xemacs-21.4 / man / texinfo.texi

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\input texinfo.tex    @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c $Id: texinfo.texi,v 1.8 1998/06/30 06:35:31 steve Exp $
@c %**start of header

@c All text is ignored before the setfilename.
@setfilename ../info/texinfo
@settitle Texinfo @value{edition}

@c Edition number is now the same as the Texinfo distribution version number.
@set edition 3.12
@set update-month February 1998
@set update-date 27 @value{update-month}

@c Define a new index for options.
@defcodeindex op
@c Put everything except function (command, in this case) names in one
@c index (arbitrarily chosen to be the concept index).
@syncodeindex op cp
@syncodeindex vr cp
@syncodeindex pg cp

@footnotestyle separate
@paragraphindent 2
@finalout
@comment %**end of header

@c Before release, run C-u C-c C-u C-a (texinfo-all-menus-update with a
@c prefix arg).  This updates the node pointers, which texinfmt.el needs.

@dircategory Texinfo documentation system
@direntry
* Texinfo: (texinfo).           The GNU documentation format.
* install-info: (texinfo)Invoking install-info. Updating info/dir entries.
* texi2dvi: (texinfo)Format with texi2dvi.      Printing Texinfo documentation.
* texindex: (texinfo)Format with tex/texindex.  Sorting Texinfo index files.
* makeinfo: (texinfo)makeinfo Preferred.        Translate Texinfo source.
@end direntry

@c Set smallbook if printing in smallbook format so the example of the
@c smallbook font is actually written using smallbook; in bigbook, a kludge
@c is used for TeX output.  Do this through the -t option to texi2dvi,
@c so this same source can be used for other paper sizes as well.
@c smallbook
@c set smallbook
@c @@clear smallbook

@c Currently undocumented command, 5 December 1993:
@c nwnode          (Same as node, but no warnings; for `makeinfo'.)

@ifinfo
This file documents Texinfo, a documentation system that can produce
both on-line information and a printed manual from a single source file.

Copyright (C) 1988, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98
Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This edition is for Texinfo version @value{edition}.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through TeX and print the
results, provided the printed document carries copying permission
notice identical to this one except for the removal of this paragraph
(this paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).

@end ignore
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire
resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission
notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved
by the Free Software Foundation.
@end ifinfo

@setchapternewpage odd

@shorttitlepage Texinfo

@titlepage
@c use the new format for titles
@title Texinfo
@subtitle The GNU Documentation Format
@subtitle for Texinfo version @value{edition}
@subtitle @value{update-month}

@author Robert J.@: Chassell
@author Richard M.@: Stallman

@c Include the Distribution inside the titlepage so
@c that headings are turned off.

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1988, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98
Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
59 Temple Place Suite 330 @*
Boston, MA 02111-1307 @*
USA @*
ISBN 1-882114-65-5
@c ISBN 1-882114-63-9 is for edition 2.20 of 28 February 1995
@c ISBN 1-882114-64-7 is for edition 2.24 of November 1996.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire
resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission
notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved
by the Free Software Foundation.
@sp 2
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.
@end titlepage

@ifinfo
@node Top, Copying, (dir), (dir)
@top Texinfo

Texinfo is a documentation system that uses a single source file to
produce both on-line information and printed output.@refill

The first part of this master menu lists the major nodes in this Info
document, including the @@-command and concept indices.  The rest of
the menu lists all the lower level nodes in the document.@refill

This is Edition @value{edition} of the Texinfo documentation,
@w{@value{update-date}}.
@end ifinfo

@c Here is a spare copy of the chapter menu entry descriptions,
@c in case they are accidently deleted
@ignore
Your rights.
Texinfo in brief.
How to use Texinfo mode.
What is at the beginning of a Texinfo file?
What is at the end of a Texinfo file?
How to create chapters, sections, subsections,
  appendices, and other parts.
How to provide structure for a document.
How to write nodes.
How to write menus.
How to write cross references.
How to mark words and phrases as code,
  keyboard input, meta-syntactic
  variables, and the like.
How to write quotations, examples, etc.
How to write lists and tables.
How to create indices.
How to insert @@-signs, braces, etc.
How to indicate results of evaluation,
  expansion of macros, errors, etc.
How to force and prevent line and page breaks.
How to describe functions and the like in a uniform manner.
How to write footnotes.
How to specify text for either @TeX{} or Info.
How to print hardcopy.
How to create an Info file.
How to install an Info file
A list of all the Texinfo @@-commands.
Hints on how to write a Texinfo document.
A sample Texinfo file to look at.
Tell readers they have the right to copy
  and distribute.
How to incorporate other Texinfo files.
How to write page headings and footings.
How to find formatting mistakes.
All about paragraph refilling.
A description of @@-Command syntax.
Texinfo second edition features.
A menu containing commands and variables.
A menu covering many topics.
@end ignore

@menu
* Copying::                     Your rights.
* Overview::                    Texinfo in brief.
* Texinfo Mode::                How to use Texinfo mode.
* Beginning a File::            What is at the beginning of a Texinfo file?
* Ending a File::               What is at the end of a Texinfo file?
* Structuring::                 How to create chapters, sections, subsections,
                                  appendices, and other parts.
* Nodes::                       How to write nodes.
* Menus::                       How to write menus.
* Cross References::            How to write cross references.
* Marking Text::                How to mark words and phrases as code,
                                  keyboard input, meta-syntactic
                                  variables, and the like.
* Quotations and Examples::     How to write quotations, examples, etc.
* Lists and Tables::            How to write lists and tables.
* Indices::                     How to create indices.
* Insertions::                  How to insert @@-signs, braces, etc.
* Breaks::                      How to force and prevent line and page breaks.
* Definition Commands::         How to describe functions and the like
                                  in a uniform manner.
* Footnotes::                   How to write footnotes.
* Conditionals::                How to specify text for either @TeX{} or Info.
* Macros::                      Defining new Texinfo commands.
* Format/Print Hardcopy::       How to convert a Texinfo file to a file
                                  for printing and how to print that file.
* Create an Info File::         Convert a Texinfo file into an Info file.
* Install an Info File::        Make an Info file accessible to users.
* Command List::                All the Texinfo @@-commands.
* Tips::                        Hints on how to write a Texinfo document.
* Sample Texinfo File::         A sample Texinfo file to look at.
* Sample Permissions::          Tell readers they have the right to copy
                                  and distribute.
* Include Files::               How to incorporate other Texinfo files.
* Headings::                    How to write page headings and footings.
* Catching Mistakes::           How to find formatting mistakes.
* Refilling Paragraphs::        All about paragraph refilling.
* Command Syntax::              A description of @@-Command syntax.
* Obtaining TeX::               How to Obtain @TeX{}.
* Command and Variable Index::  A menu containing commands and variables.
* Concept Index::               A menu covering many topics.

@detailmenu

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Overview of Texinfo

* Using Texinfo::               Create a conventional printed book
                                  or an Info file.
* Info Files::                  What is an Info file?
* Printed Books::               Characteristics of a printed book or manual.
* Formatting Commands::         @@-commands are used for formatting.
* Conventions::                 General rules for writing a Texinfo file.
* Comments::                    How to write comments and mark regions that
                                  the formatting commands will ignore.
* Minimum::                     What a Texinfo file must have.
* Six Parts::                   Usually, a Texinfo file has six parts.
* Short Sample::                A short sample Texinfo file.
* Acknowledgements::            

Using Texinfo Mode

* Texinfo Mode Overview::       How Texinfo mode can help you.
* Emacs Editing::               Texinfo mode adds to GNU Emacs' general
                                  purpose editing features.
* Inserting::                   How to insert frequently used @@-commands.
* Showing the Structure::       How to show the structure of a file.
* Updating Nodes and Menus::    How to update or create new nodes and menus.
* Info Formatting::             How to format for Info.
* Printing::                    How to format and print part or all of a file.
* Texinfo Mode Summary::        Summary of all the Texinfo mode commands.

Updating Nodes and Menus

* Updating Commands::           Five major updating commands.
* Updating Requirements::       How to structure a Texinfo file for
                                  using the updating command.
* Other Updating Commands::     How to indent descriptions, insert
                                  missing nodes lines, and update
                                  nodes in sequence.

Beginning a Texinfo File

* Four Parts::                  Four parts begin a Texinfo file.
* Sample Beginning::            Here is a sample beginning for a Texinfo file.
* Header::                      The very beginning of a Texinfo file.
* Info Summary and Permissions::  Summary and copying permissions for Info.
* Titlepage & Copyright Page::  Creating the title and copyright pages.
* The Top Node::                Creating the `Top' node and master menu.
* Software Copying Permissions::  Ensure that you and others continue to
                                  have the right to use and share software.

The Texinfo File Header

* First Line::                  The first line of a Texinfo file.
* Start of Header::             Formatting a region requires this.
* setfilename::                 Tell Info the name of the Info file.
* settitle::                    Create a title for the printed work.
* setchapternewpage::           Start chapters on right-hand pages.
* paragraphindent::             An option to specify paragraph indentation.
* End of Header::               Formatting a region requires this.

The Title and Copyright Pages

* titlepage::                   Create a title for the printed document.
* titlefont center sp::         The @code{@@titlefont}, @code{@@center},
                                  and @code{@@sp} commands.
* title subtitle author::       The @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle},
                                  and @code{@@author} commands.
* Copyright & Permissions::     How to write the copyright notice and
                                  include copying permissions.
* end titlepage::               Turn on page headings after the title and
                                  copyright pages.
* headings on off::             An option for turning headings on and off
                                  and double or single sided printing.

The `Top' Node and Master Menu

* Title of Top Node::           Sketch what the file is about.
* Master Menu Parts::           A master menu has three or more parts.

Ending a Texinfo File

* Printing Indices & Menus::    How to print an index in hardcopy and
                                  generate index menus in Info.
* Contents::                    How to create a table of contents.
* File End::                    How to mark the end of a file.

Chapter Structuring

* Tree Structuring::            A manual is like an upside down tree @dots{}
* Structuring Command Types::   How to divide a manual into parts.
* makeinfo top::                The @code{@@top} command, part of the `Top' node.
* chapter::                     
* unnumbered & appendix::       
* majorheading & chapheading::  
* section::                     
* unnumberedsec appendixsec heading::  
* subsection::                  
* unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading::  
* subsubsection::               Commands for the lowest level sections.
* Raise/lower sections::        How to change commands' hierarchical level.

Nodes

* Two Paths::                   Different commands to structure
                                  Info output and printed output.
* Node Menu Illustration::      A diagram, and sample nodes and menus.
* node::                        How to write a node, in detail.
* makeinfo Pointer Creation::   How to create node pointers with @code{makeinfo}.

The @code{@@node} Command

* Node Names::                  How to choose node and pointer names.
* Writing a Node::              How to write an @code{@@node} line.
* Node Line Tips::              Keep names short.
* Node Line Requirements::      Keep names unique, without @@-commands.
* First Node::                  How to write a `Top' node.
* makeinfo top command::        How to use the @code{@@top} command.
* Top Node Summary::            Write a brief description for readers.

Menus

* Menu Location::               Put a menu in a short node.
* Writing a Menu::              What is a menu?
* Menu Parts::                  A menu entry has three parts.
* Less Cluttered Menu Entry::   Two part menu entry.
* Menu Example::                Two and three part menu entries.
* Other Info Files::            How to refer to a different Info file.

Cross References

* References::                  What cross references are for.
* Cross Reference Commands::    A summary of the different commands.
* Cross Reference Parts::       A cross reference has several parts.
* xref::                        Begin a reference with `See' @dots{}
* Top Node Naming::             How to refer to the beginning of another file.
* ref::                         A reference for the last part of a sentence.
* pxref::                       How to write a parenthetical cross reference.
* inforef::                     How to refer to an Info-only file.
* uref::                        How to refer to a uniform resource locator.

@code{@@xref}

* Reference Syntax::            What a reference looks like and requires.
* One Argument::                @code{@@xref} with one argument.
* Two Arguments::               @code{@@xref} with two arguments.
* Three Arguments::             @code{@@xref} with three arguments.
* Four and Five Arguments::     @code{@@xref} with four and five arguments.

Marking Words and Phrases

* Indicating::                  How to indicate definitions, files, etc.
* Emphasis::                    How to emphasize text.

Indicating Definitions, Commands, etc.

* Useful Highlighting::         Highlighting provides useful information.
* code::                        How to indicate code.
* kbd::                         How to show keyboard input.
* key::                         How to specify keys.
* samp::                        How to show a literal sequence of characters.
* var::                         How to indicate a metasyntactic variable.
* file::                        How to indicate the name of a file.
* dfn::                         How to specify a definition.
* cite::                        How to refer to a book that is not in Info.
* url::                         How to indicate a world wide web reference.
* email::                       How to indicate an electronic mail address.

Emphasizing Text

* emph & strong::               How to emphasize text in Texinfo.
* Smallcaps::                   How to use the small caps font.
* Fonts::                       Various font commands for printed output.
* Customized Highlighting::     How to define highlighting commands.

Quotations and Examples

* Block Enclosing Commands::    Use different constructs for
                                  different purposes.
* quotation::                   How to write a quotation.
* example::                     How to write an example in a fixed-width font.
* noindent::                    How to prevent paragraph indentation.
* Lisp Example::                How to illustrate Lisp code.
* smallexample & smalllisp::    Forms for the @code{@@smallbook} option.
* display::                     How to write an example in the current font.
* format::                      How to write an example that does not narrow
                                  the margins.
* exdent::                      How to undo the indentation of a line.
* flushleft & flushright::      How to push text flushleft or flushright.
* cartouche::                   How to draw cartouches around examples.

Lists and Tables

* Introducing Lists::           Texinfo formats lists for you.
* itemize::                     How to construct a simple list.
* enumerate::                   How to construct a numbered list.
* Two-column Tables::           How to construct a two-column table.
* Multi-column Tables::         How to construct generalized tables.

Making a Two-column Table

* table::                       How to construct a two-column table.
* ftable vtable::               Automatic indexing for two-column tables.
* itemx::                       How to put more entries in the first column.

Multi-column Tables

* Multitable Column Widths::    Defining multitable column widths.
* Multitable Rows::             Defining multitable rows, with examples.

Creating Indices

* Index Entries::               Choose different words for index entries.
* Predefined Indices::          Use different indices for different kinds
                                  of entry.
* Indexing Commands::           How to make an index entry.
* Combining Indices::           How to combine indices.
* New Indices::                 How to define your own indices.

Combining Indices

* syncodeindex::                How to merge two indices, using @code{@@code}
                                  font for the merged-from index.
* synindex::                    How to merge two indices, using the
                                  default font of the merged-to index.

Special Insertions

* Braces Atsigns::              How to insert braces, @samp{@@}.
* Inserting Space::             How to insert the right amount of space
                                  within a sentence.
* Inserting Accents::           How to insert accents and special characters.
* Dots Bullets::                How to insert dots and bullets.
* TeX and copyright::           How to insert the @TeX{} logo
                                  and the copyright symbol.
* pounds::                      How to insert the pounds currency symbol.
* minus::                       How to insert a minus sign.
* math::                        How to format a mathematical expression.
* Glyphs::                      How to indicate results of evaluation,
                                  expansion of macros, errors, etc.
* Images::                      How to include graphics.

Inserting @@ and Braces

* Inserting An Atsign::         How to insert @samp{@@}.
* Inserting Braces::            How to insert @samp{@{} and @samp{@}}.

Inserting Space

* Not Ending a Sentence::       Sometimes a . doesn't end a sentence.
* Ending a Sentence::           Sometimes it does.
* Multiple Spaces::             Inserting multiple spaces.
* dmn::                         How to format a dimension.

Inserting Ellipsis, Dots, and Bullets

* dots::                        How to insert dots @dots{}
* bullet::                      How to insert a bullet.

Inserting @TeX{} and the Copyright Symbol

* tex::                         How to insert the @TeX{} logo.
* copyright symbol::            How to use @code{@@copyright}@{@}.

Glyphs for Examples

* Glyphs Summary::              
* result::                      How to show the result of expression.
* expansion::                   How to indicate an expansion.
* Print Glyph::                 How to indicate printed output.
* Error Glyph::                 How to indicate an error message.
* Equivalence::                 How to indicate equivalence.
* Point Glyph::                 How to indicate the location of point.

Glyphs Summary

* result::                      
* expansion::                   
* Print Glyph::                 
* Error Glyph::                 
* Equivalence::                 
* Point Glyph::                 

Making and Preventing Breaks

* Break Commands::              Cause and prevent splits.
* Line Breaks::                 How to force a single line to use two lines.
* - and hyphenation::           How to tell TeX about hyphenation points.
* w::                           How to prevent unwanted line breaks.
* sp::                          How to insert blank lines.
* page::                        How to force the start of a new page.
* group::                       How to prevent unwanted page breaks.
* need::                        Another way to prevent unwanted page breaks.

Definition Commands

* Def Cmd Template::            How to structure a description using a
                                  definition command.
* Optional Arguments::          How to handle optional and repeated arguments.
* deffnx::                      How to group two or more `first' lines.
* Def Cmds in Detail::          All the definition commands.
* Def Cmd Conventions::         Conventions for writing definitions.
* Sample Function Definition::  

The Definition Commands

* Functions Commands::          Commands for functions and similar entities.
* Variables Commands::          Commands for variables and similar entities.
* Typed Functions::             Commands for functions in typed languages.
* Typed Variables::             Commands for variables in typed languages.
* Abstract Objects::            Commands for object-oriented programming.
* Data Types::                  The definition command for data types.

Footnotes

* Footnote Commands::           How to write a footnote in Texinfo.
* Footnote Styles::             Controlling how footnotes appear in Info.

