Source

xemacs-21.4 / man / xemacs-faq.texi

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\input texinfo.tex      @c -*- mode: texinfo; coding: iso-2022-8 -*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename ../info/xemacs-faq.info
@settitle Frequently asked questions about XEmacs
@setchapternewpage off
@c %**end of header
@finalout
@titlepage
@title XEmacs FAQ
@subtitle Frequently asked questions about XEmacs @* Last Modified: $Date: 2000/04/26 07:18:27 $
@sp 1
@author Tony Rossini <rossini@@biostat.washington.edu>
@author Ben Wing <ben@@xemacs.org>
@author Chuck Thompson <cthomp@@xemacs.org>
@author Steve Baur <steve@@xemacs.org>
@author Andreas Kaempf <andreas@@sccon.com>
@author Christian Nyb@o{} <chr@@mediascience.no>
@author Sandra Wambold <wambold@@xemacs.org>
@page
@end titlepage

@ifinfo
@dircategory XEmacs Editor
@direntry
* FAQ: (xemacs-faq).            XEmacs FAQ.
@end direntry
@end ifinfo

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top XEmacs FAQ
@unnumbered Introduction

This is the guide to the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list---a
compendium of questions and answers pertaining to one of the finest
programs ever written.  It is much more than just a Text Editor.

This FAQ is freely redistributable.  I take no liability for the
correctness and safety of any procedures or advice given here.  This
FAQ is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

If you have a Web browser, the official hypertext version is at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://www.xemacs.org/faq/xemacs-faq.html}.

This version is somewhat nicer than the unofficial hypertext versions
that are archived at Utrecht, Oxford, Smart Pages, and other FAQ
archives.

@ifset CANONICAL
@html
This document is available in several different formats:
@itemize @bullet
@item
@uref{xemacs-faq.txt, As a single ASCII file}, produced by
@code{makeinfo --no-headers}
@item
@uref{xemacs-faq.dvi, As a .dvi file}, as used with
@uref{http://www.tug.org, TeX.}
@item
As a PostScript file @uref{xemacs-faq-a4.ps, in A4 format},
as well as in @uref{xemacs-faq-letter.ps, letter format}
@item
In html format, @uref{xemacs-faq_1.html, split by chapter}, or in
@uref{xemacs-faq.html, one monolithic} document.
@item
The canonical version of the FAQ is the texinfo document
@uref{xemacs-faq.texi, man/xemacs-faq.texi}.
@item
If you do not have makeinfo installed, you may @uref{xemacs-faq.info,
download the faq} in info format, and install it in @file{<XEmacs
library directory>/info/}. For example in
@file{/usr/local/lib/xemacs-20.4/info/}.

@end itemize

@end html

@end ifset

@c end ifset points to CANONICAL

@menu
* Introduction::        Introduction, Policy, Credits.
* Installation::        Installation and Trouble Shooting.
* Customization::       Customization and Options.
* Subsystems::          Major Subsystems.
* Miscellaneous::       The Miscellaneous Stuff.
* MS Windows::          XEmacs on Microsoft Windows.
* Current Events::      What the Future Holds.

@detailmenu

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction, Policy, Credits

* Q1.0.1::      What is XEmacs?
* Q1.0.2::      What is the current version of XEmacs?
* Q1.0.3::      Where can I find it?
* Q1.0.4::      Why Another Version of Emacs?
* Q1.0.5::      Why Haven't XEmacs and GNU Emacs Merged?
* Q1.0.6::      Where can I get help?
* Q1.0.7::      Where is the mailing list archived?
* Q1.0.8::      How do you pronounce XEmacs?
* Q1.0.9::      What does XEmacs look like?
* Q1.0.10::     Is there a port of XEmacs to Microsoft ('95 or NT)?
* Q1.0.11::     Is there a port of XEmacs to the Macintosh?
* Q1.0.12::     Is there a port of XEmacs to NextStep?
* Q1.0.13::     Is there a port of XEmacs to OS/2?
* Q1.0.14::     Where can I get a printed copy of the XEmacs users manual?

Policies:
* Q1.1.1::      What is the FAQ editorial policy?
* Q1.1.2::      How do I become a Beta Tester?
* Q1.1.3::      How do I contribute to XEmacs itself?

Credits:
* Q1.2.1::      Who wrote XEmacs?
* Q1.2.2::      Who contributed to this version of the FAQ?
* Q1.2.3::      Who contributed to the FAQ in the past?

Internationalization:
* Q1.3.1::      What is the status of XEmacs v20?
* Q1.3.2::      What is the status of Asian-language support, aka @var{mule}?
* Q1.3.3::      How do I type non-ASCII characters?
* Q1.3.4::      Can XEmacs messages come out in a different language?
* Q1.3.5::      Please explain the various input methods in MULE/XEmacs 20.0
* Q1.3.6::      How do I portably code for MULE/XEmacs 20.0?
* Q1.3.7::      How about Cyrillic Modes?

Getting Started:
* Q1.4.1::      What is a @file{.emacs} and is there a sample one?
* Q1.4.2::      Can I use the same @file{.emacs} with the other Emacs?
* Q1.4.3::      Any good XEmacs tutorials around?
* Q1.4.4::      May I see an example of a useful XEmacs Lisp function?
* Q1.4.5::      And how do I bind it to a key?
* Q1.4.6::      What's the difference between a macro and a function?

Installation and Trouble Shooting

* Q2.0.1::      Running XEmacs without installing.
* Q2.0.2::      XEmacs is too big.
* Q2.0.3::      Compiling XEmacs with Netaudio.
* Q2.0.4::      Problems with Linux and ncurses.
* Q2.0.5::      Do I need X11 to run XEmacs?
* Q2.0.6::      I'm having strange crashes.  What do I do?
* Q2.0.7::      Libraries in non-standard locations.
* Q2.0.8::      can't resolve symbol _h_errno
* Q2.0.9::      Where do I find external libraries?
* Q2.0.10::     After I run configure I find a coredump, is something wrong?
* Q2.0.11::     XEmacs can't resolve host names.
* Q2.0.12::     Why can't I strip XEmacs?

Trouble Shooting:
* Q2.1.1::      XEmacs just crashed on me!
* Q2.1.2::      Cryptic Minibuffer messages.
* Q2.1.3::      Translation Table Syntax messages at Startup.
* Q2.1.4::      Startup warnings about deducing proper fonts?
* Q2.1.5::      XEmacs cannot connect to my X Terminal.
* Q2.1.6::      XEmacs just locked up my Linux X server.
* Q2.1.7::      HP Alt key as Meta.
* Q2.1.8::      got (wrong-type-argument color-instance-p nil)!
* Q2.1.9::      XEmacs causes my OpenWindows 3.0 server to crash.
* Q2.1.10::     Warnings from incorrect key modifiers.
* Q2.1.11::     Can't instantiate image error... in toolbar
* Q2.1.12::     Regular Expression Problems on DEC OSF1.
* Q2.1.13::     HP/UX 10.10 and @code{create_process} failure
* Q2.1.14::     @kbd{C-g} doesn't work for me.  Is it broken?
* Q2.1.15::     How to debug an XEmacs problem with a debugger.
* Q2.1.16::     XEmacs crashes in @code{strcat} on HP/UX 10.
* Q2.1.17::     @samp{Marker does not point anywhere}.
* Q2.1.18::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q2.1.19::     XEmacs does not follow the local timezone.
* Q2.1.20::     @samp{Symbol's function definition is void: hkey-help-show.}
* Q2.1.21::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q2.1.22::     XEmacs seems to take a really long time to do some things.
* Q2.1.23::     Movemail on Linux does not work for XEmacs 19.15 and later.
* Q2.1.24::     XEmacs won't start without network. (NEW)

Customization and Options

* Q3.0.1::      What version of Emacs am I running?
* Q3.0.2::      How do I evaluate Elisp expressions?
* Q3.0.3::      @code{(setq tab-width 6)} behaves oddly.
* Q3.0.4::      How can I add directories to the @code{load-path}?
* Q3.0.5::      How to check if a lisp function is defined?
* Q3.0.6::      Can I force the output of @code{(face-list)} to a buffer?
* Q3.0.7::      Font selections don't get saved after @code{Save Options}.
* Q3.0.8::      How do I make a single minibuffer frame?
* Q3.0.9::      What is @code{Customize}?

X Window System & Resources:
* Q3.1.1::      Where is a list of X resources?
* Q3.1.2::      How can I detect a color display?
* Q3.1.3::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q3.1.4::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q3.1.5::      How can I get the icon to just say @samp{XEmacs}?
* Q3.1.6::      How can I have the window title area display the full path?
* Q3.1.7::      @samp{xemacs -name junk} doesn't work?
* Q3.1.8::      @samp{-iconic} doesn't work.

Textual Fonts & Colors:
* Q3.2.1::      How can I set color options from @file{.emacs}?
* Q3.2.2::      How do I set the text, menu and modeline fonts?
* Q3.2.3::      How can I set the colors when highlighting a region?
* Q3.2.4::      How can I limit color map usage?
* Q3.2.5::      My tty supports color, but XEmacs doesn't use them.
* Q3.2.6::      Can I have pixmap backgrounds in XEmacs?

The Modeline:
* Q3.3.1::      How can I make the modeline go away?
* Q3.3.2::      How do you have XEmacs display the line number in the modeline?
* Q3.3.3::      How do I get XEmacs to put the time of day on the modeline?
* Q3.3.4::      How do I turn off current chapter from AUC TeX modeline?
* Q3.3.5::      How can one change the modeline color based on the mode used?

Multiple Device Support:
* Q3.4.1::      How do I open a frame on another screen of my multi-headed display?
* Q3.4.2::      Can I really connect to a running XEmacs after calling up over a modem?  How?

The Keyboard:
* Q3.5.1::      How can I bind complex functions (or macros) to keys?
* Q3.5.2::      How can I stop down-arrow from adding empty lines to the bottom of my buffers?
* Q3.5.3::      How do I bind C-. and C-; to scroll one line up and down?
* Q3.5.4::      Globally binding @kbd{Delete}?
* Q3.5.5::      Scrolling one line at a time.
* Q3.5.6::      How to map @kbd{Help} key alone on Sun type4 keyboard?
* Q3.5.7::      How can you type in special characters in XEmacs?
* Q3.5.8::      Why does @code{(global-set-key [delete-forward] 'delete-char)} complain?
* Q3.5.9::      How do I make the Delete key delete forward?
* Q3.5.10::     Can I turn on @dfn{sticky} modifier keys?
* Q3.5.11::     How do I map the arrow keys?

The Cursor:
* Q3.6.1::      Is there a way to make the bar cursor thicker?
* Q3.6.2::      Is there a way to get back the old block cursor where the cursor covers the character in front of the point?
* Q3.6.3::      Can I make the cursor blink?

The Mouse and Highlighting:
* Q3.7.1::      How can I turn off Mouse pasting?
* Q3.7.2::      How do I set control/meta/etc modifiers on mouse buttons?
* Q3.7.3::      Clicking the left button does not do anything in buffer list.
* Q3.7.4::      How can I get a list of buffers when I hit mouse button 3?
* Q3.7.5::      Why does cut-and-paste not work between XEmacs and a cmdtool?
* Q3.7.6::      How I can set XEmacs up so that it pastes where the text cursor is?
* Q3.7.7::      How do I select a rectangular region?
* Q3.7.8::      Why does @kbd{M-w} take so long?

The Menubar and Toolbar:
* Q3.8.1::      How do I get rid of the menu (or menubar)?
* Q3.8.2::      Can I customize the basic menubar?
* Q3.8.3::      How do I control how many buffers are listed in the menu @code{Buffers} list?
* Q3.8.4::      Resources like @code{Emacs*menubar*font} are not working?
* Q3.8.5::      How can I bind a key to a function to toggle the toolbar?

Scrollbars:
* Q3.9.1::      How can I disable the scrollbar?
* Q3.9.2::      How can one use resources to change scrollbar colors?
* Q3.9.3::      Moving the scrollbar can move the point; can I disable this?
* Q3.9.4::      How can I get automatic horizontal scrolling?

Text Selections:
* Q3.10.1::     How can I turn off or change highlighted selections?
* Q3.10.2::     How do I get that typing on an active region removes it?
* Q3.10.3::     Can I turn off the highlight during isearch?
* Q3.10.4::     How do I turn off highlighting after @kbd{C-x C-p} (mark-page)?
* Q3.10.5::     The region disappears when I hit the end of buffer while scrolling.

Major Subsystems

* Q4.0.1::      How do I set up VM to retrieve remote mail using POP?
* Q4.0.2::      How do I get VM to filter mail for me?
* Q4.0.3::      How can I get VM to automatically check for new mail?
* Q4.0.4::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.0.5::      How do I get my outgoing mail archived?
* Q4.0.6::      I have various addresses at which I receive mail.  How can I tell VM to ignore them when doing a "reply-all"?
* Q4.0.7::      Is there a mailing list or FAQ for VM?
* Q4.0.8::      Remote mail reading with VM.
* Q4.0.9::      rmail or VM gets an error incorporating new mail.
* Q4.0.10::     How do I make VM stay in a single frame?
* Q4.0.11::     How do I make VM or mh-e display graphical smilies?
* Q4.0.12::     Customization of VM not covered in the manual or here.

Web browsing with W3:
* Q4.1.1::      What is W3?
* Q4.1.2::      How do I run W3 from behind a firewall?
* Q4.1.3::      Is it true that W3 supports style sheets and tables?

Reading Netnews and Mail with Gnus:
* Q4.2.1::      GNUS, (ding) Gnus, Gnus 5, September Gnus, Red Gnus, Quassia Gnus, argh!
* Q4.2.2::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.2.3::      How do I make Gnus stay within a single frame?
* Q4.2.4::      How do I customize the From: line?

Other Mail & News:
* Q4.3.1::      How can I read and/or compose MIME messages?
* Q4.3.2::      What is TM and where do I get it?
* Q4.3.3::      Why isn't this @code{movemail} program working?
* Q4.3.4::      Movemail is also distributed by Netscape?  Can that cause problems?
* Q4.3.5::      Where do I find pstogif (required by tm)?

Sparcworks, EOS, and WorkShop:
* Q4.4.1::      What is SPARCworks, EOS, and WorkShop
* Q4.4.2::      How do I start the Sun Workshop support in XEmacs 21?

Energize:
* Q4.5.1::      What is/was Energize?

Infodock:
* Q4.6.1::      What is Infodock?

Other Unbundled Packages:
* Q4.7.1::      What is AUC TeX?  Where do you get it?
* Q4.7.2::      Are there any Emacs Lisp Spreadsheets?
* Q4.7.3::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.7.4::      Problems installing AUC TeX
* Q4.7.5::      Is there a reason for an Emacs package not to be included in XEmacs?
* Q4.7.6::      Is there a MatLab mode?

The Miscellaneous Stuff

* Q5.0.1::      How can I do source code highlighting using font-lock?
* Q5.0.2::      I do not like cc-mode.  How do I use the old c-mode?
* Q5.0.3::      How do I get @samp{More} Syntax Highlighting on by default?
* Q5.0.4::      How can I enable auto-indent?
* Q5.0.5::      How can I get XEmacs to come up in text/auto-fill mode by default?
* Q5.0.6::      How do I start up a second shell buffer?
* Q5.0.7::      Telnet from shell filters too much.
* Q5.0.8::      Why does edt emulation not work?
* Q5.0.9::      How can I emulate VI and use it as my default mode?
* Q5.0.10::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.0.11::     How do I turn on filladapt for all buffers?
* Q5.0.12::     How do I disable gnuserv from opening a new frame?
* Q5.0.13::     How do I start gnuserv so that each subsequent XEmacs is a client?
* Q5.0.14::     Strange things are happening in Shell Mode.
* Q5.0.15::     Where do I get the latest CC Mode?
* Q5.0.16::     I find auto-show-mode disconcerting.  How do I turn it off?
* Q5.0.17::     How can I get two instances of info?
* Q5.0.18::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.0.19::     Is there something better than LaTeX mode?
* Q5.0.20::     Is there a way to start a new XEmacs if there's no gnuserv running, and otherwise use gnuclient?

Emacs Lisp Programming Techniques:
* Q5.1.1::      The difference in key sequences between XEmacs and GNU Emacs?
* Q5.1.2::      Can I generate "fake" keyboard events?
* Q5.1.3::      Could you explain @code{read-kbd-macro} in more detail?
* Q5.1.4::      What is the performance hit of @code{let}?
* Q5.1.5::      What is the recommended use of @code{setq}?
* Q5.1.6::      What is the typical misuse of @code{setq} ?
* Q5.1.7::      I like the the @code{do} form of cl, does it slow things down?
* Q5.1.8::      I like recursion, does it slow things down?
* Q5.1.9::      How do I put a glyph as annotation in a buffer?
* Q5.1.10::     @code{map-extents} won't traverse all of my extents!
* Q5.1.11::     My elisp program is horribly slow.  Is there an easy way to find out where it spends time?

Sound:
* Q5.2.1::      How do I turn off the sound?
* Q5.2.2::      How do I get funky sounds instead of a boring beep?
* Q5.2.3::      What's NAS, how do I get it?
* Q5.2.4::      Sunsite sounds don't play.

Miscellaneous:
* Q5.3.1::      How do you make XEmacs indent CL if-clauses correctly?
* Q5.3.2::      Fontifying hangs when editing a postscript file.
* Q5.3.3::      How can I print WYSIWYG a font-locked buffer?
* Q5.3.4::      Getting @kbd{M-x lpr} to work with postscript printer.
* Q5.3.5::      How do I specify the paths that XEmacs uses for finding files?
* Q5.3.6::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.3.7::      Can I have the end of the buffer delimited in some way?
* Q5.3.8::      How do I insert today's date into a buffer?
* Q5.3.9::      Are only certain syntactic character classes available for abbrevs?
* Q5.3.10::     How can I get those oh-so-neat X-Face lines?
* Q5.3.11::     How do I add new Info directories?
* Q5.3.12::     What do I need to change to make printing work?

XEmacs on MS Windows

General Info:
* Q6.0.1::      What is the status of the XEmacs port to Windows?
* Q6.0.2::      What flavors of MS Windows are supported?
* Q6.0.3::      Are binary kits available?
* Q6.0.4::      Does XEmacs on MS Windows require an X server to run?

Building XEmacs on MS Windows:
* Q6.1.1::      I decided to run with X.  Where do I get an X server?
* Q6.1.2::      What compiler do I need to compile XEmacs?
* Q6.1.3::      How do I compile for the native port?
* Q6.1.4::      How do I compile for the X port?
* Q6.1.5::      How do I compile for Cygnus' Cygwin?
* Q6.1.6::      What do I need for Cygwin?

Customization and User Interface:
* Q6.2.1::      How will the port cope with differences in the Windows user interface?
* Q6.2.2::      How do I change fonts in XEmacs on MS Windows?
* Q6.2.3::      Where do I put my @file{.emacs} file?

Miscellaneous:
* Q6.3.1::      Will XEmacs rename all the win32-* symbols to w32-*?
* Q6.3.2::      What are the differences between the various MS Windows emacsen?
* Q6.3.3::      What is the porting team doing at the moment?

Troubleshooting:
* Q6.4.1::      XEmacs won't start on Windows. (NEW)

Current Events:

* Q7.0.1::      What is new in 20.2?
* Q7.0.2::      What is new in 20.3?
* Q7.0.3::      What is new in 20.4?
* Q7.0.4::      Procedural changes in XEmacs development.
@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, Installation, Top, Top
@unnumbered 1 Introduction, Policy, Credits

Learning XEmacs is a lifelong activity.  Even people who have used Emacs
for years keep discovering new features.  Therefore this document cannot
be complete.  Instead it is aimed at the person who is either
considering XEmacs for their own use, or has just obtained it and is
wondering what to do next.  It is also useful as a reference to
available resources.

The previous maintainer of the FAQ was @email{rossini@@biostat.washington.edu,
Anthony Rossini}, who started it, after getting tired of hearing JWZ
complain about repeatedly having to answer questions.
@email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing} and @email{cthomp@@xemacs.org, Chuck
Thompson}, the principal authors of XEmacs, then took over and Ben did
a massive update reorganizing the whole thing.  At which point Anthony
took back over, but then had to give it up again.  Some of the other
contributors to this FAQ are listed later in this document.

The previous version was converted to hypertext format, and edited by
@email{steve@@xemacs.org, Steven L. Baur}.  It was converted back to
texinfo by @email{hniksic@@xemacs.org, Hrvoje Niksic}.  The FAQ was then
maintained by @email{andreas@@sccon.com, Andreas Kaempf}, who passed it
on to ChristianNyb@o{}.

If you notice any errors or items which should be added or amended to
this FAQ please send email to @email{faq@@xemacs.org, Sandra
Wambold}.  Include @samp{XEmacs FAQ} on the Subject: line.

@menu
Introduction:
* Q1.0.1::      What is XEmacs?
* Q1.0.2::      What is the current version of XEmacs?
* Q1.0.3::      Where can I find it?
* Q1.0.4::      Why Another Version of Emacs?
* Q1.0.5::      Why Haven't XEmacs and GNU Emacs Merged?
* Q1.0.6::      Where can I get help?
* Q1.0.7::      Where is the mailing list archived?
* Q1.0.8::      How do you pronounce XEmacs?
* Q1.0.9::      What does XEmacs look like?
* Q1.0.10::     Is there a port of XEmacs to Microsoft ('95 or NT)?
* Q1.0.11::     Is there a port of XEmacs to the Macintosh?
* Q1.0.12::     Is there a port of XEmacs to NextStep?
* Q1.0.13::     Is there a port of XEmacs to OS/2?
* Q1.0.14::     Where can I get a printed copy of the XEmacs users manual?

Policies:
* Q1.1.1::      What is the FAQ editorial policy?
* Q1.1.2::      How do I become a Beta Tester?
* Q1.1.3::      How do I contribute to XEmacs itself?

Credits:
* Q1.2.1::      Who wrote XEmacs?
* Q1.2.2::      Who contributed to this version of the FAQ?
* Q1.2.3::      Who contributed to the FAQ in the past?

Internationalization:
* Q1.3.1::      What is the status of XEmacs v20?
* Q1.3.2::      What is the status of Asian-language support, aka @var{mule}?
* Q1.3.3::      How do I type non-ASCII characters?
* Q1.3.4::      Can XEmacs messages come out in a different language?
* Q1.3.5::      Please explain the various input methods in MULE/XEmacs 20.0
* Q1.3.6::      How do I portably code for MULE/XEmacs 20.0?
* Q1.3.7::      How about Cyrillic Modes?

Getting Started:
* Q1.4.1::      What is a @file{.emacs} and is there a sample one?
* Q1.4.2::      Can I use the same @file{.emacs} with the other Emacs?
* Q1.4.3::      Any good XEmacs tutorials around?
* Q1.4.4::      May I see an example of a useful XEmacs Lisp function?
* Q1.4.5::      And how do I bind it to a key?
* Q1.4.6::      What's the difference between a macro and a function?
@end menu

@node Q1.0.1, Q1.0.2, Introduction, Introduction
@unnumberedsec 1.0: Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.1: What is XEmacs?


An alternative to GNU Emacs, originally based on an early alpha version
of FSF's version 19, and has diverged quite a bit since then.  XEmacs
was known as Lucid Emacs through version 19.10.  Almost all features of
GNU Emacs are supported in XEmacs.  The maintainers of XEmacs actively
track changes to GNU Emacs while also working to add new features.

@node Q1.0.2, Q1.0.3, Q1.0.1, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.2: What is the current version of XEmacs?

XEmacs 21.1.8 is the current stable version of XEmacs.

XEmacs 20.4 is a minor upgrade from 20.3, containing many bugfixes. It
was released in February 1998.

XEmacs 19.16 was the last release of v19, released in November, 1997,
which was also the last version without international language support.

@node Q1.0.3, Q1.0.4, Q1.0.2, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.3: Where can I find it?

The canonical source and binaries can be found via anonymous FTP at:

@example
@uref{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/}
@end example

@node Q1.0.4, Q1.0.5, Q1.0.3, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.4: Why Another Version of Emacs?

For a detailed description of the differences between GNU Emacs and
XEmacs and a detailed history of XEmacs, check out the
@example
@uref{http://www.xemacs.org/About/XEmacsVsGNUemacs.html, NEWS file}
@end example

However, here is a list of some of the reasons why we think you might
consider using it:

@itemize @bullet
@item
It looks nicer.

@item
The XEmacs maintainers are generally more receptive to suggestions than
the GNU Emacs maintainers.

@item
Many more bundled packages than GNU Emacs

@item
Binaries are available for many common operating systems.

@item
Face support on TTY's.

@item
A built-in toolbar.

@item
Better Motif compliance.

@item
Some internationalization support (including full MULE support, if
compiled with it.)

@item
Variable-width fonts.

@item
Variable-height lines.

@item
Marginal annotations.

@item
ToolTalk support.

@item
XEmacs can be used as an Xt widget, and can be embedded within another
application.

@item
Horizontal and vertical scrollbars (using real toolkit scrollbars).

@item
Better APIs (and performance) for attaching fonts, colors, and other
properties to text.

@item
The ability to embed arbitrary graphics in a buffer.

@item
Completely compatible (at the C level) with the Xt-based toolkits.

@item
First production Web Browser supporting Style Sheets.
@end itemize

@node Q1.0.5, Q1.0.6, Q1.0.4, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.5: Why Haven't XEmacs and GNU Emacs Merged?

There are currently irreconcilable differences in the views about
technical, programming, design and organizational matters between RMS
and the XEmacs development team which provide little hope for a merge to
take place in the short-term future.

If you have a comment to add regarding the merge, it is a good idea to
avoid posting to the newsgroups,  because of the very heated flamewars
that often result.  Mail your questions to @email{xemacs-beta@@xemacs.org} and
@email{bug-gnu-emacs@@prep.ai.mit.edu}.

@node Q1.0.6, Q1.0.7, Q1.0.5, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.6: Where can I get help?

Probably the easiest way, if everything is installed, is to use Info, by
pressing @kbd{C-h i}, or selecting @code{Manuals->Info} from the
Help Menu.  @kbd{M-x apropos} can be used to look for particular commands.

For items not found in the manual, try reading this FAQ
@comment , examining the regular GNU Emacs FAQ (which can be
@comment found with the Emacs 19 distribution) as well as at
@comment @uref{http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/emacs/faq/}
and reading the Usenet group comp.emacs.xemacs.

If you choose to post to a newsgroup, @strong{please use
comp.emacs.xemacs}.  Please do not post XEmacs related questions to
gnu.emacs.help.

If you cannot post or read Usenet news, there is a corresponding mailing
list which is available.  It can be subscribed to by sending a message
to @email{xemacs-request@@xemacs.org} with @samp{subscribe} in the
body of the message.  Send to the list at @email{xemacs@@xemacs.org}.
list.  To cancel a subscription, you @strong{must} use the
xemacs-request address.  Send a message with a subject of
@samp{unsubscribe} to be removed.

@node Q1.0.7, Q1.0.8, Q1.0.6, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.7: Where is the mailing list archived?

The archives can be found at @uref{http://www.xemacs.org/Lists/Archive}

@node Q1.0.8, Q1.0.9, Q1.0.7, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.8: How do you pronounce XEmacs?

The most common pronounciation is @samp{Eks eemax}.

@node Q1.0.9, Q1.0.10, Q1.0.8, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.9: What does XEmacs look like?

Screen snapshots are available in the WWW version of the FAQ.
@example
@uref{http://www.xemacs.org/faq/xemacs-faq.html}
@end example

@node Q1.0.10, Q1.0.11, Q1.0.9, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.10: Is there a port of XEmacs to Microsoft ('95 or NT)?

