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\input texinfo  @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename idlwave
@settitle IDLWAVE User Manual
@dircategory Editors
@direntry
* IDLWAVE: (idlwave).	Major mode and shell for IDL and WAVE/CL files.
@end direntry
@synindex ky cp
@syncodeindex vr cp
@syncodeindex fn cp
@set VERSION 3.15
@set EDITION 1.10
@set IDLVERSION 5.3
@set NSYSROUTINES 1226
@set NSYSKEYWORDS 5229
@set DATE February 2000
@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set AUTHOR-EMAIL dominik@@astro.uva.nl
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER-EMAIL dominik@@astro.uva.nl
@c %**end of header
@finalout

@ifinfo 
This file documents IDLWAVE, a major mode for editing IDL and
WAVE/CL files with Emacs.  It also implements a shell for running IDL as
a subprocess.@refill

This is edition @value{EDITION} of the IDLWAVE User Manual for
IDLWAVE @value{VERSION}@refill

Copyright (c) 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
     
@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through TeX
and print the results, provided the printed document
carries a copying permission notice identical to this
one except for the removal of this paragraph (this
paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).
     
@end ignore
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
versions of this manual under the conditions for
verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting
derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission
notice identical to this one.
     
Permission is granted to copy and distribute
translations of this manual into another language,
under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end ifinfo

@titlepage
@title IDLWAVE User Manual
@subtitle Major Emacs mode and shell for IDL and WAVE/CL files
@subtitle Edition @value{EDITION}, @value{DATE}

@author by Carsten Dominik
@page
Copyright @copyright{} 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@sp 2
This is edition @value{EDITION} of the @cite{IDLWAVE User Manual} for
IDLWAVE version @value{VERSION}, @value{DATE}.@refill

@sp 2

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
this permission notice are preserved on all copies.
     
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
versions of this manual under the conditions for
verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting
derive work is distributed under the terms of a permission
notice identical to this one.
     
Permission is granted to copy and distribute
translations of this manual into another language,
under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

@end titlepage
@page

@ifinfo
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)

IDLWAVE is a package to support editing command files for the
Interactive Data Language (IDL), and for running IDL as an inferior
shell.  @refill

@end ifinfo

@menu
* Introduction::                What IDLWAVE is and what not
* IDLWAVE in a Nutshell::       One page quick-start guide
* The IDLWAVE Major Mode::      The mode to edit IDL programs
* The IDLWAVE Shell::           The mode to run IDL as inferior program
* Installation::                How to Install or Upgrade               
* Acknowledgement::             Who helped   
* Sources of Routine Info::     How does IDLWAVE know about routine XYZ     
* Configuration Examples::      The user is king...
* Index::                       Fast access

@detailmenu

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The IDLWAVE Major Mode

* Code Formatting::             Making code look nice
* Routine Info::                Calling Sequences and Keywords
* Completion::                  Completing routine names and Keywords
* Code Templates::              Abbreviations for frequent constructs
* Actions::                     Changing case, Padding, End checking
* Doc Header::                  Inserting a standard header
* Motion Commands::             Moving through the structure of a program
* Misc Options::                Things that fit nowhere else

Code Formatting

* Code Indentation::            Reflecting the logical structure
* Comment Indentation::         Special indentation for comment lines
* Continuation Lines::          Splitting statements over lines
* Syntax Highlighting::         Font-lock support

Actions

* Block Boundary Check::        Is the END correct
* Padding Operators::           Enforcing space around `=' etc
* Case Changes::                Enforcing upper case keywords

The IDLWAVE Shell

* Starting the Shell::          How to launch IDL as a subprocess
* Using the Shell::             Interactively working with the Shell
* Debugging IDL Programs::      Compilation/Debugging

Debugging IDL Programs

* Compiling Programs::          Compiling buffers under the shell
* Breakpoints and Stepping::    Deciding where to stop and look
* Examining Variables::         What is the value now?

Installation

* Installing IDLWAVE::          How to install the distribution
* Upgrading from idl.el::       Necessary configuration changes

Sources of Routine Info

* Routine Definitions::         Where IDL Routines are defined.
* Routine Information Sources:: So how does IDLWAVE know about...
* Library Scan::                Scanning the Libraries for Routine Info
* Updating idlw-rinfo.el::      Scanning the Reference Manual
@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, IDLWAVE in a Nutshell, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction
@cindex Introduction
@cindex CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)
@cindex cc-mode.el
@cindex Feature overview

IDLWAVE is a package to support editing command files for the
Interactive Data Language (IDL), and for running IDL as an inferior
shell.  It also can be used for WAVE/CL command files, but the support
for these is limited.  Note that this package has nothing to do with the
Interface Definition Language as part of the Common Object Request
Broker Architecture (CORBA).

IDLWAVE is the successor to the @file{idl.el} and @file{idl-shell.el}
files written by Chris Chase.  The modes and files had to be renamed
because of a name space conflict with CORBAs @code{idl-mode}, defined in
Emacs in the file @file{cc-mode.el}.  If you have been using the old
files, check @ref{Upgrading from idl.el} for information on how to
switch.

IDLWAVE consists of two parts: A major mode for editing command files
(@code{idlwave-mode}) and a mode to allow running the IDL program as an
inferior shell (@code{idlwave-shell-mode}).  Both modes work closely
together and form a complete development environment.@refill

Here is a brief summary of what IDLWAVE does.

@itemize @bullet
@item 
Code indentation and formatting.
@item
Font-lock support on three levels. 
@item 
Display of calling sequence and keywords of more than 1000 IDL
routines. 
@item
Context sensitive completion of routine names and keywords.
@item
Insertion of code templates.
@item
Actions to enforce coding standards during typing.
@item
Block structure check.
@item
Documentation support.
@item
Running IDL as inferior process.
@item
Shell with history search, command line editing and completion.
@item
Compilation, execution and debugging of programs directly from the source
buffer.  
@item
Examining expressions with a mouse click.
@end itemize

@ifnottex
@cindex Screenshots
Here are a number of screenshots showing IDLWAVE in action.
@itemize @bullet
@item
@uref{http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~dominik/Tools/idlwave/font-lock.gif,
XEmacs 21.1 with formatted and fontified code} 
@item
@uref{http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~dominik/Tools/idlwave/rinfo.gif,
XEmacs 21.1 displaying routine info}
@item
@uref{http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~dominik/Tools/idlwave/complete.gif, 
XEmacs 21.1 completing a keyword}
@item
@uref{http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~dominik/Tools/idlwave/shell.gif,
XEmacs 21.1 with debugging toolbar; execution stopped at a breakpoint} 
@end itemize
@end ifnottex

In this manual, each section contains a list of user options related to
the subject.  Don't be confused by the shear number of options available 
-- in most cases the default settings are just fine.  The variables are
listed here to make sure you know where to look if you want to change
things.  For a full description of what a particular variable does and
how to configure it, see the documentation string of that variable.
Some configuration examples are also given in the appendix.