Conditionally Visible Text

* Conditional Commands::        Specifying text for HTML, Info, or @TeX{}.
* Conditional Not Commands::    Specifying text for not HTML, Info, or @TeX{}.
* Raw Formatter Commands::      Using raw @TeX{} or HTML commands.
* set clear value::             Designating which text to format (for
                                  all output formats); and how to set a
                                  flag to a string that you can insert.

@code{@@set}, @code{@@clear}, and @code{@@value}

* ifset ifclear::               Format a region if a flag is set.
* value::                       Replace a flag with a string.
* value Example::               An easy way to update edition information.

Macros: Defining New Texinfo Commands

* Defining Macros::             Both defining and undefining new commands.
* Invoking Macros::             Using a macro, once you've defined it.

Format and Print Hardcopy

* Use TeX::                     Use @TeX{} to format for hardcopy.
* Format with tex/texindex::    How to format in a shell.
* Format with texi2dvi::        A simpler way to use the shell.
* Print with lpr::              How to print.
* Within Emacs::                How to format and print from an Emacs shell.
* Texinfo Mode Printing::       How to format and print in Texinfo mode.
* Compile-Command::             How to print using Emacs's compile command.
* Requirements Summary::        @TeX{} formatting requirements summary.
* Preparing for TeX::           What you need to do to use @TeX{}.
* Overfull hboxes::             What are and what to do with overfull hboxes.
* smallbook::                   How to print small format books and manuals.
* A4 Paper::                    How to print on European A4 paper.
* Cropmarks and Magnification::  How to print marks to indicate the size
                                of pages and how to print scaled up output.

Creating an Info File

* makeinfo advantages::         @code{makeinfo} provides better error checking.
* Invoking makeinfo::           How to run @code{makeinfo} from a shell.
* makeinfo options::            Specify fill-column and other options.
* Pointer Validation::          How to check that pointers point somewhere.
* makeinfo in Emacs::           How to run @code{makeinfo} from Emacs.
* texinfo-format commands::     Two Info formatting commands written
                                  in Emacs Lisp are an alternative
                                  to @code{makeinfo}.
* Batch Formatting::            How to format for Info in Emacs Batch mode.
* Tag and Split Files::         How tagged and split files help Info
                                  to run better.

Installing an Info File

* Directory file::              The top level menu for all Info files.
* New Info File::               Listing a new info file.
* Other Info Directories::      How to specify Info files that are
                                  located in other directories.
* Installing Dir Entries::      How to specify what menu entry to add
                                  to the Info directory.
* Invoking install-info::       @code{install-info} options.

Sample Permissions

* Inserting Permissions::       How to put permissions in your document.
* ifinfo Permissions::          Sample @samp{ifinfo} copying permissions.
* Titlepage Permissions::       Sample Titlepage copying permissions.

Include Files

* Using Include Files::         How to use the @code{@@include} command.
* texinfo-multiple-files-update::  How to create and update nodes and
                                  menus when using included files.
* Include File Requirements::   What @code{texinfo-multiple-files-update} expects.
* Sample Include File::         A sample outer file with included files
                                  within it; and a sample included file.
* Include Files Evolution::     How use of the @code{@@include} command
                                  has changed over time.

Page Headings

* Headings Introduced::         Conventions for using page headings.
* Heading Format::              Standard page heading formats.
* Heading Choice::              How to specify the type of page heading.
* Custom Headings::             How to create your own headings and footings.

Formatting Mistakes

* makeinfo Preferred::          @code{makeinfo} finds errors.
* Debugging with Info::         How to catch errors with Info formatting.
* Debugging with TeX::          How to catch errors with @TeX{} formatting.
* Using texinfo-show-structure::  How to use @code{texinfo-show-structure}.
* Using occur::                 How to list all lines containing a pattern.
* Running Info-Validate::       How to find badly referenced nodes.

Finding Badly Referenced Nodes

* Using Info-validate::         How to run @code{Info-validate}.
* Unsplit::                     How to create an unsplit file.
* Tagifying::                   How to tagify a file.
* Splitting::                   How to split a file manually.

How to Obtain @TeX{}

* New Texinfo Mode Commands::   The updating commands are especially useful.
* New Commands::                Many newly described @@-commands.
@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Copying, Overview, Top, Top
@comment  node-name, next, previous,  up
@unnumbered Texinfo Copying Conditions
@cindex Copying conditions
@cindex Conditions for copying Texinfo

The programs currently being distributed that relate to Texinfo include
portions of GNU Emacs, plus other separate programs (including
@code{makeinfo}, @code{info}, @code{texindex}, and @file{texinfo.tex}).
These programs are @dfn{free}; this means that everyone is free to use
them and free to redistribute them on a free basis.  The Texinfo-related
programs are not in the public domain; they are copyrighted and there
are restrictions on their distribution, but these restrictions are
designed to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want
to do.  What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further
sharing any version of these programs that they might get from
you.@refill

  Specifically, we want to make sure that you have the right to give
away copies of the programs that relate to Texinfo, that you receive
source code or else can get it if you want it, that you can change these
programs or use pieces of them in new free programs, and that you know
you can do these things.@refill

  To make sure that everyone has such rights, we have to forbid you to
deprive anyone else of these rights.  For example, if you distribute
copies of the Texinfo related programs, you must give the recipients all
the rights that you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or
can get the source code.  And you must tell them their rights.@refill

  Also, for our own protection, we must make certain that everyone finds
out that there is no warranty for the programs that relate to Texinfo.
If these programs are modified by someone else and passed on, we want
their recipients to know that what they have is not what we distributed,
so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on our
reputation.@refill

  The precise conditions of the licenses for the programs currently
being distributed that relate to Texinfo are found in the General Public
Licenses that accompany them.@refill

@node Overview, Texinfo Mode, Copying, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Overview of Texinfo
@cindex Overview of Texinfo
@cindex Texinfo overview

@dfn{Texinfo}@footnote{Note that the first syllable of ``Texinfo'' is
pronounced like ``speck'', not ``hex''.  This odd pronunciation is
derived from, but is not the same as, the pronunciation of @TeX{}.  In
the word @TeX{}, the @samp{X} is actually the Greek letter ``chi''
rather than the English letter ``ex''.  Pronounce @TeX{} as if the
@samp{X} were the last sound in the name `Bach'; but pronounce Texinfo
as if the @samp{x} were a `k'.  Spell ``Texinfo'' with a capital ``T''
and write the other letters in lower case.}
is a documentation system that uses a single source file to produce both
on-line information and printed output.  This means that instead of
writing two different documents, one for the on-line help or other on-line
information and the other for a typeset manual or other printed work, you
need write only one document.  When the work is revised, you need revise
only one document.  (You can read the on-line information, known as an
@dfn{Info file}, with an Info documentation-reading program.)@refill

@menu
* Using Texinfo::               Create a conventional printed book
                                  or an Info file.
* Info Files::                  What is an Info file?
* Printed Books::               Characteristics of a printed book or manual.
* Formatting Commands::         @@-commands are used for formatting.
* Conventions::                 General rules for writing a Texinfo file.
* Comments::                    How to write comments and mark regions that
                                  the formatting commands will ignore.
* Minimum::                     What a Texinfo file must have.
* Six Parts::                   Usually, a Texinfo file has six parts.
* Short Sample::                A short sample Texinfo file.
* Acknowledgements::            
@end menu

@node Using Texinfo, Info Files, Overview, Overview
@ifinfo
@heading Using Texinfo
@end ifinfo

Using Texinfo, you can create a printed document with the normal
features of a book, including chapters, sections, cross references,
and indices.  From the same Texinfo source file, you can create a
menu-driven, on-line Info file with nodes, menus, cross references,
and indices.  You can, if you wish, make the chapters and sections of
the printed document correspond to the nodes of the on-line
information; and you use the same cross references and indices for
both the Info file and the printed work.  @cite{The GNU
Emacs Manual} is a good example of a Texinfo file, as is this manual.@refill

To make a printed document, you process a Texinfo source file with the
@TeX{} typesetting program.  This creates a DVI file that you can
typeset and print as a book or report.  (Note that the Texinfo language
is completely different from @TeX{}'s usual language, plain @TeX{}.)  If
you do not have @TeX{}, but do have @code{troff} or @code{nroff}, you
can use the @code{texi2roff} program instead.@refill

To make an Info file, you process a Texinfo source file with the
@code{makeinfo} utility or Emacs's @code{texinfo-format-buffer} command;
this creates an Info file that you can install on-line.@refill

@TeX{} and @code{texi2roff} work with many types of printers; similarly,
Info works with almost every type of computer terminal.  This power
makes Texinfo a general purpose system, but brings with it a constraint,
which is that a Texinfo file may contain only the customary
``typewriter'' characters (letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation
marks) but no special graphics.@refill

A Texinfo file is a plain @sc{ascii} file containing text and
@dfn{@@-commands} (words preceded by an @samp{@@}) that tell the
typesetting and formatting programs what to do.  You may edit a
Texinfo file with any text editor; but it is especially convenient to
use GNU Emacs since that editor has a special mode, called Texinfo
mode, that provides various Texinfo-related features.  (@xref{Texinfo
Mode}.)@refill

Before writing a Texinfo source file, you should become familiar with
the Info documentation reading program and learn about nodes,
menus, cross references, and the rest.  (@inforef{Top, info, info},
for more information.)@refill

You can use Texinfo to create both on-line help and printed manuals;
moreover, Texinfo is freely redistributable.  For these reasons, Texinfo
is the format in which documentation for GNU utilities and libraries is
written.@refill

@node Info Files, Printed Books, Using Texinfo, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Info files
@cindex Info files

An Info file is a Texinfo file formatted so that the Info documentation
reading program can operate on it.  (@code{makeinfo}
and @code{texinfo-format-buffer} are two commands that convert a Texinfo file
into an Info file.)@refill

Info files are divided into pieces called @dfn{nodes}, each of which
contains the discussion of one topic.  Each node has a name, and
contains both text for the user to read and pointers to other nodes,
which are identified by their names.  The Info program displays one node
at a time, and provides commands with which the user can move to other
related nodes.@refill

@ifinfo
@inforef{Top, info, info}, for more information about using Info.@refill
@end ifinfo

Each node of an Info file may have any number of child nodes that
describe subtopics of the node's topic.  The names of child
nodes are listed in a @dfn{menu} within the parent node; this
allows you to use certain Info commands to move to one of the child
nodes.  Generally, an Info file is organized like a book.  If a node
is at the logical level of a chapter, its child nodes are at the level
of sections; likewise, the child nodes of sections are at the level
of subsections.@refill

All the children of any one parent are linked together in a
bidirectional chain of `Next' and `Previous' pointers.  The `Next'
pointer provides a link to the next section, and the `Previous' pointer
provides a link to the previous section.  This means that all the nodes
that are at the level of sections within a chapter are linked together.
Normally the order in this chain is the same as the order of the
children in the parent's menu.  Each child node records the parent node
name as its `Up' pointer.  The last child has no `Next' pointer, and the
first child has the parent both as its `Previous' and as its `Up'
pointer.@footnote{In some documents, the first child has no `Previous'
pointer.  Occasionally, the last child has the node name of the next
following higher level node as its `Next' pointer.}@refill

The book-like structuring of an Info file into nodes that correspond
to chapters, sections, and the like is a matter of convention, not a
requirement.  The `Up', `Previous', and `Next' pointers of a node can
point to any other nodes, and a menu can contain any other nodes.
Thus, the node structure can be any directed graph.  But it is usually
more comprehensible to follow a structure that corresponds to the
structure of chapters and sections in a printed book or report.@refill

In addition to menus and to `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers, Info
provides pointers of another kind, called references, that can be
sprinkled throughout the text.  This is usually the best way to
represent links that do not fit a hierarchical structure.@refill

Usually, you will design a document so that its nodes match the
structure of chapters and sections in the printed output.  But
occasionally there are times when this is not right for the material
being discussed.  Therefore, Texinfo uses separate commands to specify
the node structure for the Info file and the section structure for the
printed output.@refill

Generally, you enter an Info file through a node that by convention is
named `Top'.  This node normally contains just a brief summary of the
file's purpose, and a large menu through which the rest of the file is
reached.  From this node, you can either traverse the file
systematically by going from node to node, or you can go to a specific
node listed in the main menu, or you can search the index menus and then
go directly to the node that has the information you want.  Alternatively,
with the standalone Info program, you can specify specific menu items on
the command line (@pxref{Top,,, info, Info}).

If you want to read through an Info file in sequence, as if it were a
printed manual, you can hit @key{SPC} repeatedly, or you get the whole
file with the advanced Info command @kbd{g *}.  (@inforef{Expert,
Advanced Info commands, info}.)@refill

@c !!! dir file may be located in one of many places:
@c     /usr/local/emacs/info            mentioned in info.c DEFAULT_INFOPATH
@c     /usr/local/lib/emacs/info        mentioned in info.c DEFAULT_INFOPATH
@c     /usr/gnu/info                    mentioned in info.c DEFAULT_INFOPATH
@c     /usr/local/info
@c     /usr/local/lib/info
The @file{dir} file in the @file{info} directory serves as the
departure point for the whole Info system.  From it, you can reach the
`Top' nodes of each of the documents in a complete Info system.@refill

@node Printed Books, Formatting Commands, Info Files, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Printed Books
@cindex Printed book and manual characteristics
@cindex Manual characteristics, printed
@cindex Book characteristics, printed
@cindex Texinfo printed book characteristics
@cindex Characteristics, printed books or manuals

@cindex Knuth, Donald
A Texinfo file can be formatted and typeset as a printed book or manual.
To do this, you need @TeX{}, a powerful, sophisticated typesetting
program written by Donald Knuth.@footnote{You can also use the
@code{texi2roff} program if you do not have @TeX{}; since Texinfo is
designed for use with @TeX{}, @code{texi2roff} is not described here.
@code{texi2roff} is not part of the standard GNU distribution.}

A Texinfo-based book is similar to any other typeset, printed work: it
can have a title page, copyright page, table of contents, and preface,
as well as chapters, numbered or unnumbered sections and subsections,
page headers, cross references, footnotes, and indices.@refill

You can use Texinfo to write a book without ever having the intention
of converting it into on-line information.  You can use Texinfo for
writing a printed novel, and even to write a printed memo, although
this latter application is not recommended since electronic mail is so
much easier.@refill

@TeX{} is a general purpose typesetting program.  Texinfo provides a
file called @file{texinfo.tex} that contains information (definitions or
@dfn{macros}) that @TeX{} uses when it typesets a Texinfo file.
(@file{texinfo.tex} tells @TeX{} how to convert the Texinfo @@-commands
to @TeX{} commands, which @TeX{} can then process to create the typeset
document.)  @file{texinfo.tex} contains the specifications for printing
a document.@refill

Most often, documents are printed on 8.5 inch by 11 inch
pages (216@dmn{mm} by 280@dmn{mm}; this is the default size), but you
can also print for 7 inch by 9.25 inch pages (178@dmn{mm} by
235@dmn{mm}; the @code{@@smallbook} size) or on European A4 size paper
(@code{@@afourpaper}).  (@xref{smallbook, , Printing ``Small'' Books}.
Also, see @ref{A4 Paper, ,Printing on A4 Paper}.)@refill

By changing the parameters in @file{texinfo.tex}, you can change the
size of the printed document.  In addition, you can change the style in
which the printed document is formatted; for example, you can change the
sizes and fonts used, the amount of indentation for each paragraph, the
degree to which words are hyphenated, and the like.  By changing the
specifications, you can make a book look dignified, old and serious, or
light-hearted, young and cheery.@refill

@TeX{} is freely distributable.  It is written in a superset of Pascal
called WEB and can be compiled either in Pascal or (by using a
conversion program that comes with the @TeX{} distribution) in C.
(@xref{TeX Mode, ,@TeX{} Mode, xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}, for information
about @TeX{}.)@refill

@TeX{} is very powerful and has a great many features.  Because a
Texinfo file must be able to present information both on a
character-only terminal in Info form and in a typeset book, the
formatting commands that Texinfo supports are necessarily
limited.@refill

@xref{Obtaining TeX, , How to Obtain @TeX{}}.


