1. xemacs
  2. mule-base

Source

mule-base / etc / mule.1

  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 25
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
 32
 33
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 39
 40
 41
 42
 43
 44
 45
 46
 47
 48
 49
 50
 51
 52
 53
 54
 55
 56
 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65
 66
 67
 68
 69
 70
 71
 72
 73
 74
 75
 76
 77
 78
 79
 80
 81
 82
 83
 84
 85
 86
 87
 88
 89
 90
 91
 92
 93
 94
 95
 96
 97
 98
 99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
.TH MULE 1 "1994 July 28"
.UC 4
.SH NAME
mule \- Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B mule
[
.I command-line switches
] [
.I files ...
]
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
.I Mule
is a multilingual enhancement to GNU Emacs.
.I Mule
provides a facility to display, input, and edit multilingual
characters in addition to all GNU Emacs facilities.
.PP
.I GNU Emacs
is a new version of 
.I Emacs,
written by the author of the original (PDP-10) 
.I Emacs,
Richard Stallman.  
Its user functionality encompasses
everything other 
.I Emacs 
editors do, and it is easily extensible since its
editing commands are written in Lisp.
.PP
.I Emacs
has an extensive interactive help facility,
but the facility assumes that you know how to manipulate
.I Emacs
windows and buffers.
CTRL-h (backspace
or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)
requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals
of 
.I Emacs 
in a few minutes.
Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you
find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-h c)
describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
describes a given Lisp function specified by name.
.PP
.I Emacs's
Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is
easy to recover from editing mistakes.
.PP
.I GNU Emacs's
many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail),
outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells
within
.I Emacs
windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop
(Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).
.PP
There is an extensive reference manual, but
users of other Emacses
should have little trouble adapting even
without a copy.  Users new to
.I Emacs
will be able
to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and
using the self-documentation features.
.PP
.SM Emacs Options
.PP
The following options are of general interest:
.TP 8
.I file
Edit
.I file.
.TP
.BI \+ number
Go to the line specified by
.I number
(do not insert a space between the "+" sign and
the number).
.TP
.B \-q
Do not load an init file.
.TP
.BI \-u " user"
Load
.I user's
init file.
.TP
.BI \-t " file"
Use specified
.I file
as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.
This must be the first argument specified in the command line.
.PP
The following options are lisp-oriented
(these options are processed in the order encountered):
.TP 8
.BI \-f " function"
Execute the lisp function
.I function.
.TP
.BI \-l " file"
Load the lisp code in the file
.I file.
.PP
The following options are useful when running
.I Emacs
as a batch editor:
.TP 8
.BI \-batch " commandfile"
Edit in batch mode using the commands found in
.I commandfile.
The editor will send messages to stdout.
This option must be the first in the argument list.
.TP
.B \-kill
Exit 
.I Emacs 
while in batch mode.
.\" START DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X
.PP
.SM Using Emacs with X
.PP
.I Emacs
has been tailored to work well with the X window system.
If you run
.I Emacs
from under X windows, it will create its own X window to
display in.  You will probably want to start the editor
as a background process
so that you can continue using your original window.
.PP
.I Emacs
can be started with the following X switches:
.TP 8
.BI \-rn " name"
Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up
defaults in the user's X resources.  This must be the first option
specified in the command line.
.TP 8
.BI \-name " name"
Specifies the name which should be assigned to the
.I Emacs
window.
.TP 8
.B \-r
Display the
.I Emacs
window in reverse video.
.TP
.B \-i
Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the
.I Emacs
window.
.TP
.BI \-font " fontset, " \-fn " fontset"
Set the
.I Emacs
window's fontset to that specified by
.I fontset.
You can specify a fontset just by the name or a comma separated list of fonts.
In the former case, the actual contents of the fontset should be defined by
X's resource or Emacslisp function
.I new-fontset.
In the latter case, a fontset of no name is created from the list.
.br
You will find the various
.I X
fonts in the
.I /usr/lib/X11/fonts
directory.
Note that
.I Emacs
will only accept fixed width fonts.
Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the
value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed
width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form
.IR width x height
are generally fixed width, as is the font
.IR fixed .
See
.IR xlsfonts (1)
for more information.

