database
query results.  This overview discusses buttons only, as other chapters
introduce the other parts of Hyperbole.

Hyperbole @emph{buttons} are embedded within textual documents; they may
be created, modified, moved or deleted.  Each button performs a specific
action, such as linking to a file or executing a shell command.

@cindex button, explicit
@cindex button, global
@cindex button, implicit
@cindex button category
@cindex explicit button
@cindex global button
@cindex implicit button
@noindent
There are three categories of Hyperbole buttons:
@table @dfn
@item explicit buttons
created by Hyperbole, accessible from within a single document;

@item global buttons
created by Hyperbole, specific to each user, and accessible anywhere
within a user's network of documents;

@item implicit buttons
created and managed by other programs or embedded within the structure
of a document, accessible from within a single document.  Hyperbole
recognizes implicit buttons by contextual patterns given in their type
specifications (explained later).
@end table

Explicit Hyperbole buttons may be embedded within any type of text file.
Implicit buttons may appear only within document contexts allowed by
their types, which may limit the kinds of documents or the locations
within those documents at which such buttons may be found.  All global
buttons for a user are stored in a single location and are activated by
entering their names, rather than by direct selection, the means used to
activate explicit and implicit buttons.

@noindent
To summarize:

@smallexample
Button Category   Active Within        Activation Means      Managed By
========================================================================
Explicit          a single document    direct selection      Hyperbole
Global            any document         entering its name     Hyperbole
Implicit          a matching context   direct selection      other tools

@end smallexample

@cindex terminal use
A click on a Hyperbole button may activate it or describe its actions,
depending on which mouse key is used.  A user always can check how a
button will behave before activating it.  Buttons may also be activated
from a keyboard.  (In fact, virtually all Hyperbole operations,
including menu usage, may be performed from any standard character
terminal interface, so one need not be anchored to a workstation all
day).  @xref{Smart Keys}.

@cindex Hyperbole features
Hyperbole does not enforce any particular hypertext or information
management model, but instead allows you to organize your information in
large or small chunks as you see fit.  The Hyperbole outliner organizes
information into hierarchies which may also contain links to external
information sources.  @xref{Outliner}.

@noindent
Some of Hyperbole's most significant features are:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Buttons may link to information or may execute procedures, such as
starting or communicating with external programs;

@item
A simple mouse drag from a button source location to its link
destination is often all that is needed to create a new ling.
The keyboard can also be used to emulate such drags;

@item
Buttons may be embedded within electronic mail messages;

@item
Outlines allow rapid browsing, editing and movement of chunks of
information organized into trees (hierarchies);

@item
Other hypertext and information retrieval systems may be encapsulated
under a Hyperbole user interface (a number of samples are provided).
@end itemize

@cindex Hyperbole applications
@noindent
Typical Hyperbole applications include:

@table @emph
@item personal information management
Hyperlinks provide a variety of views into an information space.  A
search facility locates hyperbuttons in context and permits quick
selection.

@item documentation and code browsing
Cross-references may be embedded within documentation and code.  Existing
documentation may be augmented with point-and-click interfaces to link
code with associated design documents, or to permit direct access to the
definition of identifiers by selecting their names within code or
other documents.

@item brainstorming
The Hyperbole outliner (@pxref{Outliner}) is an effective tool for
capturing ideas and then quickly reorganizing them in a meaningful way.
Links to related ideas are easy enough to create that copying and
pasting ideas together quickly becomes a dated technique.

@item help/training systems
Tutorials with buttons can show students how things work while
explaining the concepts, e.g.@: an introduction to the commands available
on a computer system.  This technique can be much more effective than
written documentation alone.

@item archive managers
Programs that manage archives from incoming information streams may be
supplemented by having them add topic-based buttons that link to the
archive holdings.  Users can then search and create their own links to
archive entries.
@end table

@node Discussion Forums, Manual Overview, Hyperbole Buttons, Introduction
@section   Discussion Forums

If you maintain or use Hyperbole, you should consider purchasing support
from BeOpen.com for it and thereby promoting its further development.
In addition or alternatively, you may join discussions about Hyperbole
at www.BeOpen.com.  Below are some tips on how to best structure support 
or discussion messages.

@display

Always use your Subject: lines to state the position that your message
takes on the topic that it addresses.

For example, write:

     Subject: Basic bug in top-level minibuffer menu.

rather than:

     Subject: Hyperbole bug.

Statements end with periods, questions with question marks (typically),
and high energy, high impact declarations with exclamation points.  These
simple rules make all e-mail communication much easier for recipients to
handle appropriately.@refill

@vindex emacs-version
Question messages should normally include your Hyperbole and Emacs
version numbers and should clearly explain your problem and surrounding
issues.  Otherwise, it is difficult for anyone to answer your question.
(Your top-level Hyperbole menu shows its version number and @{@kbd{M-x
emacs-version @key{RET}}@} gives the other.)@refill

If you ask questions, you should consider adding to the discussion by
telling people the kinds of work you are doing or contemplating doing
with Hyperbole.  In this way, the list is not overrun by messages that
ask for, but provide no information.@refill
@end display


@node Manual Overview,  , Discussion Forums, Introduction
@section   Manual Overview

Remember that the @file{DEMO} file included in the Hyperbole
distribution demonstrates many of Hyperbole's standard facilities.
@xref{Introduction}, for more details.

@xref{Glossary}, for definitions of Hyperbole terms.  In some cases,
terms are not precisely defined within the body of this manual since
they are defined within the glossary.  Be sure to reference the
glossary if a term is unclear to you.  Although you need not have a keen
understanding of all of these terms, a quick scan of the glossary should
help throughout Hyperbole use.

@xref{Installation}, for explanations of how to obtain, install, configure
and load Hyperbole for use.  This appendix includes information on
user-level settings that you may want to modify after you understand
Hyperbole's basic operation.

@xref{Suggestion or Bug Reporting}, for instructions on how to ask a
question, suggest a feature or report a bug in Hyperbole.  A few
commonly asked questions are answered in this manual.  @xref{Questions
and Answers}.  @xref{References}, if you are interested in classic
articles on hypertext.

@xref{Smart Keys}, for an explanation of the innovative, context-sensitive
mouse and keyboard Action and Assist Keys offered by Hyperbole.
@xref{Smart Key Reference}, for a complete reference on what the Action
and Assist Keys do in each particular context that they recognize.

(Keep in mind as you read about using Hyperbole that in many cases, it
provides a number of overlapping interaction methods that support
differing work styles and hardware limitations.  In such instances,
you need learn only one technique that suits you.)

@xref{Buttons}, for an overview of Hyperbole buttons and how to use them.

@xref{Menus}, for summaries of Hyperbole menu commands and how to use
the minibuffer-based menus that work on dumb terminals, PCs or workstations.

@xref{Entering Arguments}, for special support that Hyperbole provides for
entering arguments when prompted for them.

@xref{Outliner}, for concept and usage information on the
autonumbered, hypertextual outliner.  @xref{Outliner Keys}, for a full
summary of the outliner commands that are bound to keys.

@xref{Rolo}, for concept and usage information on the
rapid lookup, hierarchical, free text record management system included
with Hyperbole.

@xref{Window Configurations}, for instructions on how to save and restore
the set of buffers and windows that appear with a frame.  This feature
lets you switch among working contexts easily, even on a dumb terminal.
Such configurations last only throughout a single session of editor
usage.

@xref{Developing with Hyperbole}, if you are a developer who is
comfortable with Lisp.

@xref{Future Work}, for future directions in Hyperbole's evolution.


@node Smart Keys, Buttons, Introduction, Top
@chapter Smart Keys

@cindex Smart Key
@cindex mouse support
@cindex Action Key
@cindex Assist Key
@kindex Action Key
@kindex Assist Key
Hyperbole supports two special @dfn{Smart Keys} that perform
context-sensitive operations: the Action Key and the Assist Key.  By
default, the @dfn{Action Key} is bound to your shift-middle mouse key
(or shift-left on a 2-button mouse) and the @dfn{Assist Key} is bound to
your shift-right mouse key, assuming Hyperbole is run under an external
window system.  (InfoDock users should use the middle mouse key as
the Action Key, instead.)

@menu
* Smart Key Assignments::       
* Smart Key Operations::        
* Entering Arguments::          
@end menu

@node Smart Key Assignments, Smart Key Operations, Smart Keys, Smart Keys
@section   Smart Key Assignments

@findex hmouse-shift-buttons
Mouse configuration of the Smart Keys is automatic for InfoDock and
XEmacs under the X window system and for GNU Emacs versions 18 and 19
under X, OpenWindows, NEXTSTEP, SunView and Apollo's Display Manager,
assuming your Emacs program has been built with support for any of these
window systems.  The command, @code{hmouse-shift-buttons}, may be used
to select between shifted and unshifted Smart Mouse Keys.

@vindex hkey-init
@kindex C-u M-@key{RET}
@kindex M-@key{RET}
By default (if @var{hkey-init} is set to @samp{t} in @file{hyperbole.el}),
then @{@kbd{M-@key{RET}}@} may also be used as the Action Key and
@{@kbd{C-u M-@key{RET}}@} may be used as the Assist Key.  In many
read-only modes like Dired (the directory editor and file manager) and
Rmail (the mail reader), @{@key{RET}@} also functions as the Action Key
and @{@kbd{C-u @key{RET}}@} functions as the Assist Key.  These keys
allow context-sensitive operation from any keyboard.

@cindex key binding, smart keys
@cindex smart key commands
@cindex smart key assignments
@findex action-key
@findex assist-key
@findex action-mouse-key
@findex assist-mouse-key
If you prefer other key assignments, simply bind the commands
@code{action-key} and @code{assist-key} to keyboard keys.
@code{hkey-either} may be used instead if you prefer a single
key binding for both commands; a prefix argument, such as @{@kbd{C-u}@},
then invokes @code{assist-key}.  You may also bind
@code{action-mouse-key} and @code{assist-mouse-key} to other mouse keys,
if you like, though you won't be able to execute drag actions with
such key bindings.

@cindex Smart Key toggle
@cindex mouse key toggle
@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@vindex file, hsite.el
@kindex C-c t
@findex hmouse-toggle-bindings
When Hyperbole is installed, a key may be bound which allows you
to switch between the Smart Key mouse bindings and your prior ones.
@{@kbd{C-h w hmouse-toggle-bindings @key{RET}}@} should show you any key
which performs this command.  If no key binding has been established or
if you prefer one of your own, simply select a key and bind it
within your @file{~/.emacs} file.  For example, @code{(global-set-key
"\C-ct" 'hmouse-toggle-bindings)}.

@cindex Paste Key
@cindex mouse paste
@cindex InfoDock Action Key
@cindex InfoDock Paste Key
Under InfoDock, the middle mouse key is normally used as the Action Key
and the meta-middle mouse key is used as the Paste Key.  If you prefer
that the middle mouse key be used as the Paste Key, then you will want to
toggle the mouse bindings.  InfoDock includes a built-in way to do this
via its Options/Mouse/Mouse-Paste-on-Middle-Key menu item.  (Keep in
mind though that the Action Key will paste any active region within the
editor when the Action Key is clicked; it will not paste selections from
other applications.)


@node Smart Key Operations, Entering Arguments, Smart Key Assignments, Smart Keys
@section   Smart Key Operations

@cindex button activation
@cindex activation
@cindex button help
The Action Key generally selects entities, creates links and
activates buttons.  The Assist Key generally provides help,
such as reporting on a button's attributes, or serves a complementary
function to whatever the Action Key does within a context.

@cindex Smart Key operation
You can get a summary of what the Smart Keys do in all of their
different contexts by pressing the Assist Key in the right
corner (within the rightmost 3 characters) of a window modeline or by
using the Hyperbole Doc/SmartKy menu entry.

The following table is an example of this summary.  Much of the browsing
power of Hyperbole comes from use of the Smart Keys, so you should spend
some time practicing how to use them.  This table may appear daunting at
first, but as you practice and notice that the Smart Keys do just a few
context-sensitive things per editor mode, you will find it easy to just
point and click and let Hyperbole do the rest.

@xref{Smart Key Reference}, for extensive reference documentation on the
Smart Keys.

@page

@format
@smallexample
@include   hypb-mouse.txt
@end smallexample
@end format

@vindex action-key-default-function
@vindex assist-key-default-function
@cindex Smart Key, default context
Note how the last line in the table explains the default behavior of the
Smart Keys.  That is what they do when they cannot find a context match
for your current location.  See the documentation for the variables
@var{action-key-default-function} and @var{assist-key-default-function}
for information on how to customize the behavior of the Smart Keys
within default contexts.@refill

@cindex Hyperbole help
A prime design criterion of Hyperbole's user interface is that you
should be able to see what an operation will do before using it.  The
Assist Key shows you what a button or minibuffer menu item will do
before you activate it.  Hyperbole also displays the result of directly
selecting an argument value with the Action Key, to provide feedback as
to whether the correct item has been selected.  A second click is
necessary before an argument is accepted and processed.  @xref{Entering
Arguments}, for more details on this subject.

@cindex Smart Key help
@cindex help, Smart Key
@cindex context-sensitive help
When you use a mouse and you want to find out what either of the Smart
Keys does within a context, depress the one you want to check on and
hold it down, then press the other and release as you please.  A help
buffer will pop up explaining the actions that will be performed in that
context, if any.  A press of either Smart Key at the end of that
help buffer will restore your display to its configuration prior to
invoking help.

@kindex C-h A
@vindex hkey-init
By default (if @var{hkey-init} is left set to @samp{t} in
@file{hsite.el}), then @{@kbd{C-h A}@} will display this same
context-sensitive help for the Action Key while @{@kbd{C-u C-h
A}@} will display the help for the Assist Key.  Note that
@{@kbd{C-h a}@} will perform a function unrelated to Hyperbole, so you
must press the shift key when you type the @kbd{A} character.


@node Entering Arguments,  , Smart Key Operations, Smart Keys
@section   Entering Arguments

@cindex argument entry
@cindex direct selection
@cindex double click
Many Hyperbole commands prompt you for arguments.  The standard
Hyperbole user interface has an extensive core of argument types that it
recognizes.  Whenever Hyperbole is prompting you for an argument, it
knows the type that it needs and provides some error checking to help
you get it right.  More importantly, it allows you to press the Action
Key within an entity that you want to use as an argument and it will grab the
appropriate thing and show it to you at the input prompt within the
minibuffer.  If you press the Action Key again at the same point (click
with a mouse) on the same thing again, it accepts the entity as the
argument and moves on.  Thus, a double click registers a desired
argument.  Double-quoted strings, pathnames, mail messages, Info nodes,
dired listings, buffers, numbers, completion items and so forth are all
recognized at appropriate times.  All of the argument types mentioned in
the documentation for the Emacs Lisp @code{(interactive)} function are
recognized.  Experiment a little and you will quickly get used to this
direct selection technique.

@cindex completion
Wherever possible, standard Emacs completion is offered, as described in
@ref{Completion,,,xemacs,the XEmacs Manual}.  Remember to use @{@kbd{?}@}
to see what your possibilities for an argument are.  Once you have a
list of possible completions on screen, double press the Action Key on
any one to enter it as the argument.@refill


@node Buttons, Menus, Smart Keys, Top
@chapter Buttons

This chapter explains the user-level notion of Hyperbole buttons.
Hyperbole buttons which are stored in files persist across Emacs
sessions, so they provide a convenient means of linking from one
information source to another.

@menu
* Explicit Buttons::            
* Global Buttons::              
* Implicit Buttons::            
* Action Types::                
* Button Type Precedence::      
* Button Files::                
* Utilizing Explicit Buttons::  
@end menu

@node Explicit Buttons, Global Buttons, Buttons, Buttons
@section   Explicit Buttons

@cindex explicit button
@cindex button, explicit
@cindex button label
Hyperbole creates and manages @emph{explicit buttons} which look like
this @samp{<(fake button)>} to a Hyperbole user.  They are quickly
recognizable, yet relatively non-distracting as one scans the text in
which they are embedded.  The text between the @samp{<(} and
@samp{)>} delimiters is called the @dfn{button label}.  Spacing between
words within a button label is irrelevant to Hyperbole, so button labels
may wrap across several lines without causing a problem.

@cindex button data
@cindex button attribute
@vindex file, .hypb
Hyperbole stores the @dfn{button data} that gives an explicit button its
behavior, separately from the button label, in a file named @file{.hypb}
within the same directory as the file in which the button is created.
Thus, all files in the same directory share a common button data file.
Button data is comprised of individual @dfn{button attribute} values.  A
user never sees this data in its raw form but may see a formatted
version by asking for help on a button.  @xref{Smart Keys}.@refill

@cindex button, moving
@cindex moving buttons
Explicit buttons may be freely moved about within the buffer in which
they are created.  (No present support exists for moving buttons between
buffers).  A single button may also appear multiple times within the
same buffer; one simply copies the button label with its delimiters
to a new location in such cases.

Each explicit button is assigned an action type that determines the
actions it performs.  @dfn{Link action types} connect buttons to
particular types of referents.  @dfn{Activation} of such buttons then
displays the referents.

@cindex linking, in-place
@cindex Hyperbole data model
Hyperbole does not manage referent data; this is left to the
applications that generate the data.  This means that Hyperbole
provides in-place linking and does not require reformatting of data to
integrate with Hyperbole.

@node Global Buttons, Implicit Buttons, Explicit Buttons, Buttons
@section   Global Buttons

@cindex global button
@cindex button, global
@cindex button label
Access to explicit buttons depends upon the information on your screen
since they are embedded within particular buffers.  Sometimes it is
useful to activate buttons without regard to the information with which
you are working.  In such instances, you use @dfn{global buttons}, which
are simply explicit buttons which may be activated or otherwise operated
upon by entering their labels when they are prompted for, rather than
selecting the buttons within a buffer.

If you want a permanent link to a file section that you can follow at
any time, you can use a global button.  Or what about an Emacs keyboard
macro that you use frequently?  Create an @code{exec-kbd-macro} button
with an easy to type name and then you can activate it whenever the need
arises.

@node Implicit Buttons, Action Types, Global Buttons, Buttons
@section   Implicit Buttons

@cindex button, implicit
@cindex implicit button
Implicit buttons are those defined by the natural structure of a
document.  They are identified by contextual patterns found within
documents.  Their behavior is determined by one or more actions which
they trigger when activated.  An action is derived from either a
Hyperbole action type specification (@pxref{Action Types}) or an Emacs
Lisp function.  Implicit button types may use the same action types that
explicit buttons use.

@vindex file, hibtypes.el
@cindex context
Implicit buttons never have any button data associated with them.  They
are recognized in context based on predicate matches (boolean
conditionals defined within implicit button types.  For example,
Hyperbole recognizes file names enclosed in double quotes and can
quickly display their associated files in response to simple mouse
clicks.

@cindex ibtypes, list of
@noindent
See the Hyperbole file, @file{hibtypes.el}, for complete examples of
implicit button types.  Standard implicit button types are listed below
in the order in which Hyperbole tries to match to the types when looking
for an implicit button.

@table @code

@item completion
@findex ibtypes::completion
@cindex completion
Inserts the completion at point into the minibuffer or the other window.

@item Info-node
@findex ibtypes::Info-node
@cindex Info node
Makes "(file)node" buttons display the associated Info node.

@item www-url
@findex ibtypes::www-url
@cindex URL
@cindex World-wide Web
@cindex WWW
@cindex Action Key, web browsing
@kindex Action Key, web browsing
@vindex browse-url-browser-function
When not in a w3 browser buffer, follows any non-ftp URL (link) at point.
The variable, @var{browse-url-browser-function}, may be used to customize
which URL browser is called.  Terse URLs which lack a protocol prefix,
like www.beopen.com, are also recognized.

@item gnus-push-button
@findex ibtypes::gnus-push-button
@cindex GNUS push-buttons
@cindex hiding signatures
@cindex signatures, hiding
Activates GNUS-specific article push-buttons, e.g. for hiding
signatures.  GNUS is a news and mail reader."

@item texinfo-ref
@findex ibtypes::texinfo-ref
@cindex Texinfo cross-reference
@cindex cross-reference, Texinfo
Displays Texinfo or Info node associated with Texinfo @@xref, @@pxref or
@@ref at point.  If point is within the braces of the reference, the
Info node is shown.  If it is to the left of the braces but after the @@
symbol and the reference is to a node within the current Texinfo file,
then the Texinfo node is shown.

@item mail-address
@findex ibtypes::mail-address
@cindex e-mail address
@cindex rolo address
@cindex address
If on an e-mail address in a specific buffer type, mail to that address
in another window. Applies to the rolo match buffer, any buffer
attached to a file in @var{rolo-file-list}, or any buffer with @file{mail}
or @file{rolo} (case-insensitive) within its name.

@item patch-msg
@findex ibtypes::patch-msg
@cindex patch output
Jumps to the source code associated with output from the @samp{patch}
program.  Patch applies diffs to source code.@refill

@item elisp-compiler-msg
@findex ibtypes::elisp-compiler-msg
@cindex byte compiler error
@cindex Emacs Lisp compiler error
@cindex compiler error
Jumps to the source code for a definition associated with a
byte-compiler error message.  Works when activated anywhere within an
error line.

@item grep-msg
@findex ibtypes::grep-msg
@cindex grep
@cindex compiler error
Jumps to a line associated with grep or compilation error messages.
Messages are recognized in any buffer.

@item debugger-source
@findex ibtypes::debugger-source
@cindex gdb
@cindex dbx
@cindex xdb
@cindex stack frame
@cindex breakpoint
@cindex source line
Jumps to the source line associated with a debugger stack frame or
breakpoint line.  This works with gdb, dbx, and xdb.  Such lines are
recognized in any buffer.

@item pathname
@findex ibtypes::pathname
@findex hpath:at-p
@findex hpath:find
@vindex hpath:suffixes
@cindex ange-ftp
@cindex ftp
@cindex EFS
@cindex pathname
@cindex remote path
@cindex filename
@cindex link, pathname
Makes a valid pathname display the path entry.
Also works for delimited and non-delimited ange-ftp and efs pathnames
and Texinfo @file{} entries.  Emacs Lisp library files (filenames
without any directory component that end in .el and .elc) are looked up
using the @var{load-path} directory list.

@noindent
See the function documentation for @code{hpath:at-p} for possible
delimiters.  See the variable documentation for @var{hpath:suffixes} for
suffixes that are added to or removed from the pathname when searching
for a valid match.  See the function documentation for @code{hpath:find}
for special file display options.

@item klink
@findex ibtypes::klink
@cindex klink
@cindex koutline link
@cindex kcell link
Follows a link delimited by <> to a koutline cell.
See the documentation for @code{actypes::link-to-kotl} for valid link
specifiers.

@item man-apropos
@findex ibtypes::man-apropos
@cindex UNIX manual
@cindex man pages
@cindex man apropos
Makes man apropos entries (man -k) display associated man pages when selected.

@item hyp-source
@findex ibtypes::hyp-source
@cindex Hyperbole report
Turns source location entries in Hyperbole reports into buttons that
jump to the associated location.

@item hyp-address
@findex ibtypes::hyp-address
@cindex Hyperbole mail list
Turns a Hyperbole support/discussion e-mail address into an implicit
button which inserts Hyperbole environment information.  This is useful
when sending mail to a BeOpen.com address.  See also the documentation
for @code{actypes::hyp-config}.

@item rfc
@findex ibtypes::rfc
@cindex Internet RFC
@cindex Request For Comment
@cindex RFC
@cindex ange-ftp
@cindex ftp
@cindex EFS
Retrieves and displays an Internet rfc referenced at point.
Requires ange-ftp or EFS when needed for remote retrievals.  The
following formats are recognized: RFC822, rfc-822, and RFC 822.  The
@var{hpath:rfc} variable specifies the location from which to retrieve
RFCs."

@item kbd-key
@findex ibtypes::kbd-key
@cindex key sequence
Executes a key sequence delimited by curly braces.
Key sequences should be in human readable form, e.g.@: @{@kbd{C-b}@}.
Forms such as @{@}, @{@}, and @{^b@} will not be recognized.

@item dir-summary
@findex ibtypes::dir-summary
@vindex file, MANIFEST
@vindex file, DIR
Detects filename buttons in files named "MANIFEST" or "DIR".
Displays selected files.  Each file name must be at the beginning of the
line and must be followed by one or more spaces and then another
non-space, non-parenthesis, non-brace character.

@item text-toc
@findex ibtypes::text-toc
@cindex table of contents
@cindex toc implicit button type
Jumps to the text file section referenced by a table of contents entry
at point.  The file name of the current buffer must contain
@file{README} and there must be a `Table of Contents' or `Contents'
label on a line by itself (it may begin with an asterisk), preceding the
table of contents.  Each toc entry must begin with some whitespace
followed by one or more asterisk characters.  Each line which begins a
new file section must start with one or more asterisk characters at the
very beginning of the line.

@item cscope
@findex ibtypes::cscope
@cindex C/C++ call trees
@cindex C/C++ cross-reference
@cindex Cscope
Jumps to a C/C++ source line associated with a Cscope C analyzer output line.
Requires pre-loading of the cscope.el Lisp library available from the Emacs
Lisp archives and the commercial cscope program available from AT&T's
software toolchest.  Otherwise, does nothing.

@item etags
@findex ibtypes::etags
@cindex etags entry
@cindex TAGS file
@cindex tag
Jumps to the source line associated with an etags file entry in a TAGS buffer.
If on a tag entry line, jumps to the source line for the tag.  If on a
pathname line or line preceding it, jumps to the associated file.