Yes, @xref{MS Windows}.

@comment Thanks to efforts of many people, coordinated by
@comment @email{davidh@@wr.com.au, David Hobley} and @email{marcpa@@cam.org, Marc
@comment Paquette}, beta versions of XEmacs now run on 32-bit Windows platforms
@comment (NT and 95).  The current betas require having an X server to run
@comment XEmacs; however, a native NT/95 port is in alpha, thanks to
@comment @email{jhar@@tardis.ed.ac.uk, Jonathan Harris}.
@comment
@comment Although some features are still unimplemented, XEmacs 21.0 will support
@comment MS-Windows.
@comment
@comment The NT development is now coordinated by a mailing list at
@comment @email{xemacs-nt@@xemacs.org}.
@comment
@comment If you are willing to contribute or want to follow the progress, mail to
@comment @iftex
@comment @*
@comment @end iftex
@comment @email{xemacs-nt-request@@xemacs.org} to subscribe.
@comment
@comment Furthermore, Altrasoft is seeking corporate and government sponsors to
@comment help fund a fully native port of XEmacs to Windows 95 and NT using
@comment full-time, senior-level staff working under a professionally managed
@comment project structure.  See @uref{http://www.altrasoft.com/, the Altrasoft
@comment web site} for more details
@comment or contact Altrasoft directly at 1-888-ALTSOFT.
@comment
@comment
@comment The closest existing port is @dfn{Win-Emacs}, which is based on Lucid
@comment Emacs 19.6.  Available from @uref{http://www.pearlsoft.com/}.
@comment
@comment There's a port of GNU Emacs (not XEmacs) at
@comment @example
@comment @uref{http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/voelker/ntemacs.html}.
@comment @end example

@node Q1.0.11, Q1.0.12, Q1.0.10, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.11: Is there a port of XEmacs to the Macintosh?
@c changed

@c There has been a port to the MachTen environment of XEmacs 19.13, but no
@c patches have been submitted to the maintainers to get this in the
@c mainstream distribution.
@c
@c For the MacOS, there is a port of
@c @uref{ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/pub/parmet/, Emacs 18.59}.

Yes, there is a port of XEmacs 19.14, tested on MacOS 7.6.1 and MacOS
8.5.1 by @email{pjarvis@@ispchannel.com, Pitts Jarvis}.  It's available
at @uref{http://my.ispchannel.com/~pjarvis/xemacs.html}.

@node Q1.0.12, Q1.0.13, Q1.0.11, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.12: Is there a port of XEmacs to NextStep?

Carl Edman, apparently no longer at @email{cedman@@princeton.edu}, did
the port of GNU Emacs to NeXTstep and expressed interest in doing the
XEmacs port, but never went any farther.

@node Q1.0.13, Q1.0.14, Q1.0.12, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.13: Is there a port of XEmacs to OS/2?

No, but Alexander Nikolaev <avn_1251@@mail.ru> is working on it.

@node Q1.0.14, Q1.1.1, Q1.0.13, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.0.14: Where can I obtain a printed copy of the XEmacs users manual?

Pre-printed manuals are not available.  If you are familiar with
TeX, you can generate your own manual from the XEmacs sources.

HTML and Postscript versions of XEmacs manuals may be available from the
XEmacs web site in the future.


@node Q1.1.1, Q1.1.2, Q1.0.14, Introduction
@unnumberedsec 1.1: Policies
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.1.1: What is the FAQ editorial policy?

The FAQ is actively maintained and modified regularly.  All links should
be up to date.  Unfortunately, some of the information is out of date --
a situation which the FAQ maintainer is working on.  All submissions are
welcome, please e-mail submissions to @email{faq@@xemacs.org, XEmacs FAQ
maintainers}.

Please make sure that @samp{XEmacs FAQ} appears on the Subject: line.
If you think you have a better way of answering a question, or think a
question should be included, we'd like to hear about it.  Questions and
answers included into the FAQ will be edited for spelling and grammar,
and will be attributed.  Answers appearing without attribution are
either from versions of the FAQ dated before May 1996, or are from one
of the four people listed at the top of this document.  Answers quoted
from Usenet news articles will always be attributed, regardless of the
author.

@node Q1.1.2, Q1.1.3, Q1.1.1, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.1.2: How do I become a Beta Tester?

Send an email message to @email{xemacs-beta-request@@xemacs.org} with
the line @samp{subscribe} in the body of the message.

Be prepared to get your hands dirty, as beta testers are expected to
identify problems as best they can.

@node Q1.1.3, Q1.2.1, Q1.1.2, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.1.3: How do I contribute to XEmacs itself?

Ben Wing @email{ben@@xemacs.org} writes:

@quotation
BTW if you have a wish list of things that you want added, you have to
speak up about it!  More specifically, you can do the following if you
want a feature added (in increasing order of usefulness):

@itemize @bullet
@item
Make a posting about a feature you want added.

@item
Become a beta tester and make more postings about those same features.

@item
Convince us that you're going to use the features in some cool and
useful way.

@item
Come up with a clear and well-thought-out API concerning the features.

@item
Write the code to implement a feature and send us a patch.
@end itemize

(not that we're necessarily requiring you to write the code, but we can
always hope :)
@end quotation

@node Q1.2.1, Q1.2.2, Q1.1.3, Introduction
@unnumberedsec 1.2: Credits
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.2.1: Who wrote XEmacs?

XEmacs is the result of the time and effort of many people.  The
developers responsible for the 19.16/20.x releases are:

@itemize @bullet
@item @email{martin@@xemacs.org, Martin Buchholz}
@ifhtml
<br><img src="mrb.jpeg" alt="Portrait of Martin Buchholz"><br>
@end ifhtml


@item @email{steve@@xemacs.org, Steve Baur}

@ifhtml
<br><img src="steve.gif" alt="Portrait of Steve Baur"><br>
@end ifhtml


@item @email{hniksic@@xemacs.org, Hrvoje Niksic}

@ifhtml
<br><img src="hniksic.jpeg" alt="Portrait of Hrvoje Niksic"><br>
@end ifhtml

@end itemize

The developers responsible for the 19.14 release are:

@itemize @bullet
@item @email{cthomp@@xemacs.org, Chuck Thompson}
@ifhtml
<br><img src="cthomp.jpeg" alt="Portrait of Chuck Thompson"><br>
@end ifhtml

Chuck was Mr. XEmacs from 19.11 through 19.14, and is responsible
for XEmacs becoming a widely distributed program over the Internet.

@item @email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing}
@ifhtml
<br><img src="wing.gif" alt="Portrait of Ben Wing"><br>
@end ifhtml

@end itemize


@itemize @bullet
@item @email{jwz@@jwz.org, Jamie Zawinski}
@ifhtml
<br><img src="jwz.gif" alt="Portrait of Jamie Zawinski"><br>
@end ifhtml

Jamie Zawinski was Mr. Lucid Emacs from 19.0 through 19.10, the last
release actually named Lucid Emacs.  Richard Mlynarik was crucial to
most of those releases.

@item @email{mly@@adoc.xerox.com, Richard Mlynarik}
@end itemize

Along with many other contributors, partially enumerated in the
@samp{About XEmacs} option in the Help menu.

@node Q1.2.2, Q1.2.3, Q1.2.1, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.2.2: Who contributed to this version of the FAQ?

The following people contributed valuable suggestions to building this
version of the FAQ (listed in alphabetical order):

@itemize @bullet
@item @email{steve@@xemacs.org, SL Baur}

@item @email{hniksic@@xemacs.org, Hrvoje Niksic}

@item @email{Aki.Vehtari@@hut.fi, Aki Vehtari}

@end itemize

@node Q1.2.3, Q1.3.1, Q1.2.2, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.2.3: Who contributed to the FAQ in the past?

This is only a partial list, as many names were lost in a hard disk
crash some time ago.

@itemize @bullet
@item @email{binge@@aloft.att.com, Curtis.N.Bingham}

@item @email{bruncott@@dormeur.inria.fr, Georges Brun-Cottan}

@item @email{rjc@@cogsci.ed.ac.uk, Richard Caley}

@item @email{cognot@@ensg.u-nancy.fr, Richard Cognot}

@item @email{daku@@nortel.ca, Mark Daku}

@item @email{wgd@@martigny.ai.mit.edu, William G. Dubuque}

@item @email{eeide@@cs.utah.edu, Eric Eide}

@item @email{af@@biomath.jussieu.fr, Alain Fauconnet}

@item @email{cflatter@@nrao.edu, Chris Flatters}

@item @email{ginsparg@@adra.com, Evelyn Ginsparg}

@item @email{hall@@aplcenmp.apl.jhu.edu, Marty Hall}

@item @email{dkindred@@cmu.edu, Darrell Kindred}

@item @email{dmoore@@ucsd.edu, David Moore}

@item @email{arup+@@cmu.edu, Arup Mukherjee}

@item @email{nickel@@prz.tu-berlin.de, Juergen Nickelsen}

@item @email{powell@@csl.ncsa.uiuc.edu, Kevin R. Powell}

@item @email{dworkin@@ccs.neu.edu, Justin Sheehy}

@item @email{stig@@hackvan.com, Stig}

@item @email{Aki.Vehtari@@hut.fi, Aki Vehtari}
@end itemize

@node Q1.3.1, Q1.3.2, Q1.2.3, Introduction
@unnumberedsec 1.3: Internationalization
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.1: What is the status of XEmacs v20?

XEmacs v20 is the version of XEmacs that includes MULE (Asian-language)
support.  XEmacs 20.0 was released in February 1997, followed by XEmacs
20.2 in May, XEmacs 20.3 in November and XEmacs 20.4 in February 1998.  When compiled without MULE
support, 20.4 is approximately as stable as 19.16, and probably faster
(due to additional optimization work.)

As of XEmacs 20.3, version 20 is @emph{the} supported version of
XEmacs.  This means that 19.16 will optionally receive stability fixes
(if any), but that all the real development work will be done on the v20
tree.

The incompatible changes in XEmacs 20 include the additional byte-codes,
new primitive data types (@code{character}, @code{char-table}, and
@code{range-table}).  This means that the character-integer equivalence
inherent to all the previous Emacs and XEmacs releases no longer
applies.

However, to avoid breaking old code, many functions that should normally
accept characters work with integers, and vice versa.  For more
information, see the Lisp reference manual.  Here is a relevant excerpt,
for your convenience.

@quotation
  In XEmacs version 19, and in all versions of FSF GNU Emacs, a
@dfn{character} in XEmacs Lisp is nothing more than an integer.
This is yet another holdover from XEmacs Lisp's derivation from
vintage-1980 Lisps; modern versions of Lisp consider this equivalence
a bad idea, and have separate character types.  In XEmacs version 20,
the modern convention is followed, and characters are their own
primitive types. (This change was necessary in order for @sc{mule},
i.e. Asian-language, support to be correctly implemented.)

  Even in XEmacs version 20, remnants of the equivalence between
characters and integers still exist; this is termed the @dfn{char-int
confoundance disease}.  In particular, many functions such as @code{eq},
@code{equal}, and @code{memq} have equivalent functions (@code{old-eq},
@code{old-equal}, @code{old-memq}, etc.) that pretend like characters
are integers are the same.  Byte code compiled under any version 19
Emacs will have all such functions mapped to their @code{old-} equivalents
when the byte code is read into XEmacs 20.  This is to preserve
compatibility---Emacs 19 converts all constant characters to the equivalent
integer during byte-compilation, and thus there is no other way to preserve
byte-code compatibility even if the code has specifically been written
with the distinction between characters and integers in mind.

  Every character has an equivalent integer, called the @dfn{character
code}.  For example, the character @kbd{A} is represented as the
@w{integer 65}, following the standard @sc{ascii} representation of
characters.  If XEmacs was not compiled with @sc{mule} support, the
range of this integer will always be 0 to 255---eight bits, or one
byte. (Integers outside this range are accepted but silently truncated;
however, you should most decidedly @emph{not} rely on this, because it
will not work under XEmacs with @sc{mule} support.)  When @sc{mule}
support is present, the range of character codes is much
larger. (Currently, 19 bits are used.)

  FSF GNU Emacs uses kludgy character codes above 255 to represent
keyboard input of @sc{ascii} characters in combination with certain
modifiers.  XEmacs does not use this (a more general mechanism is
used that does not distinguish between @sc{ascii} keys and other
keys), so you will never find character codes above 255 in a
non-@sc{mule} XEmacs.

  Individual characters are not often used in programs.  It is far more
common to work with @emph{strings}, which are sequences composed of
characters.
@end quotation

@node Q1.3.2, Q1.3.3, Q1.3.1, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.2: What is the status of Asian-language support, aka MULE?

MULE support is now available for UNIX versions of XEmacs.

If you would like to help, you may want to join the
@email{xemacs-mule@@xemacs.org} mailing list.  Especially needed are
people who speak/write languages other than English, who are willing to
use XEmacs/MULE regularly, and have some experience with Elisp.

@xref{Q1.1.2}.

@node Q1.3.3, Q1.3.4, Q1.3.2, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.3: How do I type non-ASCII characters?

See question 3.5.7 (@pxref{Q3.5.7}) in part 3 of this FAQ.

@node Q1.3.4, Q1.3.5, Q1.3.3, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.4: Can XEmacs messages come out in a different language?

The message-catalog support has mostly been written but doesn't
currently work.  The first release of XEmacs 20 will @emph{not} support
it.  However, menubar localization @emph{does} work, even in 19.14.  To
enable it, add to your @file{Emacs} file entries like this:

@example
Emacs*XlwMenu.resourceLabels:                   True
Emacs*XlwMenu.file.labelString:                 Fichier
Emacs*XlwMenu.openInOtherWindow.labelString:    In anderem Fenster offnen
@end example

The name of the resource is derived from the non-localized entry by
removing punctuation and capitalizing as above.

@node Q1.3.5, Q1.3.6, Q1.3.4, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.5: Please explain the various input methods in MULE/XEmacs 20.0

@email{morioka@@jaist.ac.jp, MORIOKA Tomohiko} writes:

@quotation
Original Mule supports the following input methods: Wnn4, Wnn6, Canna, SJ3
and XIM. Interfaces for Wnn and SJ3 uses the @code{egg} user
interface. Interface for Canna does not use @samp{egg}. I don't know
about XIM. It is to support ATOK, of course, it may work for another
servers.

Wnn supports Japanese, Chinese and Korean. It is made by OMRON and Ky�to
university. It is a powerful and complex system.  Wnn4 is free and Wnn6
is not free.

Canna supports only Japanese. It is made by NEC. It is a simple and
powerful system. Canna uses only grammar (Wnn uses grammar and
probability between words), so I think Wnn is cleverer than Canna,
however Canna users made a good grammar and dictionary.  So for standard
modern Japanese, Canna seems cleverer than Wnn4. In addition, the UNIX
version of Canna is free (now there is a Microsoft Windows version).

SJ3 supports only Japanese. It is made by Sony.  XIM supports was made
to use ATOK (a major input method in personal computer world).  XIM is
the standard for accessing input methods bundled in Japanese versions of
Solaris.  (XEmacs 20 will support XIM input).

Egg consists of following parts:

@enumerate
@item
Input character Translation System (ITS) layer.
It translates ASCII inputs to Kana/PinYin/Hangul characters.

@item
Kana/PinYin/Hangul to Kanji transfer layer.
It is interface layer for network Kana-Kanji server (Wnn and Sj3).
@end enumerate

These input methods are modal, namely there are mode, alphabet mode and
Kana-Kanji transfer mode.  However there are mode-less input methods for
Egg and Canna.  @samp{Boiled-egg} is a mode-less input method running on
Egg.  For Canna, @samp{canna.el} has a tiny boiled-egg like command,
@code{(canna-boil)}, and there are some boiled-egg like utilities.  In
addition, it was planned to make an abstraction for all transfer type
input methods.  However authors of input methods are busy, so maybe this
plan is stopped.  Perhaps after Mule merged GNU Emacs will be released,
it will be continued.
@end quotation

@node Q1.3.6, Q1.3.7, Q1.3.5, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.6: How do I portably code for MULE/XEmacs 20?

@email{morioka@@jaist.ac.jp, MORIOKA Tomohiko} writes:

@quotation
MULE and XEmacs are quite different. So the application
implementor must write separate code for these mule variants.

MULE and the next version of Emacs are similar but the symbols are very
different---requiring separate code as well.

Namely we must support 3 kinds of mule variants and 4 or 5 or 6 kinds of
emacs variants... (;_;) I'm shocked, so I wrote a wrapper package called
@code{emu} to provide a common interface.

I have the following suggestions about dealing with mule variants:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@code{(featurep 'mule)} @code{t} on all mule variants

@item
@code{(boundp 'MULE)} is @code{t} on only MULE.  Maybe the next version
of Emacs will not have this symbol.

@item
MULE has a variable @code{mule-version}.  Perhaps the next version of
Emacs will have this variable as well.
@end itemize

Following is a sample to distinguish mule variants:

@lisp
(if (featurep 'mule)
    (cond ((boundp 'MULE)
           ;; for original Mule
           )
          ((string-match "XEmacs" emacs-version)
           ;; for XEmacs with Mule
           )
          (t
           ;; for next version of Emacs
           ))
  ;; for old emacs variants
  )
@end lisp
@end quotation

@node Q1.3.7, Q1.4.1, Q1.3.6, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.3.7: How about Cyrillic Modes?

@email{ilya@@math.ohio-state.edu, Ilya Zakharevich} writes:

@quotation
There is a cyrillic mode in the file @file{mysetup.zip} in
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://ftp.math.ohio-state.edu/pub/users/ilya/emacs/}.  This is a
modification to @email{ava@@math.jhu.ed, Valery Alexeev's} @file{russian.el}
which can be obtained from
@end quotation

@uref{http://ftpsearch.ntnu.no/?query=russian.el.Z}.
@c dead link above

@email{d.barsky@@ee.surrey.ac.uk, Dima Barsky} writes:

@quotation
There is another cyrillic mode for both GNU Emacs and XEmacs by
@email{manin@@camelot.mssm.edu, Dmitrii
(Mitya) Manin} at
@iftex

@end iftex
@uref{http://kulichki-lat.rambler.ru/centrolit/manin/cyr.el}.
@c Link above, <URL:http://camelot.mssm.edu/~manin/cyr.el> was dead.
@c Changed to russian host instead
@end quotation

@email{rebecca.ore@@op.net, Rebecca Ore} writes:

@quotation
The fullest resource I found on Russian language use (in and out of
XEmacs) is @uref{http://sunsite.oit.unc.edu/sergei/Software/Software.html}
@end quotation

@node Q1.4.1, Q1.4.2, Q1.3.7, Introduction
@unnumberedsec 1.4: Getting Started, Backing up & Recovery
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.1: What is a @file{.emacs} and is there a sample one?

The @file{.emacs} file is used to customize XEmacs to your tastes.  No
two are alike, nor are they expected to be alike, but that's the point.
The XEmacs distribution contains an excellent starter example in the etc
directory called @file{sample.emacs}.  Copy this file from there to your
home directory and rename it @file{.emacs}.  Then edit it to suit.

Starting with 19.14, you may bring the @file{sample.emacs} into an
XEmacs buffer by selecting @samp{Help->Sample .emacs} from the menubar.
To determine the location of the @file{etc} directory type the command
@kbd{C-h v data-directory @key{RET}}.

@node Q1.4.2, Q1.4.3, Q1.4.1, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.2: Can I use the same @file{.emacs} with the other Emacs?

Yes.  The sample @file{.emacs} included in the XEmacs distribution will
show you how to handle different versions and flavors of Emacs.

@node Q1.4.3, Q1.4.4, Q1.4.2, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.3: Any good tutorials around?

There's the XEmacs tutorial available from the Help Menu under
@samp{Basics->Tutorials}, or by typing @kbd{C-h t}. To check whether
it's available in a non-english language, type @kbd{C-u C-h t TAB}, type
the first letters of your preferred language, then type @key{RET}.

@comment There's an Emacs Lisp tutorial at
@comment
@comment @example
@comment @uref{ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/emacs-lisp-intro-1.04.tar.gz}.
@comment @end example
@comment
@comment @email{erik@@petaxp.rug.ac.be, Erik Sundermann} has made a tutorial web
@comment page at
@comment @iftex
@comment @*
@comment @end iftex
@comment @uref{http://petaxp.rug.ac.be/~erik/xemacs/}.

@node Q1.4.4, Q1.4.5, Q1.4.3, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.4: May I see an example of a useful XEmacs Lisp function?

The following function does a little bit of everything useful.  It does
something with the prefix argument, it examines the text around the
cursor, and it's interactive so it may be bound to a key.  It inserts
copies of the current word the cursor is sitting on at the cursor.  If
you give it a prefix argument: @kbd{C-u 3 M-x double-word} then it will
insert 3 copies.

@lisp
(defun double-word (count)
  "Insert a copy of the current word underneath the cursor"
  (interactive "*p")
  (let (here there string)
    (save-excursion
      (forward-word -1)
      (setq here (point))
      (forward-word 1)
      (setq there (point))
      (setq string (buffer-substring here there)))
    (while (>= count 1)
      (insert string)
      (decf count))))
@end lisp

The best way to see what is going on here is to let XEmacs tell you.
Put the code into an XEmacs buffer, and do a @kbd{C-h f} with the cursor
sitting just to the right of the function you want explained.  Eg.  move
the cursor to the SPACE between @code{interactive} and @samp{"*p"} and
hit @kbd{C-h f} to see what the function @code{interactive} does.  Doing
this will tell you that the @code{*} requires a writable buffer, and
@code{p} converts the prefix argument to a number, and
@code{interactive} allows you to execute the command with @kbd{M-x}.

@node Q1.4.5, Q1.4.6, Q1.4.4, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.5: And how do I bind it to a key?

To bind to a key do:

@lisp
(global-set-key "\C-cd" 'double-word)
@end lisp

Or interactively, @kbd{M-x global-set-key} and follow the prompts.

@node Q1.4.6, , Q1.4.5, Introduction
@unnumberedsubsec Q1.4.6: What's the difference between a macro and a function?

Quoting from the Lisp Reference (a.k.a @dfn{Lispref}) Manual:

@dfn{Macros} enable you to define new control constructs and other
language features.  A macro is defined much like a function, but instead
of telling how to compute a value, it tells how to compute another Lisp
expression which will in turn compute the value.  We call this
expression the @dfn{expansion} of the macro.

Macros can do this because they operate on the unevaluated expressions
for the arguments, not on the argument values as functions do.  They can
therefore construct an expansion containing these argument expressions
or parts of them.

Do not confuse the two terms with @dfn{keyboard macros}, which are
another matter, entirely.  A keyboard macro is a key bound to several
other keys.  Refer to manual for details.

@node Installation, Customization, Introduction, Top
@unnumbered 2 Installation and Trouble Shooting

This is part 2 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list.  This
section is devoted to Installation, Maintenance and Trouble Shooting.

@menu
Installation:
* Q2.0.1::      Running XEmacs without installing.
* Q2.0.2::      XEmacs is too big.
* Q2.0.3::      Compiling XEmacs with Netaudio.
* Q2.0.4::      Problems with Linux and ncurses.
* Q2.0.5::      Do I need X11 to run XEmacs?
* Q2.0.6::      I'm having strange crashes.  What do I do?
* Q2.0.7::      Libraries in non-standard locations.
* Q2.0.8::      can't resolve symbol _h_errno
* Q2.0.9::      Where do I find external libraries?
* Q2.0.10::     After I run configure I find a coredump, is something wrong?
* Q2.0.11::     XEmacs can't resolve host names.
* Q2.0.12::     Why can't I strip XEmacs?

Trouble Shooting:
* Q2.1.1::      XEmacs just crashed on me!
* Q2.1.2::      Cryptic Minibuffer messages.
* Q2.1.3::      Translation Table Syntax messages at Startup.
* Q2.1.4::      Startup warnings about deducing proper fonts?
* Q2.1.5::      XEmacs cannot connect to my X Terminal.
* Q2.1.6::      XEmacs just locked up my Linux X server.
* Q2.1.7::      HP Alt key as Meta.
* Q2.1.8::      got (wrong-type-argument color-instance-p nil)!
* Q2.1.9::      XEmacs causes my OpenWindows 3.0 server to crash.
* Q2.1.10::     Warnings from incorrect key modifiers.
* Q2.1.11::     Can't instantiate image error... in toolbar
* Q2.1.12::     Regular Expression Problems on DEC OSF1.
* Q2.1.13::     HP/UX 10.10 and @code{create_process} failure
* Q2.1.14::     @kbd{C-g} doesn't work for me.  Is it broken?
* Q2.1.15::     How to debug an XEmacs problem with a debugger.
* Q2.1.16::     XEmacs crashes in @code{strcat} on HP/UX 10.
* Q2.1.17::     @samp{Marker does not point anywhere}.
* Q2.1.18::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q2.1.19::     XEmacs does not follow the local timezone.
* Q2.1.20::     @samp{Symbol's function definition is void: hkey-help-show.}
* Q2.1.21::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q2.1.22::     XEmacs seems to take a really long time to do some things.
* Q2.1.23::     Movemail on Linux does not work for XEmacs 19.15 and later.
* Q2.1.24::     XEmacs won't start without network. (NEW)
@end menu

@node Q2.0.1, Q2.0.2, Installation, Installation
@unnumberedsec 2.0: Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.1: Running XEmacs without installing
The @file{INSTALL} file says that up to 108 MB of space is needed
temporarily during installation!  How can I just try it out?

XEmacs will run in place without requiring installation and copying of
the Lisp directories, and without having to specify a special build-time
flag.  It's the copying of the Lisp directories that requires so much
space.  XEmacs is largely written in Lisp.

A good method is to make a shell alias for xemacs:

@example
alias xemacs=/i/xemacs-20.2/src/xemacs
@end example

(You will obviously use whatever directory you downloaded the source
tree to instead of @file{/i/xemacs-20.2}).

This will let you run XEmacs without massive copying.

@node Q2.0.2, Q2.0.3, Q2.0.1, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.2: XEmacs is too big

Although this entry has been written for XEmacs 19.13, most of it still
stands true.

@email{steve@@xemacs.org, Steve Baur} writes:

@quotation
The 45MB of space required by the installation directories can be
reduced dramatically if desired.  Gzip all the .el files.  Remove all
the packages you'll never want to use (or even ones you do like the two
obsolete mailcrypts and Gnus 4 in 19.13).  Remove the TexInfo manuals.
Remove the Info (and use just hardcopy versions of the manual).  Remove
most of the stuff in etc.  Remove or gzip all the source code.  Gzip or
remove the C source code.  Configure it so that copies are not made of
the support lisp.  I'm not advocating any of these things, just pointing
out ways to reduce the disk requirements if desired.

Now examine the space used by directory:

@format
0       /usr/local/bin/xemacs
2048    /usr/local/bin/xemacs-19.13

1546    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/i486-miranova-sco3.2v4.2
1158    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/i486-unknown-linux1.2.13
@end format

You need to keep these.  XEmacs isn't stripped by default in
installation, you should consider stripping.  That will save you about
5MB right there.

@format
207     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/w3
122     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/sounds
18      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/sparcworks
159     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/vm
6       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/e
21      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/eos
172     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/toolbar
61      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/ns
43      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc/gnus
@end format

These are support directories for various packages.  In general they
match a directory under ./xemacs-19.13/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/.  If you
do not require the package, you may delete or gzip the support too.