@node Formatting Commands, Conventions, Printed Books, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @@-commands
@cindex @@-commands
@cindex Formatting commands

In a Texinfo file, the commands that tell @TeX{} how to typeset the
printed manual and tell @code{makeinfo} and
@code{texinfo-format-buffer} how to create an Info file are preceded
by @samp{@@}; they are called @dfn{@@-commands}.  For example,
@code{@@node} is the command to indicate a node and @code{@@chapter}
is the command to indicate the start of a chapter.@refill

@quotation
@strong{Please note:} All the @@-commands, with the exception of the
@code{@@TeX@{@}} command, must be written entirely in lower
case.@refill
@end quotation

The Texinfo @@-commands are a strictly limited set of constructs.  The
strict limits make it possible for Texinfo files to be understood both
by @TeX{} and by the code that converts them into Info files.  You can
display Info files on any terminal that displays alphabetic and
numeric characters.  Similarly, you can print the output generated by
@TeX{} on a wide variety of printers.@refill

Depending on what they do or what arguments@footnote{The word
@dfn{argument} comes from the way it is used in mathematics and does
not refer to a disputation between two people; it refers to the
information presented to the command.  According to the @cite{Oxford
English Dictionary}, the word derives from the Latin for @dfn{to make
clear, prove}; thus it came to mean `the evidence offered as proof',
which is to say, `the information offered', which led to its
mathematical meaning.  In its other thread of derivation, the word
came to mean `to assert in a manner against which others may make
counter assertions', which led to the meaning of `argument' as a
disputation.} they take, you need to write @@-commands on lines of
their own or as part of sentences:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
Write a command such as @code{@@noindent} at the beginning of a line as
the only text on the line.  (@code{@@noindent} prevents the beginning of
the next line from being indented as the beginning of a
paragraph.)@refill

@item
Write a command such as @code{@@chapter} at the beginning of a line
followed by the command's arguments, in this case the chapter title, on
the rest of the line.  (@code{@@chapter} creates chapter titles.)@refill

@item
Write a command such as @code{@@dots@{@}} wherever you wish but usually
within a sentence. (@code{@@dots@{@}} creates dots @dots{})@refill

@item
Write a command such as @code{@@code@{@var{sample-code}@}} wherever you
wish (but usually within a sentence) with its argument,
@var{sample-code} in this example, between the braces.  (@code{@@code}
marks text as being code.)@refill

@item
Write a command such as @code{@@example} at the beginning of a line of
its own; write the body-text on following lines; and write the matching
@code{@@end} command, @code{@@end example} in this case, at the
beginning of a line of its own after the body-text. (@code{@@example}
@dots{} @code{@@end example} indents and typesets body-text as an
example.)@refill
@end itemize

@noindent
@cindex Braces, when to use
As a general rule, a command requires braces if it mingles among other
text; but it does not need braces if it starts a line of its own.  The
non-alphabetic commands, such as @code{@@:}, are exceptions to the rule;
they do not need braces.@refill

As you gain experience with Texinfo, you will rapidly learn how to
write the different commands: the different ways to write commands
make it easier to write and read Texinfo files than if all commands
followed exactly the same syntax.  (For details about @@-command
syntax, see @ref{Command Syntax, , @@-Command Syntax}.)@refill

@node Conventions, Comments, Formatting Commands, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section General Syntactic Conventions
@cindex General syntactic conventions
@cindex Syntactic conventions
@cindex Conventions, syntactic

All printable @sc{ascii} characters except @samp{@@}, @samp{@{} and
@samp{@}} can appear in a Texinfo file and stand for themselves.
@samp{@@} is the escape character which introduces commands.
@samp{@{} and @samp{@}} should be used only to surround arguments to
certain commands.  To put one of these special characters into the
document, put an @samp{@@} character in front of it, like this:
@samp{@@@@}, @samp{@@@{}, and @samp{@@@}}.@refill

@ifinfo
It is customary in @TeX{} to use doubled single-quote characters to
begin and end quotations: ` ` and ' ' (but without a space between the
two single-quote characters).  This convention should be followed in
Texinfo files.  @TeX{} converts doubled single-quote characters to
left- and right-hand doubled quotation marks and Info converts doubled
single-quote characters to @sc{ascii} double-quotes: ` ` and ' ' to " .@refill
@end ifinfo
@iftex
It is customary in @TeX{} to use doubled single-quote characters to
begin and end quotations: @w{@tt{ `` }} and @w{@tt{ '' }}.  This
convention should be followed in Texinfo files.  @TeX{} converts
doubled single-quote characters to left- and right-hand doubled
quotation marks, ``like this'', and Info converts doubled single-quote
characters to @sc{ascii} double-quotes: @w{@tt{ `` }} and
@w{@tt{ '' }} to @w{@tt{ " }}.@refill
@end iftex

Use three hyphens in a row, @samp{---}, for a dash---like this.  In
@TeX{}, a single or double hyphen produces a printed dash that is
shorter than the usual typeset dash. Info reduces three hyphens to two
for display on the screen.

To prevent a paragraph from being indented in the printed manual, put
the command @code{@@noindent} on a line by itself before the
paragraph.@refill

If you mark off a region of the Texinfo file with the @code{@@iftex}
and @w{@code{@@end iftex}} commands, that region will appear only in
the printed copy; in that region, you can use certain commands
borrowed from plain @TeX{} that you cannot use in Info.  Likewise, if
you mark off a region with the @code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end ifinfo}
commands, that region will appear only in the Info file; in that
region, you can use Info commands that you cannot use in @TeX{}.
Similarly for @code{@@ifhtml @dots{} @@end ifhtml},
@code{@@ifnothtml @dots{} @@end ifnothtml},
@code{@@ifnotinfo @dots{} @@end ifnotinfo},
@code{@@ifnottex @dots{} @@end ifnottex},
@xref{Conditionals}.

@cindex Tabs; don't use!
@quotation
@strong{Caution:} Do not use tabs in a Texinfo file!  @TeX{} uses
variable-width fonts, which means that it cannot predefine a tab to work
in all circumstances.  Consequently, @TeX{} treats tabs like single
spaces, and that is not what they look like.  Furthermore,
@code{makeinfo} does nothing special with tabs, and thus a tab character
in your input file may appear differently in the output.

@noindent
To avoid this problem, Texinfo mode causes GNU Emacs to insert multiple
spaces when you press the @key{TAB} key.@refill

@noindent
Also, you can run @code{untabify} in Emacs to convert tabs in a region
to multiple spaces.@refill

@noindent
Don't use tabs.
@end quotation

@node Comments, Minimum, Conventions, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Comments

You can write comments in a Texinfo file that will not appear in
either the Info file or the printed manual by using the
@code{@@comment} command (which may be abbreviated to @code{@@c}).
Such comments are for the person who reads the Texinfo file.  All the
text on a line that follows either @code{@@comment} or @code{@@c} is a
comment; the rest of the line does not appear in either the Info file
or the printed manual. (Often, you can write the @code{@@comment} or
@code{@@c} in the middle of a line, and only the text that follows after
the @code{@@comment} or @code{@@c} command does not appear; but some
commands, such as @code{@@settitle} and @code{@@setfilename}, work on a
whole line.  You cannot use @code{@@comment} or @code{@@c} in a line
beginning with such a command.)@refill
@cindex Comments
@findex comment
@findex c @r{(comment)}

You can write long stretches of text that will not appear in either
the Info file or the printed manual by using the @code{@@ignore} and
@code{@@end ignore} commands.  Write each of these commands on a line
of its own, starting each command at the beginning of the line.  Text
between these two commands does not appear in the processed output.
You can use @code{@@ignore} and @code{@@end ignore} for writing
comments.  Often, @code{@@ignore} and @code{@@end ignore} is used
to enclose a part of the copying permissions that applies to the
Texinfo source file of a document, but not to the Info or printed
version of the document.@refill
@cindex Ignored text
@cindex Unprocessed text
@findex ignore
@c !!! Perhaps include this comment about ignore and ifset:
@ignore
Text enclosed by @code{@@ignore} or by failing @code{@@ifset} or
@code{@@ifclear} conditions is ignored in the sense that it will not
contribute to the formatted output.  However, TeX and makeinfo must
still parse the ignored text, in order to understand when to
@emph{stop} ignoring text from the source file; that means that you
will still get error messages if you have invalid Texinfo markup
within ignored text.
@end ignore

@node Minimum, Six Parts, Comments, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section What a Texinfo File Must Have
@cindex Minimal Texinfo file (requirements)
@cindex Must have in Texinfo file
@cindex Required in Texinfo file
@cindex Texinfo file minimum

By convention, the names of Texinfo files end with one of the
extensions @file{.texinfo}, @file{.texi}, or @file{.tex}.  The longer
extension is preferred since it describes more clearly to a human
reader the nature of the file.  The shorter extensions are for
operating systems that cannot handle long file names.@refill

In order to be made into a printed manual and an Info file, a Texinfo
file @strong{must} begin with lines like this:@refill

@example
@group
\input texinfo
@@setfilename @var{info-file-name}
@@settitle @var{name-of-manual}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
The contents of the file follow this beginning, and then you @strong{must} end
a Texinfo file with a line like this:@refill

@example
@@bye
@end example

@findex input @r{(@TeX{} command)}
@noindent
The @samp{\input texinfo} line tells @TeX{} to use the
@file{texinfo.tex} file, which tells @TeX{} how to translate the Texinfo
@@-commands into @TeX{} typesetting commands.  (Note the use of the
backslash, @samp{\}; this is correct for @TeX{}.)  The
@samp{@@setfilename} line provides a name for the Info file and tells
@TeX{} to open auxiliary files.  The @samp{@@settitle} line specifies a
title for the page headers (or footers) of the printed manual.@refill

The @code{@@bye} line at the end of the file on a line of its own tells
the formatters that the file is ended and to stop formatting.@refill

Usually, you will not use quite such a spare format, but will include
mode setting and start-of-header and end-of-header lines at the
beginning of a Texinfo file, like this:@refill

@example
@group
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@@c %**start of header
@@setfilename @var{info-file-name}
@@settitle @var{name-of-manual}
@@c %**end of header
@end group
@end example

@noindent
In the first line, @samp{-*-texinfo-*-} causes Emacs to switch into
Texinfo mode when you edit the file.

The @code{@@c} lines which surround the @samp{@@setfilename} and
@samp{@@settitle} lines are optional, but you need them in order to
run @TeX{} or Info on just part of the file.  (@xref{Start of Header},
for more information.)@refill

Furthermore, you will usually provide a Texinfo file with a title
page, indices, and the like.  But the minimum, which can be useful
for short documents, is just the three lines at the beginning and the
one line at the end.@refill

@node Six Parts, Short Sample, Minimum, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Six Parts of a Texinfo File

Generally, a Texinfo file contains more than the minimal
beginning and end---it usually contains six parts:@refill

@table @r
@item 1. Header
The @dfn{Header} names the file, tells @TeX{} which definitions' file to
use, and performs other ``housekeeping'' tasks.@refill

@item 2. Summary Description and Copyright
The @dfn{Summary Description and Copyright} segment describes the document
and contains the copyright notice and copying permissions for the Info
file.  The segment must be enclosed between @code{@@ifinfo} and
@code{@@end ifinfo} commands so that the formatters place it only in the Info
file.@refill

@item 3. Title and Copyright
The @dfn{Title and Copyright} segment contains the title and copyright pages
and copying permissions for the printed manual.  The segment must be
enclosed between @code{@@titlepage} and @code{@@end titlepage} commands.
The title and copyright page appear only in the printed @w{manual}.@refill

@item 4. `Top' Node and Master Menu
The @dfn{Master Menu} contains a complete menu of all the nodes in the whole
Info file.  It appears only in the Info file, in the `Top' node.@refill

@item 5. Body
The @dfn{Body} of the document may be structured like a traditional book or
encyclopedia or it may be free form.@refill

@item 6. End
The @dfn{End} contains commands for printing indices and generating
the table of contents, and the @code{@@bye} command on a line of its
own.@refill
@end table

@node Short Sample, Acknowledgements, Six Parts, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A Short Sample Texinfo File
@cindex Sample Texinfo file

Here is a complete but very short Texinfo file, in six parts.  The first
three parts of the file, from @samp{\input texinfo} through to
@samp{@@end titlepage}, look more intimidating than they are.  Most of
the material is standard boilerplate; when you write a manual, simply
insert the names for your own manual in this segment. (@xref{Beginning a
File}.)@refill

@noindent
In the following, the sample text is @emph{indented}; comments on it are
not.  The complete file, without any comments, is shown in
@ref{Sample Texinfo File}.

@subheading Part 1: Header

@noindent
The header does not appear in either the Info file or the
printed output.  It sets various parameters, including the
name of the Info file and the title used in the header.

@example
@group
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@@c %**start of header
@@setfilename sample.info
@@settitle Sample Document
@@c %**end of header

@@setchapternewpage odd
@end group
@end example

@subheading Part 2: Summary Description and Copyright

@noindent
The summary description and copyright segment does not
appear in the printed document.

@example
@group
@@ifinfo
This is a short example of a complete Texinfo file.

Copyright @@copyright@{@} 1990 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@@end ifinfo
@end group
@end example

@subheading Part 3: Titlepage and Copyright

@noindent
The titlepage segment does not appear in the Info file.

@example
@group
@@titlepage
@@sp 10
@@comment The title is printed in a large font.
@@center @@titlefont@{Sample Title@}
@end group

@group
@@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@@page
@@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @@copyright@{@} 1990 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@@end titlepage
@end group
@end example

@subheading Part 4: `Top' Node and Master Menu

@noindent
The `Top' node contains the master menu for the Info file.
Since a printed manual uses a table of contents rather than
a menu, the master menu appears only in the Info file.

@example
@group
@@node    Top,       First Chapter, ,         (dir)
@@comment node-name, next,          previous, up
@end group
@end example

@example
@group
@@menu
* First Chapter::    The first chapter is the
                     only chapter in this sample.
* Concept Index::    This index has two entries.
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

@subheading Part 5:  The Body of the Document

@noindent
The body segment contains all the text of the document, but not the
indices or table of contents.  This example illustrates a node and a
chapter containing an enumerated list.@refill

@example
@group
@@node    First Chapter, Concept Index, Top,      Top
@@comment node-name,     next,          previous, up
@@chapter First Chapter
@@cindex Sample index entry
@end group

@group
This is the contents of the first chapter.
@@cindex Another sample index entry
@end group

@group
Here is a numbered list.

@@enumerate
@@item
This is the first item.

@@item
This is the second item.
@@end enumerate
@end group

@group
The @@code@{makeinfo@} and @@code@{texinfo-format-buffer@}
commands transform a Texinfo file such as this into
an Info file; and @@TeX@{@} typesets it for a printed
manual.
@end group
@end example

@subheading Part 6: The End of the Document

@noindent
The end segment contains commands both for generating an index in a node
and unnumbered chapter of its own and for generating the table of
contents; and it contains the @code{@@bye} command that marks the end of
the document.@refill

@example
@group
@@node    Concept Index,    ,  First Chapter, Top
@@comment node-name,    next,  previous,      up
@@unnumbered Concept Index
@end group

@group
@@printindex cp

@@contents
@@bye
@end group
@end example

@subheading The Results

Here is what the contents of the first chapter of the sample look like:

@sp 1
@need 700
@quotation
This is the contents of the first chapter.

Here is a numbered list.

@enumerate
@item
This is the first item.

@item
This is the second item.
@end enumerate

The @code{makeinfo} and @code{texinfo-format-buffer}
commands transform a Texinfo file such as this into
an Info file; and @TeX{} typesets it for a printed
manual.
@end quotation

@node Acknowledgements,  , Short Sample, Overview
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Acknowledgements

@cindex Stallman, Richard M.
@cindex Chassell, Robert J.
@cindex Berry, Karl
Richard M.@: Stallman wrote Edition 1.0 of this manual.  @w{Robert J.@:
Chassell} revised and extended it, starting with Edition 1.1.  Karl
Berry made updates for the Texinfo 3.8 and subsequent releases, starting
with Edition 2.22.

@cindex Pinard, Fran@,{c}ois
@cindex Zuhn, David D.
@cindex Weisshaus, Melissa
Our thanks go out to all who helped improve this work, particularly to
Fran@,{c}ois Pinard and @w{David D.@: Zuhn}, who tirelessly recorded and
reported mistakes and obscurities; our special thanks go to Melissa
Weisshaus for her frequent and often tedious reviews of nearly similar
editions.  Our mistakes are our own.

Please send suggestions and corrections to:

@example
@group
@r{Internet address:}
    bug-texinfo@@gnu.org
@end group
@end example

@noindent
Please include the manual's edition number and update date in your messages.

@node Texinfo Mode, Beginning a File, Overview, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Using Texinfo Mode
@cindex Texinfo mode
@cindex Mode, using Texinfo
@cindex GNU Emacs
@cindex Emacs

You may edit a Texinfo file with any text editor you choose.  A Texinfo
file is no different from any other @sc{ascii} file.  However, GNU Emacs
comes with a special mode, called Texinfo
mode, that provides  Emacs commands and tools to help ease your work.@refill

This chapter describes features of GNU Emacs' Texinfo mode but not any
features of the Texinfo formatting language.  If you are reading this
manual straight through from the beginning, you may want to skim through
this chapter briefly and come back to it after reading succeeding
chapters which describe the Texinfo formatting language in
detail.@refill

@menu
* Texinfo Mode Overview::       How Texinfo mode can help you.
* Emacs Editing::               Texinfo mode adds to GNU Emacs' general
                                  purpose editing features.
* Inserting::                   How to insert frequently used @@-commands.
* Showing the Structure::       How to show the structure of a file.
* Updating Nodes and Menus::    How to update or create new nodes and menus.
* Info Formatting::             How to format for Info.
* Printing::                    How to format and print part or all of a file.
* Texinfo Mode Summary::        Summary of all the Texinfo mode commands.
@end menu

@node Texinfo Mode Overview, Emacs Editing, Texinfo Mode, Texinfo Mode
@ifinfo
@heading Texinfo Mode Overview
@end ifinfo

Texinfo mode provides special features for working with Texinfo
files:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
Insert frequently used @@-commands. @refill

@item
Automatically create @code{@@node} lines.

@item
Show the structure of a Texinfo source file.@refill

@item
Automatically create or update the `Next',
`Previous', and `Up' pointers of a node.