@item ctags
@findex ibtypes::ctags
@cindex ctags entry
@cindex tags file
Jumps to the source line associated with a ctags file entry in any buffer.
Ctags files are used by old editors like vi to lookup identifiers.
InfoDock and Emacs use the newer, more flexible Etags format.

@item id-cflow
@findex ibtypes::id-cflow
@cindex C call tree
@cindex call tree, C
@cindex C flow graph
Expands or collapses C call trees and jumps to code definitions.
Requires cross-reference tables built by the external @code{cxref}
program.

@item rfc-toc
@findex ibtypes::rfc-toc
@cindex Internet RFC
@cindex Request For Comment
@cindex RFC
@cindex table of contents
Summarizes contents of an Internet rfc from anywhere within an rfc buffer.
Each line of the summary may be selected to jump to the associated section.

@item annot-bib
@findex ibtypes::annot-bib
@cindex bibliography
@cindex reference
Displays annotated bibliography entries defined within the same buffer
as the reference.  References must be delimited by square brackets, must
begin with a word constituent character, and must not be in buffers
whose names begin with a ` ' or `*' character.@refill

@item function-in-buffer
@findex ibtypes::function-in-buffer
@vindex file, func-menu.el
@cindex functions
@cindex func-menu
Returns the function name defined within this buffer that point is
within or after, else @samp{nil}.  This triggers only when the
@file{func-menu.el} package has been loaded and the current major mode
is one handled by @file{func-menu}.@refill

@item doc-id
@findex ibtypes::doc-id
@cindex online library
@cindex document identifier
Displays an index entry for a site-specific document given its id.  Ids
must be delimited by @code{doc-id-start} and @code{doc-id-end} and must
match the function given by @code{doc-id-p}.  This permits creation of
catalogued online libraries.  See @file{$@{hyperb:dir@}/hib-doc-id.el}
for more information.@refill

@end table

The Hyperbole Smart Keys offer extensive additional context-sensitive
point-and-click type behavior beyond these standard implicit button
types.  @xref{Smart Keys}.


@node Action Types, Button Type Precedence, Implicit Buttons, Buttons
@section   Action Types

@cindex action type
@cindex argument, use
@cindex action
@cindex button action
@dfn{Action types} supply action procedures that specify button behavior.
Each action type may be used by any category of button: global,
explicit, or implicit.  The arguments needed by an action type are
prompted for at button creation time or in the case of an implicit
button, computed when the button is activated.  During button
activation, the arguments are fed to the action type's body to achieve
the desired result.  This body is called the button @dfn{action}.

Hyperbole handles all of this processing transparently.  As a user, all
you need know is the set of action types that you can work with when
creating explicit or global buttons.

@cindex actypes, list of
@noindent
The standard action types included with Hyperbole in alphabetical order
are:

@table @code
@item annot-bib
@findex actypes::annot-bib
Follows an internal reference KEY within an annotated bibliography,
delimiters = [ ].@refill

@item completion
@findex actypes::completion
Inserts a completion at point into the minibuffer or a buffer.
Unless point is at the end of buffer or if a completion has already been 
inserted, the completions window is deleted.

@item eval-elisp
@findex actypes::eval-elisp
Evaluates a Lisp expression LISP-EXPR.

@item exec-kbd-macro
@findex actypes::exec-kbd-macro
Executes a KBD-MACRO REPEAT-COUNT times.  KBD-MACRO may be a string of
editor command characters, a function symbol or nil to use the last
defined keyboard macro.  Optional REPEAT-COUNT nil means execute once,
zero means repeat until error.

@item exec-shell-cmd
@findex actypes::exec-shell-cmd
Executes a SHELL-CMD string asynchronously.  Optional non-nil second
argument INTERNAL-CMD inhibits display of the shell command line
executed.  Optional non-nil third argument KILL-PREV means kill the last
output to the shell buffer before executing SHELL-CMD.

@item exec-window-cmd
@findex actypes::exec-window-cmd
Asynchronously executes an external window-based SHELL-CMD string.

@item function-in-buffer
@findex actypes::function-in-buffer
Displays the definition of function NAME found at POS in the current buffer.

@item hyp-config
@findex actypes::hyp-config
Inserts Hyperbole configuration information at the end of the current
buffer or within optional OUT-BUF.

@item hyp-request
@findex actypes::hyp-request
Inserts help for composing a Hyperbole support/discussion message into
the current buffer or the optional OUT-BUF.

@item hyp-source
@findex actypes::hyp-source
Displays a buffer or file from a line beginning with
@var{hbut:source-prefix}.

@item kbd-key
@findex actypes::kbd-key
Executes the function binding for KEY-SEQUENCE, delimited by @{@}.
Returns @samp{t} if a KEY-SEQUENCE has a binding, else @samp{nil}.

@item link-to-buffer-tmp
@findex actypes::link-to-buffer-tmp
Displays a BUFFER.  This type of link generally can
only be used within a single editor session.  Use @code{link-to-file}
instead for a permanent link.

@item link-to-directory
@findex actypes::link-to-directory
Displays a DIRECTORY in Dired mode.

@item link-to-doc
@findex actypes::link-to-doc
Displays an online version of a document given by DOC-ID.  If the online
version of a document is not found in @var{doc-id-indices}, an error is
signalled.

@item link-to-ebut
@findex actypes::link-to-ebut
Performs an action given by another button, specified by KEY and KEY-FILE.

@item link-to-elisp-doc
@findex actypes::link-to-elisp-doc
Displays the documentation for FUNC-SYMBOL.

@item link-to-file
@findex actypes::link-to-file
Displays file given by PATH scrolled to optional POINT.  With POINT,
buffer is displayed with POINT at window top.

@item link-to-file-line
@findex actypes::link-to-file-line
Displays a file given by PATH scrolled to LINE-NUM.

@item link-to-Info-node
@findex actypes::link-to-Info-node
Displays an Info NODE.  NODE must be a string of the form,
`(file)nodename'.

@item link-to-kcell
@findex actypes::link-to-kcell
@findex kcell:ref-to-id
Displays a Hyperbole outline cell, given by FILE and CELL-REF, at the
top of a window.  See the documentation for @code{(kcell:ref-to-id)} for
valid CELL-REF formats.

@noindent
If FILE is @samp{nil}, the current buffer is used.  If CELL-REF is
@samp{nil}, the first cell in the view is shown.

@item link-to-kotl
@findex actypes::link-to-kotl
Displays at the top of a window the referent pointed to by LINK.
LINK may be of any of the following forms, with or without delimiters:
@smallexample
  < pathname [, cell-ref] >
  < [-!&] pathname >
  < @@ cell-ref >
@end smallexample

@noindent
See the documentation for @code{(kcell:ref-to-id)} for valid cell-ref
formats.

@item link-to-mail
@findex actypes::link-to-mail
Displays a mail message with MAIL-MSG-ID from optional MAIL-FILE.  See
the documentation for the variable @var{hmail:init-function} for
information on how to specify the mail reader to use.

@item link-to-regexp-match
@findex actypes::link-to-regexp-match
Finds REGEXP's Nth occurrence in SOURCE and displays the location at the
top of the selected window.  SOURCE is a pathname unless optional
BUFFER-P is non-nil, then SOURCE must be a buffer name or buffer.
Returns @samp{t} if found, signals an error if not.

@item link-to-rfc
@findex actypes::link-to-rfc
Retrieves and displays an Internet rfc given by RFC-NUM.  RFC-NUM may be
a string or an integer.  Requires the ange-ftp or EFS packages for
remote file retrievals.

@item link-to-string-match
@findex actypes::link-to-string-match
Finds STRING's Nth occurrence in SOURCE and displays the location at the
top of the selected window.  SOURCE is a pathname unless optional
BUFFER-P is non-nil, then SOURCE must be a buffer name or buffer.
Returns @samp{t} if found, @samp{nil} if not.

@item link-to-texinfo-node
@findex actypes::link-to-texinfo-node
Displays the Texinfo node with NODENAME (a string) from the current buffer.

@item man-show
@findex actypes::man-show
@vindex sm-notify
Displays a man page on TOPIC, which may be of the form
@samp{<command>(<section>}).  If using the Superman manual entry
package, see the documentation for @var{sm-notify} to control where the
man page is displayed.

@item rfc-toc
@findex actypes::rfc-toc
Computes and displays a summary of an Internet rfc in BUF-NAME.  Assumes
point has already been moved to the start of the region to summarize.
Optional OPOINT is the point to return to in BUF-NAME after displaying
the summary.

@item text-toc
@findex actypes::text-toc
@cindex table of contents
@cindex toc action type
Jumps to the text file SECTION referenced by a table of contents entry
at point.

@item www-url
@findex actypes::www-url
@cindex URL
@cindex World-wide Web
@cindex WWW
@vindex browse-url-browser-function
Follows a link given by a URL.  The variable,
@var{browse-url-browser-function}, customizes the url browser
that is used.  See its documentation string for details.@refill

@end table

@cindex action
@vindex hui:ebut-prompt-for-action
Action types create a convenient way of specifying button behavior
without the need to know how to program.  Expert users who are familiar
with Emacs Lisp, however, may find that they often want to tailor button
actions in a variety of ways not easily captured within a type system.
In such cases, @var{hui:ebut-prompt-for-action} should be set to
@samp{t}.  This will cause Hyperbole to prompt for an action to override
the button's action type at each explicit button creation.  For those cases
where the action type is sufficient, a @samp{nil} value should be
entered for the action.  An action may be any Lisp form that the
interpreter can evaluate.

@node Button Type Precedence, Button Files, Action Types, Buttons
@section   Button Type Precedence

@cindex button precedence
@cindex button label overlap
Explicit buttons always take precedence over implicit buttons.  Thus, if
a button selection is made which falls within both an explicit and
implicit button, only the explicit button will be selected.  Explicit
button labels are not allowed to overlap; Hyperbole's behavior in such
cases is undefined.

@cindex ibtype, evaluation order
If there is no explicit button at point during a selection request, then
each implicit button type predicate is tested in turn until one returns
non-nil or all are exhausted.  Since two implicit button types may have
overlapping domains (those contexts in which their predicates are true),
only the first matching type is used.  The type predicates are tested in
@strong{reverse} order of definition, i.e.@: most recently entered types
are tested first, so that personal types defined after standard system
types take precedence.  It is important to keep this order in mind when
defining new implicit button types.  By making match predicates as
specific as possible, one can minimize any overlapping implicit button
domains.

@cindex type redefinition
Once a type name is defined, its precedence relative to other types
remains the same even if its body is redefined, as long as its name is
not changed.  This allows incremental modifications to types without
any worry of altering their precedences.  @xref{Creating Types}, for
information on how to develop or modify types.

@node Button Files, Utilizing Explicit Buttons, Button Type Precedence, Buttons
@section   Button Files

@cindex button files
It is often convenient to create files filled with buttons as a means of
navigating distributed information pools or for other purposes.  These
files can also serve as useful roadmaps that guide a user through both
unfamiliar and highly familiar information spaces.  Files that are
created specifically for this purpose, we call @dfn{button files}.

@vindex hbmap:filename
@cindex button file, personal
@cindex button file, directory
The Hyperbole menu system provides quick access to two types of these
button files: personal and directory-specific, through the ButFile menu.
(The variable, @var{hbmap:filename}, contains the base name of these
standard button files.  Its standard value is @file{HYPB}.)

@vindex dir, ~/.hyperb
@vindex hbmap:dir-user
@cindex global button
A personal button file may serve as a user's own roadmap to frequently
used resources.  Selection of the ButFile/PersonalFile menu item
displays this file for editing.  The default personal button file is
stored within the directory given by the @var{hbmap:dir-user} variable
whose standard value is @file{~/.hyperb}.  The default Hyperbole
configuration also appends all global buttons to the end of this file,
one per line, as they are created.  So you can edit or annotate them
within the file.

A directory-specific button file may exist for each file system
directory.  Such files are useful for explaining the contents of
directories and pointing readers to particular highlights within the
directories.  Selection of the ButFile/DirFile menu item displays the
button file for the current directory; this provides an easy means of
updating this file when working on a file within the same directory.
If you want to view some other directory-specific button file, simply
use the normal Emacs file finding commands.

One might suggest that quick menu access be provided for group-specific
and site-specific button files.  Instead, link buttons to such things
should be placed at the top of your personal button file.  This provides
a more flexible means of connecting to such resources.

@node Utilizing Explicit Buttons,  , Button Files, Buttons
@section   Utilizing Explicit Buttons

Explicit buttons are a fundamental building block for creating personal
or organizational hypertext networks with Hyperbole.  This section
summarizes the user-level operations available for managing these
buttons.

@menu
* Creation::                    
* Renaming::                    
* Deletion::                    
* Modification::                
* Location::                    
* Buttons in Mail::             
* Buttons in News::             
@end menu

@node Creation, Renaming, Utilizing Explicit Buttons, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Creation

@menu
* By Dragging::                 Creation Via Action Key Drags
* By Menu::                     Creation Via Menus
@end menu

@node By Dragging, By Menu, Creation, Creation
@subsubsection Creation Via Action Key Drags

@cindex explicit button, creation
@cindex button, creation
@cindex link, creation
@cindex drag
@cindex Action Key drag
The most efficient way to create an explicit button interactively is to
use the mouse Action Key to drag from a button source window to a window
showing its link referent.  More specifically, you should split your
current Emacs frame into two windows: one which contains the point at
which you want a button to be inserted and another which shows the point
to which you want to link.  Depress the mouse Action Key at the source
point for the button, drag to the other window and release the mouse
Action Key at the start point of the link referent.  The process becomes
quite simple with a little practice. (@xref{By Menu, Creation Via
Menus}, for a more detailed explanation of the explicit button creation
process.)

Hyperbole uses the link referent context to determine the type of link
to make.  If there are a few different types of links which are
applicable from the context, you will be prompted with a list of the
types.  Simply use the Action Key or the first letter of the link
type to select one of the type names and to finish the link creation.
Hyperbole will then insert explicit button delimiters around the button
label and will display a message in the minibuffer indicating both the
button name and its action/link type.

@kindex M-o
@kindex C-u M-o
@kindex C-x o
@findex hkey-operate
If you run Emacs under a window system, you can emulate an Action Key
drag from the keyboard by typing @{@kbd{M-o}@}, the
@code{hkey-operate} command, at the button source location, moving
to the link destination, e.g.@: with @{@kbd{C-x o}@}, and then typing
@{@kbd{M-o}@} again.  This simulates a depress and then release of the
Action Key.  @{@kbd{C-u M-o}@} emulates drags of the Assist Key.
This will not work when Hyperbole is run from a dumb terminal Emacs
session since drag actions are not supported without a window system.

@node By Menu,  , By Dragging, Creation
@subsubsection Creation Via Menus

You may instead use the Hyperbole menus to create explicit buttons.
First, mark a short region of text in any fashion allowed by Emacs
and then select the Hyperbole menu item sequence, Ebut/Create.  You will
be prompted for the button's label with the marked region as the
default.  If you accept the default and enter the rest of the
information you are prompted for, the button will be created within the
current buffer and Hyperbole will surround the marked region with
explicit button delimiters to indicate success.

If you do not mark a region before invoking the button create command,
you will be prompted for both a label and a target buffer for the button
and the delimited label text will be inserted into the target buffer
after a successful button creation.

After Hyperbole has the button label and its target buffer, it will
prompt you for an action type for the button.  Use the @{@kbd{?}@}
completion help key to see the available types.  The type selected
determines any following values for which you are prompted.

@cindex button instance
@cindex instance number
If a previous button with the same label exists in the same buffer,
Hyperbole will add an @dfn{instance number} to the label when it adds
the delimiters so that the name is unique.  Thus, you don't have to
worry about accidental button name conflicts.  If you want the same
button to appear in multiple places within the buffer, just enter the
label again and delimit it yourself.  Hyperbole will interpret all
occurrences of the same delimited label within a buffer as the same
button.

@cindex link, creation
If you create link buttons using the Hyperbole menus, the best technique
is to place on screen both the source buffer for the button and the
buffer to which it will link.  Mark the region of text to use as your
button label, invoke the button create command from the menu, choose an
action type which begins with @code{link-to-} and then use the direct
selection techniques mentioned in @ref{Entering Arguments}, to select
the link referent.


@node Renaming, Deletion, Creation, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Renaming

@cindex explicit button, renaming
@cindex button, renaming
Once an explicit button has been created, its label text must be
treated specially.  Any inter-word spacing within the label may be
freely changed, as may happen when a paragraph is refilled, but a
special command must be invoked to rename it.

The rename command operates in two different ways.  If point is within a
button label when it is invoked, it will tell you to edit the button
label and then invoke the rename command again.  The second invocation
will actually rename the button.  If instead the command is originally
invoked outside of any explicit button, it will prompt for the button
label to replace and the label to replace it with and then will perform
the renaming.  All occurrences of the same button in the buffer will be
renamed.

@vindex file, .~/.emacs
@vindex file, hsite.el
@kindex C-c C-r
@findex hui:ebut-rename
The rename command may be invoked from the Hyperbole menu via
Ebut/Rename.  A faster method is to use a key bound to the
@code{hui:ebut-rename} command.  Your site installation may include such
a key.  @{@kbd{C-h w hui:ebut-rename @key{RET}}@} should show you any
key it is on.  If no key binding has been established or if you prefer
one of your own, simply bind it within your @file{~/.emacs} file.  We
recommend the @{@kbd{C-c C-r}@} key, as in: @code{(global-set-key
"\C-c\C-r" 'hui:ebut-rename)}.


@node Deletion, Modification, Renaming, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Deletion

@cindex explicit button, deleting
@cindex button, deleting
Ebut/Delete works similarly to the Rename command but deletes the
selected button.  The button's delimiters are removed to confirm the
deletion.  If the delete command is invoked with a prefix argument, then
both the button label and the delimiters are removed as confirmation.

@vindex hui:ebut-delete-confirm-p
Presently there is no way to recover a deleted button; it must
be recreated.  Therefore, the @var{hui:ebut-delete-confirm-p} variable
is true by default, causing Hyperbole to require confirmation before
interactively deleting explicit buttons.  Set it to @samp{nil} if you
prefer no confirmation.

@node Modification, Location, Deletion, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Modification

@cindex explicit button, modifying
@cindex button, modifying
@cindex Smart Mouse Key drag
@cindex button, attributes
Ebut/Modify prompts you with each of the elements from the button's
attributes list and allows you to modify each in turn.

There is a quicker way to modify explicit link buttons, however.  Simply
drag with the mouse Action Key from within the button label to a link
destination in a different window, just as you would when creating a new
button with a mouse drag.  Remember that drags may also be emulated from
the keyboard.  @xref{Creation}.

@node Location, Buttons in Mail, Modification, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Location

@cindex explicit button, summarizing
@cindex button, summarizing
@cindex button, help
The Ebut/Help menu may be used to summarize either a single explicit
button or all such buttons within a buffer.  The buttons summarized may
then be activated directly from the summary.

Ebut/Help/BufferButs summarizes the explicit buttons in the order in
which they appear in the buffer.  Ebut/Help/CurrentBut summarizes only
the button at point.  Ebut/Help/OrderedButs summarizes the buttons in
alphabetical order.  All of these summary commands eliminate duplicate
occurrences of buttons from their help displays.

@cindex explicit button, searching
@cindex button, searching
Ebut/Search prompts for a search pattern and searches across all the
locations in which you have previously created explicit buttons.  It
asks you whether to match to any part of a button label or to whole
labels only.  It then displays a list of button matches with a single
line of surrounding context from their sources.  Any button in the match
list may be activated as usual.  An Action Key press on the surrounding
context jumps to the associated source line.  A press on the filename
preceding the matches jumps to the file without selecting a particular
line.

There are presently no user-level facilities for globally locating
buttons created by others or for searching on particular button
attributes.

@node Buttons in Mail, Buttons in News, Location, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Buttons in Mail

@kindex C-x m
@findex mail
Hyperbole supports embedding buttons within electronic mail messages
composed in Emacs or InfoDock.  An enhanced mail reader may then be used
to activate the buttons within messages just like any other buttons.

@cindex button, mailing
@cindex button, posting
@cindex mailing buttons
@cindex posting buttons
@cindex mail reader
@cindex mailer initialization
@cindex RMAIL
@cindex VM
@cindex PIEmail
@cindex MH-e
@cindex Gnus
@cindex USENET
@cindex news
@vindex file, hmail.el
Hyperbole automatically supports the following mail readers: Rmail
(@pxref{Top,,,rmail, the Rmail Manual}), VM
(@pxref{Introduction,,,vm, the VM Manual}), PIEmail, and MH-e.
Button inclusion and activation within USENET news articles is also
supported in the same fashion via the Gnus news reader if available at
your site (@pxref{Top,,The Gnus Newsreader,gnus,the Gnus Manual}).  (The
@file{hmail.el} file defines a generalized interface that can be used
to hook in other mail or news readers if the necessary interface
functions are written.)

@vindex mail-yank-original
@kindex C-c C-y
@cindex mail inclusion
All explicit buttons to be mailed must be created within the outgoing
message buffer. There is no present support for including text from
other buffers or files which contain explicit buttons, except for the
ability to yank the contents of a message being replied to, together
with all of its buttons, via the @code{(mail-yank-original)} command
bound to @{@kbd{C-c C-y}@}.  From a user's perspective, buttons are
created in precisely the same way as in any other buffer.  They also
appear just like any other buttons to both the message sender and the
reader who uses the Hyperbole enhanced readers.  Button operation may be
tested any time before a message is sent.  A person who does not use
Hyperbole enhanced mail readers can still send messages with embedded
buttons since mail composing is independent of any mail reader
choice.

Hyperbole buttons embedded within received mail messages act just like
any other buttons.  The mail does not contain any of the action type
definitions used by the buttons, so the receiver must have these or she
will receive an error when she activates the buttons.  Buttons which
appear in message @emph{Subject} lines are copied to summary buffers
whenever such summaries are generated.  Thus, they may be activated from
either the message or the summary buffers.

Nothing bad will happen if a mail message with explicit buttons is sent
to a non-Hyperbole user.  The user will simply see the text
of the message followed by a series of lines of button data at its end.
Hyperbole mail users never see this data in its raw form.

@vindex smail:comment
@cindex mail comment
@cindex Hyperbole mail comment
In order to alert readers of your mail messages that you can handle
Hyperbole mail buttons, the system automatically inserts a comment into
each mail message that you compose to announce this fact.  The variable,
@var{smail:comment} controls this behavior.  See its documentation for
technical details.  By default, it produces a message of the form:

@smallexample
Comments: Hyperbole mail buttons accepted, vX.XX.
@end smallexample

@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@noindent
where the X's indicate your Hyperbole version number.  You can cut this
out of particular messages before you send them.  If you don't want any
message at all, add the following to your @file{~/.emacs} file before
the point at which you load Hyperbole.

@smalllisp
(setq smail:comment nil)
@end smalllisp

@cindex actype, link-to-mail
A final mail-related facility provided by Hyperbole is the ability to
save a pointer to a received mail message by creating an explicit button
with a @code{link-to-mail} action type.  When prompted for the mail
message to link to, if you press the Action Key within the message, the
appropriate link parameters will be copied to the argument prompt, as
described in @ref{Entering Arguments}.


@node Buttons in News,  , Buttons in Mail, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Buttons in News

@cindex button, posting
@cindex news reader/poster
@cindex posting news
@cindex Gnus
@cindex USENET
@vindex file, hgnus.el
@vindex file, hsite.el
Explicit buttons may be embedded within outgoing USENET news articles
and may be activated from within the Gnus news reader.  This support is
enabled by default within @file{hsite.el} by autoloading the
@file{hgnus.el} file.

All Hyperbole support should work just as it does when reading or
sending mail.  @xref{Buttons in Mail}.  When reading news, buttons which
appear in message @emph{Subject} lines may be activated within the Gnus
subject buffer as well as the article buffer.  When posting news, the
*post-news* buffer is used for outgoing news articles rather than a
mail-related buffer.

Remember that the articles you post do not contain the action type
definitions used by the buttons, so the receiver must have these or she
will receive an error when she activates the buttons.  You should also
keep in mind that most USENET readers will not be using Hyperbole, so if
they receive a news article containing explicit buttons, they will
wonder what the button data at the end of the message is.  You should
therefore limit distribution of such messages.  For example, if most
people at your site read news with Gnus and use Hyperbole, it would be
reasonable to embed buttons in postings to local newsgroups.

@cindex news comment
In order to alert readers of your postings that they may send you
personal replies with embedded Hyperbole buttons, the system
automatically inserts into news postings the same comment that is
included within mail messages.  @xref{Buttons in Mail}, for details and
an explanation of how to turn this feature off.


@node Menus, Outliner, Buttons, Top
@chapter Menus

@cindex InfoDock
@cindex XEmacs
@cindex Emacs 19
@cindex menu use
@cindex menubar, Hyperbole menu
@cindex menu item, Remove-This-Menu
@cindex removing Hyperbole menu
Under InfoDock, XEmacs, and Emacs 19, pulldown and popup menus are
available to invoke Hyperbole commands, including those from the rolo
and the outliner.  These menus operate like any other application menus
and are fairly self-explanatory.  Use the @code{Remove-This-Menu}
command on the Hyperbole menubar menu to get rid of the menu if you do
not need it.  Invoking Hyperbole from the keyboard, as explained below,
will add the menu back to the menubar.