@node IDLWAVE in a Nutshell, The IDLWAVE Major Mode, Introduction, Top
@chapter IDLWAVE in a Nutshell
@cindex Quick-Start
@cindex Getting Started
@cindex IDLWAVE in a Nutshell
@cindex Nutshell, IDLWAVE in a

@subheading Editing IDL Programs

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .85
@item @key{TAB}
@tab Indent the current line relative to context.
@item @kbd{M-C-\}
@tab Re-indent all lines in the current region.
@item @kbd{M-@key{RET}}
@tab Start a continuation line.  Or split the current line at point.
@item @kbd{M-q}
@tab Fill the current comment paragraph.
@item @kbd{C-c ?}
@tab Display calling sequence, keywords of the procedure/function call
at point.
@item @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}
@tab Complete a procedure name, function name or keyword in the buffer.
@item @kbd{C-c C-i}
@tab Update IDLWAVE's knowledge about functions and procedures.
@item @kbd{C-c C-v}
@tab Find the source code of a procedure/function.
@item @kbd{C-c C-h}
@tab Insert a standard documentation header.
@item @kbd{C-c C-m}
@tab Insert a new timestamp and history item in the documentation header.
@end multitable

@subheading Running the IDLWAVE Shell, Debugging Programs

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .85
@item @kbd{C-c C-s}
@tab Start IDL as a subprocess and/or switch to the interaction buffer.
@item @kbd{C-u C-c C-s}
@tab Start the shell in a separate frame.
@item @kbd{M-p}
@tab Cycle back through IDL command history matching command line input.
@item @kbd{M-n}
@tab Cycle forward.
@item @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}
@tab Complete a procedure name, function name or keyword in the shell buffer.
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-c}
@tab Save and compile the source file in the current buffer.
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-x}
@tab Goto next syntax error.
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-b}
@tab Set a breakpoint at the current source line.
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-d}
@tab Clear the current breakpoint.
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-p}
@tab Ask IDL to print the value of the expression near point.
@end multitable

@subheading Commonly used Settings in @file{.emacs}
@lisp
;; Change the indentation preferences
(setq idlwave-main-block-indent 2         ; default  0
      idlwave-block-indent 2              ; default  4
      idlwave-end-offset -2)              ; default -4
;; Pad some operators with spaces
(setq idlwave-do-actions t
      idlwave-surround-by-blank t)
;; Automatically expand END to ENDIF, ENDELSE, ...
(setq idlwave-expand-generic-end t)
;; Syntax Highlighting
(add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)

;; Automatically start the shell when needed, in dedicated frame
(setq idlwave-shell-automatic-start t
      idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame t)

;; Specify a file where library info can be stored.
(setq idlwave-libinfo-file "~/idlinfo.el")
@end lisp

@node The IDLWAVE Major Mode, The IDLWAVE Shell, IDLWAVE in a Nutshell, Top
@chapter The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@cindex IDLWAVE major mode
@cindex Major mode, @code{idlwave-mode}

The IDLWAVE major mode supports editing IDL and WAVE/CL command files.
In this chapter we describe the main features of the mode and how to
customize them.

@menu
* Code Formatting::             Making code look nice
* Routine Info::                Calling Sequences and Keywords
* Completion::                  Completing routine names and Keywords
* Code Templates::              Abbreviations for frequent constructs
* Actions::                     Changing case, Padding, End checking
* Doc Header::                  Inserting a standard header
* Motion Commands::             Moving through the structure of a program
* Misc Options::                Things that fit nowhere else
@end menu

@node Code Formatting, Routine Info, The IDLWAVE Major Mode, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Code Formatting
@cindex Code formatting
@cindex Formatting, of code

@menu
* Code Indentation::            Reflecting the logical structure
* Comment Indentation::         Special indentation for comment lines
* Continuation Lines::          Splitting statements over lines
* Syntax Highlighting::         Font-lock support
@end menu

@node Code Indentation, Comment Indentation, Code Formatting, Code Formatting
@subsection Code Indentation
@cindex Code indentation
@cindex Indentation

Like all Emacs programming modes, IDLWAVE performs code indentation.
The @key{TAB} key indents the current line relative to context.
@key{LFD} insert a newline and indents the new line.  The indentation is 
governed by a number of variables.

@cindex Foreign code, adapting
@cindex Indentation, of foreign code
To re-indent a larger portion of code (e.g. when working with foreign code
written with different conventions), use @kbd{M-C-\}
(@code{indent-region}) after marking the relevant code.  Useful marking
commands are @kbd{C-x h} (the entire file) or @kbd{M-C-h} (the
current subprogram). @xref{Actions}, for information how to impose
additional formatting conventions on foreign code.

@defopt idlwave-main-block-indent (@code{0}) 
Extra indentation for the main block of code.  That is the block between
the FUNCTION/PRO statement and the END statement for that program
unit.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-block-indent (@code{4})
Extra indentation applied to block lines.  If you change this, you
probably also want to change @code{idlwave-end-offset}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-end-offset (@code{-4})
Extra indentation applied to block END lines.  A value equal to negative
@code{idlwave-block-indent} will make END lines line up with the block
BEGIN lines.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-continuation-indent (@code{2})
Extra indentation applied to continuation lines and insided unbalanced
parenthesis.@refill
@end defopt

@node Comment Indentation, Continuation Lines, Code Indentation, Code Formatting
@subsection Comment Indentation
@cindex Comment indentation
@cindex Hanging paragraphs
@cindex Paragraphs, filling
@cindex Paragraphs, hanging

In IDL, lines starting with a @samp{;} are called @emph{comment lines}.
Comment lines are indented as follows:

@multitable @columnfractions .1 .90
@item @code{;;;}
@tab The indentation of lines starting with three semicolons remains
unchanged.
@item @code{;;}
@tab Lines starting with two semicolons are indented like the surrounding code.
@item @code{;}
@tab Lines starting with a single semicolon are indent to a minimum column.
@end multitable

The indentation of comments starting in column 0 is never changed.

@defopt idlwave-no-change-comment
The indentation of a comment that starts with this regular
expression will not be changed.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-begin-line-comment
A comment anchored at the beginning of line.  A comment matched by this
regular expression will not have its indentation changed.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-code-comment
A comment that starts with this regular expression on a line by itself
is indented as if it is a part of IDL code.@refill
@end defopt

@node Continuation Lines, Syntax Highlighting, Comment Indentation, Code Formatting
@subsection Continuation Lines and Filling
@cindex Continuation lines
@cindex Line splitting
@cindex Splitting, of lines
@cindex Filling
@cindex @code{auto-fill-mode}
@cindex Hanging paragraphs

In IDL, a newline character terminates a statement unless preceded by a
@samp{$}.  If you would like to start a continuation line, use
@kbd{M-@key{RET}} which calls the command @code{idlwave-split-line}.  It
inserts a @samp{$} to indicate that the following line is a continuation
of the current line, terminates the line with a newline and indents the
new line.  The command @kbd{M-@key{RET}} can also be used in the middle
of a line to split the line at that point.  When used inside a long
string constant, the string is split with the @samp{+} concatenation
operator.  You could even use @code{auto-fill-mode} to automatically
break code lines into several lines while you type.  For this, set the
variable @code{idlwave-fill-comment-line-only} to @code{nil} and turn on
@code{auto-fill-mode}.  @code{auto-fill-mode} can be toggled with
@kbd{C-c C-a}.

When filling comment paragraphs, IDLWAVE overloads the normal filling
functions and uses a function which creates hanging paragraphs as they
are customary in the IDL routine headers.  When @code{auto-fill-mode} is
turned on, comments will be auto-filled.  If the first line of a
paragraph is matched by @code{idlwave-hang-indent-regexp}, subsequent
lines are indented to after the position of this match, as in the
following example.

@example
; INPUTS
; x - an array containing
;     lots of interesting numbers.
;
; y - another variable where
;     a hanging paragraph is used
;     to describe it.
@end example

You also refill a comment paragraph with @kbd{M-q}.