@item
Automatically create or update menus.@refill

@item
Automatically create a master menu.@refill

@item
Format a part or all of a file for Info.@refill

@item
Typeset and print part or all of a file.@refill
@end itemize

Perhaps the two most helpful features are those for inserting frequently
used @@-commands and for creating node pointers and menus.@refill

@node Emacs Editing, Inserting, Texinfo Mode Overview, Texinfo Mode
@section The Usual GNU Emacs Editing Commands

In most cases, the usual Text mode commands work the same in Texinfo
mode as they do in Text mode.  Texinfo mode adds new editing commands
and tools to GNU Emacs' general purpose editing features.  The major
difference concerns filling.  In Texinfo mode, the paragraph
separation variable and syntax table are redefined so that Texinfo
commands that should be on lines of their own are not inadvertently
included in paragraphs.  Thus, the @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph})
command will refill a paragraph but not mix an indexing command on a
line adjacent to it into the paragraph.@refill

In addition, Texinfo mode sets the @code{page-delimiter} variable to
the value of @code{texinfo-chapter-level-regexp}; by default, this is
a regular expression matching the commands for chapters and their
equivalents, such as appendices.  With this value for the page
delimiter, you can jump from chapter title to chapter title with the
@kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page}) and @kbd{C-x [}
(@code{backward-page}) commands and narrow to a chapter with the
@kbd{C-x p} (@code{narrow-to-page}) command.  (@xref{Pages, , , xemacs,
XEmacs User's Manual}, for details about the page commands.)@refill

You may name a Texinfo file however you wish, but the convention is to
end a Texinfo file name with one of the three extensions
@file{.texinfo}, @file{.texi}, or @file{.tex}.  A longer extension is
preferred, since it is explicit, but a shorter extension may be
necessary for operating systems that limit the length of file names.
GNU Emacs automatically enters Texinfo mode when you visit a file with
a @file{.texinfo} or  @file{.texi}
extension.  Also, Emacs switches to Texinfo mode
when you visit a
file that has @samp{-*-texinfo-*-} in its first line.  If ever you are
in another mode and wish to switch to Texinfo mode, type @code{M-x
texinfo-mode}.@refill

Like all other Emacs features, you can customize or enhance Texinfo
mode as you wish.  In particular, the keybindings are very easy to
change.  The keybindings described here are the default or standard
ones.@refill

@node Inserting, Showing the Structure, Emacs Editing, Texinfo Mode
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Inserting Frequently Used Commands
@cindex Inserting frequently used commands
@cindex Frequently used commands, inserting
@cindex Commands, inserting them

Texinfo mode provides commands to insert various frequently used
@@-commands into the buffer.  You can use these commands to save
keystrokes.@refill

The insert commands are invoked by typing @kbd{C-c} twice and then the
first letter of the @@-command:@refill

@table @kbd
@item  C-c C-c c
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@code
@findex texinfo-insert-@@code
Insert @code{@@code@{@}} and put the
cursor between the braces.@refill

@item  C-c C-c d
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@dfn
@findex texinfo-insert-@@dfn
Insert @code{@@dfn@{@}} and put the
cursor between the braces.@refill

@item  C-c C-c e
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@end
@findex texinfo-insert-@@end
Insert @code{@@end} and attempt to insert the correct following word,
such as @samp{example} or @samp{table}.  (This command does not handle
nested lists correctly, but inserts the word appropriate to the
immediately preceding list.)@refill

@item  C-c C-c i
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@item
@findex texinfo-insert-@@item
Insert @code{@@item} and put the
cursor at the beginning of the next line.@refill

@item  C-c C-c k
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@kbd
@findex texinfo-insert-@@kbd
Insert @code{@@kbd@{@}} and put the
cursor between the braces.@refill

@item  C-c C-c n
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@node
@findex texinfo-insert-@@node
Insert @code{@@node} and a comment line
listing the sequence for the `Next',
`Previous', and `Up' nodes.
Leave point after the @code{@@node}.@refill

@item  C-c C-c o
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@noindent
@findex texinfo-insert-@@noindent
Insert @code{@@noindent} and put the
cursor at the beginning of the next line.@refill

@item  C-c C-c s
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@samp
@findex texinfo-insert-@@samp
Insert @code{@@samp@{@}} and put the
cursor between the braces.@refill

@item  C-c C-c t
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@table
@findex texinfo-insert-@@table
Insert @code{@@table} followed by a @key{SPC}
and leave the cursor after the @key{SPC}.@refill

@item  C-c C-c v
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@var
@findex texinfo-insert-@@var
Insert @code{@@var@{@}} and put the
cursor between the braces.@refill

@item  C-c C-c x
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-@@example
@findex texinfo-insert-@@example
Insert @code{@@example} and put the
cursor at the beginning of the next line.@refill

@c M-@{  was the binding for texinfo-insert-braces;
@c in Emacs 19, backward-paragraph will take this binding.
@item C-c C-c @{
@itemx M-x texinfo-insert-braces
@findex texinfo-insert-braces
Insert @code{@{@}} and put the cursor between the braces.@refill

@item C-c C-c @}
@itemx C-c C-c ]
@itemx M-x up-list
@findex up-list
Move from between a pair of braces forward past the closing brace.
Typing @kbd{C-c C-c ]} is easier than typing @kbd{C-c C-c @}}, which
is, however, more mnemonic; hence the two keybindings.  (Also, you can
move out from between braces by typing @kbd{C-f}.)@refill
@end table

To put a command such as @w{@code{@@code@{@dots{}@}}} around an
@emph{existing} word, position the cursor in front of the word and type
@kbd{C-u 1 C-c C-c c}.  This makes it easy to edit existing plain text.
The value of the prefix argument tells Emacs how many words following
point to include between braces---@samp{1} for one word, @samp{2} for
two words, and so on.  Use a negative argument to enclose the previous
word or words.  If you do not specify a prefix argument, Emacs inserts
the @@-command string and positions the cursor between the braces.  This
feature works only for those @@-commands that operate on a word or words
within one line, such as @code{@@kbd} and @code{@@var}.@refill

This set of insert commands was created after analyzing the frequency
with which different @@-commands are used in the @cite{GNU Emacs
Manual} and the @cite{GDB Manual}.  If you wish to add your own insert
commands, you can bind a keyboard macro to a key, use abbreviations,
or extend the code in @file{texinfo.el}.@refill

@findex texinfo-start-menu-description
@cindex Menu description, start
@cindex Description for menu, start
@kbd{C-c C-c C-d} (@code{texinfo-start-menu-description}) is an insert
command that works differently from the other insert commands.  It
inserts a node's section or chapter title in the space for the
description in a menu entry line.  (A menu entry has three parts, the
entry name, the node name, and the description.  Only the node name is
required, but a description helps explain what the node is about.
@xref{Menu Parts, , The Parts of a Menu}.)@refill

To use @code{texinfo-start-menu-description}, position point in a menu
entry line and type @kbd{C-c C-c C-d}.  The command looks for and copies
the title that goes with the node name, and inserts the title as a
description; it positions point at beginning of the inserted text so you
can edit it.  The function does not insert the title if the menu entry
line already contains a description.@refill

This command is only an aid to writing descriptions; it does not do the
whole job.  You must edit the inserted text since a title tends to use
the same words as a node name but a useful description uses different
words.@refill

@node Showing the Structure, Updating Nodes and Menus, Inserting, Texinfo Mode
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Showing the Section Structure of a File
@cindex Showing the section structure of a file
@cindex Section structure of a file, showing it
@cindex Structure of a file, showing it
@cindex Outline of file structure, showing it
@cindex Contents-like outline of file structure
@cindex File section structure, showing it
@cindex Texinfo file section structure, showing it

You can show the section structure of a Texinfo file by using the
@kbd{C-c C-s} command (@code{texinfo-show-structure}).  This command
shows the section structure of a Texinfo file by listing the lines
that begin with the @@-commands for @code{@@chapter},
@code{@@section}, and the like.  It constructs what amounts
to a table of contents.  These lines are displayed in another buffer
called the @samp{*Occur*} buffer.  In that buffer, you can position
the cursor over one of the lines and use the @kbd{C-c C-c} command
(@code{occur-mode-goto-occurrence}), to jump to the corresponding spot
in the Texinfo file.@refill

@table @kbd
@item  C-c C-s
@itemx M-x texinfo-show-structure
@findex texinfo-show-structure
Show the @code{@@chapter}, @code{@@section}, and such lines of a
Texinfo file.@refill

@item  C-c C-c
@itemx M-x occur-mode-goto-occurrence
@findex occur-mode-goto-occurrence
Go to the line in the Texinfo file corresponding to the line under the
cursor in the @file{*Occur*} buffer.@refill
@end table

If you call @code{texinfo-show-structure} with a prefix argument by
typing @w{@kbd{C-u C-c C-s}}, it will list not only those lines with the
@@-commands for @code{@@chapter}, @code{@@section}, and the like,
but also the @code{@@node} lines.  (This is how the
@code{texinfo-show-structure} command worked without an argument in
the first version of Texinfo.  It was changed because @code{@@node}
lines clutter up the @samp{*Occur*} buffer and are usually not
needed.)  You can use @code{texinfo-show-structure} with a prefix
argument to check whether the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers of
an @code{@@node} line are correct.@refill

Often, when you are working on a manual, you will be interested only
in the structure of the current chapter.  In this case, you can mark
off the region of the buffer that you are interested in by using the
@kbd{C-x n n} (@code{narrow-to-region}) command and
@code{texinfo-show-structure} will work on only that region.  To see
the whole buffer again, use @w{@kbd{C-x n w}} (@code{widen}).
(@xref{Narrowing, , , xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}, for more
information about the narrowing commands.)@refill

@vindex page-delimiter
@cindex Page delimiter in Texinfo mode
In addition to providing the @code{texinfo-show-structure} command,
Texinfo mode sets the value of the page delimiter variable to match
the chapter-level @@-commands.  This enables you to use the @kbd{C-x
]} (@code{forward-page}) and @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page})
commands to move forward and backward by chapter, and to use the
@kbd{C-x p} (@code{narrow-to-page}) command to narrow to a chapter.
@xref{Pages, , , xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}, for more information
about the page commands.@refill

@node Updating Nodes and Menus, Info Formatting, Showing the Structure, Texinfo Mode
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Updating Nodes and Menus
@cindex Updating nodes and menus
@cindex Create nodes, menus automatically
@cindex Insert nodes, menus automatically
@cindex Automatically insert nodes, menus

Texinfo mode provides commands for automatically creating or updating
menus and node pointers.  The commands are called ``update'' commands
because their most frequent use is for updating a Texinfo file after
you have worked on it; but you can use them to insert the `Next',
`Previous', and `Up' pointers into an @code{@@node} line that has none and to
create menus in a file that has none.@refill

If you do not use the updating commands, you need to write menus and
node pointers by hand, which is a tedious task.@refill

@menu
* Updating Commands::           Five major updating commands.
* Updating Requirements::       How to structure a Texinfo file for
                                  using the updating command.
* Other Updating Commands::     How to indent descriptions, insert
                                  missing nodes lines, and update
                                  nodes in sequence.
@end menu

@node Updating Commands, Updating Requirements, Updating Nodes and Menus, Updating Nodes and Menus
@ifinfo
@subheading The Updating Commands
@end ifinfo

You can use the updating commands@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
to insert or update the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers of a
node,@refill

@item
to insert or update the menu for a section, and@refill

@item
to create a master menu for a Texinfo source file.@refill
@end itemize

You can also use the commands to update all the nodes and menus in a
region or in a whole Texinfo file.@refill

The updating commands work only with conventional Texinfo files, which
are structured hierarchically like books.  In such files, a structuring
command line must follow closely after each @code{@@node} line, except
for the `Top' @code{@@node} line.  (A @dfn{structuring command line} is
a line beginning with @code{@@chapter}, @code{@@section}, or other
similar command.)

You can write the structuring command line on the line that follows
immediately after an @code{@@node} line or else on the line that
follows after a single @code{@@comment} line or a single
@code{@@ifinfo} line.  You cannot interpose more than one line between
the @code{@@node} line and the structuring command line; and you may
interpose only an @code{@@comment} line or an @code{@@ifinfo} line.

Commands which work on a whole buffer require that the `Top' node be
followed by a node with an @code{@@chapter} or equivalent-level command.
Note that the menu updating commands will not create a main or master
menu for a Texinfo file that has only @code{@@chapter}-level nodes!  The
menu updating commands only create menus @emph{within} nodes for lower level
nodes.  To create a menu of chapters, you must provide a `Top'
node.@refill

The menu updating commands remove menu entries that refer to other Info
files since they do not refer to nodes within the current buffer.  This
is a deficiency.  Rather than use menu entries, you can use cross
references to refer to other Info files.  None of the updating commands
affect cross references.@refill

Texinfo mode has five updating commands that are used most often: two
are for updating the node pointers or menu of a single node (or a
region); two are for updating every node pointer and menu in a file;
and one, the @code{texinfo-master-menu} command, is for creating a
master menu for a complete file, and optionally, for updating every
node and menu in the whole Texinfo file.@refill

The @code{texinfo-master-menu} command is the primary command:@refill

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-u m
@itemx M-x texinfo-master-menu
@findex texinfo-master-menu
Create or update a master menu that includes all the other menus
(incorporating the descriptions from pre-existing menus, if
any).@refill

With an argument (prefix argument, @kbd{C-u,} if interactive), first create or
update all the nodes and all the regular menus in the buffer before
constructing the master menu.  (@xref{The Top Node, , The Top Node and
Master Menu}, for more about a master menu.)@refill

For @code{texinfo-master-menu} to work, the Texinfo file must have a
`Top' node and at least one subsequent node.@refill

After extensively editing a Texinfo file, you can type the following:

@example
C-u M-x texinfo-master-menu
@exdent or
C-u C-c C-u m
@end example

@noindent
This updates all the nodes and menus completely and all at once.@refill
@end table

The other major updating commands do smaller jobs and are designed for
the person  who updates nodes and menus as he or she writes a Texinfo
file.@refill

@need 1000
The commands are:@refill

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-u C-n
@itemx M-x texinfo-update-node
@findex texinfo-update-node
Insert the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers for the node that point is
within (i.e., for the @code{@@node} line preceding point).  If the
@code{@@node} line has pre-existing `Next', `Previous', or `Up'
pointers in it, the old pointers are removed and new ones inserted.
With an argument (prefix argument, @kbd{C-u}, if interactive), this command
updates all @code{@@node} lines in the region (which is the text
between point and mark).@refill

@item C-c C-u C-m
@itemx M-x texinfo-make-menu
@findex texinfo-make-menu
Create or update the menu in the node that point is within.
With an argument (@kbd{C-u} as prefix argument, if
interactive), the command makes or updates menus for the
nodes which are either within or a part of the
region.@refill

Whenever @code{texinfo-make-menu} updates an existing menu, the
descriptions from that menu are incorporated into the new menu.  This
is done by copying descriptions from the existing menu to the entries
in the new menu that have the same node names.  If the node names are
different, the descriptions are not copied to the new menu.@refill

@item C-c C-u C-e
@itemx M-x texinfo-every-node-update
@findex texinfo-every-node-update
Insert or update the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers for every
node in the buffer.@refill

@item C-c C-u C-a
@itemx M-x texinfo-all-menus-update
@findex texinfo-all-menus-update
Create or update all the menus in the buffer.  With an argument
(@kbd{C-u} as prefix argument, if interactive), first insert
or update all the node
pointers before working on the menus.@refill

If a master menu exists, the @code{texinfo-all-menus-update} command
updates it; but the command does not create a new master menu if none
already exists.  (Use the @code{texinfo-master-menu} command for
that.)@refill

When working on a document that does not merit a master menu, you can
type the following:

@example
C-u C-c C-u C-a
@exdent or
C-u M-x texinfo-all-menus-update
@end example

@noindent
This updates all the nodes and menus.@refill
@end table

The @code{texinfo-column-for-description} variable specifies the
column to which menu descriptions are indented.  By default, the value
is 32 although it is often useful to reduce it to as low as 24.  You
can set the variable with the @kbd{M-x edit-options} command
(@pxref{Edit Options, , Editing Variable Values, xemacs, XEmacs User's
Manual}) or with the @kbd{M-x set-variable} command (@pxref{Examining, ,
Examining and Setting Variables, xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}).@refill

Also, the @code{texinfo-indent-menu-description} command may be used to
indent existing menu descriptions to a specified column.  Finally, if
you wish, you can use the @code{texinfo-insert-node-lines} command to
insert missing @code{@@node} lines into a file.  (@xref{Other Updating
Commands}, for more information.)@refill

@node Updating Requirements, Other Updating Commands, Updating Commands, Updating Nodes and Menus
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Updating Requirements
@cindex Updating requirements
@cindex Requirements for updating commands

To use the updating commands, you must organize the Texinfo file
hierarchically with chapters, sections, subsections, and the like.
When you construct the hierarchy of the manual, do not `jump down'
more than one level at a time: you can follow the `Top' node with a
chapter, but not with a section; you can follow a chapter with a
section, but not with a subsection.  However, you may `jump up' any
number of levels at one time---for example, from a subsection to a
chapter.@refill

Each @code{@@node} line, with the exception of the line for the `Top'
node, must be followed by a line with a structuring command such as
@code{@@chapter}, @code{@@section}, or
@code{@@unnumberedsubsec}.@refill

Each @code{@@node} line/structuring-command line combination
must look either like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@node     Comments,  Minimum, Conventions, Overview
@@comment  node-name, next,    previous,    up
@@section Comments
@end group
@end example

or like this (without the @code{@@comment} line):

@example
@group
@@node Comments, Minimum, Conventions, Overview
@@section Comments
@end group
@end example

@noindent
In this example, `Comments' is the name of both the node and the
section.  The next node is called `Minimum' and the previous node is
called `Conventions'.  The `Comments' section is within the `Overview'
node, which is specified by the `Up' pointer.  (Instead of an
@code{@@comment} line, you can write an @code{@@ifinfo} line.)@refill

If a file has a `Top' node, it must be called @samp{top} or @samp{Top}
and be the first node in the file.@refill

The menu updating commands create a menu of sections within a chapter,
a menu of subsections within a section, and so on.  This means that
you must have a `Top' node if you want a menu of chapters.@refill

Incidentally, the @code{makeinfo} command will create an Info file for
a hierarchically organized Texinfo file that lacks `Next', `Previous'
and `Up' pointers.  Thus, if you can be sure that your Texinfo file
will be formatted with @code{makeinfo}, you have no need for the
`update node' commands.  (@xref{Create an Info File, , Creating an
Info File}, for more information about @code{makeinfo}.)  However,
both @code{makeinfo} and the @code{texinfo-format-@dots{}} commands
require that you insert menus in the file.@refill