@format
1959    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/etc
175     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/bytecomp
340     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/calendar
342     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/comint
517     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/dired
42      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/electric
212     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/emulators
238     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/energize
289     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/gnus
457     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/ilisp
1439    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/modes
2276    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/packages
1040    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/prim
176     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/pcl-cvs
154     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/rmail
3       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/epoch
45      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/term
860     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/utils
851     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/vm
13      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/vms
157     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/x11
19      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/tooltalk
14      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/sunpro
291     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/games
198     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/edebug
619     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/w3
229     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/eos
55      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/iso
59      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/mailcrypt
187     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/eterm
356     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/ediff
408     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/hyperbole/kotl
1262    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/hyperbole
247     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/hm--html-menus
161     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/mh-e
299     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/viper
53      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-x
4       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-nx/English.lproj/DocWindow.nib
3       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-nx/English.lproj/InfoPanel.nib
3       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-nx/English.lproj/TreeView.nib
11      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-nx/English.lproj
53      /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr/tree-nx
466     /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp/oobr
14142   /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp
@end format

These are all Emacs Lisp source code and bytecompiled object code.  You
may safely gzip everything named *.el here.  You may remove any package
you don't use.  @emph{Nothing bad will happen if you delete a package
that you do not use}.  You must be sure you do not use it though, so be
conservative at first.

Possible candidates for deletion include w3 (newer versions exist, or
you may just use Lynx or Netscape for web browsing), games, hyperbole,
mh-e, hm--html-menus (better packages exist), vm, viper, oobr, gnus (new
versions exist), etc.  Ask yourself, @emph{Do I ever want to use this
package?}  If the answer is no, then it is a candidate for removal.

First, gzip all the .el files.  Then go about package by package and
start gzipping the .elc files.  Then run XEmacs and do whatever it is
you normally do.  If nothing bad happens, then delete the directory.  Be
conservative about deleting directories, and it would be handy to have a
backup tape around in case you get too zealous.

@file{prim}, @file{modes}, @file{packages}, and @file{utils} are four
directories you definitely do @strong{not} want to delete, although
certain packages can be removed from them if you do not use them.

@example
1972    /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/info
@end example

These are online texinfo sources.  You may either gzip them or remove
them.  In either case, @kbd{C-h i} (info mode) will no longer work.

@example
20778   /usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13
@end example

The 20MB achieved is less than half of what the full distribution takes up,
@strong{and} can be achieved without deleting a single file.
@end quotation

@email{boffi@@hp735.stru.polimi.it, Giacomo Boffi} provides this procedure:

@quotation
Substitute @file{/usr/local/lib/} with the path where the xemacs tree is
rooted, then use this script:

@example
#!/bin/sh

r=/usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.13/lisp

cd $r ; rm -f cmpr ; touch cmpr

du -s .

for d in * ; do
  if test -d $d ; then
    cd $d
    for f in *.el ; do
#     compress (remove) only (ONLY) the sources that have a
#     corresponding compiled file --- do not (DO NOT)
#     touch other sources
      if test -f $@{f@}c ; then gzip -v9 $f >> $r/cmpr ; fi
    done
    cd ..
  fi
done

du -s .
@end example

A step beyond would be substituting @samp{rm -f} for @samp{gzip -v9},
but you have to be desperate for removing the sources (remember that
emacs can access compressed files transparently).

Also, a good megabyte could easily be trimmed from the $r/../etc
directory, e.g., the termcap files, some O+NEWS, others that I don't
remember as well.
@end quotation

@quotation
XEmacs 21.0 will unbundle the lisp hierarchy and allow the installer
to choose exactly how much support code gets installed.
@end quotation

@node Q2.0.3, Q2.0.4, Q2.0.2, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.3: Compiling XEmacs with Netaudio.

What is the best way to compile XEmacs with the netaudio system, since I
have got the netaudio system compiled but installed at a weird place, I
am not root.  Also in the READMEs it does not say anything about
compiling with the audioserver?

You should only need to add some stuff to the configure command line.
To tell it to compile in netaudio support: @samp{--with-sound=both}, or
@samp{--with-sound=nas} if you don't want native sound support for some
reason.) To tell it where to find the netaudio includes and libraries:

@example
--site-libraries=WHATEVER
--site-includes=WHATEVER
@end example

Then (fingers crossed) it should compile and it will use netaudio if you
have a server running corresponding to the X server. The netaudio server
has to be there when XEmacs starts. If the netaudio server goes away and
another is run, XEmacs should cope (fingers crossed, error handling in
netaudio isn't perfect).

BTW, netaudio has been renamed as it has a name clash with something
else, so if you see references to NAS or Network Audio System, it's the
same thing.  It also might be found at
@uref{ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/audio/nas/}.

@node Q2.0.4, Q2.0.5, Q2.0.3, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.4: Problems with Linux and ncurses.

On Linux 1.3.98 with termcap 2.0.8 and the ncurses that came with libc
5.2.18, XEmacs 20.0b20 is unable to open a tty device:

@example
src/xemacs -nw -q
Initialization error:
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
Terminal type `xterm' undefined (or can't access database?)
@end example

@email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing} writes:

@quotation
Your ncurses configuration is messed up.  Your /usr/lib/terminfo is a
bad pointer, perhaps to a CD-ROM that is not inserted.
@end quotation

@node Q2.0.5, Q2.0.6, Q2.0.4, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.5: Do I need X11 to run XEmacs?

No.  The name @dfn{XEmacs} is unfortunate in the sense that it is
@strong{not} an X Window System-only version of Emacs.  Starting with
19.14 XEmacs has full color support on a color-capable character
terminal.

@node Q2.0.6, Q2.0.7, Q2.0.5, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.6: I'm having strange crashes.  What do I do?

There have been a variety of reports of crashes due to compilers with
buggy optimizers.  Please see the @file{PROBLEMS} file that comes with
XEmacs to read what it says about your platform.

@node Q2.0.7, Q2.0.8, Q2.0.6, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.7: Libraries in non-standard locations

I have x-faces, jpeg, xpm etc. all in different places.  I've tried
space-separated, comma-separated, several --site-libraries, all to no
avail.

@example
--site-libraries='/path/one /path/two /path/etc'
@end example

@node Q2.0.8, Q2.0.9, Q2.0.7, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.8: can't resolve symbol _h_errno

You are using the Linux/ELF distribution of XEmacs 19.14, and your ELF
libraries are out of date.  You have the following options:

@enumerate
@item
Upgrade your libc to at least 5.2.16 (better is 5.2.18, 5.3.12, or
5.4.10).

@item
Patch the XEmacs binary by replacing all occurrences of
@samp{_h_errno^@@} with
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@samp{h_errno^@@^@@}.  Any version of Emacs will
suffice.  If you don't understand how to do this, don't do it.

@item
Rebuild XEmacs yourself---any working ELF version of libc should be
O.K.
@end enumerate

@email{hniksic@@xemacs.org, Hrvoje Niksic} writes:

@quotation
Why not use a Perl one-liner for No. 2?

@example
perl -pi -e 's/_h_errno\0/h_errno\0\0/g' \
/usr/local/bin/xemacs-19.14
@end example

NB: You @emph{must} patch @file{/usr/local/bin/xemacs-19.14}, and not
@file{xemacs} because @file{xemacs} is a link to @file{xemacs-19.14};
the Perl @samp{-i} option will cause unwanted side-effects if applied to
a symbolic link.
@end quotation

@email{steve@@xemacs.org, SL Baur} writes:

@quotation
If you build against a recent libc-5.4 (late enough to have caused
problems earlier in the beta cycle) and then run with an earlier version
of libc, you get a

@example
$ xemacs
xemacs: can't resolve symbol '__malloc_hook'
zsh: 7942 segmentation fault (core dumped)  xemacs
@end example

(Example binary compiled against libc-5.4.23 and run with libc-5.4.16).

The solution is to upgrade to at least libc-5.4.23.  Sigh.  Drat.
@end quotation

@node Q2.0.9, Q2.0.10, Q2.0.8, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.9: Where do I find external libraries?

All external libraries used by XEmacs can be found at the XEmacs FTP
site
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/aux/}.

@c Changed June Link above, <URL:ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/aux/> was dead.
@c This list is a pain in the you-know-what to keep in synch with the
@c world.
The canonical locations (at the time of this writing) are as follows:

@table @asis
@item JPEG
@uref{ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/}.  Version 6a is current.
@c Check from host with legal IP address
@item XPM
@uref{ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/libraries/}.  Version 3.4j is current.
Older versions of this package are known to cause XEmacs crashes.

@item TIFF
@uref{ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/tiff/}.  v3.4 is current.  The latest
beta is v3.4b035.  There is a HOWTO here.

@item PNG
@uref{ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/png/}.  0.89c is current.  XEmacs
requires a fairly recent version to avoid using temporary files.
@c Check from host with legal IP address

@uref{ftp://swrinde.nde.swri.edu/pub/png/src/}

@item Compface
@uref{ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu/pub/faces/compface/}.  This library has
been frozen for about 6 years, and is distributed without version
numbers.  @emph{It should be compiled with the same options that X11 was
compiled with on your system}.  The version of this library at
XEmacs.org includes the @file{xbm2xface.pl} script, written by
@email{stig@@hackvan.com}, which may be useful when generating your own xface.

@item NAS
@uref{ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/audio/nas/}.
Version 1.2p5 is current.  There is a FAQ here.
@end table

@node Q2.0.10, Q2.0.11, Q2.0.9, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.10: After I run configure I find a core dump, is something wrong?

Not necessarily.  If you have GNU sed 3.0 you should downgrade it to
2.05.  From the @file{README} at prep.ai.mit.edu:

@quotation
sed 3.0 has been withdrawn from distribution.  It has major revisions,
which mostly seem to be improvements; but it turns out to have bugs too
which cause trouble in some common cases.

Tom Lord won't be able to work fixing the bugs until May.  So in the
mean time, we've decided to withdraw sed 3.0 from distribution and make
version 2.05 once again the recommended version.
@end quotation

It has also been observed that the vfork test on Solaris will leave a
core dump.

@node Q2.0.11, Q2.0.12, Q2.0.10, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.11: XEmacs doesn't resolve hostnames.

This is the result of a long-standing problem with SunOS and the fact
that stock SunOS systems do not ship with DNS resolver code in libc.

@email{ckd@@loiosh.kei.com, Christopher Davis} writes:

@quotation
That's correct [The SunOS 4.1.3 precompiled binaries don't do name
lookup].  Since Sun figured that everyone used NIS to do name lookups
(that DNS thing was apparently only a passing fad, right?), the stock
SunOS 4.x systems don't have DNS-based name lookups in libc.

This is also why Netscape ships two binaries for SunOS 4.1.x.

The best solution is to compile it yourself; the configure script will
check to see if you've put DNS in the shared libc and will then proceed
to link against the DNS resolver library code.
@end quotation

@node Q2.0.12, Q2.1.1, Q2.0.11, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.0.12: Why can't I strip XEmacs?

@email{cognot@@fronsac.ensg.u-nancy.fr, Richard Cognot} writes:

@quotation
Because of the way XEmacs (and every other Emacsen, AFAIK) is built. The
link gives you a bare-boned emacs (called temacs). temacs is then run,
preloading some of the lisp files. The result is then dumped into a new
executable, named xemacs, which will contain all of the preloaded lisp
functions and data.

Now, during the dump itself, the executable (code+data+symbols) is
written on disk using a special unexec() function. This function is
obviously heavily system dependent. And on some systems, it leads to an
executable which, although valid, cannot be stripped without damage. If
memory serves, this is especially the case for AIX binaries. On other
architecture it might work OK.

The Right Way to strip the emacs binary is to strip temacs prior to
dumping xemacs. This will always work, although you can do that only if
you install from sources (as temacs is @file{not} part of the binary
kits).
@end quotation

@email{nat@@nataa.fr.eu.org, Nat Makarevitch} writes:

@quotation
Here is the trick:

@enumerate
@item
[ ./configure; make ]

@item
rm src/xemacs

@item
strip src/temacs

@item
make

@item
cp src/xemacs /usr/local/bin/xemacs

@item
cp lib-src/DOC-19.16-XEmacs
@iftex
\ @*
@end iftex
/usr/local/lib/xemacs-19.16/i586-unknown-linuxaout
@end enumerate
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.1, Q2.1.2, Q2.0.12, Installation
@unnumberedsec 2.1: Trouble Shooting
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.1: Help!  XEmacs just crashed on me!

First of all, don't panic.  Whenever XEmacs crashes, it tries extremely
hard to auto-save all of your files before dying.  (The main time that
this will not happen is if the machine physically lost power or if you
killed the XEmacs process using @code{kill -9}).  The next time you try
to edit those files, you will be informed that a more recent auto-save
file exists.  You can use @kbd{M-x recover-file} to retrieve the
auto-saved version of the file.

Starting with 19.14, you may use the command @kbd{M-x recover-session}
after a crash to pick up where you left off.

Now, XEmacs is not perfect, and there may occasionally be times, or
particular sequences of actions, that cause it to crash.  If you can
come up with a reproducible way of doing this (or even if you have a
pretty good memory of exactly what you were doing at the time), the
maintainers would be very interested in knowing about it.  Post a
message to comp.emacs.xemacs or send mail to @email{crashes@@xemacs.org}.
Please note that the @samp{crashes} address is exclusively for crash
reports.

If at all possible, include a stack backtrace of the core dump that was
produced.  This shows where exactly things went wrong, and makes it much
easier to diagnose problems.  To do this, you need to locate the core
file (it's called @file{core}, and is usually sitting in the directory
that you started XEmacs from, or your home directory if that other
directory was not writable).  Then, go to that directory and execute a
command like:

@example
gdb `which xemacs` core
@end example

and then issue the command @samp{where} to get the stack backtrace.  You
might have to use @code{dbx} or some similar debugger in place of
@code{gdb}.  If you don't have any such debugger available, complain to
your system administrator.

It's possible that a core file didn't get produced, in which case you're
out of luck.  Go complain to your system administrator and tell him not
to disable core files by default.  Also @xref{Q2.1.15}, for tips and
techniques for dealing with a debugger.

When making a problem report make sure that:

@enumerate
@item
Report @strong{all} of the information output by XEmacs during the
crash.

@item
You mention what O/S & Hardware you are running XEmacs on.

@item
What version of XEmacs you are running.

@item
What build options you are using.

@item
If the problem is related to graphics, we will also need to know what
version of the X Window System you are running, and what window manager
you are using.

@item
If the problem happened on a tty, please include the terminal type.
@end enumerate

@node Q2.1.2, Q2.1.3, Q2.1.1, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.2: Cryptic Minibuffer messages.

When I try to use some particular option of some particular package, I
get a cryptic error in the minibuffer.

If you can't figure out what's going on, select Options/General
Options/Debug on Error from the Menubar and then try and make the error
happen again.  This will give you a backtrace that may be enlightening.
If not, try reading through this FAQ; if that fails, you could try
posting to comp.emacs.xemacs (making sure to include the backtrace) and
someone may be able to help.  If you can identify which Emacs lisp
source file the error is coming from you can get a more detailed stack
backtrace by doing the following:

@enumerate
@item
Visit the .el file in an XEmacs buffer.

@item
Issue the command @kbd{M-x eval-current-buffer}.

@item
Reproduce the error.
@end enumerate

Depending on the version of XEmacs, you may either select Edit->Show
Messages (19.13 and earlier) or Help->Recent Keystrokes/Messages (19.14
and later) from the menubar to see the most recent messages.  This
command is bound to @kbd{C-h l} by default.

@node Q2.1.3, Q2.1.4, Q2.1.2, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.3: Translation Table Syntax messages at Startup

I get tons of translation table syntax error messages during startup.
How do I get rid of them?

There are two causes of this problem.  The first usually only strikes
people using the prebuilt binaries.  The culprit in both cases is the
file @file{XKeysymDB}.

@itemize @bullet
@item
The binary cannot find the @file{XKeysymDB} file.  The location is
hardcoded at compile time so if the system the binary was built on puts
it a different place than your system does, you have problems.  To fix,
set the environment variable @var{XKEYSYMDB} to the location of the
@file{XKeysymDB} file on your system or to the location of the one
included with XEmacs which should be at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@file{<xemacs_root_directory>/lib/xemacs-19.16/etc/XKeysymDB}.

@item
The binary is finding the XKeysymDB but it is out-of-date on your system
and does not contain the necessary lines.  Either ask your system
administrator to replace it with the one which comes with XEmacs (which
is the stock R6 version and is backwards compatible) or set your
@var{XKEYSYMDB} variable to the location of XEmacs's described above.
@end itemize

@node Q2.1.4, Q2.1.5, Q2.1.3, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.4: Startup warnings about deducing proper fonts?

How can I avoid the startup warnings about deducing proper fonts?

This is highly dependent on your installation, but try with the
following font as your base font for XEmacs and see what it does:

@format
-adobe-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
@end format

More precisely, do the following in your resource file:

@format
Emacs.default.attributeFont: \
-adobe-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1
@end format

If you just don't want to see the @samp{*Warnings*} buffer at startup
time, you can set this:

@lisp
(setq display-warning-minimum-level 'error)
@end lisp

The buffer still exists; it just isn't in your face.

@node Q2.1.5, Q2.1.6, Q2.1.4, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.5: XEmacs cannot connect to my X Terminal!

Help!  I can not get XEmacs to display on my Envizex X-terminal!

Try setting the @var{DISPLAY} variable using the numeric IP address of
the host you are running XEmacs from.

@node Q2.1.6, Q2.1.7, Q2.1.5, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.6: XEmacs just locked up my Linux X server!

There have been several reports of the X server locking up under Linux.
In all reported cases removing speedo and scaled fonts from the font
path corrected the problem.  This can be done with the command
@code{xset}.

It is possible that using a font server may also solve the problem.

@node Q2.1.7, Q2.1.8, Q2.1.6, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.7: HP Alt key as Meta.

How can I make XEmacs recognize the Alt key of my HP workstation as a
Meta key?

Put the following line into a file and load it with xmodmap(1) before
starting XEmacs:

@example
remove Mod1 = Mode_switch
@end example

@node Q2.1.8, Q2.1.9, Q2.1.7, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.8: got (wrong-type-argument color-instance-p nil)

@email{nataliek@@rd.scitec.com.au, Natalie Kershaw} writes:

@quotation
I am trying to run xemacs 19.13 under X11R4. Whenever I move the mouse I
get the following error. Has anyone seen anything like this? This
doesn't occur on X11R5.

@lisp
Signalling:
(error "got (wrong-type-argument color-instance-p nil)
and I don't know why!")
@end lisp
@end quotation

@email{map01kd@@gold.ac.uk, dinos} writes:

@quotation
I think this is due to undefined resources; You need to define color
backgrounds and foregrounds into your @file{.../app-defaults/Emacs}
like:

@example
*Foreground:    Black   ;everything will be of black on grey95,
*Background:    Grey95  ;unless otherwise specified.
*cursorColor:   Red3    ;red3 cursor with grey95 border.
*pointerColor:  Red3    ;red3 pointer with grey95 border.
@end example
@end quotation

Natalie Kershaw adds:

@quotation
What fixed the problem was adding some more colors to the X color
database (copying the X11R5 colors over), and also defining the
following resources:

@example
xemacs*cursorColor:    black
xemacs*pointerColor:   black
@end example

With the new colors installed the problem still occurs if the above
resources are not defined.

If the new colors are not present then an additional error occurs on
XEmacs startup, which says @samp{Color Red3} not defined.
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.9, Q2.1.10, Q2.1.8, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.9: XEmacs causes my OpenWindows 3.0 server to crash.

The OpenWindows 3.0 server is incredibly buggy.  Your best bet is to
replace it with one from the generic MIT X11 release.  You might also
try disabling parts of your @file{.emacs}, like enabling background
pixmaps.

@node Q2.1.10, Q2.1.11, Q2.1.9, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.10: Warnings from incorrect key modifiers.

The following information comes from the @file{PROBLEMS} file that comes
with XEmacs.

If you're having troubles with HP/UX it is because HP/UX defines the
modifiers wrong in X.  Here is a shell script to fix the problem; be
sure that it is run after VUE configures the X server.

@example
#! /bin/sh
xmodmap 2> /dev/null - << EOF
keysym Alt_L = Meta_L
keysym Alt_R = Meta_R
EOF

xmodmap - << EOF
clear mod1
keysym Mode_switch = NoSymbol
add mod1 = Meta_L
keysym Meta_R = Mode_switch
add mod2 = Mode_switch
EOF
@end example

@node Q2.1.11, Q2.1.12, Q2.1.10, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.11: @samp{Can't instantiate image error...} in toolbar
@c New

@email{expt@@alanine.ram.org, Dr. Ram Samudrala} writes:

I just installed the XEmacs (20.4-2) RPMS that I downloaded from
@uref{http://www.xemacs.org/}.  Everything works fine, except that when
I place my mouse over the toolbar, it beeps and gives me this message:

@example
 Can't instantiate image (probably cached):
 [xbm :mask-file "/usr/include/X11/bitmaps/leftptrmsk :mask-data
 (16 16 <strange control characters> ...
@end example

@email{kyle_jones@@wonderworks.com, Kyle Jones} writes:
@quotation
This is problem specific to some Chips and Technologies video
chips, when running XFree86.  Putting

@code{Option "sw_cursor"}

in @file{XF86Config} gets rid of the problem.
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.12, Q2.1.13, Q2.1.11, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.12: Problems with Regular Expressions on DEC OSF1.

I have xemacs 19.13 running on an alpha running OSF1 V3.2 148 and ispell
would not run because it claimed the version number was incorrect
although it was indeed OK. I traced the problem to the regular
expression handler.

@email{douglask@@dstc.edu.au, Douglas Kosovic} writes:

@quotation
Actually it's a DEC cc optimization bug that screws up the regexp
handling in XEmacs.

Rebuilding using the @samp{-migrate} switch for DEC cc (which uses a
different sort of optimization) works fine.
@end quotation

See @file{xemacs-19_13-dunix-3_2c.patch} at the following URL on how to
build with the @samp{-migrate} flag:

@example
@uref{http://www-digital.cern.ch/carney/emacs/emacs.html}
@c Link above, <URL:http://www-digital.cern.ch/carney/emacs/emacs.html> is
@c dead. And the directory `carney' is empty.



@end example

NOTE: There have been a variety of other problems reported that are
fixed in this fashion.

@node Q2.1.13, Q2.1.14, Q2.1.12, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.13: HP/UX 10.10 and @code{create_process} failure.

@email{Dave.Carrigan@@ipl.ca, Dave Carrigan} writes:

@quotation
With XEmacs 19.13 and HP/UX 10.10, anything that relies on the
@code{create_process} function fails. This breaks a lot of things
(shell-mode, compile, ange-ftp, to name a few).
@end quotation

@email{johnson@@dtc.hp.com, Phil Johnson} writes:

@quotation
This is a problem specific to HP-UX 10.10.  It only occurs when XEmacs
is compiled for shared libraries (the default), so you can work around
it by compiling a statically-linked binary (run configure with
@samp{--dynamic=no}).

I'm not sure whether the problem is with a particular shared library or
if it's a kernel problem which crept into 10.10.
@end quotation

@email{cognot@@ensg.u-nancy.fr, Richard Cognot} writes:

@quotation
I had a few problems with 10.10. Apparently, some of them were solved by
forcing a static link of libc (manually).
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.14, Q2.1.15, Q2.1.13, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.14: @kbd{C-g} doesn't work for me.  Is it broken?

@email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing} writes:

@quotation
@kbd{C-g} does work for most people in most circumstances.  If it
doesn't, there are only two explanations:

@enumerate
@item
The code is wrapped with a binding of @code{inhibit-quit} to
@code{t}.  @kbd{Ctrl-Shift-G} should still work, I think.

@item
SIGIO is broken on your system, but BROKEN_SIGIO isn't defined.
@end enumerate

To test #2, try executing @code{(while t)} from the @samp{*scratch*}
buffer.  If @kbd{C-g} doesn't interrupt, then you're seeing #2.
@end quotation

@email{terra@@diku.dk, Morten Welinder} writes:

@quotation
On some (but @emph{not} all) machines a hung XEmacs can be revived by
@code{kill -FPE <pid>}.  This is a hack, of course, not a solution.
This technique works on a Sun4 running 4.1.3_U1.  To see if it works for
you, start another XEmacs and test with that first.  If you get a core
dump the method doesn't work and if you get @samp{Arithmetic error} then
it does.
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.15, Q2.1.16, Q2.1.14, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.15: How to Debug an XEmacs problem with a debugger

If XEmacs does crash on you, one of the most productive things you can
do to help get the bug fixed is to poke around a bit with the debugger.
Here are some hints:

@itemize @bullet
@item
First of all, if the crash is at all reproducible, consider very
strongly recompiling your XEmacs with debugging symbols, with no
optimization, and with the configure options @samp{--debug=yes} and
@samp{--error-checking=all}.  This will make your XEmacs run somewhat
slower but make it a lot more likely to catch the problem earlier
(closer to its source), and a lot easier to determine what's going on
with a debugger.

@item
If you're able to run XEmacs under a debugger and reproduce the crash
(if it's inconvenient to do this because XEmacs is already running or is
running in batch mode as part of a bunch of scripts, consider attaching
to the existing process with your debugger; most debuggers let you do
this by substituting the process ID for the core file when you invoke
the debugger from the command line, or by using the @code{attach}
command or something similar), here are some things you can do:

@item
If XEmacs is hitting an assertion failure, put a breakpoint on
@code{assert_failed()}.

@item
If XEmacs is hitting some weird Lisp error that's causing it to crash
(e.g. during startup), put a breakpoint on @code{signal_1()}---this is
declared static in eval.c.

@item
Internally, you will probably see lots of variables that hold objects of
type @code{Lisp_Object}.  These are exactly what they appear to be,
i.e. references to Lisp objects.  Printing them out with the debugger
probably won't be too useful---you'll likely just see a number.  To
decode them, do this:

@example
call debug_print (OBJECT)
@end example

where @var{OBJECT} is whatever you want to decode (it can be a variable,
a function call, etc.).  This will print out a readable representation
on the TTY from which the xemacs process was invoked.

@item
If you want to get a Lisp backtrace showing the Lisp call
stack, do this:

@example
call debug_backtrace ()
@end example

@item
Using @code{debug_print} and @code{debug_backtrace} has two
disadvantages - it can only be used with a running xemacs process, and
it cannot display the internal C structure of a Lisp Object.  Even if
all you've got is a core dump, all is not lost.

If you're using GDB, there are some macros in the file
@file{src/.gdbinit} in the XEmacs source distribution that should make
it easier for you to decode Lisp objects.  This file is automatically
read by gdb if gdb is run in the directory where xemacs was built, and
contains these useful macros to inspect the state of xemacs:

@table @code
@item pobj
Usage: pobj lisp_object @*
Print the internal C representation of a lisp object.

@item xtype
Usage: xtype lisp_object @*
Print the Lisp type of a lisp object.

@item lbt
Usage: lbt @*
Print the current Lisp stack trace.
Requires a running xemacs process.

@item ldp
Usage: ldp lisp_object @*
Print a Lisp Object value using the Lisp printer.
Requires a running xemacs process.

@item run-temacs
Usage: run-temacs @*
Run temacs interactively, like xemacs.
Use this with debugging tools (like purify) that cannot deal with dumping,
or when temacs builds successfully, but xemacs does not.

@item dump-temacs
Usage: dump-temacs @*
Run the dumping part of the build procedure.
Use when debugging temacs, not xemacs!
Use this when temacs builds successfully, but xemacs does not.

@item check-xemacs
Usage: check-xemacs @*
Run the test suite.  Equivalent to 'make check'.

@item check-temacs
Usage: check-temacs @*
Run the test suite on temacs.  Equivalent to 'make check-temacs'.
Use this with debugging tools (like purify) that cannot deal with dumping,
or when temacs builds successfully, but xemacs does not.
@end table

If you are using Sun's @file{dbx} debugger, there is an equivalent file
@file{src/.dbxrc}, which defines the same commands for dbx.