@defopt idlwave-fill-comment-line-only (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means auto fill will only operate on comment lines.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-auto-fill-split-string (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means auto fill will split strings with the IDL @samp{+}
operator.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-split-line-string (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means @code{idlwave-split-line} will split strings with
@samp{+}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-hanging-indent 
Non-@code{nil} means comment paragraphs are indented under the hanging
indent given by @code{idlwave-hang-indent-regexp} match in the first
line of the paragraph.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-hang-indent-regexp
Regular expression matching the position of the hanging indent
in the first line of a comment paragraph.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-use-last-hang-indent (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means use last match on line for
@code{idlwave-indent-regexp}.@refill 
@end defopt

@node Syntax Highlighting,  , Continuation Lines, Code Formatting
@subsection Syntax Highlighting
@cindex Syntax highlighting
@cindex Font lock

Highlighting of keywords, comments, strings etc. can be accomplished
with @code{font-lock}.  To enable @code{font-lock} for IDL files, place
the following line into your @file{.emacs} (see
@ref{Configuration Examples})@refill

@lisp
(add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)
@end lisp

IDLWAVE supports 3 levels of syntax highlighting.  The variable 
@code{font-lock-maximum-decoration} determines which level is selected.

@defopt idlwave-default-font-lock-items
Items which should be fontified on the default fontification level
2.@refill 
@end defopt

@node Routine Info, Completion, Code Formatting, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Routine Info
@cindex Routine info

IDL defines more than one thousand procedures, functions and object
methods.  This large command set makes it difficult to remember the
calling sequence and keywords of a command.  IDLWAVE contains a list of
all builtin routines with calling sequences and keywords@footnote{This
list was created by scanning the IDL manual and might contain (very few)
errors.  Please report any detected errors to the maintainer, so that
they can be fixed.}.  It also scans Emacs buffers and library files for
routine definitions and queries the IDLWAVE-Shell for the properties of
modules currently compiled under the shell.  When you have edited a
buffer or compiled additional routines under the shell, use @kbd{C-c
C-i} (@code{idlwave-update-routine-info}) to update IDLWAVE's idea about
these routines.@refill

To display the information about a routine, press @kbd{C-c ?} which
calls the command @code{idlwave-routine-info}.  When the current cursor
position is on the name or in the argument list of a procedure or
function, information will be displayed about the routine.  For example,
consider the cursor positions in the following line

@example
plot,x,alog(x+5*sin(x) + 2),
  1  2   3   4   5  6  7    8
@end example

@cindex Object methods
On positions 1,2 and 8, information about the @samp{plot} procedure will
be shown.  On positions 3,4, and 7, the @samp{alog} function will be
described, while positions 5 and 6 will select the @samp{sin} function.
When you ask for routine information about an object method, and the
method exists in several classes, IDLWAVE queries for the class of the
object.

@cindex Calling sequences
@cindex Keywords of a routine
The description displayed contains the calling sequence, the list of
keywords and the origin of this information (@emph{system routine},
@emph{library routine}, @emph{Emacs buffer}, or @emph{compiled
module}).  It looks like this:

@example
Usage:    MAP_PROJ_INFO, iproj
Keywords: CIRCLE CURRENT CYLINDRICAL NAME UV_LIMITS WIDTH
Origin:   buffer visiting /soft1/idl/lib/map_set.pro
@end example

Some of the text in the @file{*Help*} buffer will be active (it
highlights when you move the mouse over it).  Clicking with the middle
mouse button on any of the active fields will try to find the source file of
the routine and display it in another window.  Another click on the same
line will switch back to the buffer from which @kbd{C-c ?} was
called.  Clicking with the right mouse button on an active field will
search the IDL online help for this item.@refill

@cindex Routine source file
@cindex Module source file
Another way to find the source file of a routine is the command @kbd{C-c
C-v} (@code{idlwave-find-module}).  It asks for a module name, offering
the same default as @code{idlwave-routine-info} would have used.  In the
minibuffer, specify a complete routine name (including the class part).
IDLWAVE will display the source file in another window.@refill

@cindex @code{RESOLVE_ROUTINE}
@cindex Compiling library modules
@cindex Routines, resolving
@cindex Online help, for IDL routines
The two other commands that work with the routine at point need a
running IDLWAVE shell.  The key sequence @kbd{M-?} calls the command
@code{idlwave-routine-info-from-idlhelp}.  This sends the command line
@samp{ONLINE_HELP, '@var{routine_name}'} to IDL in order to display the
documentation of the routine in the IDL online documentation.  The key
sequence @kbd{C-c =} calls the command @code{idlwave-resolve} and sends
the line @samp{RESOLVE_ROUTINE, '@var{routine_name}'} to IDL in order to
resolve (compile) it.

@code{idlwave-resolve} is one way to get a library module within reach
of IDLWAVE's routine info collecting functions.  A better way is to
prescan (parts of) the library (@pxref{Library Scan}).  Routine info on
library modules will then be available without the need to compile the
modules first, and even without a running shell.

@xref{Sources of Routine Info}, for in-depth information where IDLWAVE
collects data about routines, and how to update this information.

@defopt idlwave-scan-all-buffers-for-routine-info (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, scan all buffers for IDL programs when updating
info.  When this variable is @code{nil}, it only parses the current
buffer.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-query-shell-for-routine-info (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means query the shell for info about compiled routines.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-resize-routine-help-window (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, resize the Routine-info @file{*Help*} window to
fit the content.@refill
@end defopt


@node Completion, Code Templates, Routine Info, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Completion
@cindex Completion

IDLWAVE offers completion for routine names and keywords.  As in many
programming modes, completion is bound to @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.
Completion uses the same internal information as routine info,
so in order to update IDLWAVE's idea about your own routines after you
have edited or compiled them, press @kbd{C-c C-i}
(@code{idlwave-update-routine-info}).@refill

The completion function is context sensitive and figures out what to
complete at point.  Here are example lines and what @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}
would try to complete when the cursor is on the position marked with a
@samp{*}.

@example
plo*                    @r{Procedure}
x = a*                  @r{Function}
plot,xra*               @r{Keyword of @code{plot} procedure}
plot,x,y,/x*            @r{Keyword of @code{plot} procedure}
plot,min(*              @r{Keyword of @code{min} function}
obj -> a*               @r{Object method (procedure)}
a(2,3) = obj -> a*      @r{Object method (function)}
x = obj_new('IDL*       @r{Class name}
x = obj_new('MyCl',a*   @r{Keyword to @code{Init} method in class @code{MyCl}}
@end example

@cindex Scrolling the @file{*Completions*} window
@cindex Completion, scrolling
If the list of completions is too long to fit in the
@file{*Completions*} window, the window can be scrolled by pressing
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} repeatedly.@refill

@cindex Case of completed words
The case of the completed words is determined by what is already in the
buffer.  When the partial word being completed is all lower case, the
completion will be lower case as well.  If at least one character is
upper case, the string will be completed in upper case or mixed case.
The default is to use upper case for procedures, functions and keywords,
and mixed case for object class names and methods, similar to the
conventions in the IDL manuals.  These defaults can be changed with the
variable @code{idlwave-completion-case}.@refill

@defopt idlwave-completion-case
Association list setting the case (UPPER/lower/Capitalized/...) of completed
words.@refill 
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-completion-force-default-case (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, completion will always honor the settings in
@code{idlwave-completion-case}.  When nil (the default), lower case
strings will be completed to lower case.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-complete-empty-string-as-lower-case (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, the empty string is considered lower case for
completion.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-keyword-completion-adds-equal (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, completion automatically adds @samp{=} after
completed keywords.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-function-completion-adds-paren (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, completion automatically adds @samp{(} after
completed function.  A value of `2' means, also add the closing
parenthesis and position cursor between the two.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-completion-restore-window-configuration (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, restore window configuration after successful
completion.@refill
@end defopt

@subsubheading Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity
@cindex Object methods
@cindex Class ambiguity
An object method is not uniquely determined without the object's class.
Since the class part is usually omitted in the source code, IDLWAVE
considers all available methods in all classes as possible completions
of an object method name.  For keywords, the combined keywords of the
current method in all available classes will be considered.  In the
@file{*Completions*} buffer, the classes allowed for each completion
will be shown next to the item (see option
@code{idlwave-completion-show-classes}).@refill 