@node Other Updating Commands,  , Updating Requirements, Updating Nodes and Menus
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Other Updating Commands

In addition to the five major updating commands, Texinfo mode
possesses several less frequently used updating commands:@refill

@table @kbd
@item M-x texinfo-insert-node-lines
@findex texinfo-insert-node-lines
Insert @code{@@node} lines before the @code{@@chapter},
@code{@@section}, and other sectioning commands wherever they are
missing throughout a region in a Texinfo file.@refill

With an argument (@kbd{C-u} as prefix argument, if interactive), the
@code{texinfo-insert-node-lines} command not only inserts
@code{@@node} lines but also inserts the chapter or section titles as
the names of the corresponding nodes.  In addition, it inserts the
titles as node names in pre-existing @code{@@node} lines that lack
names.  Since node names should be more concise than section or
chapter titles, you must manually edit node names so inserted.@refill

For example, the following marks a whole buffer as a region and inserts
@code{@@node} lines and titles throughout:@refill

@example
C-x h C-u M-x texinfo-insert-node-lines
@end example

(Note that this command inserts titles as node names in @code{@@node}
lines; the @code{texinfo-start-menu-description} command
(@pxref{Inserting, Inserting Frequently Used Commands}) inserts titles
as descriptions in menu entries, a different action.  However, in both
cases, you need to edit the inserted text.)@refill

@item M-x texinfo-multiple-files-update
@findex texinfo-multiple-files-update @r{(in brief)}
Update nodes and menus in a document built from several separate files.
With @kbd{C-u} as a prefix argument, create and insert a master menu in
the outer file.  With a numeric prefix argument, such as @kbd{C-u 2}, first
update all the menus and all the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers
of all the included files before creating and inserting a master menu in
the outer file.  The @code{texinfo-multiple-files-update} command is
described in the appendix on @code{@@include} files.
@ifinfo
@xref{texinfo-multiple-files-update}.@refill
@end ifinfo
@iftex
@xref{texinfo-multiple-files-update, ,
@code{texinfo-multiple-files-update}}.@refill
@end iftex

@item M-x texinfo-indent-menu-description
@findex texinfo-indent-menu-description
Indent every description in the menu following point to the specified
column.  You can use this command to give yourself more space for
descriptions.  With an argument (@kbd{C-u} as prefix argument, if
interactive), the @code{texinfo-indent-menu-description} command indents
every description in every menu in the region.  However, this command
does not indent the second and subsequent lines of a multi-line
description.@refill

@item M-x texinfo-sequential-node-update
@findex texinfo-sequential-node-update
Insert the names of the nodes immediately following and preceding the
current node as the `Next' or `Previous' pointers regardless of those
nodes' hierarchical level.  This means that the `Next' node of a
subsection may well be the next chapter.  Sequentially ordered nodes are
useful for novels and other documents that you read through
sequentially.  (However, in Info, the @kbd{g *} command lets
you look through the file sequentially, so sequentially ordered nodes
are not strictly necessary.)  With an argument (prefix argument, if
interactive), the @code{texinfo-sequential-node-update} command
sequentially updates all the nodes in the region.@refill
@end table

@node Info Formatting, Printing, Updating Nodes and Menus, Texinfo Mode
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Formatting for Info
@cindex Formatting for Info
@cindex Running an Info formatter
@cindex Info formatting

Texinfo mode provides several commands for formatting part or all of a
Texinfo file for Info.  Often, when you are writing a document, you
want to format only part of a file---that is, a region.@refill

You can use either the @code{texinfo-format-region} or the
@code{makeinfo-region} command to format a region:@refill

@table @kbd
@findex texinfo-format-region
@item  C-c C-e C-r
@itemx M-x texinfo-format-region
@itemx C-c C-m C-r
@itemx M-x makeinfo-region
Format the current region for Info.@refill
@end table

You can use either the @code{texinfo-format-buffer} or the
@code{makeinfo-buffer} command to format a whole buffer:@refill

@table @kbd
@findex texinfo-format-buffer
@item  C-c C-e C-b
@itemx M-x texinfo-format-buffer
@itemx C-c C-m C-b
@itemx M-x makeinfo-buffer
Format the current buffer for Info.@refill
@end table

@need 1000
For example, after writing a Texinfo file, you can type the following:

@example
C-u C-c C-u m
@exdent or
C-u M-x texinfo-master-menu
@end example

@noindent
This updates all the nodes and menus.  Then type the following to create
an Info file:

@example
C-c C-m C-b
@exdent or
M-x makeinfo-buffer
@end example

For @TeX{} or the Info formatting commands to work, the file @emph{must}
include a line that has @code{@@setfilename} in its header.@refill

@xref{Create an Info File}, for details about Info formatting.@refill

@node Printing, Texinfo Mode Summary, Info Formatting, Texinfo Mode
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Formatting and Printing
@cindex Formatting for printing
@cindex Printing a region or buffer
@cindex Region formatting and printing
@cindex Buffer formatting and printing
@cindex Part of file formatting and printing

Typesetting and printing a Texinfo file is a multi-step process in which
you first create a file for printing (called a DVI file), and then
print the file.  Optionally, you may also create indices.  To do this,
you must run the @code{texindex} command after first running the
@code{tex} typesetting command; and then you must run the @code{tex}
command again.  Or else run the @code{texi2dvi} command which
automatically creates indices as needed (@pxref{Format with texi2dvi}).

Often, when you are writing a document, you want to typeset and print
only part of a file to see what it will look like.  You can use the
@code{texinfo-tex-region} and related commands for this purpose.  Use
the @code{texinfo-tex-buffer} command to format all of a
buffer.@refill

@table @kbd
@item  C-c C-t C-b
@itemx M-x texinfo-tex-buffer
@findex texinfo-tex-buffer
Run @code{texi2dvi} on the buffer.  In addition to running @TeX{} on the
buffer, this command automatically creates or updates indices as
needed.@refill

@item  C-c C-t C-r
@itemx M-x texinfo-tex-region
@findex texinfo-tex-region
Run @TeX{} on the region.@refill

@item C-c C-t C-i
@itemx M-x texinfo-texindex
Run @code{texindex} to sort the indices of a Texinfo file formatted with
@code{texinfo-tex-region}.  The @code{texinfo-tex-region} command does
not run @code{texindex} automatically; it only runs the @code{tex}
typesetting command.  You must run the @code{texinfo-tex-region} command
a second time after sorting the raw index files with the @code{texindex}
command.  (Usually, you do not format an index when you format a region,
only when you format a buffer.  Now that the @code{texi2dvi} command
exists, there is little or no need for this command.)@refill

@item C-c C-t C-p
@itemx M-x texinfo-tex-print
@findex texinfo-tex-print
Print the file (or the part of the file) previously formatted with
@code{texinfo-tex-buffer} or @code{texinfo-tex-region}.@refill
@end table

For @code{texinfo-tex-region} or @code{texinfo-tex-buffer} to work, the
file @emph{must} start with a @samp{\input texinfo} line and must
include an @code{@@settitle} line.  The file must end with @code{@@bye}
on a line by itself.  (When you use @code{texinfo-tex-region}, you must
surround the @code{@@settitle} line with start-of-header and
end-of-header lines.)@refill

@xref{Format/Print Hardcopy}, for a description of the other @TeX{} related
commands, such as @code{tex-show-print-queue}.@refill

@node Texinfo Mode Summary,  , Printing, Texinfo Mode
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Texinfo Mode Summary

In Texinfo mode, each set of commands has default keybindings that
begin with the same keys.  All the commands that are custom-created
for Texinfo mode begin with @kbd{C-c}.  The keys are somewhat
mnemonic.@refill

@subheading Insert Commands

The insert commands are invoked by typing @kbd{C-c} twice and then the
first letter of the @@-command to be inserted.  (It might make more
sense mnemonically to use @kbd{C-c C-i}, for `custom insert', but
@kbd{C-c C-c} is quick to type.)@refill

@example
C-c C-c c       @r{Insert} @samp{@@code}.
C-c C-c d       @r{Insert} @samp{@@dfn}.
C-c C-c e       @r{Insert} @samp{@@end}.
C-c C-c i       @r{Insert} @samp{@@item}.
C-c C-c n       @r{Insert} @samp{@@node}.
C-c C-c s       @r{Insert} @samp{@@samp}.
C-c C-c v       @r{Insert} @samp{@@var}.
C-c C-c @{       @r{Insert braces.}
C-c C-c ]
C-c C-c @}       @r{Move out of enclosing braces.}

@group
C-c C-c C-d     @r{Insert a node's section title}
                @r{in the space for the description}
                @r{in a menu entry line.}
@end group
@end example

@subheading Show Structure

The @code{texinfo-show-structure} command is often used within a
narrowed region.@refill

@example
C-c C-s         @r{List all the headings.}
@end example

@subheading The Master Update Command

The @code{texinfo-master-menu} command creates a master menu; and can
be used to update every node and menu in a file as well.@refill

@example
@group
C-c C-u m
M-x texinfo-master-menu
                @r{Create or update a master menu.}
@end group

@group
C-u C-c C-u m   @r{With @kbd{C-u} as a prefix argument, first}
                @r{create or update all nodes and regular}
                @r{menus, and then create a master menu.}
@end group
@end example

@subheading Update Pointers

The update pointer commands are invoked by typing @kbd{C-c C-u} and
then either @kbd{C-n} for @code{texinfo-update-node} or @kbd{C-e} for
@code{texinfo-every-node-update}.@refill

@example
C-c C-u C-n     @r{Update a node.}
C-c C-u C-e     @r{Update every node in the buffer.}
@end example

@subheading Update Menus

Invoke the  update menu commands by typing @kbd{C-c C-u}
and then either @kbd{C-m} for @code{texinfo-make-menu} or
@kbd{C-a} for @code{texinfo-all-menus-update}.  To update
both nodes and menus at the same time, precede @kbd{C-c C-u
C-a} with @kbd{C-u}.@refill

@example
C-c C-u C-m     @r{Make or update a menu.}

@group
C-c C-u C-a     @r{Make or update all}
                @r{menus in a buffer.}
@end group

@group
C-u C-c C-u C-a @r{With @kbd{C-u} as a prefix argument,}
                @r{first create or update all nodes and}
                @r{then create or update all menus.}
@end group
@end example

@subheading Format for Info

The Info formatting commands that are written in Emacs Lisp are
invoked by typing @kbd{C-c C-e} and then either @kbd{C-r} for a region
or @kbd{C-b} for the whole buffer.@refill

The Info formatting commands that are written in C and based on the
@code{makeinfo} program are invoked by typing @kbd{C-c C-m} and then
either @kbd{C-r} for a region or @kbd{C-b} for the whole buffer.@refill

@need 800
@noindent
Use the @code{texinfo-format@dots{}} commands:

@example
@group
C-c C-e C-r     @r{Format the region.}
C-c C-e C-b     @r{Format the buffer.}
@end group
@end example

@need 750
@noindent
Use @code{makeinfo}:

@example
C-c C-m C-r     @r{Format the region.}
C-c C-m C-b     @r{Format the buffer.}
C-c C-m C-l     @r{Recenter the @code{makeinfo} output buffer.}
C-c C-m C-k     @r{Kill the @code{makeinfo} formatting job.}
@end example

@subheading Typeset and Print

The @TeX{} typesetting and printing commands are invoked by typing
@kbd{C-c C-t} and then another control command: @kbd{C-r} for
@code{texinfo-tex-region}, @kbd{C-b} for @code{texinfo-tex-buffer},
and so on.@refill

@example
C-c C-t C-r     @r{Run @TeX{} on the region.}
C-c C-t C-b     @r{Run} @code{texi2dvi} @r{on the buffer.}
C-c C-t C-i     @r{Run} @code{texindex}.
C-c C-t C-p     @r{Print the DVI file.}
C-c C-t C-q     @r{Show the print queue.}
C-c C-t C-d     @r{Delete a job from the print queue.}
C-c C-t C-k     @r{Kill the current @TeX{} formatting job.}
C-c C-t C-x     @r{Quit a currently stopped @TeX{} formatting job.}
C-c C-t C-l     @r{Recenter the output buffer.}
@end example

@subheading Other Updating Commands

The `other updating commands' do not have standard keybindings because
they are rarely used.

@example
@group
M-x texinfo-insert-node-lines
                @r{Insert missing @code{@@node} lines in region.}
                @r{With @kbd{C-u} as a prefix argument,}
                @r{use section titles as node names.}
@end group

@group
M-x texinfo-multiple-files-update
                @r{Update a multi-file document.}
                @r{With @kbd{C-u 2} as a prefix argument,}
                @r{create or update all nodes and menus}
                @r{in all included files first.}
@end group

@group
M-x texinfo-indent-menu-description
                @r{Indent descriptions.}
@end group

@group
M-x texinfo-sequential-node-update
                @r{Insert node pointers in strict sequence.}
@end group
@end example

@node Beginning a File, Ending a File, Texinfo Mode, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Beginning a Texinfo File
@cindex Beginning a Texinfo file
@cindex Texinfo file beginning
@cindex File beginning

Certain pieces of information must be provided at the beginning of a
Texinfo file, such as the name of the file and the title of the
document.@refill

@menu
* Four Parts::                  Four parts begin a Texinfo file.
* Sample Beginning::            Here is a sample beginning for a Texinfo file.
* Header::                      The very beginning of a Texinfo file.
* Info Summary and Permissions::  Summary and copying permissions for Info.
* Titlepage & Copyright Page::  Creating the title and copyright pages.
* The Top Node::                Creating the `Top' node and master menu.
* Software Copying Permissions::  Ensure that you and others continue to
                                  have the right to use and share software.
@end menu

@node Four Parts, Sample Beginning, Beginning a File, Beginning a File
@ifinfo
@heading Four Parts Begin a File
@end ifinfo

Generally, the beginning of a Texinfo file has four parts:@refill

@enumerate
@item
The header, delimited by special comment lines, that includes the
commands for naming the Texinfo file and telling @TeX{} what
definitions file to use when processing the Texinfo file.@refill

@item
A short statement of what the file is about, with a copyright notice
and copying permissions.  This is enclosed in @code{@@ifinfo} and
@code{@@end ifinfo} commands so that the formatters place it only
in the Info file.@refill

@item
A title page and copyright page, with a copyright notice and copying
permissions.  This is enclosed between @code{@@titlepage} and
@code{@@end titlepage} commands.  The title and copyright page appear
only in the printed @w{manual}.@refill

@item
The `Top' node that contains a menu for the whole Info file.  The
contents of this node appear only in the Info file.@refill
@end enumerate

Also, optionally, you may include the copying conditions for a program
and a warranty disclaimer.  The copying section will be followed by an
introduction or else by the first chapter of the manual.@refill

Since the copyright notice and copying permissions for the Texinfo
document (in contrast to the copying permissions for a program) are in
parts that appear only in the Info file or only in the printed manual,
this information must be given twice.@refill

@node Sample Beginning, Header, Four Parts, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Sample Texinfo File Beginning

The following sample shows what is needed.@refill

@example
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@@c %**start of header
@@setfilename @var{name-of-info-file}
@@settitle @var{name-of-manual}
@@setchapternewpage odd
@@c %**end of header

@@ifinfo
This file documents @dots{}

Copyright @var{year} @var{copyright-owner}

@group
Permission is granted to @dots{}
@@end ifinfo
@end group

@group
@@c  This title page illustrates only one of the
@@c  two methods of forming a title page.
@end group

@group
@@titlepage
@@title @var{name-of-manual-when-printed}
@@subtitle @var{subtitle-if-any}
@@subtitle @var{second-subtitle}
@@author @var{author}
@end group

@group
@@c  The following two commands
@@c  start the copyright page.
@@page
@@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @@copyright@{@} @var{year} @var{copyright-owner}
@end group

Published by @dots{}

Permission is granted to @dots{}
@@end titlepage

@@node Top, Overview, , (dir)

@@ifinfo
This document describes @dots{}

This document applies to version @dots{}
of the program named @dots{}
@@end ifinfo

@group
@@menu
* Copying::          Your rights and freedoms.
* First Chapter::    Getting started @dots{}
* Second Chapter::              @dots{}
  @dots{}
  @dots{}
@@end menu
@end group

@group
@@node    First Chapter, Second Chapter, top,      top
@@comment node-name,     next,           previous, up
@@chapter First Chapter
@@cindex Index entry for First Chapter
@end group
@end example

@node Header, Info Summary and Permissions, Sample Beginning, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The Texinfo File Header
@cindex Header for Texinfo files
@cindex Texinfo file header

Texinfo files start with at least three lines that provide Info and
@TeX{} with necessary information.  These are the @code{\input
texinfo} line, the @code{@@settitle} line, and the
@code{@@setfilename} line.  If you want to run @TeX{} on just a part
of the Texinfo File, you must write the @code{@@settitle}
and @code{@@setfilename} lines between start-of-header and end-of-header
lines.@refill

Thus, the beginning of a Texinfo file looks like this:

@example
@group
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@@setfilename sample.info
@@settitle Sample Document
@end group
@end example

@noindent
or else like this:

@example
@group
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@@c %**start of header
@@setfilename sample.info
@@settitle Sample Document
@@c %**end of header
@end group
@end example

@menu
* First Line::                  The first line of a Texinfo file.
* Start of Header::             Formatting a region requires this.
* setfilename::                 Tell Info the name of the Info file.
* settitle::                    Create a title for the printed work.
* setchapternewpage::           Start chapters on right-hand pages.
* paragraphindent::             An option to specify paragraph indentation.
* End of Header::               Formatting a region requires this.
@end menu

@node First Line, Start of Header, Header, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection The First Line of a Texinfo File
@cindex First line of a Texinfo file
@cindex Beginning line of a Texinfo file
@cindex Header of a Texinfo file

Every Texinfo file that is to be the top-level input to @TeX{} must begin
with a line that looks like this:@refill

@example
\input texinfo   @@c -*-texinfo-*-
@end example

@noindent
This line serves two functions:

@enumerate
@item
When the file is processed by @TeX{}, the @samp{\input texinfo} command
tells @TeX{} to load the macros needed for processing a Texinfo file.
These are in a file called @file{texinfo.tex}, which is usually located
in the @file{/usr/lib/tex/macros} directory.  @TeX{} uses the backslash,
@samp{\}, to mark the beginning of a command, just as Texinfo uses
@samp{@@}.  The @file{texinfo.tex} file causes the switch from @samp{\}
to @samp{@@}; before the switch occurs, @TeX{} requires @samp{\}, which
is why it appears at the beginning of the file.@refill

@item
When the file is edited in GNU Emacs, the @samp{-*-texinfo-*-} mode
specification tells Emacs to use Texinfo mode.@refill
@end enumerate

@node Start of Header, setfilename, First Line, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Start of Header
@cindex Start of header line

Write a start-of-header line on the second line of a Texinfo file.
Follow the start-of-header line with @code{@@setfilename} and
@code{@@settitle} lines and, optionally, with other command lines, such
as @code{@@smallbook} or @code{@@footnotestyle}; and then by an
end-of-header line (@pxref{End of Header}).@refill

With these lines, you can format part of a Texinfo file for Info or
typeset part for printing.@refill

A start-of-header line looks like this:@refill

@example
@@c %**start of header
@end example

The odd string of characters, @samp{%**}, is to ensure that no other
comment is accidentally taken for a start-of-header line.@refill

@node setfilename, settitle, Start of Header, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@setfilename}
@cindex Info file requires @code{@@setfilename}
@findex setfilename

In order to serve as the primary input file for either @code{makeinfo}
or @TeX{}, a Texinfo file must contain a line that looks like this:

@example
@@setfilename @var{info-file-name}
@end example

Write the @code{@@setfilename} command at the beginning of a line and
follow it on the same line by the Info file name.  Do not write anything
else on the line; anything on the line after the command is considered
part of the file name, including what would otherwise be a
comment.