When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space between the
switch and the fontset name.
.TP
.BI \-lsp " linespace"
Set the dot size of u(pper) and l(ower)
.I linespace
in the form
.I u+l.
You can omit
.I u
and/or
.I l.
The default value is
.I 1+1.
.TP
.BI \-b " pixels"
Set the
.I Emacs
window's border width to the number of pixels specified by
.I pixels.
Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.
.TP
.BI \-ib " pixels"
Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified
by 
.I pixels.
Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.
.PP
.TP 8
.BI \-geometry " geometry"
Set the
.I Emacs
window's width, height, and position as specified.  The geometry
specification is in the standard X format; see
.IR X (1)
for more information.
The width and height are specified in characters; the default is 80 by
24.
.PP
.TP 8
.BI \-fg " color"
On color displays, sets the color of the text.

See the file
.I /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt
for a list of valid
color names.
.TP
.BI \-bg " color"
On color displays,
sets the color of the window's background.
.TP
.BI \-bd " color"
On color displays,
sets the color of the window's border.
.TP
.BI \-cr " color"
On color displays,
sets the color of the window's text cursor.
.TP
.BI \-ms " color"
On color displays,
sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.
.TP
.BI \-d " displayname, " \-display " displayname"
Create the
.I Emacs
window on the display specified by
.IR displayname .
Must be the first option specified in the command line.
.TP
.B \-nw
Tells
.I Emacs
not to use its special interface to X.  If you use this
switch when invoking
.I Emacs
from an
.IR xterm (1)
window, display is done in that window.
This must be the first option specified in the command line.
.PP
You can set
.I X
default values for your
.I Emacs
windows in your
.I \.Xresources
file (see
.IR xrdb (1)).
Use the following format:
.IP
emacs.keyword:value
.PP
where
.I value
specifies the default value of
.I keyword.
.I Emacs
lets you set default values for the following keywords:
.TP 8
.B font (\fPclass\fB Font)
Sets the window's text font.
.TP
.B fontSetList (\fPclass\fB FontSetList)
List of names of fontsets.  The first fontset in the list is used by default.
.TP
.B fontSet-XXX (\fPclass\fB FontSet-XXX)
Definition of fontset XXX.  It should be a comma separated
list of font names.  Each name should contain at least CHARSET-REGISTRY.
.TP
.B reverseVideo (\fPclass\fB ReverseVideo)
If
.I reverseVideo's
value is set to
.I on,
the window will be displayed in reverse video.
.TP
.B bitmapIcon (\fPclass\fB BitmapIcon)
If
.I bitmapIcon's
value is set to
.I on,
the window will iconify into the "kitchen sink."
.TP
.B borderWidth (\fPclass\fB BorderWidth)
Sets the window's border width in pixels.
.TP
.B internalBorder (\fPclass\fB BorderWidth)
Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.
.TP
.B foreground (\fPclass\fB Foreground)
For color displays,
sets the window's text color.
.TP
.B background (\fPclass\fB Background)
For color displays,
sets the window's background color.
.TP
.B borderColor (\fPclass\fB BorderColor)
For color displays,
sets the color of the window's border.
.TP
.B cursorColor (\fPclass\fB Foreground)
For color displays,
sets the color of the window's text cursor.
.TP
.B pointerColor (\fPclass\fB Foreground)
For color displays,
sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.
.TP
.B geometry (\fPclass\fB Geometry)
Sets the geometry of the
.I Emacs
window (as described above).
.TP
.B title (\fPclass\fB Title)
Sets the title of the
.I Emacs
window.
.TP
.B iconName (\fPclass\fB Title)
Sets the icon name for the
.I Emacs
window icon.
.PP
If you try to set color values while using a black and white display,
the window's characteristics will default as follows:
the foreground color will be set to black,
the background color will be set to white,
the border color will be set to grey,
and the text and mouse cursors will be set to black.
.PP
.SM Using the Mouse 
.PP
The following lists the mouse button bindings for the
.I Emacs
window under X11.