You can also call @code{idlwave-complete} with a prefix arg: @kbd{C-u
M-@key{TAB}}.  IDLWAVE will then prompt you for the class in order to
narrow down the number of possible completions.  The variable
@code{idlwave-query-class} can be configured to make this behavior the
default (not really recommended).  After you have specified the class
for a particular statement (e.g. when completing the method), IDLWAVE
can remember it for the rest of the editing session.  Subsequent
completions in the same statement (e.g. keywords) can then reuse this
class information.  Remembering the class works by placing a text
property in the object operator @samp{->}.  This is not enabled by
default - the variable @code{idlwave-store-inquired-class} can be used
to turn it on.@refill

@defopt idlwave-completion-show-classes (@code{1})
Non-@code{nil} means, show classes in @file{*Completions*} buffer when
completing object methods and keywords.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-completion-fontify-classes (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, fontify the classes in completions buffer.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-query-class (@code{nil})
Association list governing query for object classes during completion.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-store-inquired-class (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, store class of a method call as text property on
@samp{->}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-class-arrow-face
Face to highlight object operator arrows @samp{->} which carry a class
property.@refill
@end defopt

@node Code Templates, Actions, Completion, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Code Templates
@cindex Code templates
@cindex Abbreviations
@cindex Templates

IDLWAVE can insert IDL code templates into the buffer.  For a few
templates, this is done with direct keybindings:

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .85
@item @kbd{C-c C-c}
@tab @code{CASE} statement template
@item @kbd{C-c C-f}
@tab @code{FOR} loop template
@item @kbd{C-c C-r}
@tab @code{REPEAT} loop template
@item @kbd{C-c C-w}
@tab @code{WHILE} loop template
@end multitable

Otherwise, special abbreviations are used.  Emacs abbreviations are
expanded by typing text into the buffer and pressing @key{SPC} or
@key{RET}.  The special abbreviations used to insert code templates all
start with a @samp{\} (the backslash).  Here are a few examples of
predefined abbreviations.   For a full list, use @kbd{M-x
idlwave-list-abbrevs}.

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .85
@item @code{\pr}
@tab @code{PROCEDURE} template
@item @code{\fu}
@tab @code{FUNCTION} template
@item @code{\c}
@tab @code{CASE} statement template
@item @code{\f}
@tab @code{FOR} loop template
@item @code{\r}
@tab @code{REPEAT} loop template
@item @code{\w}
@tab @code{WHILE} loop template
@item @code{\i}
@tab @code{IF} statement template
@item @code{\elif}
@tab @code{IF-ELSE} statement template
@item @code{\b}
@tab @code{BEGIN}
@end multitable

The templates are expanded in upper or lower case, depending upon the
variables @code{idlwave-abbrev-change-case} and
@code{idlwave-reserved-word-upcase}.@refill

@defopt idlwave-abbrev-start-char
A single character string used to start abbreviations in abbrev
mode.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-abbrev-move (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means the abbrev hook can move point, e.g. to end up
between the parenthesis of a function call.
@end defopt

@node Actions, Doc Header, Code Templates, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Actions
@cindex Actions
@cindex Coding standards, enforcing

@emph{Actions} are special commands which are executed automatically
while you write code in order to check the structure of the program or
to enforce coding standards.  Most actions which have been implemented
in IDLWAVE are turned off by default, assuming that the average user
wants her code the way she writes it.  But if you are a lazy typist and
want your code to adhere to certain standards, they can be
helpful.@refill

Action can be applied in three ways:
@itemize @bullet
@item
Some actions are applied directly while typing.  For example, pressing
@samp{=} can run a check to make sure that this operator is surrounded
by spaces and insert these spaces if necessary.  Pressing @key{SPC}
after a reserved word can call a command to change the word to upper
case.@refill
@item
When a line is re-indented with @key{TAB}, actions can be applied to the
entire line.  To enable this, the variable @code{idlwave-do-actions}
must be non-@code{nil}.@refill
@item
@cindex Foreign code, adapting
@cindex Actions, applied to foreign code
Action can also be applied to a larger piece of code, e.g. in order to
convert foreign code to your own style.  To do this, mark the relevant
part of the code and execute @kbd{M-x expand-region-abbrevs}.  Useful
marking commands are @kbd{C-x h} (the entire file) or @kbd{M-C-h} (the
current subprogram). @xref{Code Indentation}, for information how to
ajust the indentation of the code.@refill
@end itemize

@defopt idlwave-do-actions (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means performs actions when indenting.
@end defopt

@menu
* Block Boundary Check::        Is the END correct
* Padding Operators::           Enforcing space around `=' etc
* Case Changes::                Enforcing upper case keywords
@end menu

@node Block Boundary Check, Padding Operators, Actions, Actions
@subsection Block Boundary Check
@cindex Block boundary check
@cindex @code{END} type checking
@cindex @code{END}, automatic insertion
@cindex Block, closing
@cindex Closing a block

Whenever you type an @code{END} statement, IDLWAVE finds the
corresponding start of the block and the cursor blinks back to that
location for a second.  If you have typed a specific @code{END}, like
@code{ENDIF} or @code{ENDCASE}, you get a warning if that kind of END
does not match the type of block it terminates.@refill

Set the variable @code{idlwave-expand-generic-end} in order to have all
generic @code{END} statements automatically expanded to a specific type.
You can also type @kbd{C-c ]} to close the current block by inserting
the appropriate @code{END} statement.@refill

@defopt idlwave-show-block (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means point blinks to block beginning for
@code{idlwave-show-begin}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-expand-generic-end (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means expand generic END to ENDIF/ENDELSE/ENDWHILE etc.
@end defopt

@node Padding Operators, Case Changes, Block Boundary Check, Actions
@subsection Padding Operators
@cindex Padding operators with spaces
@cindex Operators, padding with spaces

Some operators can be automatically surrounded by spaces.  This can
happen when the operator is typed, or also later when the line is
indented.  IDLWAVE contains this setting for the operators @samp{&},
@samp{<}, @samp{>}, @samp{,}, @samp{=}, and @samp{->}@footnote{operators
longer than one character can only be padded during line indentation.},
but the feature is turned off by default.  If you want to turn it on,
customize the variables @code{idlwave-surround-by-blank} and
@code{idlwave-do-actions}.  You can also define similar actions for
other operators by using the function @code{idlwave-action-and-binding}
in the mode hook.  For example, to enforce space padding of the @samp{+}
and @samp{*} operators, try this in @file{.emacs}@refill

@lisp
(add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
  (lambda ()
     (setq idlwave-surround-by-blank t)  ; Turn this type of actions on
     (idlwave-action-and-binding "*" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
     (idlwave-action-and-binding "+" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))))
@end lisp

@defopt idlwave-surround-by-blank (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, enable @code{idlwave-surround}.  If non-nil,
@samp{=}, @samp{<}, @samp{>}, @samp{&}, @samp{,}, @samp{->} are
surrounded with spaces by @code{idlwave-surround}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-pad-keyword (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means pad @samp{=} for keywords like assignments.@refill
@end defopt

@node Case Changes,  , Padding Operators, Actions
@subsection Case Changes
@cindex Case changes

Actions can be used to change the case of reserved words or expanded
abbreviations by customizing the variables
@code{idlwave-abbrev-change-case} and
@code{idlwave-reserved-word-upcase}.  If you want to change the case of
additional words automatically, put something like the following into
your @file{.emacs} file:@refill

@lisp
(add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
  (lambda ()
     ;;  Capitalize system vars
     (idlwave-action-and-binding idlwave-sysvar '(capitalize-word 1) t)
     ;;  Capitalize procedure name
     (idlwave-action-and-binding "\\<\\(pro\\|function\\)\\>[ \t]*\\<"
                                 '(capitalize-word 1) t)
     ;;  Capitalize common block name
     (idlwave-action-and-binding "\\<common\\>[ \t]+\\<" 
                                 '(capitalize-word 1) t)))
@end lisp

For more information, see the documentation string for the function
@code{idlwave-action-and-binding}.