The @code{@@setfilename} line specifies the name of the Info file to be
generated.  This name should be different from the name of the Texinfo
file.  There are two conventions for choosing the name: you can either
remove the @samp{.texi} extension from the input file name, or replace
it with the @samp{.info} extension.

Some operating systems cannot handle long file names.  You can run into
a problem even when the file name you specify is itself short enough.
This occurs because the Info formatters split a long Info file into
short indirect subfiles, and name them by appending @samp{-1},
@samp{-2}, @dots{}, @samp{-10}, @samp{-11}, and so on, to the original
file name.  (@xref{Tag and Split Files, , Tag Files and Split Files}.)
The subfile name @file{texinfo.info-10}, for example, is too long for
some systems; so the Info file name for this document is @file{texinfo}
rather than @file{texinfo.info}.

@cindex Ignored before @code{@@setfilename}
The Info formatting commands ignore everything written before the
@code{@@setfilename} line, which is why the very first line of
the file (the @code{\input} line) does not show up in the output.

@pindex texinfo.cnf
The @code{@@setfilename} line produces no output when you typeset a
manual with @TeX{}, but it nevertheless is essential: it opens the
index, cross-reference, and other auxiliary files used by Texinfo, and
also reads @file{texinfo.cnf} if that file is present on your system
(@pxref{Preparing for TeX,, Preparing to Use @TeX{}}).


@node settitle, setchapternewpage, setfilename, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@settitle}
@findex settitle

In order to be made into a printed manual, a Texinfo file must contain
a line that looks like this:@refill

@example
@@settitle @var{title}
@end example

Write the @code{@@settitle} command at the beginning of a line and
follow it on the same line by the title.  This tells @TeX{} the title
to use in a header or footer.  Do not write anything else on the line;
anything on the line after the command is considered part of the
title, including a comment.@refill

Conventionally, when @TeX{} formats a Texinfo file for double-sided
output, the title is printed in the left-hand (even-numbered) page
headings and the current chapter title is printed in the right-hand
(odd-numbered) page headings.  (@TeX{} learns the title of each chapter
from each @code{@@chapter} command.)  Page footers are not
printed.@refill

Even if you are printing in a single-sided style, @TeX{} looks for an
@code{@@settitle} command line, in case you include the manual title
in the heading. @refill

The @code{@@settitle} command should precede everything that generates
actual output in @TeX{}.@refill

Although the title in the @code{@@settitle} command is usually the
same as the title on the title page, it does not affect the title as
it appears on the title page.  Thus, the two do not need not match
exactly;  and the title in the @code{@@settitle} command can be a
shortened or expanded version of the title as it appears on the title
page. (@xref{titlepage, , @code{@@titlepage}}.)@refill

@TeX{} prints page headings only for that text that comes after the
@code{@@end titlepage} command in the Texinfo file, or that comes
after an @code{@@headings} command that turns on headings.
(@xref{headings on off, , The @code{@@headings} Command}, for more
information.)@refill

You may, if you wish, create your own, customized headings and
footings.  @xref{Headings, , Page Headings}, for a detailed discussion
of this process.@refill

@node setchapternewpage, paragraphindent, settitle, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@setchapternewpage}
@cindex Starting chapters
@cindex Pages, starting odd
@findex setchapternewpage

In a book or a manual, text is usually printed on both sides of the
paper, chapters start on right-hand pages, and right-hand pages have
odd numbers.  But in short reports, text often is printed only on one
side of the paper.  Also in short reports, chapters sometimes do not
start on new pages, but are printed on the same page as the end of the
preceding chapter, after a small amount of vertical whitespace.@refill

You can use the @code{@@setchapternewpage} command with various
arguments to specify how @TeX{} should start chapters and whether it
should typeset pages for printing on one or both sides of the paper
(single-sided or double-sided printing).@refill

Write the @code{@@setchapternewpage} command at the beginning of a
line followed by its argument.@refill

For example, you would write the following to cause each chapter to
start on a fresh odd-numbered page:@refill

@example
@@setchapternewpage odd
@end example

You can specify one of three alternatives with the
@code{@@setchapternewpage} command:@refill

@table @asis
@ignore
@item No @code{@@setchapternewpage} command
If the Texinfo file does not contain an @code{@@setchapternewpage}
command before the @code{@@titlepage} command, @TeX{} automatically
begins chapters on new pages and prints headings in the standard
format for single-sided printing.  This is the conventional format for
single-sided printing.@refill

The result is exactly the same as when you write
@code{@@setchapternewpage on}.@refill
@end ignore
@item @code{@@setchapternewpage off}
Cause @TeX{} to typeset a new chapter on the same page as the last
chapter, after skipping some vertical whitespace.  Also, cause @TeX{} to
format page headers for single-sided printing. (You can override the
headers format with the @code{@@headings double} command; see
@ref{headings on off, , The @code{@@headings} Command}.)@refill

@item @code{@@setchapternewpage on}
Cause @TeX{} to start new chapters on new pages and to typeset page
headers for single-sided printing.  This is the form most often
used for short reports.@refill

This alternative is the default.@refill

@item @code{@@setchapternewpage odd}
Cause @TeX{} to start new chapters on new, odd-numbered pages
(right-handed pages) and to typeset for double-sided printing.  This is
the form most often used for books and manuals.@refill
@end table

@noindent
Texinfo does not have an @code{@@setchapternewpage even} command.@refill

@noindent
(You can countermand or modify an @code{@@setchapternewpage} command
with an @code{@@headings} command.  @xref{headings on off, , The
@code{@@headings} Command}.)@refill

At the beginning of a manual or book, pages are not numbered---for
example, the title and copyright pages of a book are not numbered.
By convention, table of contents pages are numbered with roman
numerals and not in sequence with the rest of the document.@refill

Since an Info file does not have pages, the @code{@@setchapternewpage}
command has no effect on it.@refill

Usually, you do not write an @code{@@setchapternewpage} command for
single-sided printing, but accept the default which is to typeset for
single-sided printing and to start new chapters on new pages.  Usually,
you write an @code{@@setchapternewpage odd} command for double-sided
printing.@refill

@node paragraphindent, End of Header, setchapternewpage, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Paragraph Indenting
@cindex Indenting paragraphs
@cindex Paragraph indentation
@findex paragraphindent

The Info formatting commands may insert spaces at the beginning of the
first line of each paragraph, thereby indenting that paragraph.  You
can use the @code{@@paragraphindent} command to specify the
indentation.  Write an @code{@@paragraphindent} command at the
beginning of a line followed by either @samp{asis} or a number.  The
template is:@refill

@example
@@paragraphindent @var{indent}
@end example

The Info formatting commands indent according to the value of
@var{indent}:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
If the value of @var{indent} is @samp{asis}, the Info formatting
commands do not change the existing indentation.@refill

@item
If the value of @var{indent} is zero, the Info formatting commands delete
existing indentation.@refill

@item
If the value of @var{indent} is greater than zero, the Info formatting
commands indent the paragraph by that number of spaces.@refill
@end itemize

The default value of @var{indent} is @samp{asis}.@refill

Write the @code{@@paragraphindent} command before or shortly after the
end-of-header line at the beginning of a Texinfo file.  (If you write
the command between the start-of-header and end-of-header lines, the
region formatting commands indent paragraphs as specified.)@refill

A peculiarity of the @code{texinfo-format-buffer} and
@code{texinfo-format-region} commands is that they do not indent (nor
fill) paragraphs that contain @code{@@w} or @code{@@*} commands.
@xref{Refilling Paragraphs}, for a detailed description of what goes
on.@refill

@node End of Header,  , paragraphindent, Header
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection End of Header
@cindex End of header line

Follow the header lines with an @w{end-of-header} line.
An end-of-header line looks like this:@refill

@example
@@c %**end of header
@end example

If you include the @code{@@setchapternewpage} command between the
start-of-header and end-of-header lines, @TeX{} will typeset a region as
that command specifies.  Similarly, if you include an @code{@@smallbook}
command between the start-of-header and end-of-header lines, @TeX{} will
typeset a region in the ``small'' book format.@refill

@ifinfo
The reason for the odd string of characters (@samp{%**}) is so that the
@code{texinfo-tex-region} command does not accidentally find
something that it should not when it is looking for the header.@refill

The start-of-header line and the end-of-header line are Texinfo mode
variables that you can change.@refill
@end ifinfo

@iftex
@xref{Start of Header}.
@end iftex

@node Info Summary and Permissions, Titlepage & Copyright Page, Header, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Summary and Copying Permissions for Info

The title page and the copyright page appear only in the printed copy of
the manual; therefore, the same information must be inserted in a
section that appears only in the Info file.  This section usually
contains a brief description of the contents of the Info file, a
copyright notice, and copying permissions.@refill

The copyright notice should read:@refill

@example
Copyright @var{year} @var{copyright-owner}
@end example

@noindent
and be put on a line by itself.@refill

Standard text for the copyright permissions is contained in an appendix
to this manual; see @ref{ifinfo Permissions, , @samp{ifinfo} Copying
Permissions}, for the complete text.@refill

The permissions text appears in an Info file @emph{before} the first
node.  This mean that a reader does @emph{not} see this text when
reading the file using Info, except when using the advanced Info command
@kbd{g *}.

@node Titlepage & Copyright Page, The Top Node, Info Summary and Permissions, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The Title and Copyright Pages

A manual's name and author are usually printed on a title page.
Sometimes copyright information is printed on the title page as well;
more often, copyright information is printed on the back of the title
page.

The title and copyright pages appear in the printed manual, but not in the
Info file.  Because of this, it is possible to use several slightly
obscure @TeX{} typesetting commands that cannot be used in an Info file.
In addition, this part of the beginning of a Texinfo file contains the text
of the copying permissions that will appear in the printed manual.@refill

@xref{Titlepage Permissions, , Titlepage Copying Permissions}, for the
standard text for the copyright permissions.@refill

@menu
* titlepage::                   Create a title for the printed document.
* titlefont center sp::         The @code{@@titlefont}, @code{@@center},
                                  and @code{@@sp} commands.
* title subtitle author::       The @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle},
                                  and @code{@@author} commands.
* Copyright & Permissions::     How to write the copyright notice and
                                  include copying permissions.
* end titlepage::               Turn on page headings after the title and
                                  copyright pages.
* headings on off::             An option for turning headings on and off
                                  and double or single sided printing.
@end menu

@node titlepage, titlefont center sp, Titlepage & Copyright Page, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@titlepage}
@cindex Title page
@findex titlepage

Start the material for the title page and following copyright page
with @code{@@titlepage} on a line by itself and end it with
@code{@@end titlepage} on a line by itself.@refill

The @code{@@end titlepage} command starts a new page and turns on page
numbering.  (@xref{Headings, , Page Headings}, for details about how to
generate page headings.)  All the material that you want to
appear on unnumbered pages should be put between the
@code{@@titlepage} and @code{@@end titlepage} commands.  By using the
@code{@@page} command you can force a page break within the region
delineated by the @code{@@titlepage} and @code{@@end titlepage}
commands and thereby create more than one unnumbered page.  This is
how the copyright page is produced.  (The @code{@@titlepage} command
might perhaps have been better named the
@code{@@titleandadditionalpages} command, but that would have been
rather long!)@refill

@c !!! append refill to footnote when makeinfo can handle it.
When you write a manual about a computer program, you should write the
version of the program to which the manual applies on the title
page.  If the manual changes more frequently than the program or is
independent of it, you should also include an edition
number@footnote{We have found that it is helpful to refer to versions
of manuals as `editions' and versions of programs as `versions';
otherwise, we find we are liable to confuse each other in conversation
by referring to both the documentation and the software with the same
words.} for the manual.  This helps readers keep track of which manual
is for which version of the program.  (The `Top' node
should also contain this information; see @ref{makeinfo top, ,
@code{@@top}}.)@refill

Texinfo provides two main methods for creating a title page.  One method
uses the @code{@@titlefont}, @code{@@sp}, and @code{@@center} commands
to generate a title page in which the words on the page are
centered.@refill

The second method uses the @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle}, and
@code{@@author} commands to create a title page with black rules under
the title and author lines and the subtitle text set flush to the
right hand side of the page.  With this method, you do not specify any
of the actual formatting of the title page.  You specify the text
you want, and Texinfo does the formatting.  You may use either
method.@refill

@findex shorttitlepage
For extremely simple applications, Texinfo also provides a command
@code{@@shorttitlepage} which takes a single argument as the title.
The argument is typeset on a page by itself and followed by a blank
page.


@node titlefont center sp, title subtitle author, titlepage, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@titlefont}, @code{@@center}, and @code{@@sp}
@findex titlefont
@findex center
@findex sp @r{(titlepage line spacing)}

You can use the @code{@@titlefont}, @code{@@sp}, and @code{@@center}
commands to create a title page for a printed document.  (This is the
first of the two methods for creating a title page in Texinfo.)@refill

Use the @code{@@titlefont} command to select a large font suitable for
the title itself.@refill

@need 700
For example:

@example
@@titlefont@{Texinfo@}
@end example

Use the @code{@@center} command at the beginning of a line to center
the remaining text on that line.  Thus,@refill

@example
@@center @@titlefont@{Texinfo@}
@end example

@noindent
centers the title, which in this example is ``Texinfo'' printed
in the title font.@refill

Use the @code{@@sp} command to insert vertical space.  For example:@refill

@example
@@sp 2
@end example

@noindent
This inserts two blank lines on the printed page.  (@xref{sp, ,
@code{@@sp}}, for more information about the @code{@@sp}
command.)@refill

A template for this method looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@titlepage
@@sp 10
@@center @@titlefont@{@var{name-of-manual-when-printed}@}
@@sp 2
@@center @var{subtitle-if-any}
@@sp 2
@@center @var{author}
@dots{}
@@end titlepage
@end group
@end example

The spacing of the example fits an 8 1/2 by 11 inch manual.@refill

@node title subtitle author, Copyright & Permissions, titlefont center sp, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle}, and @code{@@author}
@findex title
@findex subtitle
@findex author

You can use the @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle}, and @code{@@author}
commands to create a title page in which the vertical and horizontal
spacing is done for you automatically.  This contrasts with the method
described in
the previous section, in which the @code{@@sp} command is needed to
adjust vertical spacing.@refill

Write the @code{@@title}, @code{@@subtitle}, or @code{@@author}
commands at the beginning of a line followed by the title, subtitle,
or author.@refill

The @code{@@title} command produces a line in which the title is set
flush to the left-hand side of the page in a larger than normal font.
The title is underlined with a black rule.@refill

The @code{@@subtitle} command sets subtitles in a normal-sized font
flush to the right-hand side of the page.@refill

The @code{@@author} command sets the names of the author or authors in
a middle-sized font flush to the left-hand side of the page on a line
near the bottom of the title page.  The names are underlined with a
black rule that is thinner than the rule that underlines the title.
(The black rule only occurs if the @code{@@author} command line is
followed by an @code{@@page} command line.)@refill

There are two ways to use the @code{@@author} command: you can write
the name or names on the remaining part of the line that starts with
an @code{@@author} command:@refill

@example
@@author by Jane Smith and John Doe
@end example

@noindent
or you can write the names one above each other by using two (or more)
@code{@@author} commands:@refill

@example
@group
@@author Jane Smith
@@author John Doe
@end group
@end example

@noindent
(Only the bottom name is underlined with a black rule.)@refill

@need 950
A template for this method looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@titlepage
@@title @var{name-of-manual-when-printed}
@@subtitle @var{subtitle-if-any}
@@subtitle @var{second-subtitle}
@@author @var{author}
@@page
@dots{}
@@end titlepage
@end group
@end example