@item
If you're using a debugger to get a C stack backtrace and you're seeing
stack traces with some of the innermost frames mangled, it may be due to
dynamic linking. (This happens especially under Linux.) Consider
reconfiguring with @samp{--dynamic=no}.  Also, sometimes (again under
Linux), stack backtraces of core dumps will have the frame where the
fatal signal occurred mangled; if you can obtain a stack trace while
running the XEmacs process under a debugger, the stack trace should be
clean.

@email{1CMC3466@@ibm.mtsac.edu, Curtiss} suggests upgrading to ld.so version 1.8
if dynamic linking and debugging is a problem on Linux.

@item
If you're using a debugger to get a C stack backtrace and you're
getting a completely mangled and bogus stack trace, it's probably due to
one of the following:

@enumerate a
@item
Your executable has been stripped.  Bad news.  Tell your sysadmin not to
do this---it doesn't accomplish anything except to save a bit of disk
space, and makes debugging much much harder.

@item
Your stack is getting trashed.  Debugging this is hard; you have to do a
binary-search type of narrowing down where the crash occurs, until you
figure out exactly which line is causing the problem.  Of course, this
only works if the bug is highly reproducible.

@item
If your stack trace has exactly one frame in it, with address 0x0, this
could simply mean that XEmacs attempted to execute code at that address,
e.g. through jumping to a null function pointer.  Unfortunately, under
those circumstances, GDB under Linux doesn't know how to get a stack
trace. (Yes, this is the third Linux-related problem I've mentioned.  I
have no idea why GDB under Linux is so bogus.  Complain to the GDB
authors, or to comp.os.linux.development.system).  Again, you'll have to
use the narrowing-down process described above.

@item
If you compiled 19.14 with @samp{--debug} (or by default in later
versions), you will get a Lisp backtrace output when XEmacs crashes, so
you'll have something useful.

@end enumerate

@item
If you compile with the newer gcc variants gcc-2.8 or egcs, you will
also need gdb 4.17 or above.  Earlier releases of gdb can't handle the
debug information generated by the newer compilers.

@item
In versions of XEmacs before 21.2.27, @file{src/.gdbinit} was named
@file{src/gdbinit}.  This had the disadvantage of not being sourced
automatically by gdb, so you had to set that up yourself.

@end itemize

@node Q2.1.16, Q2.1.17, Q2.1.15, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.16: XEmacs crashes in @code{strcat} on HP/UX 10

From the problems database (through
the former address http://support.mayfield.hp.com/):

@example
Problem Report: 5003302299
Status:         Open

System/Model:   9000/700
Product Name:   HPUX S800 10.0X
Product Vers:   9245XB.10.00

Description: strcat(3C) may read beyond
end of source string, can cause SIGSEGV


*** PROBLEM TEXT ***
strcat(3C) may read beyond the source string onto an unmapped page,
causing a segmentation violation.
@end example

@node Q2.1.17, Q2.1.18, Q2.1.16, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.17: @samp{Marker does not point anywhere}

As with other errors, set @code{debug-on-error} to @code{t} to get the
backtrace when the error occurs.  Specifically, two problems have been
reported (and fixed).

@enumerate
@item
A problem with line-number-mode in XEmacs 19.14 affected a large number
of other packages.  If you see this error message, turn off
line-number-mode.

@item
A problem with some early versions of Gnus 5.4 caused this error.
Upgrade your Gnus.
@end enumerate

@node Q2.1.18, Q2.1.19, Q2.1.17, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.18: removed

@node Q2.1.19, Q2.1.20, Q2.1.18, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.19: XEmacs does not follow the local timezone.

When using one of the prebuilt binaries many users have observed that
XEmacs uses the timezone under which it was built, but not the timezone
under which it is running.  The solution is to add:

@lisp
(set-time-zone-rule "MET")
@end lisp

to your @file{.emacs} or the @file{site-start.el} file if you can.
Replace @code{MET} with your local timezone.

@node Q2.1.20, Q2.1.21, Q2.1.19, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.20: @samp{Symbol's function definition is void: hkey-help-show.}

This is a problem with a partially loaded hyperbole.  Try adding:

@lisp
(require 'hmouse-drv)
@end lisp

where you load hyperbole and the problem should go away.

@node Q2.1.21, Q2.1.22, Q2.1.20, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.21: [This question intentionally left blank]

@node Q2.1.22, Q2.1.23, Q2.1.21, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.22: XEmacs seems to take a really long time to do some things

@email{dmoore@@ucsd.edu, David Moore} writes:

@quotation
Two things you can do:

1) C level:

When you see it going mad like this, you might want to use gdb from an
'xterm' to attach to the running process and get a stack trace.  To do
this just run:

@example
gdb /path/to/xemacs/xemacs ####
@end example

Where @code{####} is the process id of your xemacs, instead of
specifying the core.  When gdb attaches, the xemacs will stop [1] and
you can type `where' in gdb to get a stack trace as usual.  To get
things moving again, you can just type `quit' in gdb.  It'll tell you
the program is running and ask if you want to quit anyways.  Say 'y' and
it'll quit and have your emacs continue from where it was at.

2) Lisp level:

Turn on debug-on-quit early on.  When you think things are going slow
hit C-g and it may pop you in the debugger so you can see what routine
is running.  Press `c' to get going again.

debug-on-quit doesn't work if something's turned on inhibit-quit or in
some other strange cases.
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.23, Q2.1.24, Q2.1.22, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.23:  Movemail on Linux does not work for XEmacs 19.15 and later.

Movemail used to work fine in 19.14 but has stopped working in 19.15
and 20.x.  I am using Linux.

@email{steve@@xemacs.org, SL Baur} writes:

@quotation
Movemail on Linux used to default to using flock file locking.  With
19.15 and later versions it now defaults to using @code{.lock} file
locking.  If this is not appropriate for your system, edit src/s/linux.h
and uncomment the line that reads:

@example
#define MAIL_USE_FLOCK
@end example
@end quotation

@node Q2.1.24,  , Q2.1.23, Installation
@unnumberedsubsec Q2.1.24:  XEmacs won't start without network. (NEW)

If XEmacs starts when you're on the network, but fails when you're not
on the network, you may be missing a "localhost" entry in your
@file{/etc/hosts} file.  The file should contain an entry like:

@example
127.0.0.1        localhost
@end example

Add that line, and XEmacs will be happy.

@node Customization, Subsystems, Installation, Top
@unnumbered 3 Customization and Options

This is part 3 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list.  This
section is devoted to Customization and screen settings.

@menu
Customization---Emacs Lisp and @file{.emacs}:
* Q3.0.1::      What version of Emacs am I running?
* Q3.0.2::      How do I evaluate Elisp expressions?
* Q3.0.3::      @code{(setq tab-width 6)} behaves oddly.
* Q3.0.4::      How can I add directories to the @code{load-path}?
* Q3.0.5::      How to check if a lisp function is defined?
* Q3.0.6::      Can I force the output of @code{(face-list)} to a buffer?
* Q3.0.7::      Font selections don't get saved after @code{Save Options}.
* Q3.0.8::      How do I make a single minibuffer frame?
* Q3.0.9::      What is @code{Customize}?

X Window System & Resources:
* Q3.1.1::      Where is a list of X resources?
* Q3.1.2::      How can I detect a color display?
* Q3.1.3::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q3.1.4::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q3.1.5::      How can I get the icon to just say @samp{XEmacs}?
* Q3.1.6::      How can I have the window title area display the full path?
* Q3.1.7::      @samp{xemacs -name junk} doesn't work?
* Q3.1.8::      @samp{-iconic} doesn't work.

Textual Fonts & Colors:
* Q3.2.1::      How can I set color options from @file{.emacs}?
* Q3.2.2::      How do I set the text, menu and modeline fonts?
* Q3.2.3::      How can I set the colors when highlighting a region?
* Q3.2.4::      How can I limit color map usage?
* Q3.2.5::      My tty supports color, but XEmacs doesn't use them.
* Q3.2.6::      Can I have pixmap backgrounds in XEmacs?

The Modeline:
* Q3.3.1::      How can I make the modeline go away?
* Q3.3.2::      How do you have XEmacs display the line number in the modeline?
* Q3.3.3::      How do I get XEmacs to put the time of day on the modeline?
* Q3.3.4::      How do I turn off current chapter from AUC TeX modeline?
* Q3.3.5::      How can one change the modeline color based on the mode used?

3.4 Multiple Device Support:
* Q3.4.1::      How do I open a frame on another screen of my multi-headed display?
* Q3.4.2::      Can I really connect to a running XEmacs after calling up over a modem?  How?

3.5 The Keyboard:
* Q3.5.1::      How can I bind complex functions (or macros) to keys?
* Q3.5.2::      How can I stop down-arrow from adding empty lines to the bottom of my buffers?
* Q3.5.3::      How do I bind C-. and C-; to scroll one line up and down?
* Q3.5.4::      Globally binding @kbd{Delete}?
* Q3.5.5::      Scrolling one line at a time.
* Q3.5.6::      How to map @kbd{Help} key alone on Sun type4 keyboard?
* Q3.5.7::      How can you type in special characters in XEmacs?
* Q3.5.8::      Why does @code{(global-set-key [delete-forward] 'delete-char)} complain?
* Q3.5.9::      How do I make the Delete key delete forward?
* Q3.5.10::     Can I turn on @dfn{sticky} modifier keys?
* Q3.5.11::     How do I map the arrow keys?

The Cursor:
* Q3.6.1::      Is there a way to make the bar cursor thicker?
* Q3.6.2::      Is there a way to get back the old block cursor where the cursor covers the character in front of the point?
* Q3.6.3::      Can I make the cursor blink?

The Mouse and Highlighting:
* Q3.7.1::      How can I turn off Mouse pasting?
* Q3.7.2::      How do I set control/meta/etc modifiers on mouse buttons?
* Q3.7.3::      Clicking the left button does not do anything in buffer list.
* Q3.7.4::      How can I get a list of buffers when I hit mouse button 3?
* Q3.7.5::      Why does cut-and-paste not work between XEmacs and a cmdtool?
* Q3.7.6::      How I can set XEmacs up so that it pastes where the text cursor is?
* Q3.7.7::      How do I select a rectangular region?
* Q3.7.8::      Why does @kbd{M-w} take so long?

The Menubar and Toolbar:
* Q3.8.1::      How do I get rid of the menu (or menubar)?
* Q3.8.2::      Can I customize the basic menubar?
* Q3.8.3::      How do I control how many buffers are listed in the menu @code{Buffers} list?
* Q3.8.4::      Resources like @code{Emacs*menubar*font} are not working?
* Q3.8.5::      How can I bind a key to a function to toggle the toolbar?

Scrollbars:
* Q3.9.1::      How can I disable the scrollbar?
* Q3.9.2::      How can one use resources to change scrollbar colors?
* Q3.9.3::      Moving the scrollbar can move the point; can I disable this?
* Q3.9.4::      How can I get automatic horizontal scrolling?

Text Selections:
* Q3.10.1::     How can I turn off or change highlighted selections?
* Q3.10.2::     How do I get that typing on an active region removes it?
* Q3.10.3::     Can I turn off the highlight during isearch?
* Q3.10.4::     How do I turn off highlighting after @kbd{C-x C-p} (mark-page)?
* Q3.10.5::     The region disappears when I hit the end of buffer while scrolling.
@end menu

@node Q3.0.1, Q3.0.2, Customization, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.0: Customization -- Emacs Lisp and .emacs
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.1: What version of Emacs am I running?

How can @file{.emacs} determine which of the family of Emacsen I am
using?

To determine if you are currently running GNU Emacs 18, GNU Emacs 19,
XEmacs 19, XEmacs 20, or Epoch, and use appropriate code, check out the
example given in @file{etc/sample.emacs}.  There are other nifty things
in there as well!

For all new code, all you really need to do is:

@lisp
(defvar running-xemacs (string-match "XEmacs\\|Lucid" emacs-version))
@end lisp

@node Q3.0.2, Q3.0.3, Q3.0.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.2: How can I evaluate Emacs-Lisp expressions?

I know I can evaluate Elisp expressions from @code{*scratch*} buffer
with @kbd{C-j} after the expression.  How do I do it from another
buffer?

Press @kbd{M-:} (the default binding of @code{eval-expression}), and
enter the expression to the minibuffer.  In XEmacs prior to 19.15
@code{eval-expression} used to be a disabled command by default.  If
this is the case, upgrade your XEmacs.

@node Q3.0.3, Q3.0.4, Q3.0.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.3: @code{(setq tab-width 6)} behaves oddly.

If you put @code{(setq tab-width 6)} in your @file{.emacs} file it does
not work!  Is there a reason for this?  If you do it at the EVAL prompt
it works fine!! How strange.

Use @code{setq-default} instead, since @code{tab-width} is
all-buffer-local.

@node Q3.0.4, Q3.0.5, Q3.0.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.4: How can I add directories to the @code{load-path}?

Here are two ways to do that, one that puts your directories at the
front of the load-path, the other at the end:

@lisp
;;; Add things at the beginning of the load-path, do not add
;;; duplicate directories:
(pushnew "bar" load-path :test 'equal)

(pushnew "foo" load-path :test 'equal)

;;; Add things at the end, unconditionally
(setq load-path (nconc load-path '("foo" "bar")))
@end lisp

@email{keithh@@nortel.ca, keith (k.p.) hanlan} writes:

@quotation
To add directories using Unix shell metacharacters use
@file{expand-file-name} like this:

@lisp
(push (expand-file-name "~keithh/.emacsdir") load-path)
@end lisp
@end quotation

@node Q3.0.5, Q3.0.6, Q3.0.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.5: How to check if a lisp function is defined?

Use the following elisp:

@lisp
(fboundp 'foo)
@end lisp

It's almost always a mistake to test @code{emacs-version} or any similar
variables.

Instead, use feature-tests, such as @code{featurep}, @code{boundp},
@code{fboundp}, or even simple behavioral tests, eg.:

@lisp
(defvar foo-old-losing-code-p
  (condition-case nil (progn (losing-code t) nil)
    (wrong-number-of-arguments t)))
@end lisp

There is an incredible amount of broken code out there which could work
much better more often in more places if it did the above instead of
trying to divine its environment from the value of one variable.

@node Q3.0.6, Q3.0.7, Q3.0.5, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.6: Can I force the output of @code{(face-list)} to a buffer?

It would be good having it in a buffer, as the output of
@code{(face-list)} is too wide to fit to a minibuffer.

Evaluate the expression in the @samp{*scratch*} buffer with point after
the rightmost paren and typing @kbd{C-j}.

If the minibuffer smallness is the only problem you encounter, you can
simply press @kbd{C-h l} to get the former minibuffer contents in a
buffer.

@node Q3.0.7, Q3.0.8, Q3.0.6, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.7: Font selections in don't get saved after @code{Save Options}.

For XEmacs 19.14 and previous:

@email{mannj@@ll.mit.edu, John Mann} writes:

@quotation
You have to go to Options->Frame Appearance and unselect
@samp{Frame-Local Font Menu}.  If this option is selected, font changes
are only applied to the @emph{current} frame and do @emph{not} get saved
when you save options.
@end quotation

For XEmacs 19.15 and later:

Implement the above as well as set the following in your @file{.emacs}

@lisp
(setq options-save-faces t)
@end lisp

@node Q3.0.8, Q3.0.9, Q3.0.7, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.8: How do I get a single minibuffer frame?

@email{acs@@acm.org, Vin Shelton} writes:

@lisp
(setq initial-frame-plist '(minibuffer nil))
(setq default-frame-plist '(minibuffer nil))
(setq default-minibuffer-frame
      (make-frame
       '(minibuffer only
                    width 86
                    height 1
                    menubar-visible-p nil
                    default-toolbar-visible-p nil
                    name "minibuffer"
                    top -2
                    left -2
                    has-modeline-p nil)))
(frame-notice-user-settings)
@end lisp

@strong{Please note:} The single minibuffer frame may not be to everyone's
taste, and there any number of other XEmacs options settings that may
make it difficult or inconvenient to use.

@node Q3.0.9, Q3.1.1, Q3.0.8, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.0.9: What is @code{Customize}?

Starting with XEmacs 20.2 there is new system 'Customize' for customizing
XEmacs options.

You can access @code{Customize} from the @code{Options} menu
or invoking one of customize commands by typing eg.
@kbd{M-x customize}, @kbd{M-x customize-face},
@kbd{M-x customize-variable} or @kbd{M-x customize-apropos}.

Starting with XEmacs 20.3 there is also new `browser' mode for Customize.
Try it out with @kbd{M-x customize-browse}

@node Q3.1.1, Q3.1.2, Q3.0.9, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.1: X Window System & Resources
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.1: Where is a list of X resources?

Search through the @file{NEWS} file for @samp{X Resources}.  A fairly
comprehensive list is given after it.

In addition, an @file{app-defaults} file is supplied,
@file{etc/Emacs.ad} listing the defaults.  The file
@file{etc/sample.Xdefaults} gives a set of defaults that you might
consider.  It is essentially the same as @file{etc/Emacs.ad} but some
entries are slightly altered.  Be careful about installing the contents
of this file into your @file{.Xdefaults} or @file{.Xresources} file if
you use GNU Emacs under X11 as well.

@node Q3.1.2, Q3.1.3, Q3.1.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.2: How can I detect a color display?

You can test the return value of the function @code{(device-class)}, as
in:

@lisp
(when (eq (device-class) 'color)
  (set-face-foreground  'font-lock-comment-face "Grey")
  (set-face-foreground  'font-lock-string-face  "Red")
  ....
  )
@end lisp

@node Q3.1.3, Q3.1.4, Q3.1.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.3: [This question intentionally left blank]

@node Q3.1.4, Q3.1.5, Q3.1.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.4: [This question intentionally left blank]

@node Q3.1.5, Q3.1.6, Q3.1.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.5: How can I get the icon to just say @samp{XEmacs}?

I'd like the icon to just say @samp{XEmacs}, and not include the name of
the current file in it.

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq frame-icon-title-format "XEmacs")
@end lisp

@node Q3.1.6, Q3.1.7, Q3.1.5, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.6: How can I have the window title area display the full path?

I'd like to have the window title area display the full directory/name
of the current buffer file and not just the name.

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq frame-title-format "%S: %f")
@end lisp

A more sophisticated title might be:

@lisp
(setq frame-title-format
      '("%S: " (buffer-file-name "%f"
                                 (dired-directory dired-directory "%b"))))
@end lisp

That is, use the file name, or the dired-directory, or the buffer name.

@node Q3.1.7, Q3.1.8, Q3.1.6, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.7: @samp{xemacs -name junk} doesn't work?

When I run @samp{xterm -name junk}, I get an xterm whose class name
according to xprop, is @samp{junk}.  This is the way it's supposed to
work, I think.  When I run @samp{xemacs -name junk} the class name is
not set to @samp{junk}.  It's still @samp{emacs}.  What does
@samp{xemacs -name} really do?  The reason I ask is that my window
manager (fvwm) will make a window sticky and I use XEmacs to read my
mail.  I want that XEmacs window to be sticky, without having to use the
window manager's function to set the window sticky.  What gives?

@samp{xemacs -name} sets the application name for the program (that is,
the thing which normally comes from @samp{argv[0]}).  Using @samp{-name}
is the same as making a copy of the executable with that new name.  The
@code{WM_CLASS} property on each frame is set to the frame-name, and the
application-class.  So, if you did @samp{xemacs -name FOO} and then
created a frame named @var{BAR}, you'd get an X window with WM_CLASS =
@code{( "BAR", "Emacs")}.  However, the resource hierarchy for this
widget would be:

@example
Name:    FOO   .shell             .container   .BAR
Class:   Emacs .TopLevelEmacsShell.EmacsManager.EmacsFrame
@end example

instead of the default

@example
Name:    xemacs.shell             .container   .emacs
Class:   Emacs .TopLevelEmacsShell.EmacsManager.EmacsFrame
@end example


It is arguable that the first element of WM_CLASS should be set to the
application-name instead of the frame-name, but I think that's less
flexible, since it does not give you the ability to have multiple frames
with different WM_CLASS properties.  Another possibility would be for
the default frame name to come from the application name instead of
simply being @samp{emacs}.  However, at this point, making that change
would be troublesome: it would mean that many users would have to make
yet another change to their resource files (since the default frame name
would suddenly change from @samp{emacs} to @samp{xemacs}, or whatever
the executable happened to be named), so we'd rather avoid it.

To make a frame with a particular name use:

@lisp
(make-frame '((name . "the-name")))
@end lisp

@node Q3.1.8, Q3.2.1, Q3.1.7, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.1.8: @samp{-iconic} doesn't work.

When I start up XEmacs using @samp{-iconic} it doesn't work right.
Using @samp{-unmapped} on the command line, and setting the
@code{initiallyUnmapped} X Resource don't seem to help much either...

@email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing} writes:

@quotation
Ugh, this stuff is such an incredible mess that I've about given up
getting it to work.  The principal problem is numerous window-manager
bugs...
@end quotation

@node Q3.2.1, Q3.2.2, Q3.1.8, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.2: Textual Fonts & Colors
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.1: How can I set color options from @file{.emacs}?

How can I set the most commonly used color options from my @file{.emacs}
instead of from my @file{.Xdefaults}?

Like this:

@lisp
(set-face-background 'default      "bisque") ; frame background
(set-face-foreground 'default      "black") ; normal text
(set-face-background 'zmacs-region "red") ; When selecting w/
                                        ; mouse
(set-face-foreground 'zmacs-region "yellow")
(set-face-font       'default      "*courier-bold-r*120-100-100*")
(set-face-background 'highlight    "blue") ; Ie when selecting
                                        ; buffers
(set-face-foreground 'highlight    "yellow")
(set-face-background 'modeline     "blue") ; Line at bottom
                                        ; of buffer
(set-face-foreground 'modeline     "white")
(set-face-font       'modeline     "*bold-r-normal*140-100-100*")
(set-face-background 'isearch      "yellow") ; When highlighting
                                        ; while searching
(set-face-foreground 'isearch      "red")
(setq x-pointer-foreground-color   "black") ; Adds to bg color,
                                        ; so keep black
(setq x-pointer-background-color   "blue") ; This is color
                                        ; you really
                                        ; want ptr/crsr
@end lisp

@node Q3.2.2, Q3.2.3, Q3.2.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.2: How do I set the text, menu and modeline fonts?

Note that you should use @samp{Emacs.} and not @samp{Emacs*} when
setting face values.

In @file{.Xdefaults}:

@example
Emacs.default.attributeFont:  -*-*-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-m-*-*-*
Emacs*menubar*font:           fixed
Emacs.modeline.attributeFont: fixed
@end example

This is confusing because modeline is a face, and can be found listed
with all faces in the current mode by using @kbd{M-x set-face-font
(enter) ?}.  It uses the face specification of @code{attributeFont},
while menubar is a normal X thing that uses the specification
@code{font}.  With Motif it may be necessary to use @code{fontList}
instead of @code{font}.

@node Q3.2.3, Q3.2.4, Q3.2.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.3: How can I set the colors when highlighting a region?

How can I set the background/foreground colors when highlighting a
region?

You can change the face @code{zmacs-region} either in your
@file{.Xdefaults}:

@example
Emacs.zmacs-region.attributeForeground: firebrick
Emacs.zmacs-region.attributeBackground: lightseagreen
@end example

or in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(set-face-background 'zmacs-region "red")
(set-face-foreground 'zmacs-region "yellow")
@end lisp

@node Q3.2.4, Q3.2.5, Q3.2.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.4: How can I limit color map usage?

I'm using Netscape (or another color grabber like XEmacs);
is there anyway to limit the number of available colors in the color map?

XEmacs 19.13 didn't have such a mechanism (unlike netscape, or other
color-hogs).  One solution is to start XEmacs prior to netscape, since
this will prevent Netscape from grabbing all colors (but Netscape will
complain).  You can use the flags for Netscape, like -mono, -ncols <#>
or -install (for mono, limiting to <#> colors, or for using a private
color map).  Since Netscape will take the entire colormap and never
release it, the only reasonable way to run it is with @samp{-install}.

If you have the money, another solution would be to use a truecolor or
direct color video.

Starting with XEmacs 19.14, XEmacs uses the closest available color if
the colormap is full, so it's O.K. now to start Netscape first.

@node Q3.2.5, Q3.2.6, Q3.2.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.5: My tty supports color, but XEmacs doesn't use them.

XEmacs tries to automatically determine whether your tty supports color,
but sometimes guesses wrong.  In that case, you can make XEmacs Do The
Right Thing using this Lisp code:

@lisp
(if (eq 'tty (device-type))
    (set-device-class nil 'color))
@end lisp

@node Q3.2.6, Q3.3.1, Q3.2.5, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.2.6: Can I have pixmap backgrounds in XEmacs?
@c New
@email{jvillaci@@wahnsinnig.extreme.indiana.edu, Juan Villacis} writes:

@quotation
There are several ways to do it.  For example, you could specify a
default pixmap image to use in your @file{~/.Xresources}, e.g.,


@example
  Emacs*EmacsFrame.default.attributeBackgroundPixmap: /path/to/image.xpm
@end example


and then reload ~/.Xresources and restart XEmacs.  Alternatively,
since each face can have its own pixmap background, a better way
would be to set a face's pixmap within your XEmacs init file, e.g.,

@lisp
  (set-face-background-pixmap 'default "/path/to/image.xpm")
  (set-face-background-pixmap 'bold    "/path/to/another_image.xpm")
@end lisp

and so on.  You can also do this interactively via @kbd{M-x edit-faces}.

@end quotation

@node Q3.3.1, Q3.3.2, Q3.2.6, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.3: The Modeline
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.3.1: How can I make the modeline go away?

@lisp
(set-specifier has-modeline-p nil)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs 19.14 the modeline responds to mouse clicks, so if
you haven't liked or used the modeline in the past, you might want to
try the new version out.

@node Q3.3.2, Q3.3.3, Q3.3.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.3.2: How do you have XEmacs display the line number in the modeline?

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs} file to display the
line number:

@lisp
(line-number-mode 1)
@end lisp

Use the following to display the column number:

@lisp
(column-number-mode 1)
@end lisp

Or select from the @code{Options} menu
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Basics->Line Number Mode}
and/or
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Basics->Column Number Mode}

Or type @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} editing-basics @key{RET}}.

@node Q3.3.3, Q3.3.4, Q3.3.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.3.3: How do I get XEmacs to put the time of day on the modeline?

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs} file to display the
time:

@lisp
(display-time)
@end lisp

See @code{Customize} from the @code{Options} menu for customization.

@node Q3.3.4, Q3.3.5, Q3.3.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.3.4: How do I turn off current chapter from AUC TeX modeline?

With AUC TeX, fast typing is hard because the current chapter, section
etc. are given in the modeline.  How can I turn this off?

It's not AUC TeX, it comes from @code{func-menu} in @file{func-menu.el}.
Add this code to your @file{.emacs} to turn it off:

@lisp
(setq fume-display-in-modeline-p nil)
@end lisp

Or just add a hook to @code{TeX-mode-hook} to turn it off only for TeX
mode:

@lisp
(add-hook 'TeX-mode-hook
          '(lambda () (setq fume-display-in-modeline-p nil)))
@end lisp

@email{dhughes@@origin-at.co.uk, David Hughes} writes:

@quotation
If you have 19.14 or later, try this instead; you'll still get the
function name displayed in the modeline, but it won't attempt to keep
track when you modify the file. To refresh when it gets out of synch,
you simply need click on the @samp{Rescan Buffer} option in the
function-menu.