@defopt idlwave-abbrev-change-case (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means all abbrevs will be forced to either upper or lower
case.  Legal values are @code{nil}, @code{t}, and @code{down}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-reserved-word-upcase (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, reserved words will be made upper case via abbrev
expansion.
@end defopt


@node Doc Header, Motion Commands, Actions, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Documentation Header
@cindex Documentation header
@cindex Modification timestamp
@cindex Header, for file documentation
@cindex Timestamp, in doc header.
@cindex Changelog, in doc header.

The command @kbd{C-c C-h} inserts a standard routine header into the
buffer, with the usual fields for documentation.  One of the keywords is 
@samp{MODIFICATION HISTORY} under which the changes to a routine can be
recorded.  The command @kbd{C-c C-m} jumps to the @samp{MODIFICATION
HISTORY} of the current routine or file and inserts the user
name with a timestamp.

@defopt idlwave-file-header
The doc-header template or a path to a file containing it.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-timestamp-hook
The hook function used to update the timestamp of a function.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-doc-modifications-keyword
The modifications keyword to use with the log documentation commands.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-doclib-start
Regexp matching the start of a document library header.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-doclib-end
Regexp matching the start of a document library header.
@end defopt

@node Motion Commands, Misc Options, Doc Header, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Motion Commands
@cindex Motion commands
@cindex Program structure, moving through
@cindex Code structure, moving through

Several commands allow to move quickly through the structure of an IDL
program.  These are

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .85
@item @kbd{C-M-a}
@tab Beginning of subprogram
@item @kbd{C-M-e}
@tab End of subprogram
@item @kbd{C-c @{}
@tab Beginning of block (stay inside the block)
@item @kbd{C-c @}}
@tab End of block (stay inside the block)
@item @kbd{M-C-n}
@tab Forward block (on same level)
@item @kbd{M-C-p}
@tab Backward block (on same level)
@item @kbd{M-C-d}
@tab Down block (enters a block)
@item @kbd{M-C-u}
@tab Backward up block (leaves a block)
@item @kbd{C-c C-n}
@tab Next Statement
@end multitable


@node Misc Options,  , Motion Commands, The IDLWAVE Major Mode
@section Miscellaneous Options

@defopt idlwave-help-application
The external application providing reference help for programming.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-startup-message (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means display a startup message when @code{idlwave-mode}'
is first called.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-mode-hook
Normal hook.  Executed when a buffer is put into @code{idlwave-mode}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-load-hook
Normal hook.  Executed when @file{idlwave.el} is loaded.
@end defopt
















@node The IDLWAVE Shell, Installation, The IDLWAVE Major Mode, Top
@chapter The IDLWAVE Shell
@cindex IDLWAVE shell
@cindex Major mode, @code{idlwave-shell-mode}

The IDLWAVE shell is an Emacs major mode which allows to run the IDL
program as an inferior process of Emacs.  It can be used to work with
IDL interactively, to compile and run IDL programs in Emacs buffers and
to debug these programs.  The IDLWAVE shell uses @file{comint}, an Emacs
packages which handles the communication with the IDL program.
Unfortunately IDL for Windows and MacOS does not allow the interaction
with Emacs@footnote{Please inform the maintainer if you come up with a way
to make the IDLWAVE shell work on these systems.} - so the IDLWAVE shell
only works under Unix.@refill

@menu
* Starting the Shell::          How to launch IDL as a subprocess
* Using the Shell::             Interactively working with the Shell
* Debugging IDL Programs::      Compilation/Debugging
@end menu

@node Starting the Shell, Using the Shell, The IDLWAVE Shell, The IDLWAVE Shell
@section Starting the Shell
@cindex Starting the shell
@cindex Shell, starting
@cindex Dedicated frame, for shell buffer
@cindex Frame, for shell buffer

The IDLWAVE shell can be started with the command @kbd{M-x
idlwave-shell}.  In @code{idlwave-mode} the function is bound to
@kbd{C-c C-s}.  It creates a buffer @file{*idl*} which is used to
interact with the shell.  If the shell is already running, @kbd{C-c C-s}
will simple switch to the shell buffer.  The command @kbd{C-c C-l}
(@code{idlwave-shell-recenter-shell-window}) displays the
shell window without selecting it.@refill

In order to create a separate frame for the IDLWAVE shell buffer, call
@code{idlwave-shell} with a prefix argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-s} or
@kbd{C-u C-c C-l}.  If you always want a dedicated frame for the shell
window, configure the variable
@code{idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame}.@refill 

The shell can also be started automatically when another command tries
to send a command to it.  To enable auto start, set the variable
@code{idlwave-shell-automatic-start} to @code{t}.@refill

@defopt idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name
This is the command to run IDL.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-command-line-options
A list of command line options for calling the IDL program.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern
Regexp to match IDL prompt at beginning of a line.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-process-name
Name to be associated with the IDL process.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-automatic-start
Non-@code{nil} means attempt to invoke idlwave-shell if not already
running.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-initial-commands
Initial commands, separated by newlines, to send to IDL.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, IDLWAVE should use a special frame to display
shell buffer. 
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-frame-parameters
The frame parameters for a dedicated idlwave-shell frame.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-temp-pro-prefix
The prefix for temporary IDL files used when compiling regions.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-mode-hook
Hook for customizing @code{idlwave-shell-mode}.
@end defopt

@node Using the Shell, Debugging IDL Programs, Starting the Shell, The IDLWAVE Shell
@section Using the Shell
@cindex comint
@cindex Shell, basic commands

The IDLWAVE shell works in the same fashion as other shell modes in
Emacs.  It provides command history, command line editing and job
control.  Here is a list of commonly used commands, see the Emacs
documentation on @file{comint} for additional information.@refill

@multitable @columnfractions .12 .88
@item @kbd{M-p}
@tab Cycle backwards in input history matching input
@item @kbd{M-n}
@tab Cycle forwards
@item @kbd{M-r}
@tab Previous input matching a regexp
@item @kbd{M-s}
@tab Next input that matches a regexp
@item @kbd{return}
@tab Send input or copy line to current prompt
@item @kbd{C-c C-a}
@tab Beginning of line; skip prompt
@item @kbd{C-c C-u}
@tab Kill input to beginning of line
@item @kbd{C-c C-w}
@tab Kill word before cursor
@item @kbd{C-c C-c}
@tab Send ^C
@item @kbd{C-c C-z}
@tab Send ^Z
@item @kbd{C-c C-\}
@tab Send ^\
@item @kbd{C-c C-o}
@tab Delete last batch of process output
@item @kbd{C-c C-r}
@tab Show last batch of process output
@item @kbd{C-c C-l}
@tab List input history
@end multitable

In addition to these standard @file{comint} commands,
@code{idlwave-shell-mode} has some bindings which correspond to similar
commands in @code{idlwave-mode}.  See @ref{Routine Info} and
@ref{Completion} for more information on these commands.@refill