@ifinfo
@noindent
Contrast this form with the form of a title page written using the
@code{@@sp}, @code{@@center}, and @code{@@titlefont} commands:@refill

@example
@@titlepage
@@sp 10
@@center @@titlefont@{Name of Manual When Printed@}
@@sp 2
@@center Subtitle, If Any
@@sp 1
@@center Second subtitle
@@sp 2
@@center Author
@@page
@dots{}
@@end titlepage
@end example
@end ifinfo

@node Copyright & Permissions, end titlepage, title subtitle author, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Copyright Page and Permissions
@cindex Copyright page
@cindex Printed permissions
@cindex Permissions, printed

By international treaty, the copyright notice for a book should be
either on the title page or on the back of the title page.  The
copyright notice should include the year followed by the name of the
organization or person who owns the copyright.@refill

When the copyright notice is on the back of the title page, that page
is customarily not numbered.  Therefore, in Texinfo, the information
on the copyright page should be within @code{@@titlepage} and
@code{@@end titlepage} commands.@refill

@findex vskip
@findex filll
@cindex Vertical whitespace (@samp{vskip})
Use the @code{@@page} command to cause a page break.  To push the
copyright notice and the other text on the copyright page towards the
bottom of the page, you can write a somewhat mysterious line after the
@code{@@page} command that reads like this:@refill

@example
@@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@end example

@noindent
This is a @TeX{} command that is not supported by the Info formatting
commands.  The @code{@@vskip} command inserts whitespace.  The
@samp{0pt plus 1filll} means to put in zero points of mandatory whitespace,
and as much optional whitespace as needed to push the
following text to the bottom of the page.  Note the use of three
@samp{l}s in the word @samp{filll}; this is the correct usage in
@TeX{}.@refill

@findex copyright
In a printed manual, the @code{@@copyright@{@}} command generates a
@samp{c} inside a circle.  (In Info, it generates @samp{(C)}.)  The
copyright notice itself has the following legally defined sequence:@refill

@example
Copyright @copyright{} @var{year} @var{copyright-owner}
@end example

It is customary to put information on how to get a manual after the
copyright notice, followed by the copying permissions for the
manual.@refill

Note that permissions must be given here as well as in the summary
segment within @code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end ifinfo} that
immediately follows the header since this text appears only in the
printed manual and the @samp{ifinfo} text appears only in the Info
file.@refill

@xref{Sample Permissions}, for the standard text.@refill

@node end titlepage, headings on off, Copyright & Permissions, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Heading Generation
@findex end titlepage
@cindex Headings, page, begin to appear
@cindex Titlepage end starts headings
@cindex End titlepage starts headings

An @code{@@end titlepage} command on a line by itself not only marks
the end of the title and copyright pages, but also causes @TeX{} to start
generating page headings and page numbers.

To repeat what is said elsewhere,  Texinfo has two standard page heading
formats, one for documents which are printed on one side of each sheet of paper
(single-sided printing), and the other for documents which are printed on both
sides of each sheet (double-sided printing).
(@xref{setchapternewpage, ,@code{@@setchapternewpage}}.)
You can specify these formats in different ways:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
The conventional way is to write an @code{@@setchapternewpage} command
before the title page commands, and then have the @code{@@end
titlepage} command start generating page headings in the manner desired.
(@xref{setchapternewpage, , @code{@@setchapternewpage}}.)@refill

@item
Alternatively, you can use the @code{@@headings} command to prevent page
headings from being generated or to start them for either single or
double-sided printing.  (Write an @code{@@headings} command immediately
after the @code{@@end titlepage} command.  @xref{headings on off, , The
@code{@@headings} Command}, for more information.)@refill

@item
Or, you may specify your own page heading and footing format.
@xref{Headings, , Page Headings}, for detailed
information about page headings and footings.@refill
@end itemize

Most documents are formatted with the standard single-sided or
double-sided format, using @code{@@setchapternewpage odd} for
double-sided printing and no @code{@@setchapternewpage} command for
single-sided printing.@refill

@node headings on off,  , end titlepage, Titlepage & Copyright Page
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection The @code{@@headings} Command
@findex headings

The @code{@@headings} command is rarely used.  It specifies what kind of
page headings and footings to print on each page.  Usually, this is
controlled by the @code{@@setchapternewpage} command.  You need the
@code{@@headings} command only if the @code{@@setchapternewpage} command
does not do what you want, or if you want to turn off pre-defined page
headings prior to defining your own.  Write an @code{@@headings} command
immediately after the @code{@@end titlepage} command.@refill

You can use @code{@@headings} as follows:@refill

@table @code
@item @@headings off
Turn off printing of page headings.@refill

@item @@headings single
Turn on page headings appropriate for single-sided printing.
@refill

@item @@headings double
Turn on page headings appropriate for double-sided printing.  The two
commands, @code{@@headings on} and @code{@@headings double}, are
synonymous.@refill

@item @@headings singleafter
@itemx @@headings doubleafter
Turn on @code{single} or @code{double} headings, respectively, after the
current page is output.

@item @@headings on
Turn on page headings: @code{single} if @samp{@@setchapternewpage
on}, @code{double} otherwise.
@end table

For example, suppose you write @code{@@setchapternewpage off} before the
@code{@@titlepage} command to tell @TeX{} to start a new chapter on the
same page as the end of the last chapter.  This command also causes
@TeX{} to typeset page headers for single-sided printing.  To cause
@TeX{} to typeset for double sided printing, write @code{@@headings
double} after the @code{@@end titlepage} command.

You can stop @TeX{} from generating any page headings at all by
writing @code{@@headings off} on a line of its own immediately after the
line containing the @code{@@end titlepage} command, like this:@refill

@example
@@end titlepage
@@headings off
@end example

@noindent
The @code{@@headings off} command overrides the @code{@@end titlepage}
command, which would otherwise cause @TeX{} to print page
headings.@refill

You can also specify your own style of page heading and footing.
@xref{Headings, , Page Headings}, for more information.@refill

@node The Top Node, Software Copying Permissions, Titlepage & Copyright Page, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The `Top' Node and Master Menu
@cindex @samp{@r{Top}} node
@cindex Master menu
@cindex Node, `Top'

The `Top' node is the node from which you enter an Info file.@refill

A `Top' node should contain a brief description of the Info file and an
extensive, master menu for the whole Info file.
This helps the reader understand what the Info file is
about.  Also, you should write the version number of the program to
which the Info file applies; or, at least, the edition number.@refill

The contents of the `Top' node should appear only in the Info file; none
of it should appear in printed output, so enclose it between
@code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end ifinfo} commands.  (@TeX{} does not
print either an @code{@@node} line or a menu; they appear only in Info;
strictly speaking, you are not required to enclose these parts between
@code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end ifinfo}, but it is simplest to do so.
@xref{Conditionals, , Conditionally Visible Text}.)@refill

@menu
* Title of Top Node::           Sketch what the file is about.
* Master Menu Parts::           A master menu has three or more parts.
@end menu

@node Title of Top Node, Master Menu Parts, The Top Node, The Top Node
@ifinfo
@subheading `Top' Node Title
@end ifinfo

Sometimes, you will want to place an @code{@@top} sectioning command
line containing the title of the document immediately after the
@code{@@node Top} line (@pxref{makeinfo top command, , The @code{@@top}
Sectioning Command}, for more information).@refill

For example, the beginning of the Top node of this manual contains an
@code{@@top} sectioning command, a short description, and edition and
version information.  It looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@dots{}
@@end titlepage

@@ifinfo
@@node Top, Copying, , (dir)
@@top Texinfo

Texinfo is a documentation system@dots{}
@end group

@group
This is edition@dots{}
@dots{}
@@end ifinfo
@end group

@group
@@menu
* Copying::                 Texinfo is freely
                              redistributable.
* Overview::                What is Texinfo?
@dots{}
@end group
@@end menu
@end example

In a `Top' node, the `Previous', and `Up' nodes usually refer to the top
level directory of the whole Info system, which is called @samp{(dir)}.
The `Next' node refers to the first node that follows the main or master
menu, which is usually the copying permissions, introduction, or first
chapter.@refill

@node Master Menu Parts,  , Title of Top Node, The Top Node
@subsection Parts of a Master Menu
@cindex Master menu parts
@cindex Parts of a master menu

A @dfn{master menu} is a detailed main menu listing all the nodes in a
file.

A master menu is enclosed in @code{@@menu} and @code{@@end menu}
commands and does not appear in the printed document.@refill

Generally, a master menu is divided into parts.@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
The first part contains the major nodes in the Texinfo file: the nodes
for the chapters, chapter-like sections, and the appendices.@refill

@item
The second part contains nodes for the indices.@refill

@item
The third and subsequent parts contain a listing of the other, lower
level nodes, often ordered by chapter.  This way, rather than go
through an intermediary menu, an inquirer can go directly to a
particular node when searching for specific information.  These menu
items are not required; add them if you think they are a
convenience.  If you do use them, put @code{@@detailmenu} before the
first one, and @code{@@end detailmenu} after the last; otherwise,
@code{makeinfo} will get confused.
@end itemize

Each section in the menu can be introduced by a descriptive line.  So
long as the line does not begin with an asterisk, it will not be
treated as a menu entry.  (@xref{Writing a Menu}, for more
information.)@refill

For example, the master menu for this manual looks like the following
(but has many more entries):@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
* Copying::             Texinfo is freely
                          redistributable.
* Overview::            What is Texinfo?
* Texinfo Mode::        Special features in GNU Emacs.
@dots{}
@dots{}
@end group
@group
* Command and Variable Index::
                        An entry for each @@-command.
* Concept Index::       An entry for each concept.
@end group

@group
@@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Overview of Texinfo

* Info Files::          What is an Info file?
* Printed Manuals::     Characteristics of
                          a printed manual.
@dots{}
@dots{}
@end group

@group
Using Texinfo Mode

* Info on a Region::    Formatting part of a file
                          for Info.
@dots{}
@dots{}
@@end detailmenu
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

@node Software Copying Permissions,  , The Top Node, Beginning a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Software Copying Permissions
@cindex Software copying permissions
@cindex Copying software
@cindex Distribution
@cindex License agreement

If the Texinfo file has a section containing the ``General Public
License'' and the distribution information and a warranty disclaimer
for the software that is documented, this section usually follows the
`Top' node.  The General Public License is very important to Project
GNU software.  It ensures that you and others will continue to have a
right to use and share the software.@refill

The copying and distribution information and the disclaimer are
followed by an introduction or else by the first chapter of the
manual.@refill

@cindex Introduction, as part of file
Although an introduction is not a required part of a Texinfo file, it
is very helpful.  Ideally, it should state clearly and concisely what
the file is about and who would be interested in reading it.  In
general, an introduction would follow the licensing and distribution
information, although sometimes people put it earlier in the document.
Usually, an introduction is put in an @code{@@unnumbered} section.
(@xref{unnumbered & appendix, , The @code{@@unnumbered} and
@code{@@appendix} Commands}.)@refill

@node Ending a File, Structuring, Beginning a File, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Ending a Texinfo File
@cindex Ending a Texinfo file
@cindex Texinfo file ending
@cindex File ending
@findex bye

The end of a Texinfo file should include the commands that create
indices and generate detailed and summary tables of contents.
And it must include the @code{@@bye} command that marks the last line
processed by @TeX{}.@refill

@need 700
For example:

@example
@@node    Concept Index,     , Variables Index, Top
@@c        node-name,    next, previous,        up
@@unnumbered Concept Index

@@printindex cp

@@contents
@@bye
@end example

@menu
* Printing Indices & Menus::    How to print an index in hardcopy and
                                  generate index menus in Info.
* Contents::                    How to create a table of contents.
* File End::                    How to mark the end of a file.
@end menu

@node Printing Indices & Menus, Contents, Ending a File, Ending a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Index Menus and Printing an Index
@findex printindex
@cindex Printing an index
@cindex Indices, printing and menus
@cindex Generating menus with indices
@cindex Menus generated with indices

To print an index means to include it as part of a manual or Info
file.  This does not happen automatically just because you use
@code{@@cindex} or other index-entry generating commands in the
Texinfo file; those just cause the raw data for the index to be
accumulated.  To generate an index, you must include the
@code{@@printindex} command at the place in the document where you
want the index to appear.  Also, as part of the process of creating a
printed manual, you must run a program called @code{texindex}
(@pxref{Format/Print Hardcopy}) to sort the raw data to produce a sorted
index file.  The sorted index file is what is actually used to
print the index.@refill

Texinfo offers six different types of predefined index: the concept
index, the function index, the variables index, the keystroke index, the
program index, and the data type index (@pxref{Predefined Indices}).  Each
index type has a two-letter name: @samp{cp}, @samp{fn}, @samp{vr},
@samp{ky}, @samp{pg}, and @samp{tp}.  You may merge indices, or put them
into separate sections (@pxref{Combining Indices}); or you may define
your own indices (@pxref{New Indices, , Defining New Indices}).@refill

The @code{@@printindex} command takes a two-letter index name, reads
the corresponding sorted index file and formats it appropriately into
an index.@refill

@ignore
The two-letter index names are:

@table @samp
@item cp
concept index
@item fn
function index
@item vr
variable index
@item ky
key index
@item pg
program index
@item tp
data type index
@end table
@end ignore
The @code{@@printindex} command does not generate a chapter heading
for the index.  Consequently, you should precede the
@code{@@printindex} command with a suitable section or chapter command
(usually @code{@@unnumbered}) to supply the chapter heading and put
the index into the table of contents.  Precede the @code{@@unnumbered}
command with an @code{@@node} line.@refill

@need 1200
For example:

@smallexample
@group
@@node Variable Index, Concept Index, Function Index, Top
@@comment    node-name,         next,       previous, up
@@unnumbered Variable Index

@@printindex vr
@end group

@group
@@node     Concept Index,     , Variable Index, Top
@@comment      node-name, next,       previous, up
@@unnumbered Concept Index

@@printindex cp
@end group

@group
@@summarycontents
@@contents
@@bye
@end group
@end smallexample

@noindent
(Readers often prefer that the concept index come last in a book,
since that makes it easiest to find.)@refill

@ignore
@c TeX can do sorting, just not conveniently enough to handle sorting
@c Texinfo indexes. --karl, 5may97.
In @TeX{}, the @code{@@printindex} command needs a sorted index file
to work from.  @TeX{} does not know how to do sorting; this is a
deficiency.  @TeX{} writes output files of raw index data; use the
@code{texindex} program to convert these files to sorted index files.
(@xref{Format/Print Hardcopy}, for more information.)@refill
@end ignore


@node Contents, File End, Printing Indices & Menus, Ending a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Generating a Table of Contents
@cindex Table of contents
@cindex Contents, Table of
@findex contents
@findex summarycontents
@findex shortcontents

The @code{@@chapter}, @code{@@section}, and other structuring commands
supply the information to make up a table of contents, but they do not
cause an actual table to appear in the manual.  To do this, you must
use the @code{@@contents} and @code{@@summarycontents}
commands:@refill

@table @code
@item @@contents
Generate a table of contents in a printed manual, including all
chapters, sections, subsections, etc., as well as appendices and
unnumbered chapters.  (Headings generated by the @code{@@heading}
series of commands do not appear in the table of contents.)  The
@code{@@contents} command should be written on a line by
itself.@refill

@item @@shortcontents
@itemx @@summarycontents
(@code{@@summarycontents} is a synonym for @code{@@shortcontents}; the
two commands are exactly the same.)@refill

Generate a short or summary table of contents that lists only the
chapters (and appendices and unnumbered chapters).  Omit sections, subsections
and subsubsections.  Only a long manual needs a short table
of contents in addition to the full table of contents.@refill

Write the @code{@@shortcontents} command on a line by itself right
@emph{before} the @code{@@contents} command.@refill
@end table

The table of contents commands automatically generate a chapter-like
heading at the top of the first table of contents page.  Write the table
of contents commands at the very end of a Texinfo file, just before the
@code{@@bye} command, following any index sections---anything in the
Texinfo file after the table of contents commands will be omitted from
the table of contents.@refill

When you print a manual with a table of contents, the table of
contents are printed last and numbered with roman numerals.  You need
to place those pages in their proper place, after the title page,
yourself.  (This is the only collating you need to do for a printed
manual.  The table of contents is printed last because it is generated
after the rest of the manual is typeset.)@refill

@need 700
Here is an example of where to write table of contents commands:@refill

@example
@group
@var{indices}@dots{}
@@shortcontents
@@contents
@@bye
@end group
@end example

Since an Info file uses menus instead of tables of contents, the Info
formatting commands ignore the @code{@@contents} and
@code{@@shortcontents} commands.@refill

@node File End,  , Contents, Ending a File
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@bye} File Ending
@findex bye

An @code{@@bye} command terminates @TeX{} or Info formatting.  None of
the formatting commands see any of the file following @code{@@bye}.
The @code{@@bye} command should be on a line by itself.@refill

If you wish, you may follow the @code{@@bye} line with notes. These notes
will not be formatted and will not appear in either Info or a printed
manual; it is as if text after @code{@@bye} were within @code{@@ignore}
@dots{} @code{@@end ignore}.  Also, you may follow the @code{@@bye} line
with a local variables list.  @xref{Compile-Command, , Using Local
Variables and the Compile Command}, for more information.@refill

@node Structuring, Nodes, Ending a File, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Chapter Structuring
@cindex Chapter structuring
@cindex Structuring of chapters

The @dfn{chapter structuring} commands divide a document into a hierarchy of
chapters, sections, subsections, and subsubsections.  These commands
generate large headings; they also provide information for the table
of contents of a printed manual (@pxref{Contents, , Generating a Table
of Contents}).@refill