@iftex
@sp 1
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Hyperbole Menubar Menu}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/menu-hyperbole.ps,width=1.625in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Hyperbole Menubar Menu</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Hyperbole Menu" SRC="im/menu-hyperbole.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/menu-hyperbole.gif}.  Under InfoDock,
use the middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole
system loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two
button mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo

@cindex minibuffer menus
This section discusses only the specialized @dfn{minibuffer menus} that
appear in the minibuffer window and that work with all emacs versions on
all display devices.  Minibuffer menu items may be selected from either
the keyboard or the mouse.  When used with the keyboard, they
provide rapid command access similar to key bindings.

@kindex C-h h
@cindex menu, top-level
The top-level Hyperbole menu is invoked from a key given in your
@file{hsite.el} file (by default, @{@kbd{C-h h}@}).  The menu will
appear in the minibuffer and should look mostly like so:

@noindent
@smallexample
Hy4>  Act Butfile/ Cust/ Doc/ Ebut/ Gbut/ Hist Ibut/ Msg/ Otl/ Rolo/ Win/
@end smallexample

@noindent
The above menu items have the following effects:

@table @strong
@cindex menu, Act
@item Act
Activation of any button at point.  If there is no button at
point, it prompts for the label of an explicit button within the
current buffer to activate.

@cindex menu, ButFile
@cindex button file, HYPB
@vindex file, HYPB
@item Butfile/
Easy access to a directory-specific or personal file of buttons.
@file{HYPB} is the name of the directory-specific button file and
@file{~/.hyperb/HYPB} is the personal file of global buttons.
These are good places to begin experimenting with button creation.

@cindex menu, Cust
@cindex customization
@cindex option settings
@item Cust/
Hyperbole option customization.  This includes whether ftp and www URLs
are recognized by the @code{find-file} commands, where Hyperbole link
referents are displayed, where URLs are displayed, whether date stamps
are added to rolo entries, and whether to use proportional or windowful
scrolling when a Smart Key is pressed at the end of a line.
@xref{Configuring}.@refill

@cindex menu, EBut
@item Ebut/
All explicit button commands.  The window-system-based Hyperbole
menu includes an activation menu item for each explicit button found
in the current buffer.

@cindex menu, Doc
@cindex menu, Types
@item Doc/
Hyperbole documentation quick access.  This menu contains an About item
which describes Hyperbole and a Demo item which demonstrates a number of
interactive Hyperbole features.  It also contains the Types/ submenu for
documentation on Hyperbole implicit button and action types.

@cindex menu, Global Buttons
@item Gbut/
All global button commands.  Global buttons are accessed by name
rather than by direct selection.  The window-system-based Hyperbole
menu also includes an activation menu item for each global button.

@cindex menu, History
@cindex history
@item Hist
Return to previous positions in the button traversal history.

@cindex menu, Implicit Buttons
@item Ibut/
All implicit button commands.

@cindex menu, Message
@item Msg/
Hyperbole-specific mail and news messaging support commands.  Use this
to send mail to a Hyperbole support/discussion address.

@cindex menu, Outliner
@item Otl/
Autonumbered, structured outliner and hyper-node manager commands.
@xref{Outliner}.

@cindex menu, Rolo
@item Rolo/
Hierarchical, multi-file rolo lookup and edit commands.
@xref{Rolo}.

@cindex menu, Window Configurations
@cindex menu, Windows
@item Win/
Window configuration management, such as adding and restoring window
configurations by name. @xref{Window Configurations}.

@end table

@cindex submenus
@cindex menu help
@cindex help, menu items
All menu items are selected via the first character of their names
(letter case does not matter) or with presses of the Action Key.  "/" at
the end of an item name indicates that it brings up a submenu.  A press
of the Assist Key on an item displays help for the item, including the
action that it performs.

@kindex C-t
@kindex q
@kindex C-g
While a menu is active, to re-activate the top-level Hyperbole menu, you
must use @{@kbd{C-t}@}.  This allows you to browse the submenus and then
return to the top.  You can quit without selecting an item by using
@{@kbd{q}@}.  @{@kbd{C-g}@} aborts whether you are at a menu prompt or
any other Hyperbole prompt.


@node Outliner, Rolo, Menus, Top
@chapter Outliner

@cindex outliner
@cindex autonumber
@cindex relative autonumber
@cindex permanent identifier
@cindex idstamp
@cindex hyperlink anchor
The Hyperbole outliner, also known as the Koutliner (pronounced
Kay-outliner), produces structured, autonumbered documents composed of
hierarchies of cells.  Each @dfn{cell} has two identifiers, a
@dfn{relative identifier} indicating its present position within the
outline and a @dfn{permanent identifier} called an @dfn{idstamp},
suitable for use within hyperlink references to the cell.  The idstamp
is typically not displayed but is available when needed.
@xref{Autonumbering}.

Cells also store their time of creation and the user who created the
cell.  User-defined attributes may also be added to cells.  @xref{Cell
Attributes}.

@cindex menu, Outline
The outliner works under GNU Emacs version 19 or higher, XEmacs
version 19.9 or higher or under InfoDock.  You can tell whether you are
running a version of Emacs which supports the outliner by hitting
@{@kbd{C-h h}@} to display the Hyperbole menu (@{@kbd{q}@} will quit).
If you see an @samp{Otl/} entry in the menu, then the outliner is
available.  Otherwise, the outliner does not work with your version of
Emacs, so this section of the manual will not be of interest to you.
(The same is true of the Hyperbole/Outline pulldown menu; if it appears,
the outliner is available for use.)

@vindex file, EXAMPLE.kotl
@cindex menu, Outline/Example
This chapter expands on the information given in the @file{EXAMPLE.kotl}
file included with Hyperbole.  Use @{@kbd{C-h h o e}@} to display that
file, as pictured on the following page.  It is an actual outline file
that explains major outliner operations.  You can test out the viewing,
editing and motion commands with this file since a personal copy is made
when you invoke this command.

@xref{Outliner Keys}, for a full summary of the key bindings and
commands available in the outliner.

@page
@iftex
@sp 1
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Koutline Example Screenshot}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/koutliner.ps,width=5in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Koutline Example Screenshot</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Koutline Example" SRC="im/koutliner.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/koutliner.gif}.  Under InfoDock, use the
middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole system
loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two button
mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo


@menu
* Menu Commands::               
* Creating Outlines::           
* Autonumbering::               
* Idstamps::                    
* Editing::                     
* Viewing::                     
* Links::                       
* Cell Attributes::             
* Outliner History::            
@end menu


@node Menu Commands, Creating Outlines, Outliner, Outliner
@section   Menu Commands

The Otl/ menu entry on the Hyperbole minibuffer menu provides access to
a number of major outliner commands:

@cindex outliner commands
@cindex Koutliner commands
@findex kotl-mode:show-all
@findex kvspec:toggle-blank-lines
@findex kfile:find
@findex kotl-mode:hide-sublevels
@findex kotl-mode:hide-tree
@findex kotl-mode:kill-tree
@findex klink:create
@findex kotl-mode:overview
@findex kotl-mode:show-tree
@findex kotl-mode:top-cells
@findex kvspec:activate
@cindex menu, Outline
@smallexample
Menu Item    Command                    Description
====================================================================
All          kotl-mode:show-all         Expand all cells
Blanks       kvspec:toggle-blank-lines  Toggle blank lines on or off
Create       kfile:find                 Edit or create an outline
Downto       kotl-mode:hide-sublevels   Hide cells deeper than a level
Examp        <sample outliner file>     Show self-descriptive example
Hide         kotl-mode:hide-tree        Hide tree with root at point
Info         <outliner documentation>   Show outliner manual section
Kill         kotl-mode:kill-tree        Kill the current tree
Link         klink:create               Create a link to another cell
Overvw       kotl-mode:overview         Show first line of each cell
Show         kotl-mode:show-tree        Show tree with root at point
Top          kotl-mode:top-cells        Collapse to top-level cells
Vspec        kvspec:activate            Set a view specification
====================================================================
@end smallexample

The popup and menubar Koutliner menu, as displayed on the following
page, offers a more complete set of the Koutliner commands.  Experiment
with the menu or read the following sections explaining commands.

@iftex
@sp 2
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Koutliner Menu}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/menu-koutline.ps,width=1.625in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Koutliner Menu</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Koutliner Menu" SRC="im/menu-koutline.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/menu-koutline.gif}.  Under InfoDock,
use the middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole
system loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two
button mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo


@node Creating Outlines, Autonumbering, Menu Commands, Outliner
@section   Creating Outlines

@cindex outline file suffix
@cindex outline, creating
@vindex file, .kotl suffix
In addition to the Otl/Create menu item, you can create and experiment
with outline files simply by finding a file, @{@kbd{C-x C-f}@}, with a
@file{.kotl} suffix.  @file{.kot} will also work for users impaired by
operating systems with 3-character suffix limitations.

@cindex root cell
@cindex top-level cell
@cindex cell, top-level
@cindex cell, idstamp 0
When a new koutline is created, an invisible root cell is added.  Its
permanent and relative ids are both 0, and it is considered to be at
level 0 in the outline.  All visible cells in the outline are at level 1
or deeper, and thus are descendants of this root cell.  Some koutliner
commands prompt for cell numbers as arguments.  An argument of 0 makes
commands operate upon the entire outline.

An initial level 1 cell is also created to make it easy to start
entering text in the outline.  A koutline always has at least one
visible cell in it.

@xref{Autonumbering}, which explains how cells are labeled according to their
respective levels in the outline and how these labels are updated as the
structure of the outline changes.


@node Autonumbering, Idstamps, Creating Outlines, Outliner
@section   Autonumbering

@cindex autonumber
@cindex relative identifier
@xref{Adding and Killing}, for information on how to add new cells to or
remove cells from a koutline.  As you do this, or as you promote or
demote cells within the outline, the labels preceding the contents of
each cell automatically update to reflect the new structure.  These
labels are also known as @dfn{autonumbers} and as @dfn{relative ids}
because they change as the structure changes.

@cindex outline structure
The outline structure is shown by these labels and by the indentation of
each outline level.  Normally, each deeper level is indented another
three characters, to reflect the nesting.

@cindex label type, alpha
@cindex label type, legal
@cindex alpha labels
@cindex legal labels
@cindex outline, label type
The default autonumbers are called @dfn{alphanumeric labels} because
they alternate between using numbers and letters to distinguish each
successive level.  Each alphanumeric label uniquely identifies a cell's
position in an outline, so that there is no need to scan back to prior
cells to see what the current section number of an outline is.  This is
similar to a legal numbering scheme but without all the period
characters between level numbers.  As an example, 1b3 is equivalent to a
legal label of 1.2.3.  Both refer to the 3rd cell at level 3,
below the 2nd child of the first cell at level 1.  Said another way,
this is the 3rd child of the 1st cell's 2nd child.  In other words, it
is easier to visualize hierarchies than to talk about them.

Alphanumeric labels are the default because they are shorter and easier
to read aloud than equivalent legal ones.  They also simplify
distinguishing between even and odd level labels because of the
alternating character set.

@kindex C-c C-l
@cindex label type, changing
You can change the labeling scheme used in a particular outline with the
command @{@kbd{C-c C-l}@}.  A @{@kbd{?}@} will show all of the labeling
options.  Legal labels, partial alpha labels (single level autonumbering
where only the last part of the level number is shown, as commonly seen
in other outliner products), idstamps (permanent cell ids), and star
outline level labels (Emacs asterisk-based outline labeling) are all
available.  Or you may choose to turn autonumbering off.  Cells are
still indented to reflect the outline structure whether or not labels
are displayed.

@cindex label separator, changing
@cindex cell, label separator
@cindex outline, label separator
@kindex C-c M-l
@kindex C-u C-c M-l
A cell label is normally followed by a period and a space, called the
@dfn{label separator}, prior to the start of the cell contents.  You can
change the separator for the current outline with @{@kbd{C-c M-l}@}.
@{@kbd{C-u C-c M-l}@} will additionally change the default separator
value used when new outlines are created (for the current session only).
For example, use the value "  " (two spaces) to get eliminate the
trailing period after each cell label.  The separator must be at least
two characters long but may be longer.

@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@cindex initialization file
If you find a separator that you prefer for all outlines, change the
separator setting permanently by adding the following line to your Emacs
initialization file, @file{~/.emacs}, substituting for `your-separator':

@cindex label separator, default
@vindex kview:default-label-separator
@smalllisp
(setq kview:default-label-separator "your-separator")
@end smalllisp


@node Idstamps, Editing, Autonumbering, Outliner
@section   Idstamps

@cindex permanent identifier
@cindex idstamp
Idstamps (permanent ids) are associated with each cell.  They maintain
hyperlinks as cells are reordered within a koutline.  @xref{Links}.
Idstamps may be displayed in place of the outline level relative ids.
Use @{@kbd{C-c C-l id @key{RET}}@}.

@cindex idstamp counter
An idstamp counter for each outline starts at 0 and is incremented by
one each time a cell is added to the outline.  This idstamp stays with
the cell no matter where it is moved within the outline.  If the cell is
deleted, its idstamp is not reused.

@cindex root cell
@cindex top-level cell
@cindex cell, top-level
@cindex cell, idstamp 0
@cindex idstamp 0
The 0 idstamp is always assigned to the root node of the entire outline.
This node is never visible within the outline, but is used so that the
outline may be treated as a single tree when needed.  Idstamps always
begin with a 0, as in 012, to distinguish them from relative ids.


@node Editing, Viewing, Idstamps, Outliner
@section   Editing

Text editing within the Koutliner works just as it does for other
buffers, except when you need to deal with the structural components of
an outline.  Within the contents of a cell, all of your standard editing
keys should work properly.  You can just type in text and the left and
right margins of the lines will be maintained for you.  @xref{Filling},
for the times when you need to refill a paragraph or to control when
filling occurs.@refill

Don't invoke editing commands with @{@kbd{M-x command-name @key{RET}}@}
since the Koutliner uses differently named commands made to act
like the regular editing commands.  Koutliner commands, however, account
for the structure and indentation in koutlines.

@cindex cell, selection
You may use the mouse to select parts of the contents of a single cell
for editing.  But don't drag across cell boundaries and then edit the
selected region, since that will destroy the outline structure.

@menu
* Adding and Killing::          
* Relocating and Copying::      
* Moving Around::               
* Filling::                     
* Transposing::                 
* Splitting and Appending::     
* Inserting and Importing::     
* Exporting::                   
@end menu

@node Adding and Killing, Relocating and Copying, Editing, Editing
@subsection  Adding and Killing

@kindex C-j
@kindex C-u c-j
@kindex C-c a
@kindex C-c p
@cindex cell, adding
@cindex cell, creating
@{@kbd{C-j}@} adds a new cell as a successor sibling of the
current cell, that is, the next cell at the same level as the current
cell.  If you enter a positive number as a prefix argument, that number
of cells will be inserted, all at the same level.  @{@kbd{C-u C-j}@} is
handled specially.  It adds a single cell as a child of the current cell.
@{@kbd{C-c a}@} does the same thing.  @{@kbd{C-c p}@} adds the cell as
the successor of the current cell's parent.

@kindex C-c C-k
@kindex C-c k
@kindex C-u C-c k
@kindex C-y
@cindex cell, killing
@cindex cell, yanking contents
@cindex tree, killing
@{@kbd{C-c C-k}@} kills the current cell and its entire subtree.
@{@kbd{C-c k}@} kills the contents of a cell from point through the end
of the cell; it does not remove the cell itself.  @{@kbd{C-u C-c k}@}
kills the entire contents of the cell regardless of the location of
point.  You may then yank the contents into another cell or another
buffer with @{@kbd{C-y}@}.


@node Relocating and Copying, Moving Around, Adding and Killing, Editing
@subsection  Relocating and Copying

@cindex promotion
@cindex demotion
@cindex tree, promoting
@cindex tree, demoting
@dfn{Demotion} is the act of moving a tree down one or more levels in the
outline.  The new tree will become either the successor or the first
child of the cell which precedes it in the outline.  @dfn{Promotion} is
the inverse operation.  Note that trees (cells and their entire
substructure) are promoted and demoted, not individual cells.

@kindex @key{TAB}
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
Trees may be demoted or promoted by pressing @{@key{TAB}@} or
@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} respectively, as in most outliners today.
@{@kbd{M-0 @key{TAB}}@} and @{@kbd{M-0 M-@key{TAB}}@} demote and
promote trees and additionally refill each cell that is not specially
marked to prevent refilling.  @xref{Filling}.  A positive or negative
prefix argument to these commands promotes or demotes the tree up to a
maximum of the number of levels given by the argument.  The outline may
not support movement of the tree by the number of levels requested,
however, in which case the maximal possible shift is made.

@kindex M-1 @key{TAB}
@cindex inserting tabs
@cindex tabs, inserting
@vindex kotl-mode:indent-tabs-mode
@{@kbd{M-1 @key{TAB}}@} behaves specially.  It toggles the function of
@{@key{TAB}@} and @{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} so that they insert a tab
and remove the previous character, respectively.  This is
useful when one is formatting information within a single cell.
When in this mode, @{@key{TAB}@} inserts a literal TAB character, by
default.  Set the variable, @var{kotl-mode:indent-tabs-mode}, to
@samp{nil} if you want space characters used to form the tab.
Use @{@kbd{M-1 @key{TAB}}@} to toggle the @{@key{TAB}@} and
@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} keys back to promoting and demoting trees.

@cindex tree, copying
@cindex tree, moving
@cindex Action Key, cell argument
@kindex Action Key, cell argument
For maximum flexibility in rearranging outlines, there are commands that
move or copy entire trees.  Each of these commands prompts for the label
of the root cell to move or copy and for a second cell which specifies
the new location for the moved or copied tree.  You may either accept
the default provided, type in the cell label, or when a mouse is
available, simply double click with the Action Key on the contents of a
cell.  The Koutliner knows to use the cell's label in such cases.

In the following commands, words delimited with <> represent the
arguments for which each command prompts.  Note how the use of prefix
arguments changes each command's behavior from insertion at the sibling
level to insertion at the child level.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c c
@item C-c c
Copy <tree> to be the successor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c c
@itemx C-u C-c c
Copy <tree> to follow as the first child of <cell>.

@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Copy <tree> to be the predecessor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c C-c
@itemx C-u C-c C-c
Copy <tree> to be the first child of the parent of <cell>.

@kindex C-c m
@item C-c m
Move <tree> to be the successor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c m
@itemx C-u C-c m
Move <tree> to follow as the first child of <cell>.

@kindex C-c C-m
@item C-c C-m
Move <tree> to precede <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c C-m
@itemx C-u C-c C-m
Move <tree> to be the first child of the parent of <cell>.
@end table

@cindex mouse, moving trees
If you have mouse support under Hyperbole, you can move entire trees
with mouse clicks.  Click the Assist Key within the indentation to the
left of a cell and you will be prompted for a tree to move.  Double
click the Action Key within the contents of the root cell of the tree to
move and then double click within the root contents of the tree you want
it to follow as a sucessor.

The Koutliner supports copying and moving within a single outline only
right now, so don't try to to move trees across different outline files.
You can, however, copy an outline tree to a non-outline buffer with:

@cindex tree, exporting
@cindex outline, exporting
@cindex tree, mailing
@cindex outline, mailing
@cindex exporting an outline
@cindex mailing an outline
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c M-c
@item C-c M-c
Copy a <tree> to a non-koutline buffer.
@kindex C-c @@
@itemx C-c @@
Copy a <tree> to an outgoing mail message.
@end table

@cindex outline, importing
@cindex copying
You may also import cells into the current koutline from another
koutline with the @{@kbd{M-x kimport:text @key{RET}}@} command.
@xref{Inserting and Importing}.


@node Moving Around, Filling, Relocating and Copying, Editing
@subsection  Moving Around

@cindex outline, motion
In addition to normal emacs movement commands, you can move within a
cell or from one cell or tree to another.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c ,
@item C-c ,
Move to the beginning of the current cell.
@kindex C-c .
@itemx C-c .
Move to the end of the current cell.

@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Move to the next visible cell, regardless of level.
@kindex C-c C-p
@itemx C-c C-p
Move to the previous visible cell, regardless of level.

@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Move forward to this cell's successor, if any.
@kindex C-c C-b
@itemx C-c C-b
Move backward to this cell's predecessor, if any.

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Move to the first child of the current cell, if any.
@kindex C-c C-u
@itemx C-c C-u
Move to the parent cell of the current cell, if any.

@kindex C-c <
@item C-c <
Move to the first sibling at the current level within this tree.
@kindex C-c >
@itemx C-c >
Move to the last sibling at the current level within this tree.

@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
Move to the level 1 root cell of the current tree.
@kindex C-c $
@itemx C-c $
Move to the last cell in the tree rooted at point, regardless of level.
@end table


@node Filling, Transposing, Moving Around, Editing
@subsection  Filling

@cindex outline, filling
@cindex filling
@cindex word wrap
@dfn{Filling} is the process of distributing words among lines to extend
short lines and to reduce long ones.  Commands are provided to fill a
paragraph within a cell or to fill a whole cell, which may have multiple
paragraphs.

@cindex filling
@cindex cell, filling
@cindex paragraph, filling
@cindex tree, filling
@cindex margin
@kindex M-q
@kindex M-j
@kindex C-c M-q
@kindex C-c M-j
@kindex C-M-q
@kindex C-M-j
@{@kbd{M-q}@} or @{@kbd{M-j}@} refills a paragraph within a
cell so that its lines wrap within the current margin settings.
@{@kbd{C-c M-q}@} or @{@kbd{C-c M-j}@} refills all paragraphs within a
cell.  @{@kbd{C-M-q}@} or @{@kbd{C-M-j}@} refills all cells within a
tree.  See your InfoDock, XEmacs, or Emacs manual for information on how
to set the left and right margins.

@vindex kotl-mode:refill-flag
@cindex refilling
@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
Set the variable, @var{kotl-mode:refill-flag}, to @samp{t} if you want
moving, promoting, demoting, exchanging, splitting and appending cells
to also automatically refill each cell.  Generally, this is not
recommended since if you happen to move a cell that you carefully
formatted yet forgot to give a `no-fill' property, then your formatting
will be lost.


@node Transposing, Splitting and Appending, Filling, Editing
@subsection  Transposing

The Koutliner move and copy commands rearrange entire trees.  The
following two commands, in contrast, exchange the locations of two
individual cells.

@kindex C-c e
@cindex cell, transposing
@cindex cell, exchanging
@cindex exchanging cells
@cindex transposing cells
@{@kbd{C-c e}@} prompts for two cell addresses and exchanges the cell
locations.

@kindex C-c t
@{@kbd{C-c t}@} does not prompt.  It exchanges the current
and immediatly prior cell, regardless of their levels.  If there is no
prior cell it exchanges the current and next cell.

@cindex cell, mark and point
@kindex M-0 C-c t
@{@kbd{M-0 C-c t}@} exchanges the cells in which point and mark fall.
@{@kbd{C-c t}@} with a non-zero numeric prefix argument, N, moves
the current tree maximally past the next N visible cells.  If there are
fewer visible, it makes the current cell the last cell in the outline.


@node Splitting and Appending, Inserting and Importing, Transposing, Editing
@subsection  Splitting and Appending

@cindex splitting a cell
@cindex cell, splitting
@kindex C-c s
@kindex C-u C-c s
One cell may be split into two adjacent sibling cells with @{@kbd{C-c
s}@}.  This leaves the cell contents preceding point in the current
cell, minus any trailing whitespace, and moves the contents following
point to a new sibling cell which is inserted into the outline.
@{@kbd{C-u C-c s}@} instead adds the new cell as the first child of the
original cell, rather than as its successor.

All cell attributes in the original cell are propagated to the new one,
aside from the creation attributes and idstamp.

@kindex C-c +
@cindex cell, appending
@cindex appending to a cell
@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
@{@kbd{C-c +}@} appends the contents of a specified cell to the end of
another cell.  It has no effect on cell attributes, except that if one
cell has a `no-fill' attribute, which prevents all but user requested
filling of a cell, then the cell appended to inherits this property.
This helps maintain any special formatting the appended text may have.

@node Inserting and Importing, Exporting, Splitting and Appending, Editing
@subsection  Inserting and Importing

@cindex outline, inserting into
@cindex outline, importing into
@cindex importing
@cindex insertion
@kindex C-x i
@cindex outline, foreign file
The elements of another buffer or file may be inserted into a koutline
as a set of cells by using the @{@kbd{C-x i}@} command.  When prompted,
you may use a buffer name or file name from which to insert, though
completion is provided for file names only.

@kindex C-u C-x i
The elements from the original buffer are converted into kcells and
inserted as the successors of the current cell.  If @{@kbd{C-u C-x i}@}
is used, they are instead inserted as the initial children of the current
cell.

@vindex kimport:mode-alist
@vindex kimport:suffix-alist
@cindex outline, conversion
@findex kotl-mode
@cindex outline mode
@cindex koutline mode
@cindex file, importing
@cindex importing a file
For information on mode and suffix-specific conversions performed on
file elements before they are inserted, see the documentation for the
variables, @var{kimport:mode-alist} and @var{kimport:suffix-alist}.  This
same conversion process applies if you invoke @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode
@key{RET}}@} in a non-koutline buffer or if you perform a generic file import
as described later in this section.@refill

@findex kotl-mode:insert-file-contents
Use @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode:insert-file-contents @key{RET}}@} to insert an
entire file into the current cell following point.