@cindex Completion in the shell
@cindex Routine info in the shell
@multitable @columnfractions .12 .88
@item @kbd{@key{TAB}}
@tab  Completion of file names, routine names and keywords
(@code{idlwave-shell-complete})@refill
@item @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}
@tab Same as @key{TAB}
@item @kbd{C-c ?}
@tab Routine Info display (@code{idlwave-routine-info})
@item @kbd{M-?}
@tab IDL online help on routine (@code{idlwave-routine-info-from-idlhelp})
@item @kbd{C-c C-i}
@tab Update routine info from buffers and shell
(@code{idlwave-update-routine-info})
@item @kbd{C-c C-v}
@tab Find the source file of a routine (@code{idlwave-find-module})
@item @kbd{C-c =}
@tab Compile a library routine (@code{idlwave-resolve})
@end multitable

@defopt idlwave-shell-file-name-chars
The characters allowed in file names, as a string.  Used for file name
completion.@refill
@end defopt

@node Debugging IDL Programs,  , Using the Shell, The IDLWAVE Shell
@section Debugging IDL Programs
@cindex Debugging
@cindex Keybindings for debugging
@cindex Toolbar

Programs can be compiled, run, and debugged directly from the source
buffer in Emacs.  The IDLWAVE shell installs keybindings both in the
shell buffer and in all IDL code buffers of the current Emacs session.
On Emacs versions which support this, it also installs a debugging
toolbar.  The display of the toolbar can be toggled with @kbd{C-c C-d
C-t} (@code{idlwave-shell-toggle-toolbar}).@refill

The debugging keybindings are by default on the prefix key @kbd{C-c
C-d}, so for example setting a breakpoint is done with @kbd{C-c C-d
C-b}.  If you find this too much work and your ALT key is still
available, turn on the variable
@code{idlwave-shell-activate-alt-keybindings} in order to get breakpoint
setting on @kbd{A-b}.  In the remainder of this chapter we will assume
that the @kbd{C-c C-d} bindings are active.

@defopt idlwave-shell-prefix-key
The prefix key for the debugging map
@code{idlwave-shell-mode-prefix-map}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-activate-prefix-keybindings (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, debug commands will be bound to the prefix
key, like @kbd{C-c C-d C-b}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-activate-alt-keybindings (@code{nil})
Non-@code{nil} means, debug commands will be bound to alternate
keys, like @kbd{A-b}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-use-toolbar (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, use the debugging toolbar in all IDL related
buffers.@refill
@end defopt


@menu
* Compiling Programs::          Compiling buffers under the shell
* Breakpoints and Stepping::    Deciding where to stop and look
* Examining Variables::         What is the value now?
@end menu

@node Compiling Programs, Breakpoints and Stepping, Debugging IDL Programs, Debugging IDL Programs
@subsection Compiling Programs
@cindex Compiling programs
@cindex Programs, compiling
@cindex Default command line, executing
@cindex Executing a default command line

In order to compile the current buffer under the IDLWAVE shell, press
@kbd{C-c C-d C-c} (@code{idlwave-save-and-run}).  This first saves the
current buffer and then send the command @samp{.run path/to/file} to the 
shell.  You can laso execute @kbd{C-c C-d C-c} from the shell buffer, in 
which case the most recently compiled buffer will be saved and
re-compiled.

When developing or debugging a program, it is often necessary to execute 
the same command line many times.  A convenient way to do this is
@kbd{C-c C-d C-y} (@code{idlwave-shell-execute-default-command-line}).
This command first resets IDL from a state of interrupted execution by
closing all files and returning to the main interpreter level.  Then a
default command line is send to the shell.  To edit the default command
line, call @code{idlwave-shell-execute-default-command-line} with a
prefix argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-d C-y}.@refill

@defopt idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, mark the source code line where IDL is currently
stopped.  The value decides about the preferred method.  Legal values
are @code{nil}, @code{t}, @code{arrow}, and @code{face}.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-overlay-arrow
The overlay arrow to display at source lines where execution
halts.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-stop-line-face
The face which highlights the source line where IDL is
stopped.@refill
@end defopt

@node Breakpoints and Stepping, Examining Variables, Compiling Programs, Debugging IDL Programs
@subsection Breakpoints and Stepping
@cindex Breakpoints
@cindex Stepping

You can set breakpoints and step through a program with IDLWAVE.
Setting a breakpoint in the current line of the source buffer is done
with @kbd{C-c C-d C-b} (@code{idlwave-shell-break-here}).  With a prefix
arg of 1, the breakpoint gets a @code{/ONCE} keyword, meaning that it
will be deleted after first use.  With a numeric prefix greater than
one, the breakpoint will only be active the @code{nth} time it is hit.
To clear the breakpoint in the current line, use @kbd{C-c C-d C-d}
(@code{idlwave-clear-current-bp}).  To clear all breakpoints, use
@kbd{C-c C-d C-a} (@code{idlwave-clear-all-bp}).  Breakpoint lines are
highlighted in the source code.@refill

Once the program has stopped somewhere, you can step through it.  Here
is a summary of the breakpoint and stepping commands:

@multitable @columnfractions .2 .8
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-b}
@tab Set breakpoint (@code{idlwave-shell-break-here})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-i}
@tab Set breakpoint in function named here (@code{idlwave-shell-break-in})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-d}
@tab Clear current breakpoint (@code{idlwave-shell-clear-current-bp})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-a}
@tab Clear all breakpoints (@code{idlwave-shell-clear-all-bp})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-s}
@tab Step, into function calls (@code{idlwave-shell-step})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-n}
@tab Step, over function calls (@code{idlwave-shell-stepover})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-k}
@tab Skip one statement (@code{idlwave-shell-skip})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-u}
@tab Continue to end of block (@code{idlwave-shell-up})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-m}
@tab Continue to end of function (@code{idlwave-shell-return})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-o}
@tab Continue past end of function (@code{idlwave-shell-out})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-h}
@tab Continue to line at cursor position (@code{idlwave-shell-to-here})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-r}
@tab Continue execution to next breakpoint (@code{idlwave-shell-cont})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-up}
@tab Show higher level in calling stack (@code{idlwave-shell-stack-up})
@item @kbd{C-c C-d C-down}
@tab Show lower level in calling stack (@code{idlwave-shell-stack-down})
@end multitable

@defopt idlwave-shell-mark-breakpoints (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, mark breakpoints in the source file buffers.  The
value indicates the preferred method.  Legal values are @code{nil},
@code{t}, @code{face}, and @code{glyph}.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-breakpoint-face
The face for breakpoint lines in the source code if
@code{idlwave-shell-mark-breakpoints} has the value @code{face}.@refill
@end defopt

@node Examining Variables,  , Breakpoints and Stepping, Debugging IDL Programs
@subsection Examining Variables
@cindex @code{PRINT} expressions
@cindex @code{HELP}, on expressions
@cindex Expressions, printing
@cindex Expressions, help
@cindex Mouse binding to print expressions

When execution is stopped you can examine the values of variables.  The
command @kbd{C-c C-d C-p} prints the expression at point, while @kbd{C-c
C-d ?} shows help on this expression.  The expression at point is an
array expression or a function call, or the contents of a pair of
parenthesis.  The selected expression becomes highlighted in the source
code for a short time.  Calling the above commands with a prefix
argument will prompt for an expression instead of using the one at
point.