@lisp
(setq-default fume-auto-rescan-buffer-p nil)
@end lisp
@end quotation

@node Q3.3.5, Q3.4.1, Q3.3.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.3.5: How can one change the modeline color based on the mode used?

You can use something like the following:

@lisp
(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
            (set-face-background 'modeline "red" (current-buffer))))
@end lisp

Then, when editing a Lisp file (i.e. when in Lisp mode), the modeline
colors change from the default set in your @file{.emacs}.  The change
will only be made in the buffer you just entered (which contains the
Lisp file you are editing) and will not affect the modeline colors
anywhere else.

Notes:

@itemize @bullet

@item
The hook is the mode name plus @code{-hook}.  eg. c-mode-hook,
c++-mode-hook, emacs-lisp-mode-hook (used for your @file{.emacs} or a
@file{xx.el} file), lisp-interaction-mode-hook (the @samp{*scratch*}
buffer), text-mode-hook, etc.

@item
Be sure to use @code{add-hook}, not @code{(setq c-mode-hook xxxx)},
otherwise you will erase anything that anybody has already put on the
hook.

@item
You can also do @code{(set-face-font 'modeline @var{font})},
eg. @code{(set-face-font 'modeline "*bold-r-normal*140-100-100*"
(current-buffer))} if you wish the modeline font to vary based on the
current mode.
@end itemize

This works in 19.15 as well, but there are additional modeline faces,
@code{modeline-buffer-id}, @code{modeline-mousable}, and
@code{modeline-mousable-minor-mode}, which you may want to customize.

@node Q3.4.1, Q3.4.2, Q3.3.5, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.4: Multiple Device Support
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.4.1: How do I open a frame on another screen of my multi-headed display?

The support for this was revamped for 19.14.  Use the command
@kbd{M-x make-frame-on-display}.  This command is also on the File menu
in the menubar.

XEmacs 19.14 and later also have the command @code{make-frame-on-tty}
which will establish a connection to any tty-like device.  Opening the
TTY devices should be left to @code{gnuclient}, though.

@node Q3.4.2, Q3.5.1, Q3.4.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.4.2: Can I really connect to a running XEmacs after calling up over a modem?  How?

If you're not running at least XEmacs 19.14, you can't.  Otherwise check
out the @code{gnuattach} program supplied with XEmacs.  Starting with
XEmacs 20.3, @code{gnuattach} and @code{gnudoit} functionality is
provided by @code{gnuclient}.

Also @xref{Q5.0.12}.

@node Q3.5.1, Q3.5.2, Q3.4.2, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.5: The Keyboard
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.1: How can I bind complex functions (or macros) to keys?

As an example, say you want the @kbd{paste} key on a Sun keyboard to
insert the current Primary X selection at point. You can accomplish this
with:

@lisp
(define-key global-map [f18] 'x-insert-selection)
@end lisp

However, this only works if there is a current X selection (the
selection will be highlighted).  The functionality I like is for the
@kbd{paste} key to insert the current X selection if there is one,
otherwise insert the contents of the clipboard.  To do this you need to
pass arguments to @code{x-insert-selection}.  This is done by wrapping
the call in a 'lambda form:

@lisp
(global-set-key [f18]
  (lambda () (interactive) (x-insert-selection t nil)))
@end lisp

This binds the f18 key to a @dfn{generic} functional object.  The
interactive spec is required because only interactive functions can be
bound to keys.

For the FAQ example you could use:

@lisp
(global-set-key [(control ?.)]
  (lambda () (interactive) (scroll-up 1)))
(global-set-key [(control ?;)]
  (lambda () (interactive) (scroll-up -1)))
@end lisp

This is fine if you only need a few functions within the lambda body.
If you're doing more it's cleaner to define a separate function as in
question 3.5.3 (@pxref{Q3.5.3}).

@node Q3.5.2, Q3.5.3, Q3.5.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.2: How can I stop down-arrow from adding empty lines to the bottom of my buffers?

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(setq next-line-add-newlines nil)
@end lisp

This has been the default setting in XEmacs for some time.

@node Q3.5.3, Q3.5.4, Q3.5.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.3: How do I bind C-. and C-; to scroll one line up and down?

Add the following (Thanks to @email{mly@@adoc.xerox.com, Richard Mlynarik} and
@email{wayne@@zen.cac.stratus.com, Wayne Newberry}) to @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(defun scroll-up-one-line ()
  (interactive)
  (scroll-up 1))

(defun scroll-down-one-line ()
  (interactive)
  (scroll-down 1))

(global-set-key [(control ?.)] 'scroll-up-one-line) ; C-.
(global-set-key [(control ?;)] 'scroll-down-one-line) ; C-;
@end lisp

The key point is that you can only bind simple functions to keys; you
can not bind a key to a function that you're also passing arguments to.
(@pxref{Q3.5.1} for a better answer).

@node Q3.5.4, Q3.5.5, Q3.5.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.4: Globally binding @kbd{Delete}?

I cannot manage to globally bind my @kbd{Delete} key to something other
than the default.  How does one do this?

@lisp
(defun foo ()
  (interactive)
  (message "You hit DELETE"))

(global-set-key 'delete 'foo)
@end lisp

However, some modes explicitly bind @kbd{Delete}, so you would need to
add a hook that does @code{local-set-key} for them.  If what you want to
do is make the Backspace and Delete keys work more PC/Motif-like, then
take a look at the @file{delbs.el} package.

New in XEmacs 19.14 is a variable called @code{key-translation-map}
which makes it easier to bind @kbd{Delete}.  @file{delbs.el} is a
good example of how to do this correctly.

Also @xref{Q3.5.10}.

@node Q3.5.5, Q3.5.6, Q3.5.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.5: Scrolling one line at a time.

Can the cursor keys scroll the screen a line at a time, rather than the
default half page jump?  I tend it to find it disorienting.

Try this:

@lisp
(defun scroll-one-line-up (&optional arg)
  "Scroll the selected window up (forward in the text) one line (or N lines)."
  (interactive "p")
  (scroll-up (or arg 1)))

(defun scroll-one-line-down (&optional arg)
  "Scroll the selected window down (backward in the text) one line (or N)."
  (interactive "p")
  (scroll-down (or arg 1)))

(global-set-key [up]   'scroll-one-line-up)
(global-set-key [down] 'scroll-one-line-down)
@end lisp

The following will also work but will affect more than just the cursor
keys (i.e. @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}):

@lisp
(setq scroll-step 1)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Windows->Scroll Step...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} windows @key{RET}}.

@node Q3.5.6, Q3.5.7, Q3.5.5, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.6: How to map @kbd{Help} key alone on Sun type4 keyboard?

The following works in GNU Emacs 19:

@lisp
(global-set-key [help] 'help-command);; Help
@end lisp

The following works in XEmacs 19.15 with the addition of shift:

@lisp
(global-set-key [(shift help)] 'help-command);; Help
@end lisp

But it doesn't work alone.  This is in the file @file{PROBLEMS} which
should have come with your XEmacs installation: @emph{Emacs ignores the
@kbd{help} key when running OLWM}.

OLWM grabs the @kbd{help} key, and retransmits it to the appropriate
client using
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@code{XSendEvent}.  Allowing Emacs to react to synthetic
events is a security hole, so this is turned off by default.  You can
enable it by setting the variable @code{x-allow-sendevents} to t.  You
can also cause fix this by telling OLWM to not grab the help key, with
the null binding @code{OpenWindows.KeyboardCommand.Help:}.

@node Q3.5.7, Q3.5.8, Q3.5.6, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.7: How can you type in special characters in XEmacs?
@c Changed
One way is to use the package @code{x-compose}.  Then you can use
sequences like @kbd{Compose " a} to get �, etc.

Another way is to use the @code{iso-insert} package, provided in XEmacs
19.15 and later. Then you can use sequences like @kbd{C-x 8 " a} to get
�, etc.

@email{glynn@@sensei.co.uk, Glynn Clements} writes:

@quotation
It depends upon your X server.

Generally, the simplest way is to define a key as Multi_key with
xmodmap, e.g.
@c hey, show some respect, willya -- there's xkeycaps, isn't there? --
@c chr ;)
@example
        xmodmap -e 'keycode 0xff20 = Multi_key'
@end example

You will need to pick an appropriate keycode. Use xev to find out the
keycodes for each key.

[NB: On a `Windows' keyboard, recent versions of XFree86 automatically
define the right `Windows' key as Multi_key'.]

Once you have Multi_key defined, you can use e.g.
@example
        Multi a '       => �
        Multi e "       => �
        Multi c ,       => �
@end example

etc.

Also, recent versions of XFree86 define various AltGr-<key>
combinations as dead keys, i.e.
@example
        AltGr [         => dead_diaeresis
        AltGr ]         => dead_tilde
        AltGr ;         => dead_acute
@end example
etc.

Running @samp{xmodmap -pk} will list all of the defined keysyms.
@end quotation

@node Q3.5.8, Q3.5.9, Q3.5.7, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.8: Why does @code{(global-set-key [delete-forward] 'delete-char)} complain?

Why does @code{(define-key global-map [ delete-forward ] 'delete-char)}
complain of not being able to bind an unknown key?

Try this instead:

@lisp
(define-key global-map [delete_forward] 'delete-char)
@end lisp

and it will work.

What you are seeing above is a bug due to code that is trying to check
for GNU Emacs syntax like:

(define-key global-map [C-M-a] 'delete-char)

which otherwise would cause no errors but would not result in the
expected behavior.

This bug has been fixed in 19.14.

@node Q3.5.9, Q3.5.10, Q3.5.8, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.9: How do I make the Delete key delete forward?

With XEmacs-20.2 use the @code{delbs} package:

@lisp
(require 'delbs)
@end lisp

This will give you the functions @code{delbs-enable-delete-forward} to
set things up, and @code{delbs-disable-delete-forward} to revert to
``normal'' behavior.  Note that @code{delbackspace} package is obsolete.

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 better solution is to set variable
@code{delete-key-deletes-forward} to t.  You can also change this with
Customize. Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Basics->Delete Key Deletes Forward} or
type @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} editing-basics @key{RET}}.

Also @xref{Q3.5.4}.

@node Q3.5.10, Q3.5.11, Q3.5.9, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.10: Can I turn on @dfn{sticky} modifier keys?

Yes, with @code{(setq modifier-keys-are-sticky t)}.  This will give the
effect of being able to press and release Shift and have the next
character typed come out in upper case.  This will affect all the other
modifier keys like Control and Meta as well.

@email{ben@@xemacs.org, Ben Wing} writes:

@quotation
One thing about the sticky modifiers is that if you move the mouse out
of the frame and back in, it cancels all currently ``stuck'' modifiers.
@end quotation

@node Q3.5.11, Q3.6.1, Q3.5.10, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.5.11: How do I map the arrow keys?
@c New
Say you want to map @kbd{C-@key{right}} to forward-word:

@email{sds@@usa.net, Sam Steingold} writes:

@quotation
@lisp
; both XEmacs and Emacs
(define-key global-map [(control right)] 'forward-word)
@end lisp
or
@lisp
; Emacs only
(define-key global-map [C-right] 'forward-word)
@end lisp
or
@lisp
; ver > 20, both
(define-key global-map (kbd "C-<right>") 'forward-word)
@end lisp
@end quotation



@node Q3.6.1, Q3.6.2, Q3.5.11, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.6: The Cursor
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.6.1: Is there a way to make the bar cursor thicker?

I'd like to have the bar cursor a little thicker, as I tend to "lose" it
often.

For a 1 pixel bar cursor, use:

@lisp
(setq bar-cursor t)
@end lisp

For a 2 pixel bar cursor, use:

@lisp
(setq bar-cursor 'anything-else)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 you can also change these with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Display->Bar Cursor...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} display @key{RET}}.

You can use a color to make it stand out better:

@example
Emacs*cursorColor:      Red
@end example

@node Q3.6.2, Q3.6.3, Q3.6.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.6.2: Is there a way to get back the block cursor?

@lisp
(setq bar-cursor nil)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Display->Bar Cursor...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} display @key{RET}}.

@node Q3.6.3, Q3.7.1, Q3.6.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.6.3: Can I make the cursor blink?

If you are running a version of XEmacs older than 19.14, no.  Otherwise
you can do the following:

@lisp
(blink-cursor-mode)
@end lisp

This function toggles between a steady cursor and a blinking cursor.
You may also set this mode from the menu bar by selecting @samp{Options
=> Frame Appearance => Blinking Cursor}.  Remember to save options.

@node Q3.7.1, Q3.7.2, Q3.6.3, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.7: The Mouse and Highlighting
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.1: How can I turn off Mouse pasting?

I keep hitting the middle mouse button by accident and getting stuff
pasted into my buffer so how can I turn this off?

Here is an alternative binding, whereby the middle mouse button selects
(but does not cut) the expression under the mouse. Clicking middle on a
left or right paren will select to the matching one.  Note that you can
use @code{define-key} or @code{global-set-key}.

@lisp
(defun mouse-set-point-and-select (event)
  "Sets the point at the mouse location, then marks following form"
  (interactive "@@e")
  (mouse-set-point event)
  (mark-sexp 1))
(define-key global-map [button2] 'mouse-set-point-and-select)
@end lisp

@node Q3.7.2, Q3.7.3, Q3.7.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.2: How do I set control/meta/etc modifiers on mouse buttons?

Use, for instance, @code{[(meta button1)]}. For example, here is a common
setting for Common Lisp programmers who use the bundled @code{ilisp}
package, whereby meta-button1 on a function name will find the file where
the function name was defined, and put you at that location in the source
file.

[Inside a function that gets called by the lisp-mode-hook and
ilisp-mode-hook]

@lisp
(local-set-key [(meta button1)] 'edit-definitions-lisp)
@end lisp

@node Q3.7.3, Q3.7.4, Q3.7.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.3: Clicking the left button does not do anything in buffer list.

I do @kbd{C-x C-b} to get a list of buffers and the entries get
highlighted when I move the mouse over them but clicking the left mouse
does not do anything.

Use the middle mouse button.

@node Q3.7.4, Q3.7.5, Q3.7.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.4: How can I get a list of buffers when I hit mouse button 3?

The following code will replace the default popup on button3:

@lisp
(global-set-key [button3] 'popup-buffer-menu)
@end lisp

@node Q3.7.5, Q3.7.6, Q3.7.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.5: Why does cut-and-paste not work between XEmacs and a cmdtool?

We don't know.  It's a bug.  There does seem to be a work-around,
however.  Try running xclipboard first.  It appears to fix the problem
even if you exit it.  (This should be mostly fixed in 19.13, but we
haven't yet verified that).

@node Q3.7.6, Q3.7.7, Q3.7.5, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.6: How I can set XEmacs up so that it pastes where the text cursor is?

By default XEmacs pastes X selections where the mouse pointer is.  How
do I disable this?

Examine the function @code{mouse-yank}, by typing @kbd{C-h f mouse-yank
@key{RET}}.

To get XEmacs to paste at the text cursor, add this your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq mouse-yank-at-point t)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.2 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Mouse->Yank At Point...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} mouse @key{RET}}.

@node Q3.7.7, Q3.7.8, Q3.7.6, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.7: How do I select a rectangular region?

Just select the region normally, then use the rectangle commands (e.g.
@code{kill-rectangle} on it.  The region does not highlight as a
rectangle, but the commands work just fine.

To actually sweep out rectangular regions with the mouse you can use
@code{mouse-track-do-rectangle} which is assigned to @kbd{M-button1}.
Then use rectangle commands.

You can also do the following to change default behavior to sweep out
rectangular regions:

@lisp
(setq mouse-track-rectangle-p t)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.2 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Mouse->Track Rectangle...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} mouse @key{RET}}.


@example
 mouse-track-do-rectangle: (event)
   -- an interactive compiled Lisp function.
 Like `mouse-track' but selects rectangles instead of regions.
@end example

@node Q3.7.8, Q3.8.1, Q3.7.7, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.7.8: Why does @kbd{M-w} take so long?

It actually doesn't.  It leaves the region visible for a second so that
you can see what area is being yanked.  If you start working, though, it
will immediately complete its operation.  In other words, it will only
delay for a second if you let it.

@node Q3.8.1, Q3.8.2, Q3.7.8, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.8: The Menubar and Toolbar
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.8.1: How do I get rid of the menu (or menubar)?

If you are running XEmacs 19.13 and earlier, add this command to your
@file{.emacs}.

@lisp
(set-menubar nil)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs 19.14 the preferred method is:

@lisp
(set-specifier menubar-visible-p nil)
@end lisp

@node Q3.8.2, Q3.8.3, Q3.8.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.8.2: Can I customize the basic menubar?

For an extensive menubar, add this line to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(load "big-menubar")
@end lisp

If you'd like to write your own, this file provides as good a set of
examples as any to start from.  The file is located in
@file{lisp/packages/big-menubar.el} in the XEmacs installation
directory.

@node Q3.8.3, Q3.8.4, Q3.8.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.8.3: How do I control how many buffers are listed in the menu @code{Buffers List}?

Add the following to your @file{.emacs} (suit to fit):

@lisp
(setq buffers-menu-max-size 20)
@end lisp

For no limit, use an argument of @samp{nil}.

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Menu->Buffers Menu->Max Size...} or
type @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} buffers-menu @key{RET}}.

@node Q3.8.4, Q3.8.5, Q3.8.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.8.4: Resources like @code{Emacs*menubar*font} are not working?

I am trying to use a resource like @code{Emacs*menubar*font} to set the
font of the menubar but it's not working.

If you are using the real Motif menubar, this resource is not
recognized; you have to say:

@example
Emacs*menubar*fontList: FONT
@end example

If you are using the Lucid menubar, the former resource will be
recognized only if the latter resource is unset.  This means that the
resource

@example
*fontList: FONT
@end example

will override

@example
Emacs*menubar*font: FONT
@end example

even though the latter is more specific.

@node Q3.8.5, Q3.9.1, Q3.8.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.8.5: How can I bind a key to a function to toggle the toolbar?

Try something like:

@lisp
(defun my-toggle-toolbar ()
  (interactive)
  (set-specifier default-toolbar-visible-p
                 (not (specifier-instance default-toolbar-visible-p))))
(global-set-key "\C-xT" 'my-toggle-toolbar)
@end lisp

There are redisplay bugs in 19.14 that may make the preceding result in
a messed-up display, especially for frames with multiple windows.  You
may need to resize the frame before XEmacs completely realizes the
toolbar is really gone.

Thanks to @email{martin@@xemacs.org, Martin Buchholz} for the correct
code.

@node Q3.9.1, Q3.9.2, Q3.8.5, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.9: Scrollbars
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.9.1: How can I disable the scrollbar?

To disable them for all frames, add the following line to
your @file{.Xdefaults}:

@example
Emacs.scrollBarWidth:  0
@end example

Or select from the @code{Options} menu @code{Frame Appearance->Scrollbars}.
Remember to save options.

To turn the scrollbar off on a per-frame basis, use the following
function:

@lisp
(set-specifier scrollbar-width 0 (selected-frame))
@end lisp

You can actually turn the scrollbars on at any level you want by
substituting for (selected-frame) in the above command.  For example, to
turn the scrollbars off only in a single buffer:

@lisp
(set-specifier scrollbar-width 0 (current-buffer))
@end lisp

In XEmacs versions prior to 19.14, you had to use the hairier construct:

@lisp
(set-specifier scrollbar-width (cons (selected-frame) 0))
@end lisp

@node Q3.9.2, Q3.9.3, Q3.9.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.9.2: How can one use resources to change scrollbar colors?

Here's a recap of how to use resources to change your scrollbar colors:

@example
! Motif scrollbars

Emacs*XmScrollBar.Background: skyblue
Emacs*XmScrollBar.troughColor: lightgray

! Athena scrollbars

Emacs*Scrollbar.Foreground: skyblue
Emacs*Scrollbar.Background: lightgray
@end example

Note the capitalization of @code{Scrollbar} for the Athena widget.

@node Q3.9.3, Q3.9.4, Q3.9.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.9.3: Moving the scrollbar can move the point; can I disable this?

When I move the scrollbar in an XEmacs window, it moves the point as
well, which should not be the default behavior.  Is this a bug or a
feature?  Can I disable it?

The current behavior is a feature, not a bug.  Point remains at the same
buffer position as long as that position does not scroll off the screen.
In that event, point will end up in either the upper-left or lower-left
hand corner.

This cannot be changed.

@node Q3.9.4, Q3.10.1, Q3.9.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.9.4: How can I get automatic horizontal scrolling?

By the same token, how can I turn it off in specific modes?

To do this, add to your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(require 'auto-show)
@end lisp

Then do @code{(setq truncate-lines t)} in the mode-hooks for any modes
in which you want lines truncated.

More precisely: If @code{truncate-lines} is nil, horizontal scrollbars
will never appear.  Otherwise, they will appear only if the value of
@code{scrollbar-height} for that buffer/window/etc. is non-zero.  If you
do

@lisp
(set-specifier scrollbar-height 0)
@end lisp

then horizontal scrollbars will not appear in truncated buffers unless
the package specifically asked for them.

Automatic horizontal scrolling is now standard, starting with 19.14.

@node Q3.10.1, Q3.10.2, Q3.9.4, Customization
@unnumberedsec 3.10: Text Selections
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.10.1: How can I turn off or change highlighted selections?

The @code{zmacs} mode allows for what some might call gratuitous
highlighting for selected regions (either by setting mark or by using
the mouse).  This is the default behavior.  To turn off, add the
following line to your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(setq zmacs-regions nil)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.2 you can also change this with Customize. Select
from the @code{Options} menu @code{Customize->Emacs->Editing->Basics->Zmacs
Regions} or type @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} editing-basics @key{RET}}.

To change the face for selection, look at @code{Options->Customize} on
the menubar.

@node Q3.10.2, Q3.10.3, Q3.10.1, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.10.2: How do I get that typing on an active region removes it?

I want to change things so that if I select some text and start typing,
the typed text replaces the selected text, similar to Motif.

You want to use something called @dfn{pending delete}.  Pending delete
is what happens when you select a region (with the mouse or keyboard)
and you press a key to replace the selected region by the key you typed.
Usually backspace kills the selected region.

To get this behavior, add the following lines to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(cond
 ((fboundp 'turn-on-pending-delete)
  (turn-on-pending-delete))
 ((fboundp 'pending-delete-on)
  (pending-delete-on t)))
@end lisp

Note that this will work with both Backspace and Delete.  This code is a 
tad more complicated than it has to be for XEmacs in order to make it
more portable.

@node Q3.10.3, Q3.10.4, Q3.10.2, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.10.3: Can I turn off the highlight during isearch?

I do not like my text highlighted while I am doing isearch as I am not
able to see what's underneath.  How do I turn it off?

Put the following in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq isearch-highlight nil)
@end lisp

Starting with XEmacs-20.2 you can also change this with Customize. Type
@kbd{M-x customize-variable @key{RET} isearch-highlight @key{RET}}.

Note also that isearch-highlight affects query-replace and ispell.
Instead of disabling isearch-highlight you may find that a better
solution consists of customizing the @code{isearch} face.

@node Q3.10.4, Q3.10.5, Q3.10.3, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.10.4: How do I turn off highlighting after @kbd{C-x C-p} (mark-page)?

Put this in your @code{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq zmacs-regions nil)
@end lisp

@strong{Warning: This command turns off all region highlighting.}

Also @xref{Q3.10.1}.

@node Q3.10.5,  , Q3.10.4, Customization
@unnumberedsubsec Q3.10.5: The region disappears when I hit the end of buffer while scrolling.

This has been fixed by default starting with XEmacs-20.3.

With older versions you can turn this feature (if it indeed is a feature)
off like this:

@lisp
(defadvice scroll-up (around scroll-up freeze)
  (interactive "_P")
  (let ((zmacs-region-stays t))
    (if (interactive-p)
        (condition-case nil
            ad-do-it
          (end-of-buffer (goto-char (point-max))))
      ad-do-it)))

(defadvice scroll-down (around scroll-down freeze)
  (interactive "_P")
  (let ((zmacs-region-stays t))
    (if (interactive-p)
        (condition-case nil
            ad-do-it
          (beginning-of-buffer (goto-char (point-min))))
      ad-do-it)))
@end lisp

Thanks to @email{raman@@adobe.com, T. V. Raman} for assistance in deriving this
answer.

@node Subsystems, Miscellaneous, Customization, Top
@unnumbered 4 Major Subsystems

This is part 4 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list.  This
section is devoted to major XEmacs subsystems.

@menu
Reading Mail with VM:
* Q4.0.1::      How do I set up VM to retrieve remote mail using POP?
* Q4.0.2::      How do I get VM to filter mail for me?
* Q4.0.3::      How can I get VM to automatically check for new mail?
* Q4.0.4::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.0.5::      How do I get my outgoing mail archived?
* Q4.0.6::      I have various addresses at which I receive mail.  How can I tell VM to ignore them when doing a "reply-all"?
* Q4.0.7::      Is there a mailing list or FAQ for VM?
* Q4.0.8::      Remote mail reading with VM.
* Q4.0.9::      rmail or VM gets an error incorporating new mail.
* Q4.0.10::     How do I make VM stay in a single frame?
* Q4.0.11::     How do I make VM or mh-e display graphical smilies?
* Q4.0.12::     Customization of VM not covered in the manual or here.

Web browsing with W3:
* Q4.1.1::      What is W3?
* Q4.1.2::      How do I run W3 from behind a firewall?
* Q4.1.3::      Is it true that W3 supports style sheets and tables?

Reading Netnews and Mail with Gnus:
* Q4.2.1::      GNUS, (ding) Gnus, Gnus 5, September Gnus, Red Gnus,argh!
* Q4.2.2::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.2.3::      How do I make Gnus stay within a single frame?
* Q4.2.4::      How do I customize the From: line?

Other Mail & News:
* Q4.3.1::      How can I read and/or compose MIME messages?
* Q4.3.2::      What is TM and where do I get it?
* Q4.3.3::      Why isn't this @code{movemail} program working?
* Q4.3.4::      Movemail is also distributed by Netscape?  Can that cause problems?
* Q4.3.5::      Where do I find pstogif (required by tm)?

Sparcworks, EOS, and WorkShop:
* Q4.4.1::      What is SPARCworks, EOS, and WorkShop
* Q4.4.2::      How do I start the Sun Workshop support in XEmacs 21?

Energize:
* Q4.5.1::      What is/was Energize?

Infodock:
* Q4.6.1::      What is Infodock?

Other Unbundled Packages:
* Q4.7.1::      What is AUC TeX?  Where do you get it?
* Q4.7.2::      Are there any Emacs Lisp Spreadsheets?
* Q4.7.3::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q4.7.4::      Problems installing AUC TeX
* Q4.7.5::      Is there a reason for an Emacs package not to be included in XEmacs?
* Q4.7.6::      Is there a MatLab mode?
@end menu

@node Q4.0.1, Q4.0.2, Subsystems, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.0: Reading Mail with VM
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.1: How do I set up VM to retrieve mail from a remote site using POP?

Use @code{vm-spool-files}, like this for example:

@lisp
(setq vm-spool-files '("/var/spool/mail/wing"
                       "netcom23.netcom.com:110:pass:wing:MYPASS"))
@end lisp

Of course substitute your actual password for MYPASS.

@node Q4.0.2, Q4.0.3, Q4.0.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.2: How do I get VM to filter mail for me?

One possibility is to use procmail to split your mail before it gets to
VM.  I prefer this personally, since there are many strange and
wonderful things one can do with procmail.  Procmail may be found at
@uref{ftp://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/pub/packages/procmail/}.

Also see the Mail Filtering FAQ at:
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/filtering-faq}.
@c Link above,
@c <URL:http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/mail/filtering-faq/faq.html>
@c was dead.