.in +\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
.ta \w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
MOUSE BUTTON	FUNCTION
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
left	Set point.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
middle	Paste text.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
right	Cut text into X cut buffer.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
SHIFT-middle	Cut text into X cut buffer.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
SHIFT-right	Paste text.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
CTRL-middle	Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
CTRL-right	Select this window, then split it into 
two windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
.\" START DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X MENUS
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
CTRL-SHIFT-left	X buffer menu--hold the buttons and keys
down, wait for menu to appear, select 
buffer, and release.  Move mouse out of
menu and release to cancel.
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
CTRL-SHIFT-middle	X help menu--pop up index card menu for
Emacs help.
.\" STOP DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X MENUS
.br
.ti -\w'CTRL-SHIFT-middle'u+4n
CTRL-SHIFT-right	Select window with mouse, and delete all
other windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.
.\" STOP DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X
.PP
.SH MANUALS
You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for $20.00/copy
postpaid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software
(contact them for quantity prices on the manual).  Their address is:
.nf
    Free Software Foundation
    675 Mass Ave.
    Cambridge, MA 02139
.fi
Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As
with all software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to
make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the
manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.
.PP
.SH FILES
/usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser
(a subsystem of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of Unix
is documented here, but the complete text of the Emacs reference
manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.

/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/src - C source files and object files

/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files and compiled files
that define most editing commands.  Some are preloaded;
others are autoloaded from this directory when used.
  
/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various programs that are used with
GNU Emacs, and some files of information.

/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the documentation
strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions
of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of
Emacs proper.

/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DIFF discusses GNU Emacs vs. Twenex
Emacs;
.br
/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/CCADIFF discusses GNU Emacs vs. CCA
Emacs;
.br
/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/GOSDIFF discusses GNU Emacs
vs. Gosling Emacs.
.br
/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering
various services to assist users of GNU Emacs, including education,
troubleshooting, porting and customization.
.br
These files also have information useful to anyone wishing to write
programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully
documented.

/usr/local/lib/emacs/lock - holds lock files that are made for all
files being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification
of one file by two users.

/usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCHITECTURE/cpp - the GNU cpp, needed
for building Emacs on certain versions of Unix where the standard cpp
cannot handle long names for macros.

.\" START DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X
/usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.
.\" STOP DELETING HERE IF YOU'RE NOT USING X
.PP
.SH BUGS
There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on the internet
(ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please try
to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a
deliberate feature.  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs
Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints
on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of
the Emacs you are running in \fIevery\fR bug report that you send in.

Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting
bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release, if possible.
For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for
a list of people who offer it.

Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.
Send requests to be added to mailing lists to the special list
info-gnu-emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or the corresponding UUCP
address).  For more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the
file /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be
fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report
them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.
.PP
Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs
running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.
.PP
There is a mailing list, mule@etl.go.jp on the internet, for reporting
Mule bugs and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please
try to check if the bug is Mule oriented or original GNU Emacs oriented.
The mailing list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.
.SH UNRESTRICTIONS
.PP
.I Emacs 
is free; anyone may redistribute copies of 
.I Emacs 
to
anyone under the terms stated in the 
.I Emacs 
General Public License,
a copy of which accompanies each copy of 
.I Emacs 
and which also
appears in the reference manual.
.PP
Copies of
.I Emacs
may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems,
but it is never included in the scope of any license covering those
systems.  Such inclusion violates the terms on which distribution
is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public
License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions
to redistribution of 
.I Emacs.
.PP
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend 
.I Emacs, 
and urges that
you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.  Eventually GNU
(Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley
Unix.
Everyone will be able to use the GNU system for free.
.PP
.I Mule 
is also free; anyone may redistribute copies of 
.I Mule 
to
anyone under the terms stated in the 
.I GNU 
General Public License,
a copy of which accompanies each copy of 
.I Mule.
.SH SEE ALSO
X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1), m2ps(1)
.SH AUTHORS
.PP
.I Emacs
was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.
.PP
.I Mule
was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko NISHIKIMI
of Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help by
members Mule mailing list.