I find it very convenient to bind these functions to a mouse event, so
that simply clicking on an expression prints its value.  The following
code binds printing an expression to a click with mouse button 2 while
holding down the @key{SHIFT} key:

@lisp
(add-hook 'idlwave-shell-mode-hook
	  (lambda() 
	    (define-key idlwave-mode-map [(shift mouse-2)]
	      'idlwave-shell-mouse-print)))
@end lisp

Printing of expressions also works on higher levels of the calling
stack.  This means that you can examine the values of variables and
expressions inside the routine which called the current routine etc.
Use the commands @kbd{C-c C-d C-@key{UP}}
(@code{idlwave-shell-stack-up}) and @kbd{C-c C-d C-@key{DOWN}}
(@code{idlwave-shell-stack-down}) or the corresponding toolbar buttons
to move through the calling stack.  The mode line will indicate the
routine and the calling stack level which define the context for
printing expressions.  The following restrictions apply for all levels
except the current:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
Array expressions must use the @samp{[ ]} index delimiters.  Identifiers
with a @samp{( )} will be interpreted as function calls.
@item
Variable names in the expression may not start with an underscore
@samp{_}.
@item
@cindex ROUTINE_NAMES, IDL procedure
Printing values of expressions on higher levels of the calling stack
uses the @emph{unsupported} IDL routine @code{ROUTINE_NAMES}, which may
or may not be available in future versions of IDL.
@end itemize

@defopt idlwave-shell-expression-face
The face for @code{idlwave-shell-expression-overlay}.
Allows you to choose the font, color and other properties for
the expression printed by IDL.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-shell-print-expression-function (@code{nil})
A function to handle special display of evaluated expressions.
@end defopt

@node Installation, Acknowledgement, The IDLWAVE Shell, Top
@chapter Installation
@cindex Installation
@cindex FTP site
@cindex URL, homepage for IDLWAVE
@cindex Homepage for IDLWAVE

@menu
* Installing IDLWAVE::          How to install the distribution
* Upgrading from idl.el::       Necessary configuration changes
@end menu

@node Installing IDLWAVE, Upgrading from idl.el, Installation, Installation
@section Installing IDLWAVE

IDLWAVE is part of Emacs 21.1 and later.  It is also an XEmacs packages
and can be installed from
@uref{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/packages/,the XEmacs ftp site}
with the normal package management system on XEmacs 21.@refill

You can also download IDLWAVE and install it yourself from
@uref{http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~dominik/Tools/idlwave, the maintainers
webpage}.  Follow the instructions in the INSTALL file.@refill

@node Upgrading from idl.el,  , Installing IDLWAVE, Installation
@section Upgrading from the old @b{@file{idl.el}} file
@cindex Upgrading from old @b{@file{idl.el}}
@cindex Renaming old variables
@cindex Old variables, renaming

If you have been using the old @file{idl.el} and @file{idl-shell.el}
files and would like to use IDLWAVE, you need to update your
customization in @file{.emacs}.

@enumerate
@item
Change all variable and function prefixes from @samp{idl-} to @samp{idlwave-}.
@item
Remove the now invalid @code{autoload} and @code{auto-mode-alist} forms
pointing to the @file{idl.el} and @file{idl-shell.el} files.
@item
If you have been using the hook function recommended in earlier versions
to get a separate frame for the IDL shell, remove that command from your
@code{idlwave-shell-mode-hook}.  Instead, set the variable
@code{idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame} with
@lisp
(setq idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame t)
@end lisp
@item 
The key sequence @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} no longer inserts a TAB character,
but (as in many other Emacs modes) does completion.  Inserting a TAB is
now bound to @kbd{C-c @key{SPC}}.@refill
@end enumerate

@node Acknowledgement, Sources of Routine Info, Installation, Top
@chapter Acknowledgement
@cindex Acknowledgement
@cindex Thanks

@file{idl.el} and @file{idl-shell.el} were written by
@uref{mailto:chase@@att.com, Chris Chase}.  The package
was extended and renamed to IDLWAVE by the current maintainer
@uref{mailto:dominik@@strw.leidenuniv.nl, Carsten Dominik}. 

Thanks to the following people who have contributed to the development
of IDLWAVE with patches, ideas, bug reports and suggestions.

@itemize @minus
@item
Ulrik Dickow <dickow@@nbi.dk>
@item
Eric E. Dors <edors@@lanl.gov>
@item
Stein Vidar H. Haugan <s.v.h.haugan@@astro.uio.no>
@item
David Huenemoerder <dph@@space.mit.edu>
@item
Kevin Ivory <Kevin.Ivory@@linmpi.mpg.de>
@item
Xuyong Liu <liu@@stsci.edu>
@item
Simon Marshall <Simon.Marshall@@esrin.esa.it>
@item
Laurent Mugnier <mugnier@@onera.fr>
@item
Lubos Pochman <lubos@@rsinc.com>
@item
Patrick M. Ryan <pat@@jaameri.gsfc.nasa.gov>
@item
Marty Ryba <ryba@@ll.mit.edu>
@item
Phil Williams <williams@@irc.chmcc.org>
@item
J.D. Smith <jdsmith@@astrosun.tn.cornell.edu>
@item
Phil Sterne <sterne@@dublin.llnl.gov>
@end itemize

@node Sources of Routine Info, Configuration Examples, Acknowledgement, Top
@appendix Sources of Routine Info

In @ref{Routine Info} and @ref{Completion} it was shown how IDLWAVE
displays the calling sequence and keywords of routines, and how it
completes routine names and keywords.  For these features to work,
IDLWAVE must know about the accessible routines.

@menu
* Routine Definitions::         Where IDL Routines are defined.
* Routine Information Sources:: So how does IDLWAVE know about...
* Library Scan::                Scanning the Libraries for Routine Info
* Updating idlw-rinfo.el::      Scanning the IDL Manuals
@end menu

@node Routine Definitions, Routine Information Sources, Sources of Routine Info, Sources of Routine Info
@section Routine Definitions
@cindex Routine definitions

Routines which can be used in an IDL program can be defined in several
places:

@enumerate
@item 
@emph{System routines} are defined inside IDL itself.  The source
code of such routines is not accessible to the user.@refill
@item
Routines @emph{part of the current program} are defined in a file which
is explicitly compiled by the user.  This file may be located on the IDL
search path, but this is not certain.@refill
@item 
@emph{Library routines} are defined in special files which are located
somewhere on IDL's search path.  When a library routine is called for
the first time, IDL will find the source file and compile it
dynamically.@refill
@item
External routines written in other languages (like Fortran or C) can be
called with @code{CALL_EXTERNAL}, linked into IDL via @code{LINKIMAGE},
or included as dynamically loaded modules (DLMs).  Currently IDLWAVE
cannot provide routine info and completion for external
routines.@refill
@end enumerate

@node Routine Information Sources, Library Scan, Routine Definitions, Sources of Routine Info
@section Routine Information Sources
@cindex Routine info sources

In oder to know about as many routines as possible, IDLWAVE will do the
following to collect information:@refill

@enumerate

@item
It has a @emph{builtin list} with the properties of the builtin IDL
routines.  IDLWAVE @value{VERSION} is distributed with a list of
@value{NSYSROUTINES} routines and @value{NSYSKEYWORDS} keywords,
reflecting IDL version @value{IDLVERSION}.  This list has been created
by scanning the IDL manuals and is stored in the file
@file{idlw-rinfo.el}.  @xref{Updating idlw-rinfo.el}, for
information how to regenerate this file for new versions of IDL.@refill

@item
It @emph{scans} all @emph{buffers} of the current Emacs session for
routine definitions.  This is done automatically when routine
information or completion is first requested by the user.  The command
@kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{idlwave-update-routine-info}) can be used at any
time to rescan all buffers.@refill

@item
If you have an IDLWAVE-Shell running as inferior process of the current
Emacs session, IDLWAVE will @emph{query the shell} for compiled routines
and their arguments.  This happens automatically when routine
information or completion is first requested by the user.  The command
@kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{idlwave-update-routine-info}) can be used to ask
the shell again at any time.@refill

@item
IDLWAVE can scan all or selected library files and store the result in a
file which will be automatically loaded just like
@file{idlw-rinfo.el}. @xref{Library Scan}, for information how to
scan library files.@refill
@end enumerate