@node Q4.0.3, Q4.0.4, Q4.0.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.3: How can I get VM to automatically check for new mail?

@email{turner@@lanl.gov, John Turner} writes:

@quotation
Use the following:

@lisp
(setq vm-auto-get-new-mail 60)
@end lisp
@end quotation

@node Q4.0.4, Q4.0.5, Q4.0.3, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.4: [This question intentionally left blank]

Obsolete question, left blank to avoid renumbering.

@node Q4.0.5, Q4.0.6, Q4.0.4, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.5: How do I get my outgoing mail archived?

@lisp
(setq mail-archive-file-name "~/outbox")
@end lisp

@node Q4.0.6, Q4.0.7, Q4.0.5, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.6: I have various addresses at which I receive mail.  How can I tell VM to ignore them when doing a "reply-all"?

Set @code{vm-reply-ignored-addresses} to a list, like

@lisp
(setq vm-reply-ignored-addresses
      '("wing@@nuspl@@nvwls.cc.purdue.edu,netcom[0-9]*.netcom.com"
        "wing@@netcom.com" "wing@@xemacs.org"))
@end lisp

Note that each string is a regular expression.

@node Q4.0.7, Q4.0.8, Q4.0.6, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.7: Is there a mailing list or FAQ for VM?

A FAQ for VM exists at @uref{http://www.cyberpass.net/~gorkab/vmfaq.htm}.

VM has its own newsgroups gnu.emacs.vm.info and gnu.emacs.vm.bug.

@node Q4.0.8, Q4.0.9, Q4.0.7,  Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.8: Remote mail reading with VM.

My mailbox lives at the office on a big honkin server.  My regular INBOX
lives on my honkin desktop machine.  I now can PPP to the office from
home which is far from honking...  I'd like to be able to read mail at
home without storing it here and I'd like to use xemacs and VM at
home...  Is there a recommended setup?

@email{nuspl@@nvwls.cc.purdue.edu, Joseph J. Nuspl Jr.} writes:

@quotation
There are several ways to do this.

@enumerate
@item
Set your display to your home machine and run dxpc or one of the other X
compressors.

@item
NFS mount your desktop machine on your home machine and modify your pop
command on your home machine to rsh to your desktop machine and actually
do the pop get's.

@item
Run a POP server on your desktop machine as well and do a sort of two
tiered POP get.
@end enumerate
@end quotation

        @email{wmperry@@monolith.spry.com, William Perry} adds:

@quotation
Or you could run a pop script periodically on your desktop machine, and
just use ange-ftp or NFS to get to your mailbox.  I used to do this all
the time back at IU.
@end quotation

@node Q4.0.9, Q4.0.10, Q4.0.8, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.9: rmail or VM gets an error incorporating new mail.

Quoting the XEmacs PROBLEMS file:

@quotation
rmail and VM get new mail from @file{/usr/spool/mail/$USER} using a
program called @code{movemail}.  This program interlocks with
@code{/bin/mail} using the protocol defined by @code{/bin/mail}.

There are two different protocols in general use.  One of them uses the
@code{flock} system call.  The other involves creating a lock file;
@code{movemail} must be able to write in @file{/usr/spool/mail} in order
to do this.  You control which one is used by defining, or not defining,
the macro @code{MAIL_USE_FLOCK} in @file{config.h} or the m- or s- file
it includes.

@strong{IF YOU DON'T USE THE FORM OF INTERLOCKING THAT IS NORMAL ON YOUR
SYSTEM, YOU CAN LOSE MAIL!}

If your system uses the lock file protocol, and fascist restrictions
prevent ordinary users from writing the lock files in
@file{/usr/spool/mail}, you may need to make @code{movemail} setgid to a
suitable group such as @samp{mail}.  You can use these commands (as
root):

@example
chgrp mail movemail
chmod 2755 movemail
@end example

If your system uses the lock file protocol, and fascist restrictions
prevent ordinary users from writing the lock files in
@file{/usr/spool/mail}, you may need to make @code{movemail} setgid to a
suitable group such as @code{mail}.  To do this, use the following
commands (as root) after doing the make install.

@example
chgrp mail movemail
chmod 2755 movemail
@end example

Installation normally copies movemail from the build directory to an
installation directory which is usually under @file{/usr/local/lib}.
The installed copy of @code{movemail} is usually in the directory
@file{/usr/local/lib/emacs/VERSION/TARGET}.  You must change the group
and mode of the installed copy; changing the group and mode of the build
directory copy is ineffective.
@end quotation

@node Q4.0.10, Q4.0.11, Q4.0.9, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.10: How do I make VM stay in a single frame?

John.@email{Cooper@@Eng.Sun.COM, John S Cooper} writes:

@quotation
@lisp
                                        ; Don't use multiple frames
(setq vm-frame-per-composition nil)
(setq vm-frame-per-folder nil)
(setq vm-frame-per-edit nil)
(setq vm-frame-per-summary nil)
@end lisp
@end quotation

@node Q4.0.11, Q4.0.12, Q4.0.10, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.11: How do I make VM or mh-e display graphical smilies?
@c Changed June
For mh-e use the following:

@lisp
(add-hook 'mh-show-mode-hook '(lambda ()
                                (smiley-region (point-min)
                                               (point-max))))
@end lisp

@email{bill@@carpenter.ORG, WJCarpenter} writes:
For VM use the following:
@lisp
       (autoload 'smiley-region "smiley" nil t)
       (add-hook 'vm-select-message-hook
                 '(lambda ()
                    (smiley-region (point-min)
                                   (point-max))))
@end lisp

For tm use the following:
@lisp
(autoload 'smiley-buffer "smiley" nil t)
(add-hook 'mime-viewer/plain-text-preview-hook 'smiley-buffer)
@end lisp

@node Q4.0.12, Q4.1.1, Q4.0.11, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.0.12: Customization of VM not covered in the manual, or here.

@email{boffi@@hp735.stru.polimi.it, giacomo boffi} writes:

@quotation
The meta-answer is to look into the file @file{vm-vars.el}, in the vm
directory of the lisp library.

@file{vm-vars.el} contains, initializes and carefully describes, with
examples of usage, the plethora of user options that @emph{fully}
control VM's behavior.

Enter vm-vars, @code{forward-search} for toolbar, find the variables
that control the toolbar placement, appearance, existence, copy to your
@file{.emacs} or @file{.vm} and modify according to the detailed
instructions.

The above also applies to all the various features of VM: search for
some keywords, maybe the first you conjure isn't appropriate, find the
appropriate variables, copy and experiment.
@end quotation

@node Q4.1.1, Q4.1.2, Q4.0.12, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.1: Web browsing with W3
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.1.1: What is W3?

W3 is an advanced graphical browser written in Emacs lisp that runs on
XEmacs.  It has full support for cascaded style sheets, and more...

It has a home web page at
@uref{http://www.cs.indiana.edu/elisp/w3/docs.html}.

@node Q4.1.2, Q4.1.3, Q4.1.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.1.2: How do I run W3 from behind a firewall?

There is a long, well-written, detailed section in the W3 manual that
describes how to do this.  Look in the section entitled "Firewalls".

@node Q4.1.3, Q4.2.1, Q4.1.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.1.3: Is it true that W3 supports style sheets and tables?

Yes, and much more.  W3, as distributed with the latest XEmacs is a
full-featured web browser.

@node Q4.2.1, Q4.2.2, Q4.1.3, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.2: Reading Netnews and Mail with Gnus
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.2.1: GNUS, (ding) Gnus, Gnus 5, September Gnus, Red Gnus, Quassia Gnus, argh!

The Gnus numbering issues are not meant for mere mortals to know them.
If you feel you @emph{must} enter the muddy waters of Gnus, visit the
excellent FAQ, maintained by Justin Sheehy, at:

@example
@uref{http://www.ccs.neu.edu/software/contrib/gnus/}
@end example

See also Gnus home page
@example
@uref{http://www.gnus.org/}
@end example

@node Q4.2.2, Q4.2.3, Q4.2.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.2.2: This question intentionally left blank.

Obsolete question, left blank to avoid renumbering.

@node Q4.2.3, Q4.2.4, Q4.2.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.2.3: How do I make Gnus stay within a single frame?

The toolbar code to start Gnus opens the new frame---and it's a feature
rather than a bug.  If you don't like it, but would still like to click
on the seemly icon, use the following code:

@lisp
(defun toolbar-news ()
  (gnus))
@end lisp

It will redefine the callback function of the icon to just call
@code{gnus}, without all the fancy frame stuff.

@node Q4.2.4, Q4.3.1, Q4.2.3, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.2.4: How do I customize the From: line?

How do I change the @code{From:} line?  I have set gnus-user-from-line
to
@example
Gail Gurman <gail.gurman@@sybase.com>
@end example
@noindent , but XEmacs Gnus doesn't use
it. Instead it uses
@example
Gail Mara Gurman @email{gailg@@deall}
@end example
@noindent and then complains
that it's incorrect. Also, as you perhaps can see, my Message-ID is
screwy. How can I change that?

@email{larsi@@ifi.uio.no, Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen} writes:

@quotation
Set @code{user-mail-address} to @samp{gail.gurman@@sybase.com} or
@code{mail-host-address} to @samp{sybase.com}.
@end quotation

@node Q4.3.1, Q4.3.2, Q4.2.4, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.3: Other Mail & News
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.3.1: How can I read and/or compose MIME messages?
@c Changed June

VM supports MIME natively.

You probably want to use the Tools for MIME (tm).  @xref{Q4.3.2}, for
details.

@email{trey@@cs.berkeley.edu, Trey Jackson} has an Emacs & MIME web page at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/~trey/emacs/mime.html}.


Another possibility is RMIME.  You may find RMIME at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://www.cinti.net/~rmoody/rmime/index.html}.


@node Q4.3.2, Q4.3.3, Q4.3.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.3.2: What is TM and where do I get it?

TM stands for @dfn{Tools for MIME} and not Tiny MIME.  TM integrates
with all major XEmacs packages like Gnus (all flavors), VM, MH-E, and
mailcrypt.  It provides totally transparent and trouble-free MIME
support.  When appropriate a message will be decoded in place in an
XEmacs buffer.

TM now comes as a package with XEmacs 19.16 and XEmacs 20.2.

TM was written by @email{morioka@@jaist.ac.jp, MORIOKA Tomohiko} and
@email{shuhei-k@@jaist.ac.jp, KOBAYASHI
Shuhei}.

It is based on the work of @email{umerin@@mse.kyutech.ac.jp, UMEDA
Masanobu}, the original writer of GNUS.

The following information is from the @file{README}:

@dfn{tm} is a MIME package for GNU Emacs.
tm has following functions:

@itemize @bullet
@item MIME style multilingual header.
@item MIME message viewer (mime/viewer-mode).
@item MIME message composer (mime/editor-mode).
@item MIME extenders for mh-e, GNUS, RMAIL and VM.
@end itemize

tm is available from following anonymous ftp sites:
@itemize @bullet
@comment @item @uref{ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/GNU/elisp/mime/} (Japan).
@comment @item @uref{ftp://ftp.nis.co.jp/pub/gnu/emacs-lisp/tm/} (Japan).
@comment @c The host above is unknown.
@comment @item @uref{ftp://ftp.nisiq.net/pub/gnu/emacs-lisp/tm/} (US).
@comment @item @uref{ftp://ftp.miranova.com/pub/gnus/jaist.ac.jp/} (US).
@item @uref{ftp://ftp.unicamp.br/pub/mail/mime/tm/} (Brasil).
@item @uref{ftp://ftp.th-darmstadt.de/pub/editors/GNU-Emacs/lisp/mime/} (Germany).
@item @uref{ftp://ftp.tnt.uni-hannover.de/pub/editors/xemacs/contrib/} (Germany).
@end itemize

Don't let the installation procedure & instructions stop you from trying
this package out---it's much simpler than it looks, and once installed,
trivial to use.

@node Q4.3.3, Q4.3.4, Q4.3.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.3.3: Why isn't this @code{movemail} program working?

Ben Wing @email{ben@@xemacs.org} writes:

@quotation
It wasn't chown'ed/chmod'd correctly.
@end quotation

@node Q4.3.4, Q4.3.5, Q4.3.3, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.3.4: Movemail is also distributed by Netscape?  Can that cause problems?

@email{steve@@xemacs.org, Steve Baur} writes:

@quotation
Yes.  Always use the movemail installed with your XEmacs.  Failure to do
so can result in lost mail.
@end quotation

Please refer to @email{jwz@@jwz.org, Jamie Zawinski's} notes at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://home.netscape.com/eng/mozilla/2.0/relnotes/demo/movemail.html}.
In particular, this document will show you how to make Netscape use the
version of movemail configured for your system by the person who built
XEmacs.

@node Q4.3.5, Q4.4.1, Q4.3.4, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.3.5: Where do I find pstogif (required by tm)?

pstogif is part of the latex2html package.

@email{vroonhof@@math.ethz.ch, Jan Vroonhof} writes:

latex2html is best found at the CTAN hosts and their mirrors
in
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@file{tex-archive/support/latex2html}.

CTAN hosts are:

@itemize @bullet
@item @uref{ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk/tex-archive/support/latex2html/}.
@item @uref{ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/support/latex2html/}.
@end itemize

There is a good mirror at ftp.cdrom.com;
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://ftp.cdrom.com/pub/tex/ctan/support/latex2html/}.

@node Q4.4.1, Q4.4.2, Q4.3.5, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.4: Sparcworks, EOS, and WorkShop
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.4.1: What is SPARCworks, EOS, and WorkShop?

@email{turner@@lanl.gov, John Turner} writes:

@quotation
SPARCworks is SunSoft's development environment, comprising compilers
(C, C++, FORTRAN 77, Fortran 90, Ada, and Pascal), a debugger, and other
tools such as TeamWare (for configuration management), MakeTool, etc.
@end quotation

See @uref{http://www.sun.com/software/Developer-products/}
for more info.

EOS stands for "Era on SPARCworks", but I don't know what Era stands
for.

EOS is the integration of XEmacs with the SPARCworks debugger.  It
allows one to use an XEmacs frame to view code (complete with
fontification, etc.), set breakpoints, print variables, etc., while
using the SPARCworks debugger.  It works very well and I use it all the
time.

@email{cthomp@@xemacs.org, Chuck Thompson} writes:

@quotation
Era stood for "Emacs Rewritten Again".  It was what we were calling the
modified version of Lucid Emacs for Sun when I was dragged, er, allowed
to work on this wonderful editor.
@end quotation

@email{martin@@xemacs.org, Martin Buchholz} writes:

@quotation
EOS is being replaced with a new graphical development environment
called Sun WorkShop, which is currently (07/96) in Alpha Test.  For more
details, check out
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://www.sun.com/software/Products/Developer-products}.
@end quotation

@node Q4.4.2, Q4.5.1, Q4.4.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.4.2: How do I start the Sun Workshop support in XEmacs 21?

Add the switch ---with-workshop to the configure command when building
XEmacs and put the following in one of your startup files
(e.g. site-start.el or .emacs):

@lisp
(when (featurep 'tooltalk)
  (load "tooltalk-macros")
  (load "tooltalk-util")
  (load "tooltalk-init"))
(when (featurep 'sparcworks)
  (load "sunpro-init")
  (load "ring")
  (load "comint")
  (load "annotations")
  (sunpro-startup))
@end lisp

If you are not using the latest Workshop (5.0) you have to apply the
following patch:

@format
--- /opt/SUNWspro/lib/eserve.el.ORIG    Fri May 14 15:23:26 1999
+++ /opt/SUNWspro/lib/eserve.el Fri May 14 15:24:54 1999
@@@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@@@
 (defvar running-xemacs nil "t if we're running XEmacs")
 (defvar running-emacs  nil "t if we're running GNU Emacs 19")

-(if (string-match "^\\(19\\|20\\)\..*\\(XEmacs\\|Lucid\\)" emacs-version)
+(if (string-match "\\(XEmacs\\|Lucid\\)" emacs-version)
     (setq running-xemacs t)
     (setq running-emacs  t))
@end format



@node Q4.5.1, Q4.6.1, Q4.4.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.5: Energize
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.5.1: What is/was Energize?

@email{gray@@meteor.harlequin.com, David N Gray} writes:
@quotation
The files in @file{lisp/energize} are to enable Emacs to interface with
the "Energize Programming System", a C and C++ development environment,
which was a product of Lucid, Inc.  Tragically, Lucid went out of
business in 1994, so although Energize is still a great system, if you
don't already have it, there isn't any way to get it now.  (Unless you
happen to be in Japan; INS Engineering may still be selling it there.
Tartan bought the rights to sell it in the rest of the world, but never
did so.)
@end quotation

@node Q4.6.1, Q4.7.1, Q4.5.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.6: Infodock
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.6.1: What is Infodock?

InfoDock is an integrated productivity toolset, mainly aimed at
technical people.  It is developed and supported by InfoDock
Associates, a firm that offers custom support and development
for InfoDock, XEmacs and GNU Emacs.  ( @uref{http://www.infodock.com},
@email{info@@infodock.com}, +1 408 243 3300).

InfoDock is built atop the XEmacs variant of GNU Emacs and so has all of
the power of Emacs, but with an easier to use and more comprehensive
menu-based user interface.  The bottom portion of this text describes
how it differs from XEmacs and GNU Emacs from the Free Software
Foundation.

InfoDock is aimed at people who want a free, turn-key productivity
environment.  Although InfoDock is customizable, it is not intended for
people who like basic versions of Emacs which need to be customized
extensively for local use; standard Emacs distributions are better for
such uses.  InfoDock is for those people who want a complete,
pre-customized environment in one package, which they need not touch
more than once or twice a year to update to new revisions.

InfoDock is pre-built for SPARC SunOS/Solaris systems, PA-RISC HP-UX,
and Intel Linux systems.  It is intended for use on a color display,
although most features will work on monochrome monitors.  Simply unpack
InfoDock according to the instructions in the ID-INSTALL file and you
are ready to run.

The InfoDock Manual is concise, yet sufficient as a user guide for users
who have never used an Emacs-type editor before.  For users who are
already familiar with Emacs, it supplements the information in the GNU
Emacs Manual.

InfoDock menus are much more extensive and more mature than standard
Emacs menus.  Each menu offers a @samp{Manual} item which displays
documentation associated with the menu's functions.

@noindent
Four types of menubars are provided:
@enumerate
@item
An extensive menubar providing access to global InfoDock commands.
@item
Mode-specific menubars tailored to the current major mode.
@item
A simple menubar for basic editing to help novices get started with InfoDock.
@item
The standard XEmacs menubar.
@end enumerate

Most modes also include mode-specific popup menus.  Additionally, region and
rectangle popup menus are included.

@samp{Hyperbole}, the everyday information manager, is a core part of
InfoDock.  This provides context-sensitive mouse keys, a rolodex-type
contact manager, programmable hypertext buttons, and an autonumbered
outliner with embedded hyperlink anchors.

The @samp{OO-Browser}, a multi-language object-oriented code browser, is a
standard part of InfoDock.

InfoDock saves a more extensive set of user options than other Emacs
versions.

InfoDock inserts a useful file header in many file types, showing the
author, summary, and last modification time of each file.  A summary
program can then be used to summarize all of the files in a directory,
for easy MANIFEST file creation.

Your working set of buffers is automatically saved and restored (if you
answer yes to a prompt) between InfoDock sessions.

Refined color choices for code highlighting are provided for both dark and
light background display frames.

The @kbd{C-z} key prefix performs frame-based commands which parallel the
@kbd{C-x} key prefix for window-based commands.

The Smart Menu system is included for producing command menus on dumb
terminals.

Lisp libraries are better categorized according to function.

Extensions and improvements to many areas of Emacs are included, such as:
paragraph filling, mail reading with Rmail, shell handling, outlining, code
highlighting and browsing, and man page browsing.

InfoDock questions, answers and discussion should go to the mail list
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@email{infodock@@infodock.com}.  Use
@email{infodock-request@@infodock.com} to be added or removed from the
list.  Always include your InfoDock version number when sending help
requests.

InfoDock is available across the Internet via anonymous FTP.  To get
it, first move to a directory into which you want the InfoDock archive
files placed.  We will call this <DIST-DIR>.

@example
   cd <DIST-DIR>
@end example

Ftp to ftp.xemacs.org  (Internet Host ID = 128.174.252.16):

@example
   prompt> ftp ftp.xemacs.org
@end example

Login as @samp{anonymous} with your own <user-id>@@<site-name> as a password.

@example
   Name (ftp.xemacs.org): anonymous
   331 Guest login ok, send your complete e-mail address as password.
   Password: -<your-user-id>@@<your-domain>
   230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
@end example

Move to the location of the InfoDock archives:

@example
   ftp> cd pub/infodock
@end example

Set your transfer mode to binary:

@example
   ftp> bin
   200 Type set to I.
@end example

Turn off prompting:

@example
   ftp> prompt
   Interactive mode off.
@end example

Retrieve the InfoDock archives that you want, either by using a
@samp{get <file>} for each file you want or by using the following to
get a complete distribution, including all binaries:

@example
   ftp> mget ID-INSTALL
   ftp> mget id-*
@end example

Close the FTP connection:

@example
   ftp> quit
   221 Goodbye.
@end example

Read the @file{ID-INSTALL} file which you just retrieved for
step-by-step installation instructions.

@node Q4.7.1, Q4.7.2, Q4.6.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsec 4.7: Other Unbundled Packages
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.1: What is AUC TeX?  Where do you get it?

AUC TeX is a package written by @email{abraham@@dina.kvl.dk, Per Abrahamsen}.
Starting with XEmacs 19.16, AUC TeX is bundled with XEmacs.  The
following information is from the @file{README} and website.

AUC TeX is an extensible package that supports writing and formatting
TeX files for most variants of GNU Emacs. Many different macro packages
are supported, including AMS TeX, LaTeX, and TeXinfo.

The most recent version is always available by ftp at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://sunsite.auc.dk/packages/auctex/auctex.tar.gz}.

In case you don't have access to anonymous ftp, you can get it by an
email request to @email{ftpmail@@decwrl.dec.com}.

WWW users may want to check out the AUC TeX page at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://sunsite.auc.dk/auctex/}.

@node Q4.7.2, Q4.7.3, Q4.7.1, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.2: Are there any Emacs Lisp Spreadsheets?

Yes.  Check out @dfn{dismal} (which stands for Dis' Mode Ain't Lotus) at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{ftp://cs.nyu.edu/pub/local/fox/dismal/}.

@node Q4.7.3, Q4.7.4, Q4.7.2, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.3: [This question intentionally left blank]

@node Q4.7.4, Q4.7.5, Q4.7.3, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.4: Problems installing AUC TeX.

@email{vroonhof@@math.ethz.ch, Jan Vroonhof} writes:

@quotation
AUC TeX works fine on both stock Emacs and XEmacs has been doing so for
a very very long time. This is mostly due to the work of
@email{abraham@@dina.kvl.dk, Per Abrahamsen} (clap clap) in particular his @file{easymenu}
package.  Which leads to what is probably the problem...
@end quotation

Most problems with AUC TeX are one of two things:

@itemize @bullet
@item
The TeX-lisp-directory in @file{tex-site.el} and the makefile don't
match.

Fix: make sure you configure AUC TeX properly @strong{before} installing.

@item
You have an old version of easymenu.el in your path.

Fix: use @code{locate-library} and remove old versions to make sure it
@strong{only} finds the one that came with XEmacs.
@end itemize


@node Q4.7.5, Q4.7.6, Q4.7.4, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.5: Is there a reason for an Emacs package not to be included in XEmacs?

The reason for an Emacs package not to be included in XEmacs is
usually one or more of the following:

@enumerate
@item
The package has not been ported to XEmacs.  This will typically happen
when it uses GNU-Emacs-specific features, which make it fail under
XEmacs.

Porting a package to XEmacs can range from a trivial amount of change to
a partial or full rewrite.  Fortunately, the authors of modern packages
usually choose to support both Emacsen themselves.

@item
The package has been decided not to be appropriate for XEmacs.  It may
have an equivalent or better replacement within XEmacs, in which case
the developers may choose not to burden themselves with supporting an
additional package.

Each package bundled with XEmacs means more work for the maintainers,
whether they want it or not.  If you are ready to take over the
maintenance responsibilities for the package you port, be sure to say
so---we will more likely include it.

@item
The package simply hasn't been noted by the XEmacs development.  If
that's the case, the messages like yours are very useful for attracting
our attention.

@item
The package was noted by the developers, but they simply haven't yet
gotten around to including/porting it.  Wait for the next release or,
even better, offer your help.  It will be gladly accepted and
appreciated.
@end enumerate

@node Q4.7.6,  , Q4.7.5, Subsystems
@unnumberedsubsec Q4.7.5: Is there a MatLab mode?

Yes, a matlab mode and other items are available at the
@uref{ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/contrib/emacs_add_ons,
MathWorks' emacs_add_ons ftp directory}.

@node Miscellaneous, MS Windows, Subsystems, Top
@unnumbered 5 The Miscellaneous Stuff

This is part 5 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list.  This
section is devoted to anything that doesn't fit neatly into the other
sections.

@menu
Major & Minor Modes:
* Q5.0.1::      How can I do source code highlighting using font-lock?
* Q5.0.2::      I do not like cc-mode.  How do I use the old c-mode?
* Q5.0.3::      How do I get @samp{More} Syntax Highlighting on by default?
* Q5.0.4::      How can I enable auto-indent?
* Q5.0.5::      How can I get XEmacs to come up in text/auto-fill mode by default?
* Q5.0.6::      How do I start up a second shell buffer?
* Q5.0.7::      Telnet from shell filters too much.
* Q5.0.8::      Why does edt emulation not work?
* Q5.0.9::      How can I emulate VI and use it as my default mode?
* Q5.0.10::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.0.11::     How do I turn on filladapt for all buffers?
* Q5.0.12::     How do I disable gnuserv from opening a new frame?
* Q5.0.13::     How do I start gnuserv so that each subsequent XEmacs is a client?
* Q5.0.14::     Strange things are happening in Shell Mode.
* Q5.0.15::     Where do I get the latest CC Mode?
* Q5.0.16::     I find auto-show-mode disconcerting.  How do I turn it off?
* Q5.0.17::     How can I get two instances of info?
* Q5.0.18::     [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.0.19::     Is there something better than LaTeX mode?
* Q5.0.20::     Is there a way to start a new XEmacs if there's no gnuserv running, and otherwise use gnuclient?

Emacs Lisp Programming Techniques:
* Q5.1.1::      The difference in key sequences between XEmacs and GNU Emacs?
* Q5.1.2::      Can I generate "fake" keyboard events?
* Q5.1.3::      Could you explain @code{read-kbd-macro} in more detail?
* Q5.1.4::      What is the performance hit of @code{let}?
* Q5.1.5::      What is the recommended use of @code{setq}?
* Q5.1.6::      What is the typical misuse of @code{setq}?
* Q5.1.7::      I like the the @code{do} form of cl, does it slow things down?
* Q5.1.8::      I like recursion, does it slow things down?
* Q5.1.9::      How do I put a glyph as annotation in a buffer?
* Q5.1.10::     @code{map-extents} won't traverse all of my extents!
* Q5.1.11::     My elisp program is horribly slow.  Is there an easy way to find out where it spends time?

Sound:
* Q5.2.1::      How do I turn off the sound?
* Q5.2.2::      How do I get funky sounds instead of a boring beep?
* Q5.2.3::      What's NAS, how do I get it?
* Q5.2.4::      Sunsite sounds don't play.