@findex kimport:file
The outliner supports conversion of three types of files into koutline
files.  You can import a file into an existing koutline,
following the tree at point, or can create a new koutline from the
imported file contents.  @{@kbd{M-x kimport:file @key{RET}}@} selects the
importation type based on the buffer or file name suffix of the file to
import.

@findex kotl-mode
If you want to convert a buffer from some other mode into a koutline and
then want to save the converted buffer back to its original file,
thereby replacing the original format, use @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode @key{RET}}@}.
Remember that you will lose the old format of the buffer when you do
this.

Use one of the following commands when you need explicit control over
the type of importation used on some text.  With these commands, your
original file remains intact.

@findex kimport:text
@cindex text file
Use @{@kbd{M-x kimport:text @key{RET}}@} and you will be prompted for a text
buffer or file to import and the new koutline buffer or file to create
from its text.  Each paragraph will be imported as a separate cell, with
all imported cells at the same level, since indentation of paragraphs is
presently ignored.  This same command can be used to import the
contents, attributes and level structure of cells from another koutline.

@findex kimport:star-outline
@cindex emacs outline
@cindex star outline
Star outlines are standard emacs outlines where each entry begins with
one or more asterisk characters.  Use @{@kbd{M-x kimport:star-outline
@key{RET}}@} and you will be prompted for the star outline buffer or
file to import and the new koutline buffer or file to create.

@cindex Augment outline
@findex kimport:aug-post-outline
(Skip this if you are unfamiliar with the Augment/NLS system originally
created at SRI.)  Files exported from the Augment system as text often
have alphanumeric statement identifiers on the right side.  You can
import such files while maintaining their outline structure.  Use
@{@kbd{M-x kimport:aug-post-outline @key{RET}}@} and you will be
prompted for the Augment buffer or file to import and the koutline to
create.

@node Exporting,  , Inserting and Importing, Editing
@subsection  Exporting

@cindex outline, exporting from
@cindex outline, HTML conversion
@cindex exporting
@cindex HTML conversion
@findex kexport:html
Koutlines may be @dfn{exported} to other file formats.  Presently, the
only format supported is conversion to HTML for publishing on the
World-Wide Web.

@{@kbd{M-x kexport:html @key{RET}}@} prompts for the koutline buffer or
file to export, the HTML file or buffer to which to output, and the
title to use for the HTML file.  Completion of file names is provided.
The conversion will then be done and the output file or buffer will be
written; the output file will not be displayed.


@node Viewing, Links, Editing, Outliner
@section   Viewing

@cindex outline, viewing
@cindex view
The Koutliner has very flexible viewing facilities to allow you to
effectively browse and study large amounts of material.

@menu
* Hiding and Showing::          
* View Specs::                  
@end menu

@node Hiding and Showing, View Specs, Viewing, Viewing
@subsection  Hiding and Showing

@cindex outline, hiding
@cindex outline, showing
@cindex collapsing
@cindex expanding
@cindex hiding
@cindex showing
Individual cells, branches, or particular levels in the outline may be
hidden or shown.  These commands work even when an outline buffer is
read-only, e.g. when its file is not checked out of a version control
system yet, so that you can get effective views of an outline without
editing it.  Some of these commands affect the current view spec.
@xref{View Specs}.

@table @kbd
@cindex hide tree
@cindex tree, show
@kindex C-c C-h
@item C-c C-h
Hide (collapse) the tree rooted at point.
@cindex show tree
@cindex tree, show
@kindex C-c C-s
@itemx C-c C-s
Show (expand) the tree rooted at point.

@cindex outline, all cells
@cindex cell, show all
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show (expand) all of the cells in the outline.
@cindex level
@cindex cell, show levels
@cindex outline, show levels
@kindex C-x $
@itemx C-x $
Show all of the cells down to a particular <level>.  You are prompted
for the level or a prefix argument may be given.

@cindex subtree, hide
@cindex tree, hide subtree
@cindex cell, hide subtree
@cindex hide subtree
@kindex C-M-h
@item C-M-h
Hide the subtree at point, excluding the root cell.
@cindex subtree, show
@cindex tree, show subtree
@cindex cell, show subtree
@cindex show subtree
@itemx M-x kotl-mode:show-subtree
Show the subtree at point.  Use @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@} to achieve a similar
effect; the only difference is that it will additionally expand the root
cell.

@cindex overview
@cindex outline, overview
@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Show an overview of the outline by showing only the first line of
every cell.  This also turns off blank lines between cells to maximize
the density of information.
@cindex top-level view
@cindex outline, top-level
@kindex C-c C-t
@itemx C-c C-t
Show a top-level view of the outline by hiding all cells but those at
level 1 and collapsing the visible cells so that only their first lines
are visible.  This does not turn off blank lines.
@end table

@kindex Action Key, hide or show cell
@cindex Action Key, hide or show cell
@cindex cell, collapse
@cindex cell, expand
@kindex M-@key{RET}
A click or a press of the Action Key within a cell's body, but not on a
Hyperbole button, toggles between hiding and showing the tree rooted at
point.  Try it with either your mouse or with @{@kbd{M-@key{RET}}@}.


@node View Specs,  , Hiding and Showing, Viewing
@subsection  View Specs

@cindex view spec
@cindex modeline, view spec
@vindex kvspec:string
@cindex pipe character
@cindex |
@cindex <|viewspec>
@dfn{View specifications} (view specs, for short) are short codes used
to control the view of a koutline.  The view specs in effect for an
outline are always displayed in the modeline of the outline's window,
following the outline buffer name, unless the variable,
@var{kvspec:string}, has been set to @samp{nil} to disable view spec
display.  The modeline display appears as <|viewspec> to aid rapid
visual location.  The | (pipe character) is also used in links that
specify view specs to indicate the start of a view spec sequence.
@xref{Links}.

@cindex outline, view specs
The current view spec is saved whenever the outline is saved.  The next
time the outline is read in, the same view spec will be applied.

The rest of this section documents the view spec characters that are
presently supported and explains how to invoke a view spec.  There is no
user-level means of adding your own view spec characters, so all other
character codes are reserved for future use.

@kindex C-c C-v
@cindex view spec, setting
@cindex view spec, changing
@cindex changing the view spec
@cindex setting the view spec
@{@kbd{C-c C-v}@} prompts for a new view spec setting in which the following
codes are valid.  Any invalid characters in a view spec are ignored.
Characters are evaluated in an order meant to do the right thing, even
when you use conflicting view spec characters.  The standard initial
view spec is <|ben>.

@cindex view spec, characters
@table @kbd
@cindex view spec, all lines and levels
@item a
Show all cell levels and all lines in cells.

@kindex C-c b
@cindex blank lines, toggle
@cindex view spec, blank lines
@kindex C-c b
@cindex toggling blank lines
@item b
Turn on blank lines between cells.  Without this character, blank lines
will be turned off.  You may also use the @{@kbd{C-c b}@} key binding to
toggle blank lines on and off independently of any other view settings.

@cindex view spec, lines per cell
@cindex hide lines
@cindex collapse lines
@cindex cutoff lines
@item cN
Hide any lines greater than N in each cell.  0 means don't cutoff any
lines.

@cindex ellipses
@cindex view spec, ellipses
@item e
Show ellipses when some content of a cell or its subtree is hidden.

@cindex level
@cindex cell, hiding levels
@cindex hide levels
@cindex view spec, show levels
@item lN
Hide cells at levels deeper than N.  0 means don't hide any cells.

@cindex label type
@cindex view spec, label type
@vindex kview:default-label-type
@cindex default label type
@item n
Turn on the default label type, as given by the variable,
@var{kview:default-label-type}.  Normally, this is alphanumeric labels.
@cindex label type, idstamps
@itemx n0
Display idstamps.
@cindex label type, alpha
@itemx n1
Display alpha labels.
@cindex label type, partial alpha
@itemx n2
Display partial alpha labels (don't use this, as full alpha labels are
better).
@cindex label type, legal
@itemx n.
Display legal labels.
@cindex label type, star
@cindex label type, asterisk
@itemx n*
Display star labels.  A level three cell would have three asterisks as a
label, for example.
@cindex label type, no labels
@itemx n~
Turn off labels.  (This removes the `n' viewspec from the modeline.)
@end table

@cindex view spec, example
As a test, use @{@kbd{C-h h o e}@} to display the example koutline.
Then use @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@} to set a view spec of `c2l1'.  This will turn
off blank lines, clip each cell after its second line, and hide all
cells below level one.

@node Links, Cell Attributes, Viewing, Outliner
@section   Links

@cindex link
@cindex hyperlink
@cindex klink
@cindex <> delimiters
Cells may include hyperlinks that refer to other cells or to external
sources of information.  Explicit Hyperbole buttons may be created as
usual with mouse drags (@pxref{By Dragging, Creation Via Action Key
Drags}).  A @dfn{klink} is a special implicit link button, delimited by
<> separators, that jumps to a koutline cell.  This section discusses
klinks.

@kindex Action Key, klink
@cindex Action Key, klink
@cindex klink, activating
@cindex klink referent
Press the Action Key over a klink to follow it.  This will flash the
klink as a button and then will display its referent in the other
window.  If the klink contains a view spec, it will be applied when
the referent is displayed.

@cindex klink, inserting
@kindex C-c l
There are a number of easy ways to insert klinks into koutlines.  If you
have mouse support under Hyperbole, simply click the Action Key within
the indentation to the left of a cell text.  If you then double click on
some cell, a link to that cell will be inserted where you started.  From
a keyboard, use @{@kbd{C-c l}@} when in a koutline or @{@kbd{C-h h o
l}@} when not in a koutline to insert a klink.  Since klinks are
implicit buttons, you may instead type in the text of the klink just as
you see it in the examples below and it will work exactly as if it had
been entered with the insert link command.

@cindex klink, formats
@noindent
There are basically three forms of klinks:

@table @emph
@cindex internal klink
@cindex klink, internal
@cindex <@@ klink>
@item internal
<@@ 2b=06> is an internal klink, since it refers to the koutline in which
it is embedded.  When activated, it jumps to the cell within the current
outline which has permanent id `06' and relative id `2b'.  <@@ 06> does
the same thing, as does <@@ 2b>, though this latter form will not
maintain the link properly if the cell is moved elsewhere within the
outline.  The form, <@@ 2b=06 |ben> additionally sets the view spec of
the current outline back to the default value, with a blank line between
each cell and the whole outline visible.

@cindex external klink
@cindex klink, external
@item external
The second klink format is an external link to another koutline, such
as, <EXAMPLE.kotl, 3=012 |c1e>, which displays the named file, starting
at the cell 3 (whose permanent identifer is 012), with the view
specification of: blank lines turned off, cutoff after one line per
cell, and show ellipses for cells or trees which are collapsed.

@cindex klink, view spec
@cindex view spec klink
@item view spec
The third format sets a view spec for the current koutline.  For
example, <|ben>, when activated, sets the view in the current outline to
display blank lines, to use ellipses after collapsed lines and to label
cells with the alphanumeric style.
@end table

@node Cell Attributes, Outliner History, Links, Outliner
@section   Cell Attributes

@cindex cell, attribute
@cindex attribute
@dfn{Attributes} are named variables whose values are specific to an
outline cell.  Thus, each cell has its own attribute list.  Every cell
has three standard attributes:

@table @emph
@cindex idstamp attribute
@item idstamp
The permanent id of the cell, typically used in cross-file hyperlinks
that reference the cell.

@cindex creator attribute
@cindex e-mail address
@cindex mail address
@item creator
The e-mail address of the person who created this cell.

@cindex create-time attribute
@cindex cell, creation time
@item create-time
The time at which the cell was created.  This is stored in a form that
allows for easy data comparisons but is displayed in a human readable
format, such as "Jan 28 18:27:59 CST 1994".
@end table

@kindex C-c C-i
@cindex attribute, adding
@cindex attribute, modifying
@cindex attribute, removing
@{@kbd{C-c C-i}@} is the command to add an attribute to or to modify an
existing attribute of the cell at point.  Think of it as inserting an
attribute value.  To remove an attribute from a cell, set its value to
@samp{nil}.


@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
@cindex no-fill attribute
The `no-fill' attribute is special.  When set to @samp{t}, it
prevents movement, promotion, demotion, exchange, split or append
commands from refilling the cell, even if the variable,
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag}, is set to @samp{t}.  It does not prevent
you from invoking explicit commands that refill the cell.
@xref{Filling}.

@kindex Assist Key, listing attributes
@cindex Assist Key, listing attributes
@cindex listing attributes
@cindex outline, attribute list
@kindex C-c h
@kindex C-u C-c h
The attribute lists for the cells in the tree rooted at point may be
inspected by pressing the Assist Key within the contents of a cell.
@{@kbd{C-c h}@} prompts for a cell label and displays the cell's
attributes.  @{@kbd{C-u C-c h}@} prompts for a cell label and shows
the attributes for it and its subtree; use 0 as the kcell id to see
attributes for all visible cells in the outline.

@node Outliner History,  , Cell Attributes, Outliner
@section   Outliner History

@cindex NLS
@cindex Augment
@cindex Engelbart
Much of the Hyperbole outliner design is based upon concepts pioneered
in the Augment/NLS system, @cite{[Eng84a]}.  Augment treated documents as
a hierarchical set of nodes, called statements, rather than cells.
Every Augment document utilized this intrinsic structure.

@cindex distributed collaboration
@cindex collaboration
The system could rapidly change the view of a document by collapsing,
expanding, generating, clipping, filtering, including or reordering
these nodes.  It could also map individual views to multiple workstation
displays across a network to aid in distributed, collaborative work.

@cindex knowledge transfer
@cindex idea structuring
@cindex cross referencing
These facilities aided greatly in idea structuring, cross-referencing,
and knowledge transfer.  The Koutliner is a start at bringing
these capabilities back into the mainstream of modern computing culture.


@node Rolo, Window Configurations, Outliner, Top
@chapter Rolo

@cindex rolo
@cindex wrolo
Hyperbole includes a complete, advanced rolo system, Wrolo, for
convenient management of hierarchical, record-oriented information.

@cindex rolo, buttons in
Hyperbole buttons may be included within rolo records and then
manually activated whenever their records are retrieved.

@vindex file, wrolo.el
See the description at the top of the @file{wrolo.el} file for
details on programmatic interfacing to the rolo.  The following
subsections explain use and basic customization of this tool.

@menu
* Rolo Concepts::               
* Rolo Menu::                   
* Rolo Searching::              
* Rolo Keys::                   
* Rolo Settings::               
@end menu

@node Rolo Concepts, Rolo Menu, Rolo, Rolo
@section   Rolo Concepts

@cindex rolo file
@cindex rolo entry
The rolo manages and searches rolo files.  A @dfn{rolo file}
consists of an optional header which starts and ends with a line of
equal signs (at least three equal signs starting at the beginning of a
line), followed by any non-negative number of rolo records.  You must
manually add a header to any rolo file if you want it to have one.

@noindent
Here is an example of a simple rolo file.

@smallexample
@group
==================================================================
                          PERSONAL ROLO
<Last-Name>, <First>  <Email>        W<Work#>       F<Fax#>
==================================================================
*   Smith, John       <js@@hiho.com> W708-555-2001  F708-321-1492
        Chief Ether Maintainer, HiHo Industries
        05/24/1999
@end group
@end smallexample

We call rolo records, @dfn{entries}.  Entries begin with a delimiter
of one or more `*' characters at the beginning of a line.  Entries may
be arranged in a hierarchy, where child entries start with one more `*'
character than do their parents.  Top-level entries begin with a single
`*'.

Beyond this initial delimiter, entries are completely free-form text.
It is best to use a "lastname, firstname" format, however, when adding
contact entries into a rolo.  Then the rolo system will
automatically keep your entries alphabetized as you enter them.  You'll
also be able to sort them whenever you desire.  This ordering is what
the rolo will use if you accept the default entry with which it
prompts you when adding a new entry.

Any search done on the rolo scans the full text of each entry.
During a search, the rolo file header separator lines and anything in
between are appended to the buffer of matched entries before any entries
are retrieved from the file.  Whenever an entry is matched, it and all
of its descendant entries are retrieved.  If your emacs version supports
textual highlighting, each search match is highlighted for quick, visual
location.

@noindent
For example, a search on "Company" could retrieve the following:

@smallexample
@group
==================================================================
                        COMPANY ROLO
==================================================================
*    Company
**     Manager
***      Staffer
@end group
@end smallexample

@noindent
Thus, searching for Company retrieves all listed employees.
Searching for Manager turns up all Staffer entries.


@node Rolo Menu, Rolo Searching, Rolo Concepts, Rolo
@section   Rolo Menu

@noindent
The Rolo submenu of the Hyperbole menu offers a full set
of commands for searching and maintaining a personal rolo.
It looks like so.

@iftex
@sp 2
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Rolo Menu}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/menu-rolo.ps,width=1.625in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Rolo Menu</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Rolo Menu" SRC="im/menu-rolo.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/menu-rolo.gif}.  Under InfoDock, use
the middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the Hyperbole
system loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two
button mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo

@page
@cindex rolo menu
The Rolo/ menu entry on the Hyperbole minibuffer menu provides the same
set of commands as the menubar menu, with more concise labels.
The Rolo/ menu supplies the following commands:

@cindex rolo commands
@cindex wrolo commands
@findex rolo-add
@findex rolo-display-matches
@findex rolo-edit
@findex rolo-kill
@findex rolo-mail-to
@findex rolo-sort
@findex rolo-grep
@findex rolo-fgrep
@findex rolo-word
@findex rolo-yank
@smallexample
@group
Menu Item       Command               Description
=====================================================================
Add             rolo-add              Adds a rolo entry
Display         rolo-display-matches  Displays last matches again
Edit            rolo-edit             Edits an existing rolo entry
Info                                  Displays a rolo manual entry
Kill            rolo-kill             Deletes a rolo entry
Mail            rolo-mail             Mails to an address at point
Order           rolo-sort             Sorts all rolo levels
RegexFind       rolo-grep             Finds all entries containing
                                        a regular expression
StringFind      rolo-fgrep            Finds all entries containing
                                        a string (or logical
                                        expression)
WordFind        rolo-word             Finds all entries containing
                                        a string of whole words
Yank            rolo-yank             Inserts the first matching
                                        rolo entry at point
=====================================================================
@end group
@end smallexample

A prefix argument used with either of the find commands listed above
limits the search to a maximum number of matches given by the argument.
The search is terminated whenever that number of matches is found.

For any of the above commands that prompt for a name, you may use the
form parent/child to locate a child entry below a specific parent.
Hence, for a rolo which looked like so:

@smallexample
@group
*    Company
**     Manager
***      Staffer
@end group
@end smallexample

@noindent
you could refer to the Staffer entry with the following hierarchical
notation, Company/Manager/Staffer.  Do not use this hierarchical
notation in search expressions since the whole rolo will be searched
anyway.  Thus, "Staffer" as a search pattern will find an entry
containing "Staffer" at any level in a hierarchy, like so:@refill

@smallexample
***      Staffer
@end smallexample

@node Rolo Searching, Rolo Keys, Rolo Menu, Rolo
@section   Rolo Searching

@cindex rolo searching
@cindex searching, rolo
@cindex menu item, RegexFind
@cindex menu item, WordFind
@cindex menu item, StringFind
@xref{Rolo Menu}, for the list of rolo search commands.  In this
section, the menu item names from the minibuffer menu are used to
refer to each command.

The @code{RegexFind} menu item searches the rolo list for all entries 
which contain matches to a given regular expression.  The regular
expression syntax used is the same as the one used within Emacs
and across the GNU set of tools.  @xref{Regexps,,Syntax of Regular
Expressions,xemacs, the XEmacs Manual}, for full documentation on this
format.

The @code{WordFind} menu item locates full-word matches so that if you
search for @samp{product}, it won't match to occurrences of
@samp{production}.  It is also handy for more precise name matching.

@cindex logical rolo searches
The @code{StringFind} menu item has two uses.  It can find all entry
matches for a string or can execute logical queries for more
precise matching.  The format of logical queries is explained here; a
simple parenthesis delimited prefix format is used with the following
logical operators.

@smallexample
@group
Operator Name   Number of Arguments    Description
=====================================================================
and             two or more            Match entries with all args
or              two or more            Match entries with any args
xor             two or more            Match entries with 1 arg only
not             one                    Match entries without the arg
=====================================================================
@end group
@end smallexample


@noindent
For example:

@smallexample
(and Company (not Vice-President))
@end smallexample

@noindent
would match those entries for people associated with @samp{Company} who
do not have @samp{Vice-President} titles.

The following example would provide a list of all people marked as
clients whose area codes are outside of 408 and all non-clients within
the 408 area code.  This could be useful after all clients within
the 408 area code have been contacted and you want to see who else
you should contact.

@smallexample
(xor 408- client)
@end smallexample


@node Rolo Keys, Rolo Settings, Rolo Searching, Rolo
@section   Rolo Keys

@cindex wrolo menu
@cindex rolo keys
After a rolo search is performed, point is left in the @dfn{rolo
match buffer}, @file{*Hyperbole Rolo*}, which uses @code{wrolo-mode} to
simplify browsing many rolo matches.  Press @{@kbd{?}@} when in the
match buffer for a summary of available keys.

@kindex TAB
@kindex M-TAB
@kindex r
@cindex rolo, highlighting matches
@cindex rolo, finding matches
@cindex rolo, moving through matches
If your emacs version supports textual highlighting, each search match
is highlighted for quick, visual location.  @{@key{TAB}@} moves point
forward to successive spans of text which match the search expression.
@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} or @{@kbd{r}@} moves point backward to earlier
matches.  These keys allow you to quickly find the matching entry of
most interest to you if your search expression failed to narrow the
matches sufficiently.

@kindex M-s
@kindex C-r
@cindex rolo, extending a match
@cindex rolo, interactive searching
If you want to extend the match expression with some more characters to
find a particular entry, use @{@kbd{M-s}@}.  This performs an
interactive search forward for the match expression.  You may add to or
delete characters from this expression to find different occurrences.
@{@kbd{C-r}@} reverses the direction of the search.

@kindex a
@kindex h
@kindex s
@kindex t
@cindex rolo, outlining
Single key outlining commands are also available for browsing matches.
If your search matches a large number of entries, use
@{@kbd{t}@} to get a top-level overview of all the entries.  Each entry
is collapsed so that only its first line shows.  Press @{@kbd{s}@} to
show (expand) the entry at point.  Use @{@kbd{h}@} to hide (collapse)
the entry again.  Press @{@kbd{a}@} to expand all entries in the buffer.

@noindent
Many other keys are defined to help you move through matching entries.

@cindex rolo, moving to entries
@table @kbd
@kindex b
@item b
Move to the previous entry at the same level as the current entry.
@kindex f
@item f
Move to the next entry at the same level as the current entry.
@kindex n
@item n
Move to the next entry at any level.
@kindex p
@item p
Move to the previous entry at any level.
@kindex u
@item u
Move to the previous entry one level up.
@kindex .
@kindex <
@item . or <
Move to the beginning of the buffer.
@kindex ,
@kindex >
@item , or >
Move to the end of the buffer.
@kindex @key{DEL}
@item @key{DEL}
Scroll backward a windowful.
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item @key{SPC}
Scroll forward a windowful.
@end table

@kindex e
@cindex rolo, editing
@cindex datestamps
@cindex rolo, datestamps
@cindex customization, rolo datestamps
@cindex menu, Toggle-Rolo-Dates
@cindex customization, rolo edits
@cindex customization, rolo additions
@vindex wrolo-edit-hook
@vindex wrolo-add-hook
Use the @{@kbd{e}@} key to edit the entry at point in the rolo match
buffer.  A datestamp will automatically be added or updated at the end
of the entry, unless this feature has been turned off via the
Cust/Toggle-Rolo-Dates menu item.  The variable, @var{wrolo-edit-hook},
is evaluated after the update of the entry datestamp.  This allows
programmed modification of the way rolo edits work.  The variable,
@var{wrolo-add-hook}, works the same way but is evaluated when a new
entry is first added.

@kindex q
@cindex rolo, quitting
Once you have found an entry of interest and you want to remove the
rolo match buffer, use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit.  This will restore your
current frame to its state prior to the rolo search.

@node Rolo Settings,  , Rolo Keys, Rolo
@section   Rolo Settings

@vindex rolo-file-list
@cindex rolo, personal
The files used in any rolo search are given by the
@var{rolo-file-list} variable, whose default value is
@code{("~/.rolo.otl")}, so that searches initially scan only your
personal rolo.  Any entries added to this list should be file
pathnames.  If a file in the list does not exist or is not readable, it
is skipped.  Files are searched in the order in which they appear in the
list.  In general, you should leave your personal rolo file as the
first entry in the list, since this is the only file to which the Add
command on the rolo menu adds entries.@refill

Hyperbole releases earlier than 4.17 used a different file name for the
personal rolo.  If such a file exists, you will be prompted to rename
it whenever the Rolo system is loaded.

@vindex rolo-highlight-face
@cindex rolo, highlighting matches
If textual highlighting is available in your emacs on your current
display type, the rolo uses the value of @var{rolo-highlight-face} as
the face which highlights search matches.

@vindex rolo-kill-buffers-after-use
Rolo file buffers are left around after they are searched, on the
assumption that another search is likely to follow within this emacs
session.  You may wish to change this behavior with the following
setting: @code{(setq rolo-kill-buffers-after-use t)}.

@vindex rolo-save-buffers-after-use
After an entry is killed, the modified rolo file is automatically
saved.  If you would rather always save files yourself, use this
setting: @code{(setq rolo-save-buffers-after-use nil)}.