@defopt idlwave-scan-all-buffers-for-routine-info (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means, scan all buffers for IDL programs when updating
info.  When this variable is @code{nil}, it only parses the current
buffer.@refill
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-query-shell-for-routine-info (@code{t})
Non-@code{nil} means query the shell for info about compiled routines.
@end defopt


@node Library Scan, Updating idlw-rinfo.el, Routine Information Sources, Sources of Routine Info
@section Library Scan
@cindex Library scan
@cindex IDL library routine info

IDLWAVE can extract routine information from library modules and store
that information in a file.  To do this, the variable
@code{idlwave-libinfo-file} needs to contain the path to a file in an
existing directory (e.g. @code{"~/idlwave_libinfo.el"}).  Since the file
will contain lisp code, it should end in @file{.el}.  Under Windows and
MacOS, you also need to specify the search path for IDL library files in
the variable @code{idlwave-library-path}.  Under UNIX, this path will
be automatically inferred from an IDLWAVE shell.@refill

The command @kbd{M-x idlwave-create-libinfo-file} can then be used to
scan library files.  It brings up a widget in which you can select some
or all directories on the search path.  Pressing the @w{@samp{[Scan & Save]}}
button in the widget will scan all files in the selected directories and
write the resulting routine information into the file
@code{idlwave-libinfo-file}.  In order to update the library information
from the same directories, call the command
@code{idlwave-update-routine-info} with a double prefix argument:
@kbd{C-u C-u C-c C-i}.  This will rescan files in the previously
selected directories, write an updated version of the libinfo file and
rebuild IDLWAVEs internal lists.@refill

A note of caution:  Depending on your local installation, the IDL
library can be very large.  Parsing it for routine information will take
time and loading this information into Emacs can require a
significant amount of memory.@refill

A routine which is both in the library listing and compiled under the
shell will show up twice in the @file{*Completions*} listing.  This is
usually not a serious problem.  However, if you have scanned the part of
the library relevant for you, and if you are not compiling files which
are not on the library search path, the information about compiled
routines is in fact unnecessary.  In this case, you can turn off the
shell query for compiled routines with the variable
@code{idlwave-query-shell-for-routine-info}.@refill

@defopt idlwave-libinfo-file
File for routine information of the IDL library.
@end defopt

@defopt idlwave-library-path
IDL library path for Windows and MacOS.  Not needed under Unix.
@end defopt


@node Updating idlw-rinfo.el, , Library Scan, Sources of Routine Info
@section Updating @file{idlw-rinfo.el}
@cindex @file{get_rinfo}
@cindex @file{idlw-rinfo.el}
@cindex Perl program, to create @file{idlw-rinfo.el}

The file @file{idlw-rinfo.el} contains the routine information for
the routines build into IDL.  This constant depends upon the version of
IDL.  If you are lucky, the maintainer of IDLWAVE will always have
access to the newest version of IDL and provide updates of
@file{idlw-rinfo.el} reflecting the currently released version of
IDL.  The IDLWAVE package also contains a Perl program @file{get_rinfo}
which constructs this file by scanning selected files from the IDL
documentation.  The program needs @file{pdftotext} by Derek B. Noonburg.
Instructions on how to use @file{get_rinfo} are in the program
itself.@refill

@node Configuration Examples, Index, Sources of Routine Info, Top
@appendix Configuration Examples
@cindex Configuration examples
@cindex Example configuration

@noindent
@b{Question:} So now you have all these complicated configuration
options in your package, but which ones do @emph{you} as the maintainer
actually set in your own configuration?

@noindent
@b{Answer:} Hardly any.  As the maintainer, I set the default of most
options to what I think is best.  However, the default settings do not
turn on features which
@itemize @minus
@item
are not self-evident (i.e. too magic) when used by an unsuspecting user
@item
are too intrusive
@item
will not work properly on all Emacs installations out there
@item
break with what I think are widely used standards.
@end itemize

@noindent To see what I mean, here is the @emph{entire} configuration I
have in my @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq idlwave-shell-activate-alt-keybindings t
      idlwave-expand-generic-end t
      idlwave-store-inquired-class t
      idlwave-shell-automatic-start t
      idlwave-libinfo-file "~/lib/idl/libinfo.el"
      idlwave-main-block-indent 2)
(add-hook 'idlwave-shell-mode-hook
          (lambda() 
            (define-key idlwave-mode-map [(shift button1)]
              'idlwave-shell-mouse-print)
            (define-key idlwave-mode-map [(shift button2)]
              'idlwave-shell-mouse-help)))
@end lisp

However, if you are an Emacs power-user and want IDLWAVE to work
completely differently, the options allow you to change almost every
aspect of it.  Here is an example of a much more extensive configuration
of IDLWAVE.  To say it again - this is not what I recommend, but the
user is King!@refill

@example
;;; Settings for IDLWAVE mode

(setq idlwave-block-indent 3)           ; Indentation settings
(setq idlwave-main-block-indent 3)
(setq idlwave-end-offset -3)
(setq idlwave-continuation-indent 1)
(setq idlwave-begin-line-comment "^;[^;]")  ; Leave ";" but not ";;" 
                                            ; anchored at start of line.
(setq idlwave-surround-by-blank t)      ; Turn on padding ops =,<,>
(setq idlwave-pad-keyword nil)          ; Remove spaces for keyword '='
(setq idlwave-expand-generic-end t)     ; convert END to ENDIF etc...
(setq idlwave-reserved-word-upcase t)   ; Make reserved words upper case
                                        ; (with abbrevs only)
(setq idlwave-abbrev-change-case nil)   ; Don't force case of expansions
(setq idlwave-hang-indent-regexp ": ")  ; Change from "- " for auto-fill
(setq idlwave-show-block nil)           ; Turn off blinking to begin
(setq idlwave-abbrev-move t)            ; Allow abbrevs to move point

;; Some setting can only be done from a mode hook.  Here is an example:

(add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
  (lambda ()
    (setq abbrev-mode 1)                 ; Turn on abbrevs (-1 for off)
    (setq case-fold-search nil)          ; Make searches case sensitive
    ;; Run other functions here
    (font-lock-mode 1)                   ; Turn on font-lock mode
    (idlwave-auto-fill-mode 0)           ; Turn off auto filling
    ;;
    ;; Pad with with 1 space (if -n is used then make the
    ;; padding a minimum of n spaces.)  The defaults use -1
    ;; instead of 1.
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "=" '(idlwave-expand-equal 1 1))
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "<" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
    (idlwave-action-and-binding ">" '(idlwave-surround 1 1 '(?-)))
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "&" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
    ;;
    ;; Only pad after comma and with exactly 1 space
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "," '(idlwave-surround nil 1))
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "&" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
    ;;
    ;; Pad only after `->', remove any space before the arrow
    (idlwave-action-and-binding "->"  '(idlwave-surround 0 -1 nil 2))
    ;;;
    ;; Set some personal bindings
    ;; (In this case, makes `,' have the normal self-insert behavior.)
    (local-set-key "," 'self-insert-command)
    ;; Create a newline, indenting the original and new line.
    ;; A similar function that does _not_ reindent the original
    ;; line is on "\C-j" (The default for emacs programming modes).
    (local-set-key "\n" 'idlwave-newline)
    ;; (local-set-key "\C-j" 'idlwave-newline) ; My preference.
    ))

;;; Settings for IDLWAVE SHELL mode

(setq idlwave-shell-overlay-arrow "=>")        ; default is ">"
(setq idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame t)     ; Make a dedicated frame
(setq idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern "^WAVE> ")  ; default is "^IDL> "
(setq idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name "wave")
(setq idlwave-shell-process-name "wave")
(setq idlwave-shell-use-toolbar nil)           ; No toolbar
@end example

@node Index,  , Configuration Examples, Top
@unnumbered Index
@printindex cp

@summarycontents
@contents
@bye