Miscellaneous:
* Q5.3.1::      How do you make XEmacs indent CL if-clauses correctly?
* Q5.3.2::      Fontifying hangs when editing a postscript file.
* Q5.3.3::      How can I print WYSIWYG a font-locked buffer?
* Q5.3.4::      Getting @kbd{M-x lpr} to work with postscript printer.
* Q5.3.5::      How do I specify the paths that XEmacs uses for finding files?
* Q5.3.6::      [This question intentionally left blank]
* Q5.3.7::      Can I have the end of the buffer delimited in some way?
* Q5.3.8::      How do I insert today's date into a buffer?
* Q5.3.9::      Are only certain syntactic character classes available for abbrevs?
* Q5.3.10::     How can I get those oh-so-neat X-Face lines?
* Q5.3.11::     How do I add new Info directories?
* Q5.3.12::     What do I need to change to make printing work?
@end menu

@node Q5.0.1, Q5.0.2, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsec 5.0: Major & Minor Modes
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.1: How can I do source code highlighting using font-lock?

For most modes, font-lock is already set up and just needs to be turned
on.  This can be done by @kbd{M-x font-lock-mode}, or by having XEmacs
automatically start it by adding lines like:

@lisp
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)
(add-hook 'dired-mode-hook      'turn-on-font-lock)
@end lisp

to your @file{.emacs}.  See the file @file{etc/sample.emacs} for more
examples.

See also @code{Syntax Highlighting} from the @code{Options} menu.
Remember to save options.

@node Q5.0.2, Q5.0.3, Q5.0.1, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.2: I do not like cc-mode.  How do I use the old c-mode?

Well, first off, consider if you really want to do this.  cc-mode is
much more powerful than the old c-mode.  If you're having trouble
getting your old offsets to work, try using @code{c-set-offset} instead.
You might also consider using the package @code{cc-compat}.

But, if you still insist, add the following lines to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(fmakunbound 'c-mode)
(makunbound 'c-mode-map)
(fmakunbound 'c++-mode)
(makunbound 'c++-mode-map)
(makunbound 'c-style-alist)
(load-library "old-c-mode")
(load-library "old-c++-mode")
@end lisp

This must be done before any other reference is made to either c-mode or
c++-mode.

@node Q5.0.3, Q5.0.4, Q5.0.2, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.3: How do I get @samp{More} Syntax Highlighting on by default?

Use the following code in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq-default font-lock-maximum-decoration t)
@end lisp

In versions of XEmacs prior to 19.14, you had to use a kludgy solution
like this:

@lisp
(setq c-font-lock-keywords c-font-lock-keywords-2
      c++-font-lock-keywords c++-font-lock-keywords-2
      lisp-font-lock-keywords lisp-font-lock-keywords-2)
@end lisp

It will work for C, C++ and Lisp.

See also @code{Syntax Highlighting} from the @code{Options} menu.
Remember to save options.

@node Q5.0.4, Q5.0.5, Q5.0.3, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.4: How can I enable auto-indent?

Put the following line in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq indent-line-function 'indent-relative-maybe)
@end lisp

If you want to get fancy, try the @code{filladapt} package available
standard with XEmacs.  Put this into your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(require 'filladapt)
(add-hook 'text-mode-hook    'turn-on-filladapt-mode)
;;; and others ...
@end lisp

You can customize filling and adaptive filling with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->->Editing->Fill->Fill...}
or type @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} fill @key{RET}}.

Note that well-behaving text-lookalike modes will run
@code{text-mode-hook} by default (e.g. that's what Message does).  For
the nasty ones, you'll have to provide the @code{add-hook}s yourself.

Please note that the @code{fa-extras} package is no longer useful.

@node Q5.0.5, Q5.0.6, Q5.0.4, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.5: How can I get XEmacs to come up in text/auto-fill mode by default?

Try the following lisp in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq default-major-mode 'text-mode)
(setq text-mode-hook 'turn-on-auto-fill)
@end lisp

@strong{WARNING}: note that changing the value of
@code{default-major-mode} from @code{fundamental-mode} can break a large
amount of built-in code that expects newly created buffers to be in
@code{fundamental-mode}.  (Changing from @code{fundamental-mode} to
@code{text-mode} might not wreak too much havoc, but changing to
something more exotic like a lisp-mode would break many Emacs packages).

Note that Emacs by default starts up in buffer @code{*scratch*} in
@code{initial-major-mode}, which defaults to
@code{lisp-interaction-mode}. Thus adding the following form to your
Emacs init file will cause the initial @code{*scratch*} buffer to be put
into auto-fill'ed @code{text-mode}:

@lisp
(setq initial-major-mode
      (lambda ()
        (text-mode)
        (turn-on-auto-fill)))
@end lisp

Note that after your init file is loaded, if
@code{inhibit-startup-message} is @code{nil} (the default) and the
startup buffer is @code{*scratch*} then the startup message will be
inserted into @code{*scratch*}; it will be removed after a timeout by
erasing the entire @code{*scratch*} buffer.  Keep in mind this default
usage of @code{*scratch*} if you desire any prior manipulation of
@code{*scratch*} from within your Emacs init file. In particular,
anything you insert into @code{*scratch*} from your init file will be
later erased. Also, if you change the mode of the @code{*scratch*}
buffer, be sure that this will not interfere with possible later
insertion of the startup message (e.g. if you put @code{*scratch*} into
a nonstandard mode that has automatic font lock rules, then the startup
message might get fontified in a strange foreign manner, e.g. as code in
some programming language).

@node Q5.0.6, Q5.0.7, Q5.0.5, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.6: How do I start up a second shell buffer?

In the @code{*shell*} buffer:

@lisp
M-x rename-buffer @key{RET} *shell-1* @key{RET}
M-x shell RET
@end lisp

This will then start a second shell.  The key is that no buffer named
@samp{*shell*} can exist.  It might be preferable to use @kbd{M-x
rename-uniquely} to rename the @code{*shell*} buffer instead of @kbd{M-x
rename-buffer}.

Alternately, you can set the variable @code{shell-multiple-shells}.
If the value of this variable is non-nil, each time shell mode is invoked,
a new shell is made

@node Q5.0.7, Q5.0.8, Q5.0.6, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.7: Telnet from shell filters too much

I'm using the Emacs @kbd{M-x shell} function, and I would like to invoke
and use a telnet session within it.  Everything works fine except that
now all @samp{^M}'s are filtered out by Emacs.  Fixes?

Use @kbd{M-x rsh} or @kbd{M-x telnet} to open remote sessions rather
than doing rsh or telnet within the local shell buffer.  Starting with
XEmacs-20.3 you can also use @kbd{M-x ssh} to open secure remote session
if you have @code{ssh} installed.

@node Q5.0.8, Q5.0.9, Q5.0.7, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.8: Why does edt emulation not work?

We don't know, but you can use tpu-edt emulation instead, which works
fine and is a little fancier than the standard edt emulation.  To do
this, add the following line to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(tpu-edt)
@end lisp

If you don't want it to replace @kbd{C-h} with an edt-style help menu
add this as well:

@lisp
(global-set-key [(control h)] 'help-for-help)
@end lisp

@node Q5.0.9, Q5.0.10, Q5.0.8, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.9: How can I emulate VI and use it as my default mode?

Our recommended VI emulator is viper. To make viper-mode the default,
add this to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(viper-mode)
@end lisp

@email{kifer@@CS.SunySB.EDU, Michael Kifer} writes:

@quotation
This should be added as close to the top of @file{.emacs} as you can get
it, otherwise some minor modes may not get viper-ized.
@end quotation

@node Q5.0.10, Q5.0.11, Q5.0.9, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.10: [This question intentionally left blank]

Obsolete question, left blank to avoid renumbering

@node Q5.0.11, Q5.0.12, Q5.0.10, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.11: How do I turn on filladapt for all buffers?

Filladapt is a minor mode and minor modes are traditionally off by
default.  The following added to your @file{.emacs} will turn it on for
all buffers:

@lisp
(setq-default filladapt-mode t)
@end lisp

Use @code{turn-on-filladapt-mode} to turn Filladapt on in particular
major modes, like this:

@lisp
(add-hook 'text-mode-hook 'turn-on-filladapt-mode)
@end lisp

@node Q5.0.12, Q5.0.13, Q5.0.11, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.12: How do I disable gnuserv from opening a new frame?

If you set the @code{gnuserv-frame} variable to the frame that should be
used to display buffers that are pulled up, a new frame will not be
created. For example, you could put

@lisp
(setq gnuserv-frame (selected-frame))
@end lisp

early on in your @file{.emacs}, to ensure that the first frame created
is the one used for your gnuserv buffers.

Starting in 19.15, there is an option to set the gnuserv target to
the current frame.  See
@code{Options->"Other Window" Location->Make current frame gnuserv target}

Starting with XEmacs-20.3 you can also change this with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Gnuserv->Gnuserv Frame...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} gnuserv @key{RET}}.


@node Q5.0.13, Q5.0.14, Q5.0.12, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.13: How do I start gnuserv so that each subsequent XEmacs is a client?

Put the following in your @file{.emacs} file to start the server:

@lisp
(gnuserv-start)
@end lisp

Start your first XEmacs as usual.  After that, you can do:

@example
gnuclient randomfilename
@end example

from the command line to get your existing XEmacs process to open a new
frame and visit randomfilename in that window. When you're done editing
randomfilename, hit @kbd{C-x #} to kill the buffer and get rid of the
frame.

See also man page of gnuclient.

@node Q5.0.14, Q5.0.15, Q5.0.13, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.14: Strange things are happening in Shell Mode.

Sometimes (i.e. it's not repeatable, and I can't work out why it
happens) when I'm typing into shell mode, I hit return and only a
portion of the command is given to the shell, and a blank prompt is
returned.  If I hit return again, the rest of the previous command is
given to the shell.

@email{martin@@xemacs.org, Martin Buchholz} writes:

@quotation
There is a known problem with interaction between @code{csh} and the
@code{filec} option and XEmacs.  You should add the following to your
@file{.cshrc}:

@example
if ( "$TERM" == emacs || "$TERM" == unknown ) unset filec
@end example
@end quotation

@node Q5.0.15, Q5.0.16, Q5.0.14, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.15: Where do I get the latest CC Mode?

@email{bwarsaw@@cnri.reston.va.us, Barry A. Warsaw} writes:

@quotation
This can be had from @uref{http://www.python.org/emacs/}.
@end quotation

@node Q5.0.16, Q5.0.17, Q5.0.15, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.16: I find auto-show-mode disconcerting.  How do I turn it off?

@code{auto-show-mode} controls whether or not a horizontal scrollbar
magically appears when a line is too long to be displayed.  This is
enabled by default.  To turn it off, put the following in your
@file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq auto-show-mode nil)
(setq-default auto-show-mode nil)
@end lisp

@node Q5.0.17, Q5.0.18, Q5.0.16, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.17: How can I get two instances of info?

You can't.  The @code{info} package does not provide for multiple info buffers.

@node Q5.0.18, Q5.0.19, Q5.0.17, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.18: [This question intentionally left blank]

@node Q5.0.19, Q5.0.20, Q5.0.18, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.19: Is there something better than LaTeX mode?

@email{dak@@fsnif.neuroinformatik.ruhr-uni-bochum.de, David Kastrup} writes:

@quotation
The standard TeX modes leave much to be desired, and are somewhat
leniently maintained.  Serious TeX users use AUC TeX (@pxref{Q4.7.1}).
@end quotation

@node Q5.0.20, Q5.1.1, Q5.0.19, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.0.20: Is there a way to start a new XEmacs if there's no gnuserv running, and otherwise use gnuclient?

@email{vroonhof@@math.ethz.ch, Jan Vroonhof} writes:
@quotation
Here is one of the solutions, we have this in a script called
@file{etc/editclient.sh}.
@example
 #!/bin/sh
 if gnuclient -batch -eval t >/dev/null 2>&1
 then
   exec gnuclient $@{1+"$@@"@}
 else
   xemacs -unmapped -f gnuserv-start &
   until gnuclient -batch -eval t >/dev/null 2>&1
   do
      sleep 1
   done
   exec gnuclient $@{1+"$@@"@}
 fi
@end example

Note that there is a known problem when running XEmacs and 'gnuclient
-nw' on the same TTY.
@end quotation

@node Q5.1.1, Q5.1.2, Q5.0.20, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsec 5.1: Emacs Lisp Programming Techniques
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.1: What is the difference in key sequences between XEmacs and GNU Emacs?

@email{clerik@@naggum.no, Erik Naggum} writes;

@quotation
Emacs has a legacy of keyboards that produced characters with modifier
bits, and therefore map a variety of input systems into this scheme even
today.  XEmacs is instead optimized for X events.  This causes an
incompatibility in the way key sequences are specified, but both Emacs
and XEmacs will accept a key sequence as a vector of lists of modifiers
that ends with a key, e.g., to bind @kbd{M-C-a}, you would say
@code{[(meta control a)]} in both Emacsen.  XEmacs has an abbreviated
form for a single key, just (meta control a).  Emacs has an abbreviated
form for the Control and the Meta modifiers to string-characters (the
ASCII characters), as in @samp{\M-\C-a}.  XEmacs users need to be aware
that the abbreviated form works only for one-character key sequences,
while Emacs users need to be aware that the string-character is rather
limited.  Specifically, the string-character can accommodate only 256
different values, 128 of which have the Meta modifier and 128 of which
have not.  In each of these blocks, only 32 characters have the Control
modifier.  Whereas @code{[(meta control A)]} differs from @code{[(meta
control a)]} because the case differs, @samp{\M-\C-a} and @samp{\M-\C-A}
do not.  Programmers are advised to use the full common form, both
because it is more readable and less error-prone, and because it is
supported by both Emacsen.
@end quotation

Another (even safer) way to be sure of the key-sequences is to use the
@code{read-kbd-macro} function, which takes a string like @samp{C-c
<up>}, and converts it to the internal key representation of the Emacs
you use.  The function is available both on XEmacs and GNU Emacs.

@node Q5.1.2, Q5.1.3, Q5.1.1, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.2: Can I generate "fake" keyboard events?

I wonder if there is an interactive function that can generate
@dfn{fake} keyboard events.  This way, I could simply map them inside
XEmacs.

This seems to work:

@lisp
(defun cg--generate-char-event (ch)
  "Generate an event, as if ch has been typed"
  (dispatch-event (character-to-event ch)))

;;  Backspace and Delete stuff
(global-set-key [backspace]
  (lambda () (interactive) (cg--generate-char-event 127)))
(global-set-key [unknown_keysym_0x4]
  (lambda () (interactive) (cg--generate-char-event 4)))
@end lisp

@node Q5.1.3, Q5.1.4, Q5.1.2, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.3: Could you explain @code{read-kbd-macro} in more detail?

The @code{read-kbd-macro} function returns the internal Emacs
representation of a human-readable string (which is its argument).
Thus:

@lisp
(read-kbd-macro "C-c C-a")
@result{} [(control ?c) (control ?a)]

(read-kbd-macro "C-c C-. <up>")
@result{} [(control ?c) (control ?.) up]
@end lisp

In GNU Emacs the same forms will be evaluated to what GNU Emacs
understands internally---the sequences @code{"\C-x\C-c"} and @code{[3
67108910 up]}, respectively.

The exact @dfn{human-readable} syntax is defined in the docstring of
@code{edmacro-mode}.  I'll repeat it here, for completeness.

@quotation
Format of keyboard macros during editing:

Text is divided into @dfn{words} separated by whitespace.  Except for
the words described below, the characters of each word go directly as
characters of the macro.  The whitespace that separates words is
ignored.  Whitespace in the macro must be written explicitly, as in
@kbd{foo @key{SPC} bar @key{RET}}.

@itemize @bullet
@item
The special words @kbd{RET}, @kbd{SPC}, @kbd{TAB}, @kbd{DEL}, @kbd{LFD},
@kbd{ESC}, and @kbd{NUL} represent special control characters.  The
words must be written in uppercase.

@item
A word in angle brackets, e.g., @code{<return>}, @code{<down>}, or
@code{<f1>}, represents a function key.  (Note that in the standard
configuration, the function key @code{<return>} and the control key
@key{RET} are synonymous.)  You can use angle brackets on the words
@key{RET}, @key{SPC}, etc., but they are not required there.

@item
Keys can be written by their @sc{ascii} code, using a backslash followed
by up to six octal digits.  This is the only way to represent keys with
codes above \377.

@item
One or more prefixes @kbd{M-} (meta), @kbd{C-} (control), @kbd{S-}
(shift), @kbd{A-} (alt), @kbd{H-} (hyper), and @kbd{s-} (super) may
precede a character or key notation.  For function keys, the prefixes
may go inside or outside of the brackets: @code{C-<down>} @equiv{}
@code{<C-down>}.  The prefixes may be written in any order: @kbd{M-C-x}
@equiv{} @kbd{C-M-x}.

Prefixes are not allowed on multi-key words, e.g., @kbd{C-abc}, except
that the Meta prefix is allowed on a sequence of digits and optional
minus sign: @kbd{M--123} @equiv{} @kbd{M-- M-1 M-2 M-3}.

@item
The @code{^} notation for control characters also works: @kbd{^M}
@equiv{} @kbd{C-m}.

@item
Double angle brackets enclose command names: @code{<<next-line>>} is
shorthand for @kbd{M-x next-line @key{RET}}.

@item
Finally, @code{REM} or @code{;;} causes the rest of the line to be
ignored as a comment.
@end itemize

Any word may be prefixed by a multiplier in the form of a decimal number
and @code{*}: @code{3*<right>} @equiv{} @code{<right> <right> <right>},
and @code{10*foo} @equiv{}
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@code{foofoofoofoofoofoofoofoofoofoo}.

Multiple text keys can normally be strung together to form a word, but
you may need to add whitespace if the word would look like one of the
above notations: @code{; ; ;} is a keyboard macro with three semicolons,
but @code{;;;} is a comment.  Likewise, @code{\ 1 2 3} is four keys but
@code{\123} is a single key written in octal, and @code{< right >} is
seven keys but @code{<right>} is a single function key.  When in doubt,
use whitespace.
@end quotation

@node Q5.1.4, Q5.1.5, Q5.1.3, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.4: What is the performance hit of @code{let}?

In most cases, not noticeable.  Besides, there's no avoiding
@code{let}---you have to bind your local variables, after all.  Some
pose a question whether to nest @code{let}s, or use one @code{let} per
function.  I think because of clarity and maintenance (and possible
future implementation), @code{let}-s should be used (nested) in a way to
provide the clearest code.

@node Q5.1.5, Q5.1.6, Q5.1.4, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.5: What is the recommended use of @code{setq}?

@itemize @bullet
@item Global variables

You will typically @code{defvar} your global variable to a default
value, and use @code{setq} to set it later.

It is never a good practice to @code{setq} user variables (like
@code{case-fold-search}, etc.), as it ignores the user's choice
unconditionally.  Note that @code{defvar} doesn't change the value of a
variable if it was bound previously.  If you wish to change a
user-variable temporarily, use @code{let}:

@lisp
(let ((case-fold-search nil))
  ...                                   ; code with searches that must be case-sensitive
  ...)
@end lisp

You will notice the user-variables by their docstrings beginning with an
asterisk (a convention).

@item Local variables

Bind them with @code{let}, which will unbind them (or restore their
previous value, if they were bound) after exiting from the @code{let}
form.  Change the value of local variables with @code{setq} or whatever
you like (e.g. @code{incf}, @code{setf} and such).  The @code{let} form
can even return one of its local variables.

Typical usage:

@lisp
;; iterate through the elements of the list returned by
;; `hairy-function-that-returns-list'
(let ((l (hairy-function-that-returns-list)))
  (while l
    ... do something with (car l) ...
    (setq l (cdr l))))
@end lisp

Another typical usage includes building a value simply to work with it.

@lisp
;; Build the mode keymap out of the key-translation-alist
(let ((inbox (file-truename (expand-file-name box)))
      (i 0))
  ... code dealing with inbox ...
  inbox)
@end lisp

This piece of code uses the local variable @code{inbox}, which becomes
unbound (or regains old value) after exiting the form.  The form also
returns the value of @code{inbox}, which can be reused, for instance:

@lisp
(setq foo-processed-inbox
      (let .....))
@end lisp
@end itemize

@node Q5.1.6, Q5.1.7, Q5.1.5, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.6: What is the typical misuse of @code{setq} ?

A typical misuse is probably @code{setq}ing a variable that was meant to
be local.  Such a variable will remain bound forever, never to be
garbage-collected.  For example, the code doing:

@lisp
(defun my-function (whatever)
  (setq a nil)
  ... build a large list ...
  ... and exit ...)
@end lisp

does a bad thing, as @code{a} will keep consuming memory, never to be
unbound.  The correct thing is to do it like this:

@lisp
(defun my-function (whatever)
  (let (a)                              ; default initialization is to nil
    ... build a large list ...
    ... and exit, unbinding `a' in the process  ...)
@end lisp

Not only is this prettier syntactically, but it makes it possible for
Emacs to garbage-collect the objects which @code{a} used to reference.

Note that even global variables should not be @code{setq}ed without
@code{defvar}ing them first, because the byte-compiler issues warnings.
The reason for the warning is the following:

@lisp
(defun flurgoze nil)                    ; ok, global internal variable
...

(setq flurghoze t)                      ; ops!  a typo, but semantically correct.
                                        ; however, the byte-compiler warns.

While compiling toplevel forms:
** assignment to free variable flurghoze
@end lisp

@node Q5.1.7, Q5.1.8, Q5.1.6, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.7: I like the the @code{do} form of cl, does it slow things down?

It shouldn't.  Here is what Dave Gillespie has to say about cl.el
performance:

@quotation
Many of the advanced features of this package, such as @code{defun*},
@code{loop}, and @code{setf}, are implemented as Lisp macros.  In
byte-compiled code, these complex notations will be expanded into
equivalent Lisp code which is simple and efficient.  For example, the
forms

@lisp
(incf i n)
(push x (car p))
@end lisp

are expanded at compile-time to the Lisp forms

@lisp
(setq i (+ i n))
(setcar p (cons x (car p)))
@end lisp

which are the most efficient ways of doing these respective operations
in Lisp.  Thus, there is no performance penalty for using the more
readable @code{incf} and @code{push} forms in your compiled code.

@emph{Interpreted} code, on the other hand, must expand these macros
every time they are executed.  For this reason it is strongly
recommended that code making heavy use of macros be compiled.  (The
features labelled @dfn{Special Form} instead of @dfn{Function} in this
manual are macros.)  A loop using @code{incf} a hundred times will
execute considerably faster if compiled, and will also garbage-collect
less because the macro expansion will not have to be generated, used,
and thrown away a hundred times.

You can find out how a macro expands by using the @code{cl-prettyexpand}
function.
@end quotation

@node Q5.1.8, Q5.1.9, Q5.1.7, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.8: I like recursion, does it slow things down?

Yes.  Emacs byte-compiler cannot do much to optimize recursion.  But
think well whether this is a real concern in Emacs.  Much of the Emacs
slowness comes from internal mechanisms such as redisplay, or from the
fact that it is an interpreter.

Please try not to make your code much uglier to gain a very small speed
gain.  It's not usually worth it.

@node Q5.1.9, Q5.1.10, Q5.1.8, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.9: How do I put a glyph as annotation in a buffer?

Here is a solution that will insert the glyph annotation at the
beginning of buffer:

@lisp
(make-annotation (make-glyph '([FORMAT :file FILE]
                               [string :data "fallback-text"]))
                 (point-min)
                 'text
                 (current-buffer))
@end lisp

Replace @samp{FORMAT} with an unquoted symbol representing the format of
the image (e.g. @code{xpm}, @code{xbm}, @code{gif}, @code{jpeg}, etc.)
Instead of @samp{FILE}, use the image file name
(e.g.
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@file{/usr/local/lib/xemacs-20.2/etc/recycle.xpm}).

You can turn this to a function (that optionally prompts you for a file
name), and inserts the glyph at @code{(point)} instead of
@code{(point-min)}.

@node Q5.1.10, Q5.1.11, Q5.1.9, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.10: @code{map-extents} won't traverse all of my extents!

I tried to use @code{map-extents} to do an operation on all the extents
in a region.  However, it seems to quit after processing a random number
of extents.  Is it buggy?

No.  The documentation of @code{map-extents} states that it will iterate
across the extents as long as @var{function} returns @code{nil}.
Unexperienced programmers often forget to return @code{nil} explicitly,
which results in buggy code.  For instance, the following code is
supposed to delete all the extents in a buffer, and issue as many
@samp{fubar!} messages.

@lisp
(map-extents (lambda (ext ignore)
               (delete-extent ext)
               (message "fubar!")))
@end lisp

Instead, it will delete only the first extent, and stop right there --
because @code{message} will return a non-nil value.  The correct code
is:

@lisp
(map-extents (lambda (ext ignore)
               (delete-extent ext)
               (message "fubar!")
               nil))
@end lisp

@node Q5.1.11, Q5.2.1, Q5.1.10, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.1.11: My elisp program is horribly slow.  Is there
an easy way to find out where it spends time?
@c New

z@email{hniksic@@xemacs.org, Hrvoje Niksic} writes:
@quotation
Under XEmacs 20.4 and later  you can use @kbd{M-x profile-key-sequence}, press a key
(say @key{RET} in the Gnus Group buffer), and get the results using
@kbd{M-x profile-results}.  It should give you an idea of where the time
is being spent.
@end quotation

@node Q5.2.1, Q5.2.2, Q5.1.11, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.2.1: How do I turn off the sound?

Add the following line to your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq bell-volume 0)
(setq sound-alist nil)
@end lisp

That will make your XEmacs totally silent---even the default ding sound
(TTY beep on TTY-s) will be gone.

Starting with XEmacs-20.2 you can also change these with Customize.
Select from the @code{Options} menu
@code{Customize->Emacs->Environment->Sound->Sound...} or type
@kbd{M-x customize @key{RET} sound @key{RET}}.


@node Q5.2.2, Q5.2.3, Q5.2.1, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.2.2: How do I get funky sounds instead of a boring beep?

Make sure your XEmacs was compiled with sound support, and then put this
in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(load-default-sounds)
@end lisp

The sound support in XEmacs 19.14 was greatly improved over previous
versions.

@node Q5.2.3, Q5.2.4, Q5.2.2, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.2.3: What's NAS, how do I get it?

@xref{Q2.0.3}, for an explanation of the @dfn{Network Audio System}.

@node Q5.2.4, Q5.3.1, Q5.2.3, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.2.4: Sunsite sounds don't play.

I'm having some trouble with sounds I've downloaded from sunsite.  They
play when I run them through @code{showaudio} or cat them directly to
@file{/dev/audio}, but XEmacs refuses to play them.

@email{gutschk@@uni-muenster.de, Markus Gutschke} writes:

@quotation
[Many of] These files have an (erroneous) 24byte header that tells about
the format that they have been recorded in. If you cat them to
@file{/dev/audio}, the header will be ignored and the default behavior
for /dev/audio will be used. This happens to be 8kHz uLaw. It is
probably possible to fix the header by piping through @code{sox} and
passing explicit parameters for specifying the sampling format; you then
need to perform a 'null' conversion from SunAudio to SunAudio.
@end quotation

@node Q5.3.1, Q5.3.2, Q5.2.4, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsec 5.3: Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.1: How do you make XEmacs indent CL if-clauses correctly?

I'd like XEmacs to indent all the clauses of a Common Lisp @code{if} the
same amount instead of indenting the 3rd clause differently from the
first two.