@vindex rolo-email-format
When an entry is being added from within a mail reader buffer, the
rolo extracts the sender's name and e-mail address and prompts you
with the name as a default.  If you accept the default, it will enter
the name and the email address using the format given by the
@var{rolo-email-format} variable.  See its documentation if you want to
change its value.

@vindex rolo-hdr-regexp
A rolo file may begin with an optional header section which is copied
to the match display buffer whenever any matches are found during a
search.  The start and end lines of this header are controlled by the
regular expression variable, @var{rolo-hdr-regexp}, whose default value
is "^===".  This allows lines of all equal signs to visually separate
matching entries retrieved from multiple files during a single search.

@vindex rolo-entry-regexp
The rolo entry start delimiter is given by the regular expression
variable, @var{rolo-entry-regexp}, whose default value is "^\*+", i.e.@: 
one or more asterisks at the beginning of a line.

@vindex rolo-display-format-function
When a rolo search is done, each matching entry is passed through the
function given by the variable, @var{rolo-display-format-function},
before it is displayed.  This should be a function of one argument,
namely the matching rolo entry as a string.  The string that this
function returns is what is displayed in the rolo match buffer.  The
default function used is @code{identity} which passes the string through
unchanged.  If you use the rolo code to search other kinds of
record-oriented data, this variable can be used to format each entry
however you would like to see it displayed.  With a little experience,
you can quickly write functions that use local bindings of the rolo
entry and file settings to search all kinds of record-oriented data.
There is never a need to learn a complicated query language.


@node Window Configurations, Developing with Hyperbole, Rolo, Top
@chapter Window Configurations

@cindex window configurations
@cindex restoring windows
@cindex saving window configurations
@vindex file, wconfig.el
Hyperbole includes the @file{wconfig.el} package which lets you save and
restore window configurations, i.e.@: the window layout and buffers
displayed within an emacs frame.  This is useful to save a particular
working context and then to jump back to it at a later time during an
emacs session.  It is also useful during demonstrations to pull up many
informational artifacts all at once, e.g.@: all of the windows for a
particular subsystem.  None of this information is stored between emacs
sessions, so your window configurations will last through only a single
session of use.

The wconfig library offers two distinct means of managing window
configurations.  The first means associates a name with each stored
window configuration.  The name may then be used to retrieve the window
configuration later.  The second means uses a ring structure to save
window configurations and then allows browsing through the ring of
saved configurations, finally wrapping around to the first entry after
the last entry is encountered.

The Win/ menu entry on the Hyperbole top-level menu displays a menu of
window configuration commands:

@noindent
@smallexample
WinConfig>  AddName  DeleteName  RestoreName  PopRing  SaveRing  YankRing
@end smallexample

@noindent
The operations on this menu are defined as follows.

@cindex wconfig commands
@cindex window configuration commands
@cindex named window configuration
@cindex window configuration ring
@findex wconfig-add-by-name
@findex wconfig-delete-by-name
@findex wconfig-restore-by-name
@findex wconfig-delete-pop
@findex wconfig-ring-save
@findex wconfig-yank-pop
@smallexample
@group
Menu Item       Command                   Description
=====================================================================
AddName         wconfig-add-by-name       Name current wconfig
DeleteName      wconfig-delete-by-name    Delete wconfig with a name
RestoreName     wconfig-restore-by-name   Restore wconfig with a name

PopRing         wconfig-delete-pop        Restore and delete wconfig
SaveRing        wconfig-ring-save         Store wconfig to the ring
YankRing        wconfig-yank-pop          Restore the next wconfig
=====================================================================
@end group
@end smallexample

The easiest method is to Save and restore window configurations by name,
but it requires that you input the chosen name from the keyboard.  The
ring commands permit saves and restores through mouse interaction
only, if so desired.  An earlier chapter (@pxref{Smart Keys}) mentions
how to save and restore window configurations with the Smart Keys.
Since the ring commands are a bit more complex than their by-name
counterparts, the following paragraphs explain them in more detail.

@vindex kill-ring
Wconfig creates a ring structure that operates just like the Emacs
@var{kill-ring} (@pxref{Kill Ring,,,xemacs,the XEmacs Manual}) but its
elements are window configurations rather than text regions.  You can
add an element to the ring to save the current window configuration.
After several elements are in the ring, you can walk through all of them
in sequence until the desired configuration is restored.

@findex wconfig-ring-save
SaveRing executes the @code{wconfig-ring-save} command which
saves the current window configuration to the ring.

@findex wconfig-yank-pop
YankRing executes the @code{wconfig-yank-pop} command.  It restores the
window configuration from the currently pointed to configuration in the
ring.  It does not delete this configuration from the ring but it does
move the pointer to the prior ring element.  Repeated calls to this
command thus restore successive window configurations until the ring
pointer wraps around.  Simply stop when a desired configuration appears
and use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit from the minibuffer menu.

@findex wconfig-delete-pop
PopRing calls the @code{wconfig-delete-pop} command.  It is used to
restore a previously saved configuration and to delete it from the ring.
Simply stop when a desired configuration appears and use @{@kbd{q}@} to
quit from the minibuffer menu.

@vindex wconfig-ring-max
The maximum number of elements the ring can hold is set by the
@var{wconfig-ring-max} variable whose default is 10.  Any saves beyond
this value cause deletion of the oldest element in the ring before
a new one is added.

@node Developing with Hyperbole, Glossary, Window Configurations, Top
@chapter Developing with Hyperbole

This chapter is for people who are familiar with Emacs Lisp and
wish to customize Hyperbole, to extend it, or to develop other systems
using Hyperbole as a base.

@menu
* Hook Variables::              
* Creating Types::              
* Explicit Button Technicalities::  
* Encapsulating Systems::       
* Embedding Hyperbole::         
@end menu

@node Hook Variables, Creating Types, Developing with Hyperbole, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Hook Variables

@cindex variables
@cindex hook variables
Hyperbole supplies a number of hook variables that allow you to adjust
its basic operations to meet your own needs, without requiring you to
change the code for those operations.

@findex add-hook
We find it best to always set the value of hook variables either to
@samp{nil} or to a list of function names of no arguments, each of which
will be called in sequence when the hook is triggered.  If you use
the @code{add-hook} function to adjust the value of hooks, it will do
this automatically for you.

Given the name of a function, a Hyperbole hook variable triggered within
that function has the same name as the function with a @samp{-hook}
appended.  Hyperbole includes the following hook variables:

@table @var

@vindex hyperb:init-hook
@item hyperb:init-hook
For customization at Hyperbole initialization time.  Use this to load
any personal Hyperbole type definitions you might have.  It is run after
Hyperbole support code is loaded but before Hyperbole session
initializations take place.

@vindex action:act-hook
@vindex hbut:current
@item action:act-hook
Run before each Hyperbole button activation.
The variable @var{hbut:current} contains the button to be activated when
this is run.

@vindex ebut:create-hook
@item ebut:create-hook
Adds to the Hyperbole explicit button creation process.

@vindex ebut:delete-hook
@item ebut:delete-hook
Adds to the Hyperbole explicit button deletion process.

@vindex ebut:modify-hook
@item ebut:modify-hook
Executed when an explicit button's attributes are modified.

@vindex hibtypes:begin-load-hook
@item hibtypes:begin-load-hook
Executed prior to loading of standard Hyperbole implicit button types.
Used to load site-specific low priority implicit button types since
lowest priority ibtypes are loaded first.

@vindex hibtypes:end-load-hook
@item hibtypes:end-load-hook
Executed after loading of standard Hyperbole implicit button types.
Used to load site-specific high priority implicit button types since
highest priority ibtypes are loaded last.

@vindex htype:create-hook
@item htype:create-hook
Executed whenever a Hyperbole type (e.g.@: action type or implicit button
type) is added to the environment.

@vindex htype:delete-hook
@item htype:delete-hook
Executed whenever a type is deleted from the environment.

@vindex kotl-mode-hook
@item kotl-mode-hook
Executed whenever a koutline is created or read in or when kotl-mode is
invoked.

@vindex wrolo-add-hook
@item wrolo-add-hook
Executed after the addition of a new rolo entry.

@vindex wrolo-display-hook
@item wrolo-display-hook
Executed when rolo matches are displayed.

@vindex wrolo-edit-hook
@item wrolo-edit-hook
Executed after point is successfully moved to an entry to be edited.

@vindex wrolo-mode-hook
@item wrolo-mode-hook
Executed when a rolo match buffer is created and put into wrolo-mode.

@vindex wrolo-yank-reformat-function
@cindex yank, reformatting
@item wrolo-yank-reformat-function
A variable whose value may be set to a function of two arguments, START
and END, which give the region of the rolo entry yanked into the
current buffer by the rolo-yank command.  The function may reformat this
region to meet user-specific needs.

@end table

@noindent
Hyperbole also makes use of a number of standard Emacs hook variables.

@table @var

@vindex find-file-hooks
@cindex button highlighting
@item find-file-hooks
This is called whenever a file is read into a buffer.
Hyperbole uses it to highlight any buttons within files when run under
any X or NEXTSTEP window system versions of Emacs, XEmacs or InfoDock.

@vindex write-file-hooks
@cindex button data saving
@item write-file-hooks
This is called whenever a buffer is written to a file.  Hyperbole uses
it to save modified button attributes associated with any file from the
same directory as the current file.

@cindex mail hooks
@cindex news hooks
Hyperbole mail and news facilities also utilize a number of Emacs hook
variables.  These hide button data and highlight buttons if possible.
See the Hyperbole files with `mail' and `gnus' in their names for
specific usage of such hooks.
@end table

@node Creating Types, Explicit Button Technicalities, Hook Variables, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Creating Types

@cindex type definition
@cindex type redefinition
@noindent
To define or redefine a single Hyperbole type, you may either:

@itemize @bullet
@kindex C-M-x
@findex eval-defun
@kindex C-x C-e
@findex eval-last-sexp
@item
move your Emacs point to within the type definition and use
@{@kbd{C-M-x}@} @code{(eval-defun)} (only works in Emacs Lisp mode);

@item
or move your point to the end of the last line of the type definition and
use @{@kbd{C-x C-e}@} @code{(eval-last-sexp)} (works in most modes).
@end itemize

@cindex Hyperbole types
@vindex class, htype
The functions from the @samp{htype} class may be applied to any
Hyperbole types, if needed.

@vindex file, hactypes.el
@vindex file, hibtypes.el
The following subsections explain the specifics of Hyperbole type
definitions which are beyond standard practice for Emacs Lisp programming.
See the definitions of the standard types in @file{hactypes.el}
and @file{hibtypes.el} for examples.

@menu
* Action Type Creation::        
* Implicit Button Types::       
@end menu

@node Action Type Creation, Implicit Button Types, Creating Types, Creating Types
@subsection  Action Type Creation

@findex actype:create
@vindex file, hactypes.el
@vindex file, hbut.el
New forms of explicit buttons may be created by adding new action types
to a Hyperbole environment.  The file, @file{hactypes.el}, contains
many examples of working action types.

@cindex action type, creation
@findex defact
@findex actype:create
An action type is created, i.e.@: loaded into the Hyperbole environment,
with the @code{(defact)} function (which is an alias for
@code{(actype:create)}).  The calling signature for this function is
given in its documentation; it is the same as that of @code{(defun)}
except that a documentation string is required.  (An interactive calling
form is also required if the action type has formal parameters and is to
be used in explicit button definitions.  Implicit buttons never use an
action type's interactive form.  It is good practice to include an
interactive form since the type creator cannot know how users may choose
to apply the type.)@refill

An action type's parameters are used differently than those of a
function being called.  Its interactive calling form is used to prompt
for type-specific button attributes whenever an explicit button is
created.  The rest of its body is used when a button with this action
type is activated.  Then the button attributes together with the action
type body are used to form an action that is executed in response to the
button activation.  The action's result is returned to the action caller
unless it returns @samp{nil}, in which case @samp{t} is returned to the
caller to ensure that it registers the performance of the action.

An action type body may perform any computation that uses Emacs Lisp and
Hyperbole functions.

@cindex interactive form
@findex interactive
The interactive calling form for an action type is of the same form as
that of a regular Emacs Lisp function definition (see the documentation
for the Emacs Lisp @code{(interactive)} form).  It may additionally use
Hyperbole command character extensions when the form is given as a
string.  Each such extension character @emph{must} be preceded by a plus
sign, @samp{+}, in order to be recognized, since such characters may also
have standard interactive meanings.

@noindent
The present Hyperbole extension characters are:

@table @strong
@cindex argument, Info node
@cindex interactive cmd char, +I
@item +I
Prompts for an existing Info node name and file.

@cindex argument, kcell
@cindex argument, koutline
@cindex interactive cmd char, +K
@item +K
Prompts for an existing kcell identifier, either a full outline level
identifier or a permanent idstamp.

@cindex argument, klink
@cindex interactive cmd char, +L
@item +L
Prompts for a klink specification.  See the documentation for the function
@code{(kcell-view:reference)} for details of the format of a klink.

@cindex interactive cmd char, +M
@cindex argument, mail message
@item +M
Prompts for a mail message date and the file name in which it resides.
The mail parameters prompted for by this character code may change in
the future.

@cindex argument, view spec
@cindex interactive cmd char, +V
@item +V
Prompts for a Koutliner view specification string, with the current
view spec, if any, as a default.

@end table

@vindex class, hargs
@cindex argument, reading
Arguments are read by the functions in Hyperbole's @samp{hargs} class,
rather than the standard Lisp @samp{read} functions, in order to allow
direct selection of arguments via the Action Key.

If an action type create is successful, the symbol that Hyperbole uses
internally to reference the type is returned.  On failure, @samp{nil} is
returned so that you may test whether or not the operation succeeds.

Once you have defined an action type within your present Hyperbole
environment, you can create new explicit buttons which use it.  There is
no explicit button type beyond its action type, so no other work is
necessary.

@findex actype:delete
Call @code{(actype:delete)} to remove an action type from a Hyperbole
environment.  It takes a single parameter which should be the same type
symbol used in the type definition call (not the Hyperbole symbol
returned by the call).

@node Implicit Button Types,  , Action Type Creation, Creating Types
@subsection  Implicit Button Types

@cindex implicit button type
@cindex ibtype
@findex defib
@findex ibtype:create
An implicit button type is created or loaded via the @code{(defib)}
function (which is an alias for @code{(ibtype:create)}).  The calling
signature for this function is given in its documentation; it is the
same as that of @code{(defun)}, but with a number of constraints.  The
parameter list should always be empty since no parameters will be used.
A documentation string is required; it is followed by the body of the
type.

@cindex ibtype, predicate
@cindex ibtype, argument
@cindex ibtype, return val
@cindex ibtype, actype
The body of an implicit button type is a predicate which determines
whether or not point is within an implicit button of the type.  If not,
the predicate returns @samp{nil}.  If so, it may optionally setup to
flash the button and then to perform one or more actions.  A call of the
form: @code{(ibut:label-set label start-pos end-pos)} is used to setup
the button flashing, if desired.  This is then typically immediately
followed by an action invocation of the form:
@code{(hact 'actype &rest actype-arguments)}.  It is imperative that all
actions (non-predicate code) be invoked through the @code{(hact)}
function or your ibtypes will not work properly.  (Hyperbole first tests
to see if any ibtype matches the current context before activating any
type, so it ensures that @code{(hact)} calls are disabled during this
testing.)  Any action types used in the definition of an implicit button
type may be created before or after the definition, but obviously, must
be defined before any implicit buttons of the given type are activated;
an error will result, otherwise.

If an implicit button type create is successful, the symbol that
Hyperbole uses internally to reference the type is returned.  On
failure, @samp{nil} is returned so that you may test whether or not the
operation succeeds.  Implicit button type names and action type names
may be the same without any conflict.  In fact, such naming is
encouraged when an implicit button type is the exclusive user of an
action type.

@findex ibtype:delete
Call @code{(ibtype:delete)} to remove an implicit button type from a
Hyperbole environment.  It takes a single parameter which should be the
same type symbol used in the type definition call (not the Hyperbole
symbol returned by the call).  This will not delete the action type used
by the implicit button; that must be done separately.

@cindex ibtype, help
@findex ibut:at-p
@vindex class, hattr
@vindex class, hbut
@vindex file, hib-kbd.el
By default, a request for help on an implicit button will display the
button's attributes in the same manner as is done for explicit buttons.
For some implicit button types, other forms of help will be more
appropriate.  If an Emacs Lisp function is defined whose name is formed
from the concatenation of the type name followed by @samp{:help}, e.g.@:
@code{my-ibtype:help}, it is used to respond to requests for
help on buttons of that type.  Any such function should take a single
argument of an implicit button construct.  (This is what
@code{(ibut:at-p)} returns when point is within an implicit button
context.)  The button may be queried for its attributes using functions
from the @samp{hbut} and @samp{hattr} classes.  See the @file{hib-kbd.el}
file for an example of a custom help function.

@node Explicit Button Technicalities, Encapsulating Systems, Creating Types, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Explicit Button Technicalities
@menu
* Button Label Normalization::  
* Operational and Storage Formats::  
* Programmatic Button Creation::  
@end menu

@node Button Label Normalization, Operational and Storage Formats, Explicit Button Technicalities, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Button Label Normalization
@cindex normalized label
@cindex button label
@cindex button key
@vindex hbut:label-to-key
Hyperbole uses a normalized form of button labels called button keys (or
label keys) for all internal operations.  See the documentation for the
function @code{(hbut:label-to-key)} for details of the normalization
process.  The normalized form permits Hyperbole to recognize buttons that
are the same but whose labels appear different from one another, due to
text formatting conventions.  For example, all of the following would
be recognized as the same button.

@smallexample
  <(fake button)>     <( fake      button)>

  Pam>  <(fake
  Pam>    button)>

  ;; <(fake
  ;;   button)>

  /* <( fake      */
  /*    button )> */
@end smallexample

@vindex hbut:fill-prefix-regexps
@vindex fill-prefix
@cindex fill prefix
@cindex button, multiple lines
@cindex button, split across lines
The last three examples demonstrate how Hyperbole ignores common fill
prefix patterns that happen to fall within the middle of a button label
that spans multiple lines.  As long as such buttons are selected with
point at a location within the label's first line, the button will be
recognized.  The variable @var{hbut:fill-prefix-regexps} holds the list
of fill prefixes recognized when embedded within button labels.  All
such prefixes are recognized (one per button label), regardless of the
setting of the Emacs variable, @var{fill-prefix}, so no user
intervention is required.

@node Operational and Storage Formats, Programmatic Button Creation, Button Label Normalization, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Operational and Storage Formats

@cindex explicit button, formats
@cindex explicit button, storage
@cindex storage manager
@cindex button attributes
@vindex hbut:current
Hyperbole uses a terse format to store explicit buttons and a more
meaningful one to show users and to manipulate during editing.  The
terse format consists solely of button attribute values whereas the edit
format includes an attribute name with each attribute value.  A button
in edit format consists of a Lisp symbol together with its attribute list
which holds the attribute names and values.  In this way, buttons may be
passed along from function to function simply by passing the symbol to
which the button is attached.  Most functions utilize the pre-defined
@var{hbut:current} symbol by default to store and retrieve the last
encountered button in edit format.

@vindex class, hbdata
@vindex class, ebut
@vindex class, hbut
The @samp{hbdata} class handles the terse, stored format.  The
@samp{hbut}, @samp{ebut}, and @samp{ibut} classes work with the
name/value format.  This separation permits the wholesale replacement of
the storage manager with another, with any interface changes hidden from
any Hyperbole client programming.

@node Programmatic Button Creation,  , Operational and Storage Formats, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Programmatic Button Creation

@cindex explicit button, creation
A common need when developing with Hyperbole is to create or to modify
explicit buttons without user interaction.  For example, an application
might require the addition of an explicit summary button to a file for
each new mail message a user reads that contains a set of keywords.  The
user could then check the summary file and jump to desired messages
quickly.

@vindex class, ebut
@vindex file, hbut.el
@findex ebut:create
@findex ebut:map
The Hyperbole class @samp{ebut} supports programmatic access to explicit
buttons.  Examine it within the @file{hbut.el} file for full details.
The documentation for @code{(ebut:create)} explains the set of
attributes necessary to create an explicit button.  For operations over
the whole set of buttons within the visible (non-narrowed) portion of a
buffer, use the @code{(ebut:map)} function.


@node Encapsulating Systems, Embedding Hyperbole, Explicit Button Technicalities, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Encapsulating Systems

@vindex file, hsys-*
@cindex Hyperbole, system encapsulation
@cindex system encapsulation
A powerful use of implicit button types is to provide a Hyperbole-based
interface to external systems.  The basic idea is to interpret patterns
output by the application as implicit buttons.

See the @file{hsys-*} files for examples of how to do this.
Encapsulations are provided for the following systems (the systems
themselves are not included with Hyperbole):

@table @emph
@item World-Wide Web
The world-wide web system originally developed at CERN, that now spans
the Internet universe.  This is automatically loaded by Hyperbole so
that a press of the Action Key follows a URL.

@item WAIS
The Wide Area Information Systems full text-retrieval system orginally
developed at Thinking Machines and then later at WAIS Inc.
@end table


@node Embedding Hyperbole,  , Encapsulating Systems, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Embedding Hyperbole

[NOTE: We have never done this ourselves, though we have done similar
things which leads us to infer that the task should not be difficult.]

@cindex Hyperbole API
@cindex API
@cindex programming interface
@cindex Hyperbole, embedding
The standard Hyperbole user interface has purposely been separated from
the Hyperbole backend to support the development of alternative
interfaces and the embedding of Hyperbole functionality within other
system prototypes.  The Hyperbole backend functionality that system
developers can make use of is called its Application Programming
Interface (API).  The API may be used to make server-based calls to
Hyperbole when Emacs is run as a non-interactive (batch) process, with
its input/output streams attached to another process.

The public functions and variables from the following files may be
considered the present Hyperbole API:

@noindent
@file{hact.el}, @file{hargs.el}, @file{hbmap.el}, @file{hbut.el},
@file{hhist.el}, @file{hmail.el}, @file{hmoccur.el}, @file{hpath.el},
@file{htz.el}, @file{hypb.el}, @file{set.el}, @file{wconfig.el},
@file{wrolo.el}, and @file{wrolo-logic.el}.@refill

@noindent
Note when looking at these files, that they are divided into sections
that separate one data abstraction (class) from another.  A line of
dashes within a class separates public parts of the class from the
private parts that follow the line.

This API does not include the Hyperbole outliner, as it has been
designed for interactive use, rather than programmatic extensibility.
You are welcome, however, to study its code, below the
@file{hyperbole/kotl/} directory.


@node Glossary, Installation, Developing with Hyperbole, Top
@appendix Glossary

Concepts pertinent to operational usage of Hyperbole are defined here.
@xref{Glossary,,,xemacs,the XEmacs Manual},
if any emacs-related terms are unfamiliar to you.

@table @code

@item Action
An executable behavior associated with a Hyperbole button.  @emph{Links}
are a specific class of actions which display existing entities, such as
files. See also @code{Action Type}.

@item Action Key
See @code{Smart Key}.

@item Action Type
A behavioral specification for use within Hyperbole buttons.  Action
types usually contain a set of parameters which must be given values for
each button with which they are associated.  An action type together
with a set of values, called arguments, is an @emph{action}.
@emph{Actype} is a synonym for action type.

@item Activation
A request to a Hyperbole button to perform its action.
Ordinarily the user presses a key which selects and activates a button.

@item Ange-ftp
See @code{EFS}

@item Argument
A button-specific value fed to a Hyperbole type specification when the
button is activated.

@item Assist Key
See @code{Smart Key}.

@item Attribute
A named parameter slot associated with a category or type of Hyperbole
button.  An @emph{attribute value} is typically specific to a particular
button instance.

@cindex Augment
@cindex hypertext
@cindex interactive computing
@cindex mouse
@cindex windows
@cindex hypertext
@cindex outline processor
@cindex groupware
@cindex digital signature
@cindex Engelbart
@item Augment
The Augment system, originally named NLS, was a pioneering research and
production system aimed at augmenting human intellect and group
knowledge processing capabilities through integrated tools and
organizational development strategies.  This approach led to the
invention of much of interactive computing technology decades ahead of
other efforts, including: the mouse, screen windows, true hypertext,
outline processors, groupware, and digitally signed documents.
@xref{References}, which cites several Douglas Engelbart papers on the
subject.  The Koutliner demonstrates a few of the concepts pioneered in
Augment.

@item Button
A selectable Hyperbole construct which performs an action.  A button
consists of a set of attributes that includes: a textual label, a
category, a type and zero or more arguments.  @emph{Explicit buttons}
also have creator, create time, last modifier, and last modifier time
attributes.

Buttons provide user gateways to information.  Users see and
interact with button labels; the rest of the button attributes are
managed invisibly by Hyperbole and displayed only in response to user
queries.

@item Button Activation
See @code{Activation}.

@item Button Attributes
See @code{Attributes}.

@item Button Data
Lists of button attribute values explicitly saved and managed by Hyperbole.
One list for each button created by Hyperbole.

@item Button File, local
A per-directory file named @file{HYPB} that may be used to store any
buttons that link to files within the directory.  It may be displayed
via a menu selection whenever a user is within the directory.

@item Button File, personal
A per-user file named @file{HYPB} that stores all global buttons for the
user and any other buttons used to navigate to other information spaces.
It may be displayed via a menu selection at any time.