One way is to add, to @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(put 'if 'lisp-indent-function nil)
@end lisp

However, note that the package @code{cl-indent} that comes with
XEmacs sets up this kind of indentation by default.  @code{cl-indent}
also knows about many other CL-specific forms.  To use @code{cl-indent},
one can do this:

@lisp
(load "cl-indent")
(setq lisp-indent-function (function common-lisp-indent-function))
@end lisp

One can also customize @file{cl-indent.el} so it mimics the default
@code{if} indentation @code{then} indented more than the @code{else}.
Here's how:

@lisp
(put 'if 'common-lisp-indent-function '(nil nil &body))
@end lisp

Also, a new version (1.2) of @file{cl-indent.el} was posted to
comp.emacs.xemacs on 12/9/94.  This version includes more documentation
than previous versions.  This may prove useful if you need to customize
any indent-functions.

@node Q5.3.2, Q5.3.3, Q5.3.1, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.2: Fontifying hang when editing a postscript file.

When I try to edit a postscript file it gets stuck saying:
@samp{fontifying 'filename' (regexps....)} and it just sits there.  If I
press @kbd{C-c} in the window where XEmacs was started, it suddenly
becomes alive again.

This was caused by a bug in the Postscript font-lock regular
expressions.  It was fixed in 19.13.  For earlier versions of XEmacs,
have a look at your @file{.emacs} file.  You will probably have a line
like:

@lisp
(add-hook 'postscript-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)
@end lisp

Take it out, restart XEmacs, and it won't try to fontify your postscript
files anymore.

@node Q5.3.3, Q5.3.4, Q5.3.2, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.3: How can I print WYSIWYG a font-locked buffer?

Font-lock looks nice.  How can I print (WYSIWYG) the highlighted
document?

The package @code{ps-print}, which is now included with XEmacs, provides
the ability to do this.  The source code contains complete instructions
on its use, in @file{<xemacs_src_root>/lisp/packages/ps-print.el}.

@node Q5.3.4, Q5.3.5, Q5.3.3, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.4: Getting @kbd{M-x lpr} to work with postscript printer.

My printer is a Postscript printer and @code{lpr} only works for
Postscript files, so how do I get @kbd{M-x lpr-region} and @kbd{M-x
lpr-buffer} to work?

Put something like this in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq lpr-command "a2ps")
(setq lpr-switches '("-p" "-1"))
@end lisp

If you don't use a2ps to convert ASCII to postscript (why not, it's
free?), replace with the command you do use.  Note also that some
versions of a2ps require a @samp{-Pprinter} to ensure spooling.

@node Q5.3.5, Q5.3.6, Q5.3.4, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.5: How do I specify the paths that XEmacs uses for finding files?

You can specify what paths to use by using a number of different flags
when running configure.  See the section MAKE VARIABLES in the top-level
file INSTALL in the XEmacs distribution for a listing of those flags.

Most of the time, however, the simplest fix is: @strong{do not} specify
paths as you might for GNU Emacs.  XEmacs can generally determine the
necessary paths dynamically at run time.  The only path that generally
needs to be specified is the root directory to install into.  That can
be specified by passing the @code{--prefix} flag to configure.  For a
description of the XEmacs install tree, please consult the @file{NEWS}
file.

@node Q5.3.6, Q5.3.7, Q5.3.5, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.6: [This question intentionally left blank]

Obsolete question, left blank to avoid renumbering.

@node Q5.3.7, Q5.3.8, Q5.3.6, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.7: Can I have the end of the buffer delimited in some way?

Say, with: @samp{[END]}?

Try this:

@lisp
(let ((ext (make-extent (point-min) (point-max))))
  (set-extent-property ext 'start-closed t)
  (set-extent-property ext 'end-closed t)
  (set-extent-property ext 'detachable nil)
  (set-extent-end-glyph ext (make-glyph [string :data "[END]"])))
@end lisp

Since this is XEmacs, you can specify an icon to be shown on
window-system devices.  To do so, change the @code{make-glyph} call to
something like this:

@lisp
(make-glyph '([xpm :file "~/something.xpm"]
              [string :data "[END]"]))
@end lisp

You can inline the @sc{xpm} definition yourself by specifying
@code{:data} instead of @code{:file}.  Here is such a full-featured
version that works on both X and TTY devices:

@lisp
(let ((ext (make-extent (point-min) (point-max))))
  (set-extent-property ext 'start-closed t)
  (set-extent-property ext 'end-closed t)
  (set-extent-property ext 'detachable nil)
  (set-extent-end-glyph ext (make-glyph '([xpm :data "\
/* XPM */
static char* eye = @{
\"20 11 7 2\",
\"__ c None\"
\"_` c #7f7f7f\",
\"_a c #fefefe\",
\"_b c #7f0000\",
\"_c c #fefe00\",
\"_d c #fe0000\",
\"_e c #bfbfbf\",
\"___________`_`_`___b_b_b_b_________`____\",
\"_________`_`_`___b_c_c_c_b_b____________\",
\"_____`_`_`_e___b_b_c_c_c___b___b_______`\",
\"___`_`_e_a___b_b_d___b___b___b___b______\",
\"_`_`_e_a_e___b_b_d_b___b___b___b___b____\",
\"_`_`_a_e_a___b_b_d___b___b___b___b___b__\",
\"_`_`_e_a_e___b_b_d_b___b___b___b___b_b__\",
\"___`_`_e_a___b_b_b_d_c___b___b___d_b____\",
\"_____`_`_e_e___b_b_b_d_c___b_b_d_b______\",
\"_`_____`_`_`_`___b_b_b_d_d_d_d_b________\",
\"___`_____`_`_`_`___b_b_b_b_b_b__________\",
@} ;"]
                                          [string :data "[END]"]))))
@end lisp

Note that you might want to make this a function, and put it to a hook.
We leave that as an exercise for the reader.

@node Q5.3.8, Q5.3.9, Q5.3.7, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.8: How do I insert today's date into a buffer?

Like this:

@lisp
(insert (current-time-string))
@end lisp

@node Q5.3.9, Q5.3.10, Q5.3.8, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.9: Are only certain syntactic character classes available for abbrevs?

@email{gutschk@@uni-muenster.de, Markus Gutschke} writes:

@quotation
Yes, abbrevs only expands word-syntax strings. While XEmacs does not
prevent you from defining (e.g. with @kbd{C-x a g} or @kbd{C-x a l})
abbrevs that contain special characters, it will refuse to expand
them. So you need to ensure, that the abbreviation contains letters and
digits only. This means that @samp{xd}, @samp{d5}, and @samp{5d} are
valid abbrevs, but @samp{&d}, and @samp{x d} are not.

If this sounds confusing to you, (re-)read the online documentation for
abbrevs (@kbd{C-h i m XEmacs @key{RET} m Abbrevs @key{RET}}), and then come back and
read this question/answer again.
@end quotation

Starting with XEmacs 20.3 this restriction has been lifted.

@node Q5.3.10, Q5.3.11, Q5.3.9, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.10: How can I get those oh-so-neat X-Face lines?

Firstly there is an ftp site which describes X-faces and has the
associated tools mentioned below, at
@uref{ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu:/pub/faces/}.

Then the steps are

@enumerate
@item
Create 48x48x1 bitmap with your favorite tool

@item
Convert to "icon" format using one of xbm2ikon, pbmtoicon, etc.,
and then compile the face.

@item
@example
cat file.xbm | xbm2ikon |compface > file.face
@end example

@item
Then be sure to quote things that are necessary for emacs strings:

@example
cat ./file.face | sed 's/\\/\\\\/g'
@iftex
\ @*
@end iftex
| sed 's/\"/\\\"/g' > ./file.face.quoted
@end example

@item
Then set up emacs to include the file as a mail header - there were a
couple of suggestions here---either something like:

@lisp
(setq  mail-default-headers
       "X-Face:  @email{Ugly looking text string here}")
@end lisp

Or, alternatively, as:

@lisp
(defun mail-insert-x-face ()
  (save-excursion
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (search-forward mail-header-separator)
    (beginning-of-line)
    (insert "X-Face:")
    (insert-file-contents "~/.face")))

(add-hook 'mail-setup-hook 'mail-insert-x-face)
@end lisp
@end enumerate

However, 2 things might be wrong:

Some versions of pbmtoicon produces some header lines that is not
expected by the version of compface that I grabbed. So I found I had to
include a @code{tail +3} in the pipeline like this:

@example
cat file.xbm | xbm2ikon | tail +3 |compface > file.face
@end example

Some people have also found that if one uses the @code{(insert-file)}
method, one should NOT quote the face string using the sed script .

It might also be helpful to use @email{stig@@hackvan.com, Stig's} script
(included in the compface distribution at XEmacs.org) to do the
conversion.
@comment For convenience xbm2xface is available for anonymous FTP at
@comment @uref{ftp://ftp.miranova.com/pub/xemacs/xbm2xface.pl}.

Contributors for this item:

Paul Emsley,
Ricardo Marek,
Amir J. Katz,
Glen McCort,
Heinz Uphoff,
Peter Arius,
Paul Harrison, and
Vegard Vesterheim

@node Q5.3.11, Q5.3.12, Q5.3.10, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.11: How do I add new Info directories?

You use something like:

@lisp
(setq Info-directory-list (cons
                           (expand-file-name "~/info")
                           Info-default-directory-list))
@end lisp

@email{davidm@@prism.kla.com, David Masterson} writes:

@quotation
Emacs Info and XEmacs Info do many things differently.  If you're trying to
support a number of versions of Emacs, here are some notes to remember:

@enumerate
@item
Emacs Info scans @code{Info-directory-list} from right-to-left while
XEmacs Info reads it from left-to-right, so append to the @emph{correct}
end of the list.

@item
Use @code{Info-default-directory-list} to initialize
@code{Info-directory-list} @emph{if} it is available at startup, but not
all Emacsen define it.

@item
Emacs Info looks for a standard @file{dir} file in each of the
directories scanned from #1 and magically concatenates them together.

@item
XEmacs Info looks for a @file{localdir} file (which consists of just the
menu entries from a @file{dir} file) in each of the directories scanned
from #1 (except the first), does a simple concatenation of them, and
magically attaches the resulting list to the end of the menu in the
@file{dir} file in the first directory.
@end enumerate

Another alternative is to convert the documentation to HTML with
texi2html and read it from a web browser like Lynx or W3.
@end quotation

@node Q5.3.12,  , Q5.3.11, Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q5.3.12: What do I need to change to make printing work?

For regular printing there are two variables that can be customized.

@table @code
@item lpr-command
This should be set to a command that takes standard input and sends
it to a printer.  Something like:

@lisp
(setq lpr-command "lp")
@end lisp

@item lpr-switches
This should be set to a list that contains whatever the print command
requires to do its job.  Something like:

@lisp
(setq lpr-switches '("-depson"))
@end lisp
@end table

For postscript printing there are three analogous variables to
customize.

@table @code
@item ps-lpr-command
This should be set to a command that takes postscript on standard input
and directs it to a postscript printer.

@item ps-lpr-switches
This should be set to a list of switches required for
@code{ps-lpr-command} to do its job.

@item ps-print-color-p
This boolean variable should be set @code{t} if printing will be done in
color, otherwise it should be set to @code{nil}.
@end table

NOTE: It is an undocumented limitation in XEmacs that postscript
printing (the @code{Pretty Print Buffer} menu item) @strong{requires} a
window system environment.  It cannot be used outside of X11.

@node MS Windows, Current Events, Miscellaneous, Top
@unnumbered 6 XEmacs on MS Windows

This is part 6 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list, written by
Hrvoje Niksic and others.  This section is devoted to the MS Windows
port of XEmacs.

@menu

General Info
* Q6.0.1::      What is the status of the XEmacs port to Windows?
* Q6.0.2::      What flavors of MS Windows are supported?
* Q6.0.3::      Where are the XEmacs on MS Windows binaries?
* Q6.0.4::      Does XEmacs on MS Windows require an X server to run?

Building XEmacs on MS Windows
* Q6.1.1::      I decided to run with X.  Where do I get an X server?
* Q6.1.2::      What compiler do I need to compile XEmacs?
* Q6.1.3::      How do I compile for the native port?
* Q6.1.4::      How do I compile for the X port?
* Q6.1.5::      How do I compile for Cygnus' Cygwin?
* Q6.1.6::      What do I need for Cygwin?

Customization and User Interface
* Q6.2.1::      How will the port cope with differences in the Windows user interface?
* Q6.2.2::      How do I change fonts in XEmacs on MS Windows?
* Q6.2.3::      Where do I put my @file{.emacs} file?

Miscellaneous
* Q6.3.1::      Will XEmacs rename all the win32-* symbols to w32-*?
* Q6.3.2::      What are the differences between the various MS Windows emacsen?
* Q6.3.3::      What is the porting team doing at the moment?

Troubleshooting:
* Q6.4.1::      XEmacs won't start on Windows. (NEW)

@end menu

@node Q6.0.1, Q6.0.2, MS Windows, MS Windows
@unnumberedsec 6.0: General Info
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.0.1: What is the status of the XEmacs port to Windows?

Is XEmacs really getting ported to MS Windows?  What is the status of the port?

Yes, a group of volunteers actively works on making XEmacs code base
cleanly compile and run on MS Windows operating systems.  The mailing
list at @email{xemacs-nt@@xemacs.org} is dedicated to that effort (please use
the -request address to subscribe).

At this time, XEmacs on MS Windows is usable, but lacks some of the
features of XEmacs on UNIX and UNIX-like systems.  Notably,
internationalization does not work.

@node Q6.0.2, Q6.0.3, Q6.0.1, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.0.2: What flavors of MS Windows are supported?  The list name implies NT only.

The list name is misleading, as XEmacs will support both Windows 95,
Windows 98 and Windows NT.  The MS Windows-specific code is based on
Microsoft Win32 API, and will not work on MS Windows 3.x or on MS-DOS.


@node Q6.0.3, Q6.0.4, Q6.0.2, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.0.3: Are binary kits available?

Binary kits are available at
@uref{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/binary-kits/win32/} for the
"plain" MS Windows version.

@node Q6.0.4, Q6.1.1, Q6.0.3, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.0.4: Does XEmacs on MS Windows require an X server to run?

Short answer: No.

Long answer: XEmacs can be built in several ways in the MS Windows
environment, some of them requiring an X server and some not.

One is what we call the "X" port---it requires X libraries to build
and an X server to run.  Internally it uses the Xt event loop and
makes use of X toolkits.  Its look is quite un-Windowsy, but it works
reliably and supports all of the graphical features of Unix XEmacs.

The other is what we call the "native" port.  It uses the Win32 API
and does not require X libraries to build, nor does it require an X to
run.  In fact, it has no connection with X whatsoever.  At this time,
the native port obsoletes the X port, providing almost all of its
features, including support for menus, scrollbars, toolbars, embedded
images and background pixmaps, frame pointers, etc.  Most of the
future work will be based on the native port.

There is also a third special case, the Cygwin port.  It takes
advantage of Cygnus emulation library under Win32, which enables it to
reuse much of the Unix XEmacs code base, such as processes and network
support, or internal select() mechanisms.

Cygwin port supports all display types---TTY, X & MS gui, and can be
built with support for all three.  If you build with ms gui support
then the Cygwin version uses the majority of the msw code, which is
mostly related to display.  If you want to build with X support you
need X libraries.  If you want to build with tty support you need
ncurses.  MS gui requires no additional libraries.

Some of the advantages of the Cygwin version are that it:

@itemize @bullet

@item integrates well with Cygwin environment for existing Cygwin users;
@item uses configure so building with different features is very easy;
@item has process support in X & tty.

@end itemize

The disadvantage is that it requires several Unix utilities and the
whole Cygwin environment, whereas the native port requires only a
suitable MS Windows compiler.  Also, it follows the Unix filesystem and
process model very closely (some will undoubtedly view this as an
advantage).

@node Q6.1.1, Q6.1.2, Q6.0.4, MS Windows
@unnumberedsec 6.1: Building XEmacs on MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.1: I decided to run with X.  Where do I get an X server?

Pointers to X servers can be found at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://dao.gsfc.nasa.gov/software/grads/win32/X11R6.3/};

look for "Where to get an X server".  Also note that, although the above
page talks about Cygnus gnu-win32 (Cygwin), the information on X servers
is Cygwin-independent.  You don't have to be running/using Cygwin to use
these X servers, and you don't have to compile XEmacs under Cygwin to
use XEmacs with these X servers.  An "X port" XEmacs compiled under
Visual C++ will work with these X servers (as will XEmacs running on a
Unix box, redirected to the server running on your PC).


@node Q6.1.2, Q6.1.3, Q6.1.1, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.2: What compiler do I need to compile XEmacs?

You need Visual C++ 4.2 or 5.0, with the exception of the Cygwin port,
which uses Gcc.


@node Q6.1.3, Q6.1.4, Q6.1.2, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.3: How do I compile for the native port?

Please read the file @file{nt/README} in the XEmacs distribution, which
contains the full description.


@node Q6.1.4, Q6.1.5, Q6.1.3, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.4: How do I compile for the X port?

Again, it is described in @file{nt/README} in some detail.  Basically, you
need to get X11 libraries from ftp.x.org, and compile them.  If the
precompiled versions are available somewhere, I don't know of it.


@node Q6.1.5, Q6.1.6, Q6.1.4, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.5: How do I compile for Cygnus' Cygwin?

Similar as on Unix; use the usual `configure' and `make' process.
Some problems to watch out for:

@itemize @bullet
@item
make sure HOME is set. This controls where you @file{.emacs} file comes
from;

@item
CYGWIN32 needs to be set to tty for process support
work. e.g. CYGWIN32=tty;

@item
picking up some other grep or other unix like tools can kill configure;

@item
static heap too small, adjust src/sheap-adjust.h to a more positive
number;

@item
The Cygwin version doesn't understand @file{//machine/path} type paths so you
will need to manually mount a directory of this form under a unix style
directory for a build to work on the directory.

@end itemize

@node Q6.1.6, Q6.2.1, Q6.1.5, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.1.6: What do I need for Cygwin?

You can find the Cygwin tools and compiler at:

@uref{http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/}

You will need version b19 or later.

You will also need the X libraries.  There are libraries at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://dao.gsfc.nasa.gov/software/grads/win32/X11R6.3/}, but
these are not b19 compatible.  You can get b19 X11R6.3 binaries, as
well as pre-built ncurses and graphic libraries, from:

@uref{ftp://ftp.parallax.co.uk/pub/andyp/}.


@node Q6.2.1, Q6.2.2, Q6.1.6, MS Windows
@unnumberedsec 6.2: Customization and User Interface
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.2.1: How will the port cope with differences in the Windows user interface?

XEmacs (and Emacs in general) UI is pretty
different from what is expected of a typical MS Windows program.  How will
the MS Windows port cope with it?

Fortunately, Emacs is also one of the most configurable editor beasts
in the world.  The MS Windows "look and feel" (mark via shift-arrow,
self-inserting deletes region, etc.) can be easily configured via
various packages distributed with XEmacs.  The `pending-delete'
package is an example of such a utility.

In future versions, some of these packages might be turned on by
default in the MS Windows environment.


@node Q6.2.2, Q6.2.3, Q6.2.1, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.2.2: How do I change fonts in XEmacs on MS Windows?

In 21.2.*, use the font menu.  In 21.1.*, you can change font
manually. For example:

@display
    (set-face-font 'default "Lucida Console:Regular:10")
    (set-face-font 'modeline "MS Sans Serif:Regular:10")
@end display


@node Q6.2.3, Q6.3.1, Q6.2.2, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.2.3: Where do I put my @file{.emacs} file?

If the HOME environment variable is set, @file{.emacs} will be looked for
there.  Else the directory defaults to `c:\'.

@node Q6.3.1, Q6.3.2, Q6.2.3, MS Windows
@unnumberedsec 6.3: Miscellaneous
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.3.1: Will XEmacs rename all the win32-* symbols to w32-*?

In his flavor of Emacs 20, Richard Stallman has renamed all the win32-*
symbols to w32-*.  Will XEmacs do the same?

We consider such a move counter-productive, thus we will not use the
`w32' prefix.  However, we do recognize that Win32 name is little more
than a marketing buzzword (will it be Win64 in the next release?), so
we decided not to use it.  Using `windows-' would be wrong because the
term is too generic, which is why we settled on a compromise
`mswindows' term.

Thus all the XEmacs variables and functions directly related to Win32
are prefixed `mswindows-'.  The user-variables shared with NT Emacs
will be provided as compatibility aliases.

Architectural note: We believe that there should be a very small
number of window-systems-specific variables, and will try to provide
generic interfaces whenever possible.


@node Q6.3.2, Q6.3.3, Q6.3.1, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.3.2: What are the differences between the various MS Windows emacsen?

XEmacs, Win-Emacs, DOS Emacs, NT Emacs, this is all very confusing.
Could you briefly explain the differences between them?

Here is a recount of various Emacs versions running on MS Windows:

@itemize @bullet

@item
Win-Emacs

@itemize @minus

@item
Win-Emacs is a port of Lucid Emacs 19.6 to MS Windows using X
compatibility libraries.  Win-Emacs has been written by Ben Wing.  The
MS Windows code has not made it back to Lucid Emacs, which left Win-Emacs
pretty much dead for our purposes.  Win-Emacs used to be available at
Pearlsoft, but not anymore, since Pearlsoft went out of business.
@end itemize

@item
GNU Emacs for DOS

@itemize @minus

@item
GNU Emacs features support for MS-DOS and DJGPP (D.J. Delorie's DOS
port of Gcc).  Such an Emacs is heavily underfeatured, because it does
not supports long file names, lacks proper subprocesses support, and
is far too big compared to typical DOS editors.
@end itemize

@item
GNU Emacs compiled with Win32

@itemize @minus

@item
Starting with version 19.30, it has been possible to compile GNU Emacs
under MS Windows using the DJGPP compiler and X libraries.  The result
is is very similar to GNU Emacs compiled under MS DOS, only it
supports longer file names, etc.  This "port" is similar to the "X"
flavor of XEmacs on MS Windows.
@end itemize

@item
NT Emacs

@itemize @minus

@item
NT Emacs is a version of GNU Emacs modified to compile and run under
MS MS Windows 95 and NT using the native Win32 API.  As such, it is close
in spirit to the XEmacs "native" port.

@item
NT Emacs has been written by Geoff Voelker, and more information can be
found at
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@uref{http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/voelker/ntemacs.html}.

@end itemize

@item
XEmacs

@itemize @minus

@item
Beginning with XEmacs 19.12, XEmacs' architecture has been redesigned
in such a way to allow clean support of multiple window systems.  At
this time the TTY support was added, making X and TTY the first two
"window systems" XEmacs supported.  The 19.12 design is the basis for
the current native MS Windows code.

@item
Some time during 1997, David Hobley (soon joined by Marc Paquette)
imported some of the NT-specific portions of GNU Emacs, making XEmacs
with X support compile under Windows NT, and creating the "X" port.

@item
Several months later, Jonathan Harris sent out initial patches to use
the Win32 API, thus creating the native port.  Since then, various
people have contributed, including Kirill M. Katsnelson (contributed
support for menubars, subprocesses and network, as well as loads of
other code), Andy Piper (ported XEmacs to Cygwin environment,
contributed Windows unexec, Windows-specific glyphs and toolbars code,
and more), Jeff Sparkes (contributed scrollbars support) and many
others.

@end itemize

@end itemize


@node Q6.3.3, Q6.4.1, Q6.3.2, MS Windows
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.3.3: What is the porting team doing at the moment?

The porting team is continuing work on the MS Windows-specific code.

@node Q6.4.1, ,Q6.3.3, MS Windows
@unnumberedsec 6.3: Troubleshooting
@unnumberedsubsec Q6.4.1 XEmacs won't start on Windows. (NEW)

XEmacs relies on a process called "dumping" to generate a working
executable. Under MS-Windows this process effectively fixes the memory
addresses of information in the executable. When XEmacs starts up it tries
to reserve these memory addresses so that the dumping process can be
reversed - putting the information back at the correct addresses.
Unfortunately some .dlls (For instance the soundblaster driver) occupy
memory addresses that can conflict with those needed by the dumped XEmacs
executable. In this instance XEmacs will fail to start without any
explanation. Note that this is extremely machine specific.

Work is being done on fixes for 21.1.* that will make more intelligent
guesses about which memory addresses will be free and so this should
cure the problem for most people.

21.2 implements "portable dumping" which will eliminate the problem
altogether.

@node Current Events,  , MS Windows, Top
@unnumbered 7 What the Future Holds

This is part 7 of the XEmacs Frequently Asked Questions list.  This
section will change monthly, and contains any interesting items that have
transpired over the previous month.  If you are reading this from the
XEmacs distribution, please see the version on the Web or archived at the
various FAQ FTP sites, as this file is surely out of date.

@menu
* Q7.0.1::      What is new in 20.2?
* Q7.0.2::      What is new in 20.3?
* Q7.0.3::      What is new in 20.4?
* Q7.0.4::      Procedural changes in XEmacs development.
@end menu

@node Q7.0.1, Q7.0.2, Current Events, Current Events
@unnumberedsec 7.0: Changes
@unnumberedsubsec Q7.0.1: What is new in 20.2?

The biggest changes in 20.2 include integration of EFS (the next
generation of ange-ftp) and AUC Tex (the Emacs subsystem that includes a
major mode for editing Tex and LaTeX, and a lot of other stuff).  Many
bugs from 20.0 have been fixed for this release.  20.2 also contains a
new system for customizing XEmacs options, invoked via @kbd{M-x
customize}.

XEmacs 20.2 is the development release (20.0 was beta), and is no longer
considered unstable.

@node Q7.0.2, Q7.0.3, Q7.0.1, Current Events
@unnumberedsubsec Q7.0.2: What is new in 20.3?

XEmacs 20.3 was released in November 1997. It contains many bugfixes,
and a number of new features, including Autoconf 2 based configuration,
additional support for Mule (Multi-language extensions to Emacs), many
more customizations, multiple frames on TTY-s, support for multiple info
directories, an enhanced gnuclient, improvements to regexp matching,
increased MIME support, and many, many synches with GNU Emacs 20.

The XEmacs/Mule support has been only seriously tested in a Japanese
locale, and no doubt many problems still remain.  The support for
ISO-Latin-1 and Japanese is fairly strong.  MULE support comes at a
price---about a 30% slowdown from 19.16.  We're making progress on
improving performance and XEmacs 20.3 compiled without Mule (which is
the default) is definitely faster than XEmacs 19.16.

XEmacs 20.3 is the first non-beta v20 release, and will be the
basis for all further development.

@node Q7.0.3, Q7.0.4, Q7.0.2, Current Events
@unnumberedsubsec Q7.0.3: What's new in XEmacs 20.4?

XEmacs 20.4 is a bugfix release with no user-visible changes.
@c Filled in from NEWS file of 20.5-b33


@node Q7.0.4,  , Q7.0.3, Current Events
@unnumberedsubsec Q7.0.4: Procedural changes in XEmacs development.

@enumerate
@item
Discussion about the development of XEmacs occurs on the xemacs-beta
mailing list.  Subscriptions to this list will now be fully automated
instead of being handled by hand.  Send a mail message to
@email{xemacs-beta-request@@xemacs.org} with @samp{subscribe} as the
BODY of the message to join the list.  Please note this is a developers
mailing list for people who have an active interest in the development
process.

The discussion of NT XEmacs development is taking place on a separate
mailing list.  Send mail to
@iftex
@*
@end iftex
@email{xemacs-nt-request@@xemacs.org} to
subscribe.

@item
Due to the long development cycle in between releases, it has been
decided that intermediate versions will be made available in source only
form for the truly interested.

XEmacs 19.16 was the last 19 release, basically consisting of 19.15 plus
the collected bugfixes.

@item
As of December 1996, @email{steve@@xemacs.org, Steve Baur} has become
the lead maintainer of XEmacs.
@end enumerate

@bye
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