@item Button Key
A normalized form of a @emph{button label} used internally by Hyperbole.

@item Button Label
A text string that visually indicates a Hyperbole button location and
that serves as its name and unique identifier.  Within a buffer, buttons
with the same label are considered separate views of the same button and
so behave exactly alike.  Since button labels are simply text strings,
they may be embedded within any text to provide non-linear information
or operational access points.

@vindex ebut:max-len
The maximum length of a button label is limited by the variable
@var{ebut:max-len}.

@item Button Selection
The act of designating a Hyperbole button upon which to operate.
Use the Action Key to select a button.

@item Category
A class of Hyperbole buttons: implicit, explicit or global.

@item Cell
See @code{Kcell}.

@item Children
The set of koutline cells which share a common parent cell and thus, are one
level deeper than the parent.

@item Class
A group of functions and variables with the same prefix in their names,
used to provide an interface to an internal or external Hyperbole
abstraction.

@item Context
A programmatic or positional state recognized by Hyperbole.
We speak of Smart Key and implicit button contexts.  Both are typically
defined in terms of surrounding patterns within a buffer, but may be
defined by arbitrary Emacs Lisp predicates.

@item Domain
The contexts in which an implicit button type may be found, i.e.@: where
its predicate is true.

@item ebut:max-len
See @code{Button Label}.

@item Environment
See @code{Hyperbole Environment}.

@item EFS
The successor to ange-ftp.  It does the same thing as ange-ftp but works
with more types of ftp hosts.  It is a standard Emacs Lisp package which
allows one to use pathnames that are accessible via the Internet File
Transfer Protocol (ftp) just like other pathnames, for example when
finding a file.  Hyperbole recognizes both ange-ftp pathnames of the
form, @file{/<user>@@<host>:<path>} and ftp URLs used on the World-Wide
Web.@refill

@item Explicit Button
A button created and managed by Hyperbole.  By default, explicit buttons
are delimited like this @samp{<(fake button)>}.  Direct selection is
used to operate upon an explicit button.

@item Global Button
@vindex gbut:file
A form of explicit button which is accessed by name rather than direct
selection.  Global buttons are useful when one wants quick access to
actions such as jumping to common file locations or for performing
sequences of operations.  One need not locate them since they are always
available by name, with full completion offered.  All global buttons are
stored in the file given by the variable @var{gbut:file} and may be
activated as regular explicit buttons by visiting this file.  By
default, this is the same as the user's personal button file.

@item Global Button File
See @code{Button File, personal} and @code{Global Button}.

@findex run-hooks
@item Hook Variable
A variable that permits customization of an existing function's
operation without the need to edit the function's code.  See also the
documentation for the function @code{(run-hooks)}.

@item Hyperbole
The flexible, programmable information management and viewing system
documented by this manual.  It utilizes a button-action model and supports
hypertextual linkages.  Hyperbole is all things to all people.

@item Hyperbole Environment
A programmatic context within which Hyperbole operates.  This includes
the set of Hyperbole types defined and the set of Hyperbole code modules
loaded.  It does not include the set of accessible buttons.
Although the entire Emacs environment is available to Hyperbole, we do
not speak of this as part of the Hyperbole environment.

@item Hypertext
A text or group of texts which may be explored in a non-linear fashion
through associative linkages embedded throughout the text.  Instead of
simply referring to other pieces of work, hypertext references when
followed actually take you to the works themselves.

@item Implicit Button
A button recognized contextually by Hyperbole.  Such buttons contain no
button data.  See also @code{implicit button type}.

@item Implicit Button Type
A specification of how to recognize and activate implicit buttons of a
specific kind.  Implicit button types often utilize structure internal
to documents created and managed by tools other than Hyperbole, for
example, programming documentation.  @emph{Ibtype} is a synonym for
implicit button type.  See also @code{system encapsulation}.

@item Instance Number
A colon prefaced number appended to the label of a newly created button
when the button's label duplicates the label of an existing button in
the current buffer.  This number makes the label unique and so allows
any number of buttons with the same base label within a single buffer.

@item Koutline
A hierarchically ordered grouping of cells which may be stored as a file
and viewed and edited as an outline.

@item Koutliner
Koutliner, the Hyperbole outliner, is a powerful autonumbering outliner
with permanent hypertext anchors for easy hyperlinking and view
specs for rapid outline view alteration.

@item Kcell
Cells or kcells are elements within koutlines.  Each cell may contain
textual and graphical contents, a relative identifier, a permanent
identifier and a set of attributes such as the user who created the cell
and the time of creation.  See also @code{Koutliner}.

@item Link
A reference from a Hyperbole button to an existing (non-computed)
entity.  The referenced entity is called a @emph{referent}.
Links are a subset of the types of actions that Hyperbole buttons
support.

@item Local Button File
See @code{Button File, local}.

@item Minibuffer Window
The one line window at the bottom of a frame where messages and prompts
are displayed.

@item Minibuffer Menu
A Hyperbole menu displayed in the minibuffer window.  Each menu item
within a minibuffer menu begins with a different letter that can be used
to invoke the item (case doesn't matter).  Items that display other
menus end with a forward slash, /.

@item Mouse Key
@itemx mouse button
See @code{Smart Key}.

@item NLS
See @code{Augment}.

@item Node
See @code{Link} or @code{Cell}.

@item Outline
See @code{Koutline}.

@item Parent
Any koutline cell which has children.

@item Predecessor
The previous same level koutline cell with the same parent.

@item Predicate
A boolean (@samp{nil} = false, non-nil = true = @samp{t}) Lisp
expression typically evaluated as part of a conditional expression.
Implicit button types contain predicates that determine whether or not a
button of that type is to be found at point.

@item Referent
See @code{Link}.

@item Rolo
Wrolo, the Hyperbole record manager, provides rapid lookup of
multi-line, hierarchically ordered free form text records.

@item Root Cell
A koutline cell which has cells below it at lower outline levels.  All
such cells share the same root cell.

@cindex Smart Key
@vindex smart-scroll-proportional
@cindex proportional scrolling
@cindex scrolling
@item Smart Key
A context-sensitive key used within Hyperbole and beyond.  Actually,
there are two Smart Keys, the Action Key and the Assist Key.  The Action
Key, typically bound to the shift-middle mouse key (or shift-left mouse
key on a 2-button mouse), activates Hyperbole buttons and scrolls the
current buffer line to the top of the window when pressed at the end of
a line.  The Assist Key, typically bound to the shift-right mouse key,
explains what a Hyperbole button does or scrolls the current line to the
bottom of the window when pressed at the end of a line.  (Use the
Hyperbole Cust menu or see the documentation for the variable,
@var{smart-scroll-proportional}, for information on how to make these
keys scroll forward and backward a windowful at a time).

To see what a Smart Key will do within a particular context, depress and
hold the Smart Mouse Key at the point desired and depress the other
Smart Mouse Key.  A buffer containing a description of its contextual
function will then be displayed.  You may release the two keys in any
order after you have depressed them both.  The Doc/SmartKy menu item
displays a summary of Smart Key functions in each context.

@item Source Buffer / File
The buffer or file within which a Hyperbole button is embedded.

@item Subtree
All of the cells in a koutline which share the same root cell, excluding
the root cell.

@item Successor
The next same level koutline cell which follows the current cell and
shares the same parent.

@item System Encapsulation
Use of Hyperbole to provide an improved or consistent user
interface to another system.  Typically, implicit button types are
defined to recognize and activate button-type constructs managed by the
other system.

@item Tree
The set of cells in a koutline that share a common root cell, including
the root cell.

@item URL
A Universal Resource Locator specification used on the World-Wide web
to access documents and services via a multiplicity of protocols.

@item View
A perspective on some information.  A view can affect the extent of the
information displayed, its format, modes used to operate on it, its
display location and so forth.

@item View Spec
A terse (and to the uninitiated, cryptic) string that specifies a
particular view of a koutline or a link referent.  If a view spec is
active for a buffer, the view spec appears within the modeline like so,
<|view spec>.

@item Wrolo
See @code{Rolo}.

@end table


@node Installation, Smart Key Reference, Glossary, Top
@appendix Installation

@vindex file, HY-README
@cindex HY-README file
@cindex README file
@cindex installation
Hyperbole must be obtained and installed at your site before you can use
it.  Instructions for installing Hyperbole are in the
@file{HY-README} file in the root directory of the Hyperbole
distribution, i.e.@: below @file{hyperbole/}.  If you are using
BeOpen.com InfoDock version 4.0.7 or higher, Hyperbole is pre-installed
so you can skip the installation instructions and simply continue on
through the configuration instructions in this section.@refill

We hope you enjoy using Hyperbole and that it improves your productivity.
If it does, consider sending us a quote that discusses how it helps you,
for use on our web site.  E-mail it to <quotes@@beopen.com>.

@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex customization, init
If you want to customize the basic Hyperbole initialization sequence for
yourself rather than the users at your site, you should make a personal
copy of the @file{hsite-ex.el} file that is a part of the Hyperbole
distribution, modify it the way you want, and then load it.  (@xref{Hook
Variables}, if you are familiar with Emacs Lisp.)

@menu
* Obtaining::                   
* Installing::                  
* Configuring::                 
@end menu

@node Obtaining, Installing, Installation, Installation
@section   Obtaining

@cindex obtaining Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, obtaining
The latest production release of Hyperbole is always available for
download from www.BeOpen.com.  Professional releases of Hyperbole may
also be purchased there to help support development; they include
Hyperbole with full source code, a printed copy of this manual and
installation support.  Ongoing technical support and automatic upgrades
are available separately.  Further contact information may be found at
the beginning of this manual.

@cindex gzcat
@cindex zcat
@cindex gunzip
@cindex tar archive
@cindex .tgz distribution
@cindex uncompressing archives
@cindex unpacking archives
Once you have obtained a Hyperbole distribution archive, move the
archive to the directory below which you want the @file{hyperbole/}
production directory installed.

If you have obtained the Hyperbole distribution in gzipped, tar archive
format (.tgz suffix), then unpack the archive to create the
@file{hyperbole/} directory by using the GNU version of the @samp{zcat}
program, sometimes called @samp{gzcat} or the @samp{gunzip} program:

@smallexample
   zcat beopen-hyperbole*tgz | tar xvf -
or
   gunzip beopen-hyperbole*tgz; tar xvf beopen-hyperbole*tar
@end smallexample

@cindex .zip distribution
@cindex zip file
Alternatively, if you have obtained the Hyperbole distribution in zipped 
format (.zip suffix), then use your favorite unzip utility to create the
@file{hyperbole/} directory.


@node Installing, Configuring, Obtaining, Installation
@section   Installing

@cindex configuration
You may want to explore the Hyperbole configuration options before
installing it.  @xref{Configuring}.  If you just want to get up and
running quickly, however, there is no need to configure anything, just
follow these instructions to install Hyperbole.

@c index entries related to text in the HY-README file referenced below
@cindex Hyperbole, initializing
@cindex initializing Hyperbole
@cindex installation
@cindex site initialization
@vindex file, hsite.el
@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@cindex autoloading Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, autoloading
@vindex hyperb:dir
@vindex file, hversion.el
@vindex file, hyperbole.el
@cindex loading Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, loading

@vindex file, Makefile
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex Hyperbole, building
@cindex building Hyperbole
See the @emph{Installation / Configuration} section in the @file{HY-README}
file of the @file{hyperbole} directory for instructions on installing
and building Hyperbole.@refill

@cindex Hyperbole manual
@noindent
The Hyperbole Manual may be viewed on the web at www.BeOpen.com.  The
manual is included in the distribution in two forms:@refill

@cindex Info manual
@cindex Texinfo manual
@vindex file, man/hyperbole.info
@vindex file, man/hyperbole.texi
@smallexample
@file{man/hyperbole.info}   - online Info browser version
@file{man/hyperbole.texi}   - source form
@end smallexample

@vindex Info-directory-list
@noindent
The Hyperbole installation procedure places the Info version of the
manual where needed.  Under InfoDock and XEmacs, a pointer to this
manual is also added to your Info directory tree.  Under GNU Emacs you
may need to manually add an Info directory entry for the Hyperbole
manual in your Info @file{dir} file (the `*' should be placed in the
first column of the file):

@smallexample
* Hyperbole::  Everyday net-centric information management system.
    Use @{C-h h d d@} for a demonstration.  Includes Smart Key
    context-sensitive mouse and keyboard support, a powerful contact
    manager, an autonumbered outliner with hyperlink anchors for each
    outline entry, and extensible hypertext facilities including
    hyperlinks in mail and news messages.
@end smallexample

@cindex invoking Hyperbole
@cindex starting Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, starting
@cindex Hyperbole main menu
@kindex C-h h
@findex hyperbole
You have now completed the installation of Hyperbole.  Once installed, 
you can invoke Hyperbole with @{@kbd{C-h h}@} or @{@kbd{M-x hyperbole
@key{RET}}@} to bring up the Hyperbole main menu in the minibuffer
window and to display the Hyperbole menu on your menubar, if any.

@page
@node Configuring,  , Installing, Installation
@section   Configuring

@cindex menu, Cust
@cindex customization
Major Hyperbole user options may be set from the Customization submenu
below the Hyperbole menubar menu, as seen here.

@iftex
@sp 2
@smallexample
@centerline{@b{Hyperbole Customization Menu}}
@end smallexample
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/menu-customization.ps,width=1.625in}}
@sp 1
@end iftex
@ifhtml
<CENTER>
  <DT><B>Hyperbole Customization Menu</B></DT><BR><BR>
  <IMG NAME="Customization Menu" SRC="im/menu-customization.gif"><BR>
</CENTER>
@end ifhtml
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view an image of part of the
Hyperbole demonstration: @file{im/menu-customization.gif}.  Under
InfoDock, use the middle mouse button.  Under XEmacs or Emacs with the
Hyperbole system loaded, use the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left
on a two button mouse.  Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the
picture.
@end ifinfo

@noindent
Alternatively, the minibuffer-based menu, Cust/ may be used.

@cindex configuration
@vindex file, hyperbole.el
@vindex file, hsite.el
There are many additional Hyperbole configuration options that may be
changed by editing the @file{hyperbole.el} and @file{hsite.el} files in
the @file{hyperbole/} directory.  The following sections discuss the
configuration options most likely to be of interest to users.

@menu
* Using URLs with Find-File::   
* Internal Viewers::            
* External Viewers::            
* Link Variable Substitution::  
* Button Colors::               
@end menu

@node Using URLs with Find-File, Internal Viewers, Configuring, Configuring
@subsection Using URLs with Find-File

@findex find-file
@cindex find-file, browsing URLs
@cindex browsing URLs
@cindex URLs, using with find-file
@cindex web pages, displaying
Hyperbole always recognizes URLs within buffers when the Action Key is
pressed on them.  But sometimes it is useful to enter a URL at a prompt
and have it displayed.  Hyperbole can recognize ftp and www URLs given to
the @code{find-file} command (or any other @code{find-file-*} commands).
Because there is added overhead with this feature, it is not enabled by
default.

@cindex menu item, Find-File-URLs
@cindex menu item, Find-File-Accepts-URLs
To enable the feature, use the Hyperbole menu item Cust/Find-File-URLs
(or Find-File-Accepts-URLs on the Hyperbole/Customization pulldown
menu).  Either of these toggles acceptance of URLs.  When enabled the
string, URLs, appears in the parenthesized minor-mode section of the
modeline.

@findex hyperb:find-file-urls-mode
@cindex enabling URLs in find-file
@cindex browsing URLs in find-file
To enable this feature each time you start the editor, add the following to
your personal initialization file: @code{(hyperb:find-file-urls-mode 1)}.

@cindex abbreviated URLs
@cindex URLs, abbreviated
@cindex EFS
Both full URLs and abbreviated ones, like www.BeOpen.com, are recognized.
File name completion does not work with URLs thus you have to type or
paste in the entire URL.  This feature will work only if you have the
EFS (Extended File System) Emacs Lisp package installed; if you don't
have EFS, an error message will be displayed when you try to enable
find-file URLs.

@node Internal Viewers, External Viewers, Using URLs with Find-File, Configuring
@subsection  Internal Viewers
@vindex hpath:display-alist
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex file display function
@cindex display function
@cindex internal viewer
@cindex link, display function
When given a file name, Hyperbole will by default display the file for
editing within an Emacs buffer.  The @var{hpath:display-alist} variable
can be used to specify file name patterns, such as matching suffixes,
which will invoke a special Emacs Lisp function to display any matching
files within Emacs.  This can be used to format raw data files for
convenient display.

Configure the @var{hpath:display-alist} variable in @file{hsite.el}.
Its value is an association list whose elements are
(<file-name-regular-expression> . <function-of-one-arg>) pairs.  Any
path whose name matches a <file-name-regular-expression> will be
displayed by calling the associated <function-of-one-arg> with the file
name as the argument.@refill

@xref{External Viewers}, for instructions on associating file names with
external, window-system specific viewers.

@node External Viewers, Link Variable Substitution, Internal Viewers, Configuring
@subsection  External Viewers
@vindex hpath:find-alist
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex window system
@cindex external program
@cindex external viewer
@cindex link, viewer program
If you will be using Hyperbole under a window system, you may want to
configure the @var{hpath:find-alist} variable in @file{hsite.el} to
support hyperlinks which open files using non-Emacs tools, e.g.@: a
fax reader or a bitmap viewer.

The value of @var{hpath:find-alist} is determined when Hyperbole is
initialized based upon the current window system and the version of
Emacs in use.  The value is an association list whose elements are
(<file-name-regular-expression> . <viewer-program-or-list>) pairs.  Any
path whose name matches a <file-name-regular-expression> will be
displayed using the corresponding viewer-program or the first
viewer-program found on the system from a list of programs.  If a
<viewer-program> entry contains a @samp{%s} string, the filename to
display will be substituted at that point within the string.  Otherwise,
the filename will be appended to the <viewer-program> entry.
Alternatively, the viewer-program may be a Lisp function that takes a
single filename argument.  See the "x-suffixes" and "nextstep-suffixes"
settings within the definition of @var{hpath:find-alist} as
examples.@refill

@node Link Variable Substitution, Button Colors, External Viewers, Configuring
@subsection  Link Variable Substitution
@vindex hpath:variables
@cindex environment variables
@cindex Emacs Lisp variables
@cindex Lisp variables
Another @file{hsite.el} options to consider modifying is
@var{hpath:variables}.   This option consists of a list of Emacs Lisp
variable names, each of which may have a pathname or a list of pathnames
as a value.  Whenever a Hyperbole file or directory link button is
created, its pathname is compared against the values in
@var{hpath:variables}.  The first match found, if any, is selected and
its associated variable name is substituted into the link pathname, in
place of its literal value.  When a link button is activated, Hyperbole
replaces each variable within the link pathname with the first matching
value from this list to recreate the literal pathname.  Environment
variables are also replaced whenever link paths are resolved.@refill

This permits sharing of links over wide areas, where the variable values
may differ between link creator and link activator.  The entire process
is wholly transparent to the user; it is explained here simply to help
you in deciding whether or not to modify the value of
@var{hpath:variables}.@refill

@node Button Colors,  , Link Variable Substitution, Configuring
@subsection  Configuring Button Colors
@cindex XEmacs support
@cindex Emacs 19 support
@cindex button highlighting
@cindex button flashing
@vindex file, hui-ep*.el
@findex hproperty:cycle-but-color
When Hyperbole is run under a window system together with InfoDock,
Emacs 19, or XEmacs, it automatically highlights any explicit buttons in
a buffer and makes them flash when selected.  The main setting you may
want change is the selection of a color (or style) for button
highlighting and button flashing.  See the @file{hui-*-b*.el} files for
lists of potential colors and the code which supports this behavior.  A
call to @code{(hproperty:cycle-but-color)} in the @file{hsite.el} file
changes the color used to highlight and flash explicit buttons.

@cindex button emphasis
@vindex hproperty:but-emphasize-p
@vindex file, hsite.el
Additionally, if @var{hproperty:but-emphasize-p} is set to @samp{t} in
@file{hsite.el}, then whenever the mouse pointer moves over an explicit
button, it will be emphasized in a different color or style.  This
emphasis is in addition to any non-mouse-sensitive button highlighting.

@cindex button highlighting, forcing
@findex hproperty:but-create
If you read in a file with explicit buttons before you load Hyperbole,
these buttons won't be highlighted.  Load Hyperbole and then use
@code{M-x hproperty:but-create @key{RET}} to highlight the buttons in
the current buffer.


@node Smart Key Reference, Outliner Keys, Installation, Top
@appendix Smart Key Reference

This appendix supplies complete documentation on Smart Key operation.  It is
quite extensive and is meant for reference rather than sequential reading.
@xref{Smart Keys}, for a description of the Smart Keys.  That section also
describes how to get context-sensitive Smart Key help, with which you can
explore Smart Key operation bit by bit.

Smart Key operations are context-sensitive.  Contexts are described herein as
conditionals, e.g.@: when depressed here, if this is true, etc.  Each Smart
Key context is listed in the order in which it will be checked.  The first
matching context is always the one applied.  Within each context, the
actions performed by the Action and Assist Keys are listed.

@menu
* Smart Mouse Keys::            
* Smart Keyboard Keys::         
@end menu

@node Smart Mouse Keys, Smart Keyboard Keys, Smart Key Reference, Smart Key Reference
@section   Smart Mouse Keys

@cindex Smart Mouse Keys
Smart Key drags and modeline presses are supported only when running under
a window system with mouse key support.  So keep in mind that the
operations in this section apply only if you have mouse support within
Hyperbole.  The Smart Key operations in @ref{Smart Keyboard Keys},
apply to both mouse and keyboard Smart Key usage.

@cindex drag, side edge
@cindex side drag
@format
@group
If dragged from a side-by-side window edge or from the immediate left of
a vertical scroll bar:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Resizes adjacent window sides to the point of the drag release.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If dragged from inside one window to another:
  ACTION KEY
     Creates a new link button at the drag start location, linked to the
     drag end location.  If the drag start position is within a button,
     this modifies the button to link to the drag end location.
  ASSIST KEY
     Swaps buffers in the two windows.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex drag, horizontal
@cindex horizontal drag
@vindex hmouse-x-drag-sensitivity
@format
@group
If dragged horizontally within a single window
(`hmouse-x-drag-sensitivity' sets the minimal horizontal movement which
registers a drag):
  ACTION KEY
     Goes to the end of the buffer if the drag was to the right,
     otherwise goes to the beginning of the buffer.
  ASSIST KEY
     Splits the window vertically if the drag was to the right,
     otherwise deletes the window.
@end group
@end format

@cindex depress, modeline
@cindex modeline depress
@vindex action-key-modeline-hook
@vindex assist-key-modeline-hook
@format
@group
If depressed within a window mode line:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) clicked on the left edge of a window's modeline, the window's
         buffer is buried (placed at the bottom of the buffer list);
     (2) clicked on the right edge of a window's modeline, the Info
         buffer is displayed, or if it is already displayed and the
         modeline clicked upon belongs to a window displaying Info,
         the Info buffer is hidden;
     (3) clicked anywhere within the middle of a window's modeline,
         the functions listed in `action-key-modeline-hook' are called;
     (4) dragged vertically from a modeline to within a window, the
         modeline is moved to the point of the drag release, thereby
         resizing its window and potentially its vertically neighboring
         windows.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) clicked on the left edge of a window's modeline, the bottom
         buffer in the buffer list is unburied and placed in the window;
     (2) clicked on the right edge of a window's modeline, the summary
         of Smart Key behavior is displayed, or if it is already
         displayed and the modeline clicked upon belongs to a window
         displaying the summary, the summary buffer is hidden;
     (3) clicked anywhere within the middle of a window's modeline,
         the functions listed in `assist-key-modeline-hook' are called;
     (4) dragged vertically from a modeline to within a window, the
         modeline is moved to the point of the drag release, thereby
         resizing its window and potentially its vertically neighboring
         windows.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex drag, vertical
@cindex vertical drag
@vindex hmouse-y-drag-sensitivity
@format
@group
If dragged vertically within a single window while depressed
(`hmouse-y-drag-sensitivity' sets the minimal vertical movement which
registers a drag):
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Splits the current window into two side-by-side windows.
@end group
@end format

@cindex drag, diagonal
@cindex diagonal drag
@vindex hmouse-x-diagonal-sensitivity
@vindex hmouse-y-diagonal-sensitivity
@format
@group
If dragged diagonally within a single window while depressed
(`hmouse-x-diagonal-sensitivity' and `hmouse-y-diagonal-sensitivity' set
the minimal diagonal movements which register a drag):
  ACTION KEY
     Saves the current window configuration onto a ring of window
     configurations.
  ASSIST KEY
     Restores the prior window configuration from the ring.  A prefix
     argument N specifies the Nth prior configuration from the ring.
@end group
@end format

@cindex active region
@cindex pasting a region
@format
@group
If an active (highlighted) region exists within the editor:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Pastes the region within the window clicked upon.
@end group
@end format

@page

@node Smart Keyboard Keys,  , Smart Mouse Keys, Smart Key Reference
@section   Smart Keyboard Keys

@cindex Smart Keyboard Keys
@format
@group
When prompting for a Hyperbole argument, a press in the minibuffer:
  ACTION KEY
     Accepts the current minibuffer argument.
  ASSIST KEY
     Offers completion help for the current minibuffer argument.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When reading a Hyperbole menu item or an argument with completion:
  ACTION KEY
     Returns the value selected at point if any, else nil.  If the
     value is the same as the contents of the minibuffer, this value is
     accepted as the argument for which the minibuffer is presently
     prompting; otherwise, the minibuffer is erased and the value is
     inserted there, for inspection by the user.
  ASSIST KEY
     Displays Hyperbole menu item help when an item is selected.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If in ID-edit mode (a package from BeOpen.com that supports
rapid killing, copying, yanking and display-management):
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Yanks (pastes) last selected region at point.
@end group
@end format

@vindex smart-scroll-proportional
@cindex proportional scrolling
@cindex scrolling
@cindex click, end of line
@cindex end of line click
@format
@group
When pressed at the end of a line but not the end of a buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     Scrolls up according to the value of `smart-scroll-proportional'.
     If `smart-scroll-proportional' is nil or if point is on the top
     window line, scrolls up (forward) a windowful.  Otherwise, tries to
     bring the current line to the top of the window.  Leaves point at
     the end of the line and returns t if scrolled, nil if not.
  ASSIST KEY
     Scrolls down according to the value of `smart-scroll-proportional'.
     If `smart-scroll-proportional' is nil or if point is on the bottom
     window line, scrolls down (backward) a windowful.  Otherwise, tries
     to bring the current line to the bottom of the window.  Leaves
     point at the end of the line and returns t if scrolled, nil if not.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed on a Smart Menu item:
  ACTION KEY
    Activates the item.
  ASSIST KEY
    Displays help for the item.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, button
@cindex button click
@format
@group
When pressed on a Hyperbole button:
  ACTION KEY
     Activates the button.
  ASSIST KEY
     Displays help for the button, typically a summary of its
     attributes.
@end group
@end format

@vindex hkey-always-display-menu
@format
@group
If the Smart Menu package has been loaded and `hkey-always-display-menu'
is non-nil:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Pops up a window with a Smart Menu of commands.
     The menu displayed is selected by (smart-menu-choose-menu).
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If pressed within a buffer in View major or minor mode:
  ACTION KEY
     Scrolls the buffer forward a windowful.  If at the last line of the
     buffer, instead quits from view mode.
  ASSIST KEY
     Scrolls the buffer backward a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If pressed within an OO-Browser implementors, elements or OOBR-FTR tags
buffer after an OO-Browser Environment has been loaded:
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the item at point.
  ASSIST KEY
     Displays help for the Action Key context at point.
@end group
@end format
@page

@format
@group
When pressed within a Hyperbole Koutliner buffer (kotl-mode):
  ACTION KEY
     (1) at the end of the buffer, uncollapses and unhides all cells in
         the view;
     (2) within a cell, if its subtree is hidden then shows it,
         otherwise hides it;
     (3) between cells or within the read-only indentation region to the
         left of a cell, begins creation of a klink to some other
         outline cell; press the Action Key twice on another cell to
         select the link referent cell;
     (4) anywhere else, scrolls up a windowful.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) at the end of the buffer, collapses all cells and hides all
         non-level-one cells;
     (2) on a header line but not at the beginning or end, displays the
         properties of each following cell in the koutline, starting
         with the cell at point;
     (3) between cells or within the read-only indentation region to the
         left of a cell, prompts to move one tree to a new location in
         the outline; press the Action Key twice to select the tree to
         move and where to move it;
     (4) anywhere else, scrolls down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed at the end of a Help buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
    Restores the window configuration prior to the help display.
@end group
@end format

@vindex smart-c-cpp-include-dirs
@vindex smart-c-include-dirs
@vindex smart-c-use-lib-man
@format
@group
When pressed within a C source code file:
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of a selected C construct:
     (1) on a #include statement, the include file is displayed;
         this looks for include files using the directory lists
         `smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and `smart-c-include-dirs';
     (2) on a C identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an "etags" generated
         tags file within the current directory or any of its ancestor
         directories;
     (3) if `smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil (see its documentation),
         the C identifier is recognized as a library symbol, and a man
         page is found for the identifier, then the man page is
         displayed.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@vindex smart-asm-include-dirs
@format
@group
When pressed within an assembly source code file:
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected assembly construct:
     (1) on an include statement, the include file is displayed;
         this looks for include files using the directory list
         `smart-asm-include-dirs';
     (2) on an identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an "etags" generated
         tags file within the current directory or any of its ancestor
         directories.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed on a Lisp symbol within a Lisp code buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of any selected Lisp construct.  If on an
     Emacs Lisp require, load, or autoload clause and the (find-library)
     function is defined, jumps to the library source, if possible.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point or if using
     the "wtags" package and the identifier is an Emacs Lisp symbol,
     then this displays the documentation for the symbol.
@end group
@end format

@vindex smart-java-package-dirs
@format
@group
When the OO-Browser has been loaded and the press is within a Java
buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected Java construct:
     (1) within a commented @@see cross-reference, the referent is
         displayed;
     (2) on a package or import statement, the referent is
         displayed; this looks for referent files using the directory
         list `smart-java-package-dirs';
     (3) within a method declaration, its definition is displayed;
     (4) on a class name, the class definition is shown;
     (5) on a unique identifier reference, its definition is shown (when
         possible).
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a Java source code file (without the OO-Browser):
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected Java construct:
     (1) within a commented @@see cross-reference, the referent is
         displayed;
     (2) on a package or import statement, the referent is
         displayed; this looks for referent files using the directory
         list `smart-java-package-dirs';
     (3) on a Java identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an "etags" generated
         tags file within the current directory or any of its ancestor
         directories.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@vindex c++-cpp-include-dirs
@vindex c++-include-dirs
@format
@group
When the OO-Browser has been loaded and the press is within a C++
buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected C++ construct via
     OO-Browser support.
     (1) on a #include statement, the include file is displayed;
         this looks for include files using the directory lists
         `smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and `smart-c-include-dirs';
     (2) within a method definition before the opening brace, its
         declaration is displayed; 
     (3) within a method declaration, its definition is displayed;
     (4) on a class name, the class definition is shown;
     (5) on a member reference (past any :: scoping operator), the
         member definition or a listing of possible definitions or a
         matching declaration (if no definitions exist within the
         Environment) is shown;
     (6) on a global variable or function identifier, its definition is
         shown.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a C++ source code file (without the OO-Browser):
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected C++ construct:
     (1) on a #include statement, the include file is displayed;
         this looks for include files using the directory lists
         `smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and `smart-c-include-dirs';
     (2) on a C++ identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an "etags" generated
         tags file in the current directory or any of its ancestor
         directories;
     (3) if `smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil (see its documentation),
         the C++ identifier is recognized as a library symbol, and a man
         page is found for the identifier, then the man page is
         displayed.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@vindex objc-cpp-include-dirs
@vindex objc-include-dirs
@format
@group
When the OO-Browser has been loaded and the press is within a
Objective-C buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected Objective-C construct via
     OO-Browser support.
     (1) on a #import or #include statement, the include file is
         displayed; this looks for include files using the directory
         lists `objc-cpp-include-dirs' and `objc-include-dirs';
     (2) within a method declaration, its definition is displayed;
     (3) on a class name, the class definition is shown;
     (4) on a member reference (past any :: scoping operator), the
         member definition or a listing of possible definitions is
         shown;
     (5) on a global variable or function identifier, its definition
         is shown.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within an Objective-C source code file (without the
OO-Browser):
  ACTION KEY
     Jumps to the definition of the selected Objective-C construct:
     (1) on a #import or #include statement, the include file is
         displayed; this looks for include files using the directory
         lists `objc-cpp-include-dirs' and `objc-include-dirs';
     (2) on an Objective-C identifier, the identifier definition is
         displayed, assuming the identifier is found within an "etags"
         generated tags file in the current directory or any of its
         ancestor directories;
     (3) if `smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil (see its documentation),
         the Objective-C identifier is recognized as a library symbol,
         and a man page is found for the identifier, then the man page
         is displayed.
  ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within a Fortran source code file:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     If on an identifier, the identifier definition (or a definition in
     which the identifier appears) is displayed, assuming the identifier
     is found within an "etags" generated tags file in the current
     directory or any of its ancestor directories.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within an occur-mode or moccur-mode buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Jumps to the source buffer and line of the current occurrence.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a calendar-mode buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) at the end of the buffer, the calendar is scrolled forward 3
         months;
     (2) to the left of any dates on a calendar line, the calendar is
         scrolled backward 3 months;
     (3) on a date, the diary entries for the date, if any, are
         displayed.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) at the end of the buffer, the calendar is scrolled backward 3
         months;
     (2) to the left of any dates on a calendar line, the calendar is
         scrolled forward 3 months;
     (3) anywhere else, all dates with marking diary entries are marked
         in the calendar window.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within a man page apropos buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on a UNIX man apropos entry, the man page for that entry is
         displayed in another window;
     (2) on or after the last line, the buffer in the other window is
         scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on a UNIX man apropos entry, the man page for that entry is
         displayed in another window;
     (2) on or after the last line, the buffer in the other window is
         scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within an OO-Browser listing window:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) in a blank buffer or at the end of a buffer, browser help
         information is displayed in the viewer window;
     (2) on a default class name, the statically defined instances of
         the default class are listed;
     (3) at the beginning of a (non-single char) class name, the class'
         ancestors are listed;
     (4) at the end of an entry line, the listing is scrolled up;
     (5) on the `...', following a class name, point is moved to the
         class descendency expansion;
     (6) before an element entry, the element's implementors are
         listed;
     (7) anywhere else on an entry line, the source is displayed for
         editing.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) in a blank buffer, a selection list of buffer files is
         displayed;
     (2) on a default class name, the statically defined instances of
         the default class are listed;
     (3) at the beginning of a (non-single char) entry, the class'
         descendants are listed;
     (4) at the end of an entry line, the listing is scrolled down;
     (5) on the `...', following a class name, point is moved to the
         class expansion;
     (6) anywhere else on a class entry line, the class' elements are
         listed;
     (7) anywhere else on an element line, the element's implementors
         are listed;
     (8) on a blank line following all entries, the current listing
         buffer is exited.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within the OO-Browser Command Help Menu Buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     Executes an OO-Browser command whose key binding is at point.
  ASSIST KEY
     Displays help for an OO-Browser command whose key binding is at
     point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed on an identifier within an OO-Browser source file:
  ACTION KEY
     Tries to display the identifier definition.
  ASSIST KEY
     Does nothing.
@end group
@end format

@page
@vindex selective-display
@format
@group
If pressed within an outline-mode buffer or when `selective-display' is
non-nil:
  ACTION KEY
     Collapses, expands, and moves outline entries.
     (1) after an outline heading has been cut via the Action Key,
         pastes the cut heading at point;
     (2) at the end of the buffer, shows all buffer text;
     (3) at the beginning of a heading line, cuts the headings subtree
         from the buffer;
     (4) on a header line but not at the beginning or end of the line,
         if the headings subtree is hidden, shows it, otherwise hides
         it;
     (5) anywhere else, scrolls up a windowful.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) after an outline heading has been cut via the Action Key,
         allows multiple pastes throughout the buffer (the last paste
         should be done with the Action Key, not the Assist Key);
     (2) at the end of the buffer, hides all bodies in the buffer;
     (3) at the beginning of a heading line, cuts the current heading
         (sans subtree) from the buffer;
     (4) on a header line but not at the beginning or end, if the
         heading body is hidden, shows it, otherwise hides it;
     (5) anywhere else, scrolls down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, Info
@cindex Info browsing
@findex Info-global-next
@findex Info-global-prev
@format
@group
If pressed within an Info manual node:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on the first line of an Info Menu Entry or Cross Reference, the
         referenced node is displayed;
     (2) on the Up, Next, or Previous entries of a Node Header (first
         line), the referenced node is displayed;
     (3) on the File entry of a Node Header (first line), the Top node
         within that file is displayed;
     (4) at the end of the current node, the next node is displayed
         (this descends subtrees if the function (Info-global-next)
         is bound);
     (5) anywhere else (e.g.@: at the end of a line), the current node
         is scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on the first line of an Info Menu Entry or Cross Reference, the
         referenced node is displayed;
     (2) on the Up, Next, or Previous entries of a Node Header (first
         line), the last node in the history list is found;
     (3) on the File entry of a Node Header (first line), the DIR
         root-level node is found;
     (4) at the end of the current node, the previous node is displayed
         (this returns from subtrees if the function (Info-global-prev)
         is bound);
     (5) anywhere else (e.g.@: at the end of a line), the current node
         is scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@vindex hmail:reader
@vindex hmail:lister
@format
@group
If pressed within a Hyperbole-supported mail reader (defined by
`hmail:reader') or a mail summary (defined by `hmail:lister') buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) in a msg buffer within the first line of a message or at the
         end of a message, the next undeleted message is displayed;
     (2) in a msg buffer within the first line of an Info cross
         reference, the referent is displayed;
     (3) anywhere else within a msg buffer, the window is scrolled up
         one windowful;
     (4) in a msg summary buffer on a header entry, the message
         corresponding to the header is displayed in the msg window;
     (5) in a msg summary buffer, on or after the last line, the
         messages marked for deletion are expunged.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) in a msg buffer within the first line or at the end of a
         message, the previous undeleted message is displayed;
     (2) in a msg buffer within the first line of an Info cross
         reference, the referent is displayed;
     (3) anywhere else within a msg buffer, the window is scrolled down
         one windowful;
     (4) in a msg summary buffer on a header entry, the message
         corresponding to the header is marked for deletion;
     (5) in a msg summary buffer on or after the last line, all messages
         are marked undeleted.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, Gnus
@cindex Gnus browsing
@format
@group
If pressed within the Gnus newsgroups listing buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on a GNUS-GROUP line, that newsgroup is read;
     (2) to the left of any GNUS-GROUP line, within any of the
         whitespace, the current group is unsubscribed or resubscribed;
     (3) at the end of the GNUS-GROUP buffer after all lines, the
         number of waiting messages per group is updated.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on a GNUS-GROUP line, that newsgroup is read;
     (2) to the left of any GNUS-GROUP line, within any of the
         whitespace, the user is prompted for a group name to subscribe
         or unsubscribe to;
     (3) at the end of the GNUS-GROUP buffer after all lines, the
         newsreader is quit.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
If pressed within a Gnus newsreader subject listing buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on a GNUS-SUBJECT line, that article is read, marked deleted,
         and scrolled forward;
     (2) at the end of the GNUS-SUBJECT buffer, the next undeleted
         article is read or the next group is entered.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on a GNUS-SUBJECT line, that article is read and scrolled
         backward;
     (2) at the end of the GNUS-SUBJECT buffer, the group is exited and
         the user is returned to the group listing buffer.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If pressed within a Gnus newsreader article buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on the first line or at the end of an article, the next unread
         message is displayed;
     (2) on the first line of an Info cross reference, the referent is
         displayed;
     (3) anywhere else, the window is scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on the first line or end of an article, the previous message is
         displayed;
     (2) on the first line of an Info cross reference, the referent is
         displayed;
     (3) anywhere else, the window is scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex click, buffer menu
@cindex buffer menu
@format
@group
If pressed within a listing of buffers (Buffer-menu-mode):
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on the first column of an entry, the selected buffer is marked
         for display;
     (2) on the second column of an entry, the selected buffer is marked
         for saving;
     (3) anywhere else within an entry line, all saves and deletes are
         done, and selected buffers are displayed, including the one
         just clicked on (if in the OO-Browser, only the selected buffer
         is displayed);
     (4) on or after the last line in the buffer, all saves and deletes
         are done.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on the first or second column of an entry, the selected buffer
         is unmarked for display and for saving or deletion;
     (2) anywhere else within an entry line, the selected buffer is
         marked for deletion;
     (3) on or after the last line in the buffer, all display, save, and
         delete marks on all entries are undone.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, dired
@cindex dired browsing
@format
@group
If pressed within a dired-mode buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) within an entry line, the selected file/directory is displayed
         for editing in the other window;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, if any deletes are to
         be performed, they are executed after user verification,
         otherwise, this dired invocation is quit.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on a ~ character, all backup files in the directory are marked
         for deletion;
     (2) on a # character, all auto-save files in the directory are
         marked for deletion;
     (3) anywhere else within an entry line, the current entry is marked
         for deletion;
     (4) on or after the last line in the buffer, all delete marks on
         all entries are undone.
@end group
@end format
@page

@cindex click, tar
@cindex tar archive browsing
@cindex extracting from tar files
@format
@group
If pressed within a tar-mode buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     (1) on an entry line, the selected file/directory is displayed for
         editing in the other window;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, if any deletes are to
         be performed, they are executed after user verification;
         otherwise, this tar file browser is quit.
  ASSIST KEY
     (1) on an entry line, the current entry is marked for deletion;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, all delete marks on
         all entries are undone.
@end group
@end format

@cindex man page references
@vindex smart-man-c-routine-ref
@format
@group
If pressed on a cross reference within a man page entry section labeled
NAME, SEE ALSO, or PACKAGES USED, or within a man page C routine
specification (see `smart-man-c-routine-ref') and the man page buffer
has either an attached file or else a man-path local variable
containing its pathname:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     Displays the man page or source code for the cross reference.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, world-wide web
@cindex W3
@cindex URL
@cindex world-wide web
@format
@group
If pressed on a World-Wide Web universal resource locator:
  ACTION KEY
     Displays the referent for the URL at point.
  ASSIST KEY
     Goes back to a previously displayed web page.
@end group
@end format

@cindex game, gomoku
@cindex gomoku
@format
@group
If pressed within a Gomoku game buffer:
  ACTION KEY
     Makes a move to the selected space.
  ASSIST KEY
     Takes back a prior move made at the selected space.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, wrolo matches
@cindex wrolo matches
@format
@group
If pressed within an entry in the wrolo search matches buffer:
  ACTION KEY or ASSIST KEY
     The entry is edited in the other window.
@end group
@end format

@vindex action-key-default-function
@vindex assist-key-default-function
@cindex Smart Key, default context
@format
@group
If pressed within an unrecognized context:
  ACTION KEY
     Runs the function stored in @var{action-key-default-function}.
  ASSIST KEY
     Runs the function stored in @var{assist-key-default-function}.
@end group
@end format


@node Outliner Keys, Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Smart Key Reference, Top
@appendix Outliner Keys

@cindex outliner keys
This appendix summarizes the specialized key bindings available when
editing a koutline with Hyperbole.  Each key is shown together with its
command binding and the documentation for that command.  Normal emacs
editing keys are modified to account for the structure within outlines.
An outliner command which overloads an emacs command named @emph{cmd}
is named @emph{kotl-mode:cmd}.

@table @code

@findex kfile:write
@item kfile:write  @{@kbd{C-x C-w}@}
Write the current outline to FILE.

@findex klink:create
@item klink:create  @{@kbd{C-c l}@}
Insert at point an implicit link to REFERENCE.
REFERENCE should be a cell-ref or a string containing "filename, cell-ref".
See the documentation for @code{(kcell:ref-to-id)} for valid cell-ref
formats.

@findex kotl-mode:add-cell
@item kotl-mode:add-cell  @{@kbd{C-j}@}
Add a cell following current cell at optional RELATIVE-LEVEL with CONTENTS string.
Optional prefix arg RELATIVE-LEVEL means add as sibling if nil or >= 0, as child
if equal to universal argument, @kbd{C-u}, and as sibling of current cell's
parent, otherwise.  If added as sibling of current level, RELATIVE-LEVEL is
used as a repeat count for the number of cells to add.

Return last newly added cell.

@findex kotl-mode:add-child
@item kotl-mode:add-child  @{@kbd{C-c a}@}
Add a new cell to current kview as first child of current cell.

@findex kotl-mode:add-parent
@item kotl-mode:add-parent  @{@kbd{C-c p}@}
Add a new cell to current kview as sibling of current cell's parent.

@findex kotl-mode:append-cell
@item kotl-mode:append-cell  @{@kbd{C-c +}@}
Append the CONTENTS-CELL to APPEND-TO-CELL.  If neither cell has a
no-fill property and @var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is enabled, then
APPEND-TO-CELL is refilled.@refill

@findex kotl-mode:back-to-indentation
@item kotl-mode:back-to-indentation  @{@kbd{M-m}@}
Move point to the first non-read-only non-whitespace character on this line.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-cell
@item kotl-mode:backward-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-b}@}
Move to prefix ARGth prior cell (same level) within current view.
Return number of cells left to move.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-char
@item kotl-mode:backward-char  @{@kbd{C-b}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-kill-word
@item kotl-mode:backward-kill-word  @{@kbd{M-DEL}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG (or 1) words preceding point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-sentence
@item kotl-mode:backward-sentence  @{@kbd{M-a}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) sentences and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-word
@item kotl-mode:backward-word  @{@kbd{M-b}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) words and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-buffer
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-buffer  @{@kbd{M-<}@}
Move point to beginning of buffer and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-cell
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-cell  @{@kbd{C-c ,}@}
Move point to beginning of current or ARGth - 1 prior cell and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-line
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-line  @{@kbd{C-a}@}
Move point to beginning of current or ARGth - 1 line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-tree
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-tree  @{@kbd{C-c ^}@}
Move point to the level 1 root of the current cell's tree.
Leave point at the start of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:cell-help
@item kotl-mode:cell-help  @{@kbd{C-c h}@}
Display a temporary buffer of CELL-REF's attributes.
CELL-REF defaults to current cell.  Optional prefix arg CELLS-FLAG
selects the cells to print:@refill

@smallexample
If = 1, print CELL-REF's cell only;
If > 1, print the visible tree rooted at CELL-REF;
If < 1, print all visible cells in current view
  (In this last case, CELL-REF is not used).
@end smallexample

@findex kotl-mode:cell-attributes
@noindent
See also the documentation for @code{kotl-mode:cell-attributes}.

@findex kotl-mode:center-line
@item kotl-mode:center-line  @{@kbd{M-s}@}
@vindex fill-column
Center the line point is on, within the width specified by @var{fill-column}.
This means adjusting the indentation so that it equals the distance between
the end of the text and @var{fill-column}.

@findex kotl-mode:center-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:center-paragraph  @{@kbd{M-S}@}
Center each nonblank line in the paragraph at or after point.
See @code{center-line} for more information.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-after
@item kotl-mode:copy-after  @{@kbd{C-c c}@}
Copy tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to follow tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg CHILD-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF, otherwise make it the sibling following TO-CELL-REF.

Leave point at the start of the root cell of the new tree.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-before
@item kotl-mode:copy-before  @{@kbd{C-c C-c}@}
Copy tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to precede tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg PARENT-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF's parent, otherwise make it the preceding sibling of TO-CELL-REF.

Leave point at the start of the root cell of the new tree.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-to-buffer
@item kotl-mode:copy-to-buffer  @{@kbd{C-c M-c}@}
Copy outline tree rooted at CELL-REF to a non-koutline BUFFER.
Use 0 to copy the whole outline buffer.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-to-register
@item kotl-mode:copy-to-register  @{@kbd{C-x x}@}
Copy into REGISTER the region START to END.
With optional prefix arg DELETE-FLAG, delete region.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-backward-char
@item kotl-mode:delete-backward-char  @{@key{DEL}@}
Delete up to the preceding prefix ARG characters.
Return number of characters deleted.
Optional KILL-FLAG non-nil means save in kill ring instead of deleting.
Does not delete across cell boundaries.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-blank-lines
@item kotl-mode:delete-blank-lines  @{@kbd{C-x C-o}@}
On blank line within a cell, delete all surrounding blank lines, leaving just one.
On isolated blank line, delete that one.
On nonblank line, delete all blank lines that follow it.

If nothing but whitespace follows point until the end of a cell, delete all
whitespace at the end of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-char
@item kotl-mode:delete-char  @{@kbd{C-d}@}
Delete up to prefix ARG characters following point.
Return number of characters deleted.
Optional KILL-FLAG non-nil means save in kill ring instead of deleting.
Does not delete across cell boundaries.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-indentation
@item kotl-mode:delete-indentation  @{@kbd{M-^}@}
Join this line to previous and fix up whitespace at join.
If there is a fill prefix, delete it from the beginning of this line.
With argument, join this line to the following line.

@findex kotl-mode:demote-tree
@item kotl-mode:demote-tree  @{@key{TAB}@}
Move current tree a maximum of prefix ARG levels lower in current view.
Each cell is refilled iff its @emph{no-fill} attribute is nil and
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is non-nil.  With prefix ARG = 0, cells are
demoted up to one level and @var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is treated as
true.

@findex kotl-mode:down-level
@item kotl-mode:down-level  @{@kbd{C-c C-d}@}
Move down prefix ARG levels lower within current tree.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-buffer
@item kotl-mode:end-of-buffer  @{@kbd{M->}@}
Move point to the end of buffer and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-cell
@item kotl-mode:end-of-cell  @{@kbd{C-c .}@}
Move point to end of current or ARGth - 1 succeeding cell and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-line
@item kotl-mode:end-of-line  @{@kbd{C-e}@}
Move point to end of current or ARGth - 1 line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-tree
@item kotl-mode:end-of-tree  @{@kbd{C-c $}@}
Move point to the last cell in tree rooted at the current cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:example
@item kotl-mode:example
Display the Koutliner example file for demonstration use by a user.

@findex kotl-mode:exchange-cells
@item kotl-mode:exchange-cells  @{@kbd{C-c e}@}
Exchange CELL-REF-1 with CELL-REF-2 in current view.  Don't move point.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-cell
@item kotl-mode:fill-cell  @{@kbd{C-c M-j}@}
Fill current cell if it lacks the @emph{no-fill} attribute.
With optional JUSTIFY, justify cell as well.  IGNORE-COLLAPSED-P is used
when caller has already expanded cell, indicating it is not collapsed.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:fill-paragraph  @{@kbd{C-x f}@}
Fill current paragraph within cell.  With optional JUSTIFY, justify
paragraph as well.  Ignore any non-nil @emph{no-fill} attribute attached
to the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-tree
@item kotl-mode:fill-tree  @{@kbd{C-M-j}@}
Refill each cell within the tree whose root is at point.

@findex kotl-mode:first-sibling
@item kotl-mode:first-sibling  @{@kbd{C-c <}@}
Move point to the first sibling of the present cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell or at its present position if it is
already within the first sibling cell.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-backward-char
@item kotl-mode:fkey-backward-char  @{@kbd{C-b}@} or @{@kbd{left}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-forward-char
@item kotl-mode:fkey-forward-char  @{@kbd{C-f}@} or @{@kbd{right}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-next-line
@item kotl-mode:fkey-next-line  @{@kbd{C-n}@} or @{@kbd{down}@}
Move point to ARGth next line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-previous-line
@item kotl-mode:fkey-previous-line  @{@kbd{C-p}@} or @{@kbd{up}@}
Move point to ARGth previous line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-cell
@item kotl-mode:forward-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-f}@}
Move to the prefix ARG following cell (same level) within current view.
Return number of cells left to move.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-char
@item kotl-mode:forward-char  @{@kbd{C-f}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-para
@item kotl-mode:forward-para  @{@kbd{M-n}@}
Move to prefix ARGth next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:forward-paragraph  @{@kbd{M-]}@}
Move to prefix ARG next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-sentence
@item kotl-mode:forward-sentence  @{@kbd{M-e}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) sentences and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-word
@item kotl-mode:forward-word  @{@kbd{M-f}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) words and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:goto-cell
@item kotl-mode:goto-cell  @{@kbd{C-c g}@}
Move point to start of cell given by CELL-REF.  (See the documentation
for @code{(kcell:ref-to-id)}, for valid formats.)  Return point iff
CELL-REF is found within current view.  With a prefix argument, CELL-REF
is assigned the argument value for use as an idstamp.

Optional second arg, ERROR-P, non-nil means signal an error if CELL-REF is
not found within current view.  Will signal same error if called
interactively when CELL-REF is not found.

@findex kotl-mode:hide-sublevels
@item kotl-mode:hide-sublevels  @{@kbd{C-X $}@}
Hide all cells in outline at levels deeper than LEVELS-TO-KEEP (a
number). Show any hidden cells within LEVELS-TO-KEEP.  1 is the first
level.

@findex kotl-mode:hide-subtree
@item kotl-mode:hide-subtree  @{@kbd{C-M-h}@}
Hide subtree, ignoring root, at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at
point).

@findex kotl-mode:hide-tree
@item kotl-mode:hide-tree  @{@kbd{C-c BS}@}
Collapse tree rooted at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at point).

@findex kotl-mode:indent-line
@item kotl-mode:indent-line  @{@kbd{TAB}@}
Indent line relative to the previous one.
With optional prefix ARG greater than 1, tab forward ARG times.
See the documentation string of `kotl-mode:indent-tabs-mode' for details
on when tabs are used for indenting.

@findex kotl-mode:indent-region
@item kotl-mode:indent-region  @{@kbd{C-M-\}@}
Indent each nonblank line in the region from START to END.
If there is a fill prefix, make each line start with the fill prefix.
With argument COLUMN, indent each line to that column.
Called from a program, takes three args: START, END and COLUMN.

@findex kotl-mode:insert-file
@item kotl-mode:insert-file  @{@kbd{C-x i}@}
Insert each paragraph in IMPORT-FROM as a separate cell in the current view.
Insert as sibling cells following the current cell.  IMPORT-FROM may be a
buffer name or file name (file name completion is provided).

@findex kotl-mode:insert-register
@item kotl-mode:insert-register  @{@kbd{C-c r i}@}
Insert contents of REGISTER at point in current cell.
REGISTER is a character naming the register to insert.
Normally puts point before and mark after the inserted text.
If optional second arg is non-nil, puts mark before and point after.
Interactively, second arg is non-nil if prefix arg is supplied.

@findex kotl-mode:just-one-space
@item kotl-mode:just-one-space  @{@kbd{M-\}@}
Delete all spaces and tabs around point and leave one space.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-contents
@item kotl-mode:kill-contents  @{@kbd{C-c k}@}
Kill contents of cell from point to cell end.
With prefix ARG, kill entire cell contents.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-line
@item kotl-mode:kill-line  @{@kbd{C-k}@}
Kill ARG lines from point.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-region
@item kotl-mode:kill-region  @{@kbd{C-w}@}
Kill region between START and END within a single kcell.
With optional COPY-P equal to t, copy region to kill ring but don't
kill it.  With COPY-P any other non-nil value, return region as a
string without affecting the kill ring.

If the buffer is read-only and COPY-P is nil, the region will not be
deleted but it will be copied to the kill ring and then an error will be
signaled.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-ring-save
@item kotl-mode:kill-ring-save  @{@kbd{M-w}@}
Copy region between START and END within a single kcell to kill ring.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-sentence
@item kotl-mode:kill-sentence  @{@kbd{M-k}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG (or 1) sentences following point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-tree
@item kotl-mode:kill-tree  @{@kbd{C-c C-k}@}
Kill ARG following trees starting with tree rooted at point.
If ARG is a non-positive number, nothing is done.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-word
@item kotl-mode:kill-word  @{@kbd{M-d}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG words following point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:last-sibling
@item kotl-mode:last-sibling  @{@kbd{C-c >}@}
Move point to the last sibling of the present cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell or at its present position if it is
already within the last sibling cell.

@findex kotl-mode:mail-tree
@item kotl-mode:mail-tree  @{@kbd{C-c @@}@}
Mail outline tree rooted at CELL-REF.  Use "0" for whole outline buffer.

@findex kotl-mode:move-after
@item kotl-mode:move-after  @{@kbd{C-c m}@}
Move tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to follow tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg CHILD-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF, otherwise make it the sibling following TO-CELL-REF.
With optional COPY-P, copy tree rather than moving it.

Leave point at original location but return the tree's new start point.

@findex kotl-mode:move-before
@item kotl-mode:move-before  @{@kbd{C-c @key{RET}}@}
Move tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to precede tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg PARENT-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF's parent, otherwise make it the preceding sibling of
TO-CELL-REF.  With optional COPY-P, copy tree rather than moving it.

Leave point at original location but return the tree's new start point.

@findex kotl-mode:newline
@item kotl-mode:newline  @{@key{RET}@}
Insert a newline.  With ARG, insert ARG newlines.
In Auto Fill mode, if no numeric arg, break the preceding line if it is
too long.

@findex kotl-mode:next-cell
@item kotl-mode:next-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-n}@}
Move to prefix ARG next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:next-line
@item kotl-mode:next-line  @{@kbd{C-n}@}
Move point to ARGth next line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:open-line
@item kotl-mode:open-line  @{@kbd{C-o}@}
Insert a newline and leave point before it.
With arg N, insert N newlines.

@findex kotl-mode:overview
@item kotl-mode:overview  @{@kbd{C-c C-o}@}
Show only the first line of each cell in the current outline.

@findex kotl-mode:previous-cell
@item kotl-mode:previous-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-p}@}
Move to prefix ARG previous cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:previous-line
@item kotl-mode:previous-line  @{@kbd{C-p}@}
Move point to ARGth previous line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:promote-tree
@item kotl-mode:promote-tree  @{@kbd{M-TAB}@}
Move current tree a maximum of prefix ARG levels higher in current view.
Each cell is refilled iff its @emph{no-fill} attribute is nil and
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is non-nil.  With prefix ARG = 0, cells are
promoted up to one level and @var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is treated as true.

@findex kotl-mode:scroll-down
@item kotl-mode:scroll-down  @{@kbd{M-v}@}
Scroll text of current window downward ARG lines; or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex kotl-mode:scroll-up
@item kotl-mode:scroll-up  @{@kbd{C-v}@}
Scroll text of current window upward ARG lines; or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex kotl-mode:set-cell-attribute
@item kotl-mode:set-cell-attribute  @{@kbd{C-c C-i}@}
Include ATTRIBUTE VALUE with the current cell or the cell at optional POS.
Replace any existing value that ATTRIBUTE has.  When called
interactively, display the setting in the minibuffer as confirmation.

@findex kotl-mode:set-fill-prefix
@item kotl-mode:set-fill-prefix  @{@kbd{C-x l}@}
Set fill prefix to line up to point.
With prefix arg TURN-OFF or at begin of line, turn fill prefix off.

@findex kotl-mode:show-all
@item kotl-mode:show-all  @{@kbd{C-c C-a}@}
Show (expand) all cells in current view.

@findex kotl-mode:show-subtree
@item kotl-mode:show-subtree
Show subtree, ignoring root, at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at
point).

@findex kotl-mode:show-tree
@item kotl-mode:show-tree  @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@}
Display fully expanded tree rooted at CELL-REF.

@findex kotl-mode:split-cell
@item kotl-mode:split-cell  @{@kbd{C-c s}@}
Split cell into two cells and move to new cell.
Cell contents after point become part of newly created cell.
Default is to create new cell as sibling of current cell.
With optional universal ARG, @kbd{C-u}, new cell is added as child of
current cell.

@findex kotl-mode:top-cells
@item kotl-mode:top-cells  @{@kbd{C-c C-t}@}
Collapse all level 1 cells in view and hide any deeper sublevels.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-cells
@item kotl-mode:transpose-cells  @{@kbd{C-c t}@}
Exchange current and previous visible cells, leaving point after both.
If no previous cell, exchange current with next cell.
With prefix ARG, take current cell and move it past ARG cells.
With prefix ARG = 0, interchange the cell that contains point with the cell
that contains mark.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-chars
@item kotl-mode:transpose-chars  @{@kbd{C-t}@}
Interchange characters around point, moving forward one character.
With prefix ARG, take character before point and drag it forward past ARG
other characters (backward if ARG negative).
If no prefix ARG and at end of line, the previous two characters are
exchanged.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-lines
@item kotl-mode:transpose-lines  @{@kbd{C-x C-t}@}
Exchange current line and previous line, leaving point after both.
If no previous line, exchange current with next line.
With prefix ARG, take previous line and move it past ARG lines.
With prefix ARG = 0, interchange the line that contains point with the line
that contains mark.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-words
@item kotl-mode:transpose-words  @{@kbd{M-t}@}
Interchange words around point, leaving point after both words.
With prefix ARG, take word before or around point and drag it forward past
ARG other words (backward if ARG negative).  If ARG is zero, the words around
or after point and around or after mark are interchanged.

@findex kotl-mode:up-level
@item kotl-mode:up-level  @{@kbd{C-c C-u}@}
Move up prefix ARG levels higher in current outline view.

@findex kotl-mode:yank
@item kotl-mode:yank  @{@kbd{C-y}@}
Reinsert the last stretch of killed text.
More precisely, reinsert the stretch of killed text most recently
killed OR yanked.  Put point at end, and set mark at beginning.
With just C-u as argument, same but put point at beginning (and mark at end).
With argument N, reinsert the Nth most recently killed stretch of killed
text.
See also the command, @code{(kotl-mode:yank-pop)}.

@findex kotl-mode:yank-pop
@item kotl-mode:yank-pop  @{@kbd{M-y}@}
Replace just-yanked stretch of killed text with a different stretch.
This command is allowed only immediately after a @code{(yank)} or a
@code{(yank-pop)}.  At such a time, the region contains a stretch of
reinserted previously-killed text.  @code{(yank-pop)} deletes that text
and inserts in its place a different stretch of killed text.

With no argument, the previous kill is inserted.
With argument N, insert the Nth previous kill.
If N is negative, this is a more recent kill.

The sequence of kills wraps around, so that after the oldest one
comes the newest one.

@findex kotl-mode:zap-to-char
@item kotl-mode:zap-to-char  @{@kbd{M-z}@}
Kill up to and including prefix ARGth occurrence of CHAR.
Goes backward if ARG is negative; error if CHAR not found.

@findex kview:set-label-separator
@item kview:set-label-separator  @{@kbd{C-c M-l}@}
Set the LABEL-SEPARATOR (a string) between labels and cell contents for
the current kview.  With optional prefix arg SET-DEFAULT-P, the default
separator value used for new outlines is also set to this new value.

@findex kview:set-label-type
@item kview:set-label-type  @{@kbd{C-c C-l}@}
Change kview's label display type to NEW-TYPE, updating all displayed labels.
See documentation for the @var{kview:default-label-type} variable,
for valid values of NEW-TYPE.

@findex kvspec:activate
@item kvspec:activate  @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@}
Activate optional VIEW-SPEC or existing view specification over the
current koutline.  VIEW-SPEC must be a string.  See
<$@{hyperb:dir@}/kotl/EXAMPLE.kotl, 2b17=048> for details on valid view
specs.

@findex kvspec:toggle-blank-lines
@item kvspec:toggle-blank-lines @{@kbd{C-c b}@}
Toggle blank lines between cells on or off.

@end table


@node Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Questions and Answers, Outliner Keys, Top
@appendix Suggestion or Bug Reporting

@cindex version description
@cindex Hyperbole version
If you find any errors in Hyperbole's operation or documentation, feel
free to report them to <hyperbole@@beopen.com>.  Be sure to use the
Msg/Compose-Hypb-Mail minibuffer menu item whenever you send a message
to this address since that command will insert important system version
information for you.

If you use Hyperbole mail or news support (@pxref{Buttons in Mail}) a
click with your Action Key on the Hyperbole mail list address will
insert a description of your Hyperbole configuration information into
your outgoing message, so that you do not have to type it.  Otherwise,
be sure to include your editor, Hyperbole and window system versions
in your message.  Your Hyperbole version number can be found in the
top-level Hyperbole menu.

Please use your subject line to state the position that your message
takes on the topic that it addresses, e.g.@: send "Subject: Basic bug in
top-level Hyperbole menu." rather than "Subject: Hyperbole bug".  This
simple rule makes all e-mail communication much easier.

If you have suggestions on how to improve Hyperbole, send them to the
same address.  Here are some issues you might address:

@itemize @bullet
@item
What did you like and dislike about the system?
@item
What kinds of tasks, if any, does it seem to help you with?
@item
What did you think of the Emacs-based user interface?
@item
How was the Hyperbole Manual and other documentation?
@item
Was the setup trivial, average or hard?
@item
What areas of Hyperbole would you like to see expanded/added?
@item
How does it compare to other hypertext tools you have used?
@item
Was it easy or difficult to create your own types?  Why?
@item
Did you get any use out of the external system encapsulations?
@end itemize

@node Questions and Answers, Future Work, Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Top
@appendix Questions and Answers

@table @emph
@cindex Smart Key
@cindex mouse key bindings
@findex hmouse-setup
@findex hmouse-get-bindings
@vindex file, hmouse-sh.el
@vindex file, hmouse-reg.el
@item How can I change the Smart Mouse Key bindings?
@findex hmouse-shift-buttons
Since the Smart Mouse Keys are set up for use under five different Emacs
configurations, there is no easy way to provide user level
customization.  The command, @code{(hmouse-shift-buttons)}, can be used
to select between shifted and unshifted Smart Mouse Keys.  Any other
mouse key binding changes must be done by editing the
@code{(hmouse-setup)} and @code{(hmouse-get-bindings)} functions in the
@file{hmouse-sh.el} and @file{hmouse-reg.el} files.@refill

@vindex file, hmouse-key.el
@vindex file, hui-window.el
@vindex hkey-alist
@vindex hmouse-alist
The @var{hkey-alist} and @var{hmouse-alist} variables in
@file{hui-mouse.el} and @file{hui-window.el} must be altered if you want
to change what the Smart Keys do in particular contexts.  You should
then update the Smart Key summary documentation in the file,
@file{etc/hypb-mouse.txt}, and potentially the same summary in this
manual.@refill

@item What if I get mail with a Hyperbole button type I don't have?

Or what if someone sends a mail message with a button whose link
referent I can't access?

You receive an error that an action type is not defined or a link
referent is not accessible/readable if you try to use the button.  This
is hardly different than trying to get through a locked door without a
key; you try the doorknob, find that it is locked, and then realize that
you need to take a different approach or else give up.

Like all communication, people need to coordinate, which usually
requires an iterative process.  If you get a mail message with a button
for which you don't have the action type, you mail the sender and
request it.

@cindex global button, modify
@item How can I modify a number of global buttons in succession?

Rather than typing the name for each, it is quicker to jump to the
global button file and edit the buttons there as you would any explicit
buttons.  By default, the ButFile/PersonalFile menu item takes you to
the file where global buttons are saved.

@item Why are button attributes scattered across directories?

When you think of a hyper-space that you depend on every day, you don't
want to have a single point of failure make you incapable of doing work.
With Hyperbole, if some directories become unavailable for a particular
time (e.g.@: the filesystems on which they reside are dismounted) you can
still work elsewhere with minimal effect.  We believe this to be a
compelling factor to leave the design with distributed button attribute
storage.

This design also permits the potential addition of buttons to read-only
media.

@item Why are action types defined apart from implicit button types?

Any category of button can make use of an action type.  Some action
types are useful as behavior definitions for a variety of button
categories, so all action types are defined separately to give them
independence from those types which apply them.

For implicit button types that require a lot of code, it is useful to
add a module that includes the implicit button type definition, its
action type definition and supporting code.

@end table


@node Future Work, References, Questions and Answers, Top
@appendix Future Work

@noindent
This appendix is included for a number of reasons:

@itemize @bullet
@item
to better allow you to assess whether to work with Hyperbole by
providing sketches of possible additions;
@item
to direct further development effort towards known needs;
@item
and to acknowledge known weaknesses in the current system.
@end itemize

If you would like to see some of this work done, consider funding
its development.  Without any serious interest from users, progress
on these fronts will be slow.  Here are some new features we have
in mind, however.

@table @asis

@item Button Copying, Killing, and Yanking
There is as yet no means of transferring explicit buttons among
buffers. We realize this is a critical need.  Users should be able to
manipulate text with embedded buttons in ordinary ways.  This will be
implemented only for versions of Emacs 19 and higher.  It will store the
button attributes as text properties within the buffers so that if a
button is copied, its attributes follow.  When a buffer is saved, the
attributes also will be saved.

@item Trails
Trails are an extension to the basic history mechanism presently offered
by Hyperbole.  Trails will allow a user to capture, edit and store a
specific sequence and set of views of information for later replay by
other users.  Conditional branching may also be supported.

@item Outliner View Mode
This will complement the outliner editing mode by using simple one
character keys that normally insert characters to instead modify the
view of an outline and to move around in it, for ease of study.
Switching between view and edit modes will also be simple.

@item Storage of button data within button source files
The current design choice of storing buttons external to the source file
was made under the assumption that people should be able to look at
files that contain Hyperbole buttons with any standard editor or tool
and not be bothered by the ugly button data (since they won't be able to
utilize the buttons anyway, they don't need to see or have access to
them).

In many contexts, embedding the button data within the source files may
be a better choice, so a provision which would allow selection of either
configuration may be added.  Here are some of the PROs and CONs of both
design choices:
@sp 1
@end table

@smallexample
@group
           POSITIVE                        NEGATIVE

Button data in source file
           Documents can stand alone.      All edit operators have
           Normal file operations apply.   to account for file
                                           structure and hide
           Simplifies creation and         internal components.
           facility expansion for
           structured and multimedia
           files.

Button data external to source file
           Files can be displayed and      Currently, attributes for
           printed exactly as they look.   a whole directory are
           No special display formatting   locked when any button
           is necessary.                   entry is locked.

           Button-based searches and
           database-type lookup operations
           need only search one file
           per directory.
@end group
@end smallexample
@sp 2

@table @asis

@item Forms-based Interfaces

This will allow one to create buttons more flexibly.  For example, button
attributes could be given in any order.  Entry of long code sequences,
quick note taking and cross-referencing would also be made easier.

@item Collaboration Support

From the early stages of Hyperbole design, collaborative work
environments have been considered.  A simple facility has demonstrated
broadcast of button activations to a number of workstations on a local
area network, so that one user can lead others around an information
space, as during an online design review.  (This facility was never
adapted to the current Hyperbole release, however.)

@end table

@node References, Key Index, Future Work, Top
@appendix References

@table @b
@item [AkMcYo88]
Akscyn, R. M., D. L. McCracken and E. A. Yoder. KMS: A
Distributed Hypermedia System for Managing Knowledge in Organizations.
@emph{Communications of the ACM}, Vol. 31, No. 7, July 1988, pp. 820-835.

@item [Bro87]
Brown, P. J. Turning Ideas into Products: The Guide System.
@emph{Proceedings of Hypertext '87}, November 13-15, 1987, Chapel Hill, NC.
ACM: NY, NY, pp. 33-40.

@item [Con87]
Conklin, Jeff. Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey. @emph{IEEE
Computer}, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 1987, pp. 17-41.

@item [Eng68]
Engelbart, D., and W. English.  A research center for augmenting
human intellect. @emph{Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference},
33, 1, AFIPS Press: Montvale, NJ, 1968, pp. 395-410.

@item [Eng84a]
Engelbart, D. C. Authorship Provisions in Augment.
@emph{Proceedings of the 1984 COMPCON Conference (COMPCON '84 Digest)},
February 27-March 1, 1984, San Francisco, CA. IEEE Computer Society Press,
Spring, 1984.  465-472. (OAD,2250,)

@item [Eng84b]
Engelbart, D. C. Collaboration Support Provisions in Augment.
@emph{Proceedings of the AFIPS Office Automation Conference (OAC '84 Digest)},
February, 1984, Los Angeles, CA, 1984. 51-58. (OAD,2221,)

@item [Fos88]
Foss, C. L. Effective Browsing in Hypertext Systems.
@emph{Proceedings of the Conference on User-Oriented Content-Based Text and
Image Handling (RIAO 88)}, March 21-24, MIT, Cambridge MA. Centre de Hautes
Etudes Internationales d'Informatique Documentaire, 1988, pp. 82-98.

@item [GaSmMe86]
Garrett, N., K. E. Smith and N. Meyrowitz. Intermedia: Issues,
Strategies, and Tactics in the Design of a Hypermedia Document System.
@emph{Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '86) Proceedings}, December
3-5, Austin, TX, 1986, pp. 163-174.

@item [HaMoTr87]
Halasz, F. G., T. P. Moran and R. H. Trigg. NoteCards in a
Nutshell. @emph{Proceedings of the CHI and GI '87 Conference on Human Factors
in Computing Systems}, Toronto, J. M. Carroll and P. P. Tanner, (editors),
ACM: NY, NY, April 1987, pp. 45-52.

@item [Har88]
Harvey, G. @emph{Understanding HyperCard.} Alameda, CA: SYBEX, Inc.,
1988.

@item [KaKaBeLaDr90]
Kaplan, S. J., M. D. Kapor, E. J. Belove, R. A.  Landsman, and
T. R. Drake.  AGENDA: A personal Information Manager.  @emph{Communications
of the ACM}, No. 33, July 1990, pp. 105-116.

@item [Nel87a]
Nelson, T. H.  @emph{Computer Lib/Dream Machines.} MicroSoft Press,
Redmond, WA, 1987.

@item [Nel87b]
Nelson, T. H. @emph{Literary Machines, Edition 87.1}.  Available
from the Distributors, 702 South Michigan, South Bend, IN 46618, 1987.

@item [NoDr86]
Norman, D. A. and S. W. Draper, editors.  @emph{User Centered System
Design.} Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1986.

@item [Shn82]
Shneiderman, B. The future of interactive systems and the emergence
of direct manipulation.  @emph{Behavior and Information Technology}, Vol. 1,
1982, pp. 237-256.

@item [Sta87]
Stallman, R.  @emph{GNU Emacs Manual.} Free Software Foundation,
Cambridge: MA, March 1987.

@item [Tri86]
Trigg, R., L. Suchman, and F. Halasz.  Supporting collaboration in
NoteCards.  @emph{Proceedings of the CSCW '86 Conference}, Austin, TX,
December 1986, pp. 147-153.

@item [TrMoHa87]
Trigg, R. H., T. P. Moran and F. G. Halasz.  Adaptability and
Tailorability in NoteCards. @emph{Proceedings of INTERACT '87}, Stuttgart,
West Germany, September 1987.

@item [Wei92]
Weiner, B.  @emph{PIEmail: A Personalized Information Environment
Mail Tool.}  Department of Computer Science Masters Project, Brown
University: Providence, RI, May 10, 1992.

@item [YaHaMeDr88]
Yankelovich, N., B. J. Haan, N. Meyrowitz and S. M.  Drucker.
Intermedia: The Concept and the Construction of a Seamless Information
Environment. @emph{IEEE Computer}, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 1988, pp.  81-96.

@item [YoAkMc89]
Yoder, E. A., R. M. Akscyn and D. L. McCracken.  Collaboration in
KMS, A Shared Hypermedia System. @emph{Proceedings of the 1989 ACM Conference
on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI '89)}, April 30-May 4, 1989,
Austin, TX, ACM: NY,NY, 1989, pp. 37-42.

@end table


@c ***************************
@c Indices
@c ***************************

@node Key Index, Code and File Index, References, Top
@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@node Code and File Index, Concept Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Code and File Index

@printindex fn

@node Concept Index,  , Code and File Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp

@page
@contents
@bye