The chapter structuring commands do not create an Info node structure,
so normally you should put an @code{@@node} command immediately before
each chapter structuring command (@pxref{Nodes}).  The only time you
are likely to use the chapter structuring commands without using the
node structuring commands is if you are writing a document that
contains no cross references and will never be transformed into Info
format.@refill

It is unlikely that you will ever write a Texinfo file that is
intended only as an Info file and not as a printable document.  If you
do, you might still use chapter structuring commands to create a
heading at the top of each node---but you don't need to.@refill

@menu
* Tree Structuring::            A manual is like an upside down tree @dots{}
* Structuring Command Types::   How to divide a manual into parts.
* makeinfo top::                The @code{@@top} command, part of the `Top' node.
* chapter::                     
* unnumbered & appendix::       
* majorheading & chapheading::  
* section::                     
* unnumberedsec appendixsec heading::  
* subsection::                  
* unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading::  
* subsubsection::               Commands for the lowest level sections.
* Raise/lower sections::        How to change commands' hierarchical level.
@end menu

@node Tree Structuring, Structuring Command Types, Structuring, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Tree Structure of Sections
@cindex Tree structuring

A Texinfo file is usually structured like a book with chapters,
sections, subsections, and the like.  This structure can be visualized
as a tree (or rather as an upside-down tree) with the root at the top
and the levels corresponding to chapters, sections, subsection, and
subsubsections.@refill

Here is a diagram that shows a Texinfo file with three chapters,
each of which has two sections.@refill

@example
@group
                          Top
                           |
         -------------------------------------
        |                  |                  |
     Chapter 1          Chapter 2          Chapter 3
        |                  |                  |
     --------           --------           --------
    |        |         |        |         |        |
 Section  Section   Section  Section   Section  Section
   1.1      1.2       2.1      2.2       3.1      3.2

@end group
@end example

In a Texinfo file that has this structure, the beginning of Chapter 2
looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@node    Chapter 2,  Chapter 3, Chapter 1, top
@@chapter Chapter 2
@end group
@end example

The chapter structuring commands are described in the sections that
follow; the @code{@@node} and @code{@@menu} commands are described in
following chapters. (@xref{Nodes}, and see @ref{Menus}.)@refill

@node Structuring Command Types, makeinfo top, Tree Structuring, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Types of Structuring Commands

The chapter structuring commands fall into four groups or series, each
of which contains structuring commands corresponding to the
hierarchical levels of chapters, sections, subsections, and
subsubsections.@refill

The four groups are the @code{@@chapter} series, the
@code{@@unnumbered} series, the @code{@@appendix} series, and the
@code{@@heading} series.@refill

Each command produces titles that have a different appearance on the
printed page or Info file; only some of the commands produce
titles that are listed in the table of contents of a printed book or
manual.@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
The @code{@@chapter} and @code{@@appendix} series of commands produce
numbered or lettered entries both in the body of a printed work and in
its table of contents.@refill

@item
The @code{@@unnumbered} series of commands produce unnumbered entries
both in the body of a printed work and in its table of contents.  The
@code{@@top} command, which has a special use, is a member of this
series (@pxref{makeinfo top, , @code{@@top}}).@refill

@item
The @code{@@heading} series of commands produce unnumbered headings
that do not appear in a table of contents.  The heading commands never
start a new page.@refill

@item
The @code{@@majorheading} command produces results similar to using
the @code{@@chapheading} command but generates a larger vertical
whitespace before the heading.@refill

@item
When an @code{@@setchapternewpage} command says to do so, the
@code{@@chapter}, @code{@@unnumbered}, and @code{@@appendix} commands
start new pages in the printed manual; the @code{@@heading} commands
do not.@refill
@end itemize

@need 1000
Here are the four groups of chapter structuring commands:@refill

@c Slightly different formatting for regular sized books and smallbooks.
@ifset smallbook
@sp 1
@tex
{\let\rm=\indrm \let\tt=\indtt
\halign{\hskip\itemindent#\hfil&  \hskip.5em#\hfil&  \hskip.5em#\hfil&
\hskip.5em#\hfil\cr

& & &                                                \rm No new pages\cr
\rm Numbered&    \rm Unnumbered&  \rm Lettered and numbered& \rm Unnumbered\cr
\rm In contents&  \rm In contents&  \rm In contents&  \rm Not in contents\cr

& & & \cr
 &              \tt  @@top&            &               \tt @@majorheading\cr
\tt @@chapter& \tt @@unnumbered&    \tt @@appendix&     \tt @@chapheading\cr
\tt @@section&   \tt @@unnumberedsec&   \tt @@appendixsec&   \tt @@heading\cr
\tt @@subsection&\tt @@unnumberedsubsec&\tt @@appendixsubsec&
\tt @@subheading\cr
\tt @@subsubsection& \tt @@unnumberedsubsubsec& \tt @@appendixsubsubsec&
\tt @@subsubheading\cr}}
@end tex
@end ifset
@ifclear smallbook
@sp 1
@tex
\vbox{
\halign{\hskip\itemindent\hskip.5em#\hfil&  \hskip.5em#\hfil&
\hskip.5em#\hfil& \hskip.5em #\hfil\cr

& & & \cr
& & &                                                \rm No new pages\cr
\rm Numbered&    \rm Unnumbered&  \rm Lettered and numbered& \rm Unnumbered\cr
\rm In contents&  \rm In contents&  \rm In contents&  \rm Not in contents\cr

& & & \cr
 &              \tt  @@top&            &               \tt @@majorheading\cr
\tt @@chapter& \tt @@unnumbered&    \tt @@appendix&     \tt @@chapheading\cr
\tt @@section&   \tt @@unnumberedsec&   \tt @@appendixsec&   \tt @@heading\cr
\tt @@subsection&\tt @@unnumberedsubsec&\tt @@appendixsubsec&
\tt @@subheading\cr
\tt @@subsubsection& \tt @@unnumberedsubsubsec& \tt @@appendixsubsubsec&
\tt @@subsubheading\cr}}
@end tex
@end ifclear
@ifinfo
@example
@group
                                                       @r{No new pages}
@r{Numbered}       @r{Unnumbered}       @r{Lettered and numbered}  @r{Unnumbered}
@r{In contents}    @r{In contents}          @r{In contents}        @r{Not in contents}

               @@top                                    @@majorheading
@@chapter       @@unnumbered          @@appendix          @@chapheading
@@section       @@unnumberedsec       @@appendixsec       @@heading
@@subsection    @@unnumberedsubsec    @@appendixsubsec    @@subheading
@@subsubsection @@unnumberedsubsubsec @@appendixsubsubsec @@subsubheading
@end group
@end example
@end ifinfo

@c Cannot line up columns properly inside of an example because of roman
@c proportional fonts.
@ignore
@ifset smallbook
@iftex
@smallexample
@group
                                                       @r{No new pages}
@r{Numbered}      @r{Unnumbered}       @r{Lettered and numbered}  @r{Unnumbered}
@r{In contents}      @r{In contents}           @r{In contents}         @r{Not in contents}

               @@top                                    @@majorheading
@@chapter       @@unnumbered          @@appendix          @@chapheading
@@section       @@unnumberedsec       @@appendixsec       @@heading
@@subsection    @@unnumberedsubsec    @@appendixsubsec    @@subheading
@@subsubsection @@unnumberedsubsubsec @@appendixsubsubsec @@subsubheading
@end group
@end smallexample
@end iftex
@end ifset
@ifclear smallbook
@iftex
@smallexample
@group
                                                      @r{No new pages}
@r{Numbered}      @r{Unnumbered}       @r{Lettered and numbered}  @r{Unnumbered}
@r{In contents}      @r{In contents}           @r{In contents}         @r{Not in contents}

               @@top                                    @@majorheading
@@chapter       @@unnumbered          @@appendix          @@chapheading
@@section       @@unnumberedsec       @@appendixsec       @@heading
@@subsection    @@unnumberedsubsec    @@appendixsubsec    @@subheading
@@subsubsection @@unnumberedsubsubsec @@appendixsubsubsec @@subsubheading
@end group
@end smallexample
@end iftex
@end ignore

@node makeinfo top, chapter, Structuring Command Types, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@top}

The @code{@@top} command is a special sectioning command that you use
only after an @samp{@@node Top} line at the beginning of a Texinfo file.
The @code{@@top} command tells the @code{makeinfo} formatter
which node is the `Top'
node.  It has the same typesetting effect as @code{@@unnumbered}
(@pxref{unnumbered & appendix, , @code{@@unnumbered}, @code{@@appendix}}).
For detailed information, see
@ref{makeinfo top command, , The @code{@@top} Command}.@refill

@node chapter, unnumbered & appendix, makeinfo top, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@chapter}
@findex chapter

@code{@@chapter} identifies a chapter in the document.  Write the
command at the beginning of a line and follow it on the same line by
the title of the chapter.@refill

For example, this chapter in this manual is entitled ``Chapter
Structuring''; the @code{@@chapter} line looks like this:@refill

@example
@@chapter Chapter Structuring
@end example

In @TeX{}, the @code{@@chapter} command creates a chapter in the
document, specifying the chapter title.  The chapter is numbered
automatically.@refill

In Info, the @code{@@chapter} command causes the title to appear on a
line by itself, with a line of asterisks inserted underneath.  Thus,
in Info, the above example produces the following output:@refill

@example
Chapter Structuring
*******************
@end example

@findex centerchap
Texinfo also provides a command @code{@@centerchap}, which is analogous
to @code{@@unnumbered}, but centers its argument in the printed output.
This kind of stylistic choice is not usually offered by Texinfo.
@c but the Hacker's Dictionary wanted it ...


@node unnumbered & appendix, majorheading & chapheading, chapter, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@unnumbered}, @code{@@appendix}
@findex unnumbered
@findex appendix

Use the @code{@@unnumbered} command to create a chapter that appears
in a printed manual without chapter numbers of any kind.  Use the
@code{@@appendix} command to create an appendix in a printed manual
that is labelled by letter instead of by number.@refill

For Info file output, the @code{@@unnumbered} and @code{@@appendix}
commands are equivalent to @code{@@chapter}: the title is printed on a
line by itself with a line of asterisks underneath.  (@xref{chapter, ,
@code{@@chapter}}.)@refill

To create an appendix or an unnumbered chapter, write an
@code{@@appendix} or @code{@@unnumbered} command at the beginning of a
line and follow it on the same line by the title, as you would if you
were creating a chapter.@refill


@node majorheading & chapheading, section, unnumbered & appendix, Structuring
@section @code{@@majorheading}, @code{@@chapheading}
@findex majorheading
@findex chapheading

The @code{@@majorheading} and @code{@@chapheading} commands put
chapter-like headings in the body of a document.@refill

However, neither command causes @TeX{} to produce a numbered heading
or an entry in the table of contents; and neither command causes
@TeX{} to start a new page in a printed manual.@refill

In @TeX{}, an @code{@@majorheading} command generates a larger vertical
whitespace before the heading than an @code{@@chapheading} command but
is otherwise the same.@refill

In Info,
the @code{@@majorheading} and
@code{@@chapheading} commands are equivalent to
@code{@@chapter}: the title is printed on a line by itself with a line
of asterisks underneath.  (@xref{chapter, , @code{@@chapter}}.)@refill

@node section, unnumberedsec appendixsec heading, majorheading & chapheading, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@section}
@findex section

In a printed manual, an @code{@@section} command identifies a
numbered section within a chapter.  The section title appears in the
table of contents.  In Info, an @code{@@section} command provides a
title for a segment of text, underlined with @samp{=}.@refill

This section is headed with an @code{@@section} command and looks like
this in the Texinfo file:@refill

@example
@@section @@code@{@@@@section@}
@end example

To create a section, write the @code{@@section} command at the
beginning of a line and follow it on the same line by the section
title.@refill

Thus,

@example
@@section This is a section
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
@group
This is a section
=================
@end group
@end example

@noindent
in Info.

@node unnumberedsec appendixsec heading, subsection, section, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@unnumberedsec}, @code{@@appendixsec}, @code{@@heading}
@findex unnumberedsec
@findex appendixsec
@findex heading

The @code{@@unnumberedsec}, @code{@@appendixsec}, and @code{@@heading}
commands are, respectively, the unnumbered, appendix-like, and
heading-like equivalents of the @code{@@section} command.
(@xref{section, , @code{@@section}}.)@refill

@table @code
@item @@unnumberedsec
The @code{@@unnumberedsec} command may be used within an
unnumbered chapter or within a regular chapter or appendix to
provide an unnumbered section.@refill

@item @@appendixsec
@itemx @@appendixsection
@code{@@appendixsection} is a longer spelling of the
@code{@@appendixsec} command; the two are synonymous.@refill
@findex appendixsection

Conventionally, the @code{@@appendixsec} or @code{@@appendixsection}
command is used only within appendices.@refill

@item @@heading
You may use the @code{@@heading} command anywhere you wish for a
section-style heading that will not appear in the table of contents.@refill
@end table

@node subsection, unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading, unnumberedsec appendixsec heading, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The @code{@@subsection} Command
@findex subsection

Subsections are to sections as sections are to chapters.
(@xref{section, , @code{@@section}}.)  In Info, subsection titles are
underlined with @samp{-}.  For example,@refill

@example
@@subsection This is a subsection
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
@group
This is a subsection
--------------------
@end group
@end example

In a printed manual, subsections are listed in the table of contents
and are numbered three levels deep.@refill

@node unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading, subsubsection, subsection, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The @code{@@subsection}-like Commands
@cindex Subsection-like commands
@findex unnumberedsubsec
@findex appendixsubsec
@findex subheading

The @code{@@unnumberedsubsec}, @code{@@appendixsubsec}, and
@code{@@subheading} commands are, respectively, the unnumbered,
appendix-like, and heading-like equivalents of the @code{@@subsection}
command.  (@xref{subsection, , @code{@@subsection}}.)@refill

In Info, the @code{@@subsection}-like commands generate a title
underlined with hyphens.  In a printed manual, an @code{@@subheading}
command produces a heading like that of a subsection except that it is
not numbered and does not appear in the table of contents.  Similarly,
an @code{@@unnumberedsubsec} command produces an unnumbered heading like
that of a subsection and an @code{@@appendixsubsec} command produces a
subsection-like heading labelled with a letter and numbers; both of
these commands produce headings that appear in the table of
contents.@refill

@node subsubsection, Raise/lower sections, unnumberedsubsec appendixsubsec subheading, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The `subsub' Commands
@cindex Subsub commands
@findex subsubsection
@findex unnumberedsubsubsec
@findex appendixsubsubsec
@findex subsubheading

The fourth and lowest level sectioning commands in Texinfo are the
`subsub' commands.  They are:@refill

@table @code
@item @@subsubsection
Subsubsections are to subsections as subsections are to sections.
(@xref{subsection, , @code{@@subsection}}.)  In a printed manual,
subsubsection titles appear in the table of contents and are numbered
four levels deep.@refill

@item @@unnumberedsubsubsec
Unnumbered subsubsection titles appear in the table of contents of a
printed manual, but lack numbers.  Otherwise, unnumbered
subsubsections are the same as subsubsections.  In Info, unnumbered
subsubsections look exactly like ordinary subsubsections.@refill

@item @@appendixsubsubsec
Conventionally, appendix commands are used only for appendices and are
lettered and numbered appropriately in a printed manual.  They also
appear in the table of contents.  In Info, appendix subsubsections look
exactly like ordinary subsubsections.@refill

@item @@subsubheading
The @code{@@subsubheading} command may be used anywhere that you need
a small heading that will not appear in the table of contents.  In
Info, subsubheadings look exactly like ordinary subsubsection
headings.@refill
@end table

In Info,  `subsub' titles are underlined with periods.
For example,@refill

@example
@@subsubsection This is a subsubsection
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
@group
This is a subsubsection
.......................
@end group
@end example

@node Raise/lower sections,  , subsubsection, Structuring
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@raisesections} and @code{@@lowersections}
@findex raisesections
@findex lowersections
@cindex Raising and lowering sections
@cindex Sections, raising and lowering

The @code{@@raisesections} and @code{@@lowersections} commands raise and
lower the hierarchical level of chapters, sections, subsections and the
like.  The @code{@@raisesections} command changes sections to chapters,
subsections to sections, and so on.  The @code{@@lowersections} command
changes chapters to sections, sections to subsections, and so on.

@cindex Include files, and section levels
An @code{@@lowersections} command is useful if you wish to include text
that is written as an outer or standalone Texinfo file in another
Texinfo file as an inner, included file.  If you write the command at
the beginning of the file, all your @code{@@chapter} commands are
formatted as if they were @code{@@section} commands, all your
@code{@@section} command are formatted as if they were
@code{@@subsection} commands, and so on.

@need 1000
@code{@@raisesections} raises a command one level in the chapter
structuring hierarchy:@refill

@example
@group
  @r{Change}           @r{To}

@@subsection     @@section,
@@section        @@chapter,
@@heading        @@chapheading,
          @r{etc.}
@end group
@end example

@need 1000
@code{@@lowersections} lowers a command one level in the chapter
structuring hierarchy:@refill

@example
@group
  @r{Change}           @r{To}

@@chapter        @@section,
@@subsection     @@subsubsection,
@@heading        @@subheading,
          @r{etc.}
@end group
@end example

An @code{@@raisesections} or @code{@@lowersections} command changes only
those structuring commands that follow the command in the Texinfo file.
Write an @code{@@raisesections} or @code{@@lowersections} command on a
line of its own.

An @code{@@lowersections} command cancels an @code{@@raisesections}
command, and vice versa.  Typically, the commands are used like this:

@example
@@lowersections
@@include somefile.texi
@@raisesections
@end example

Without the @code{@@raisesections}, all the subsequent sections in your
document will be lowered.

Repeated use of the commands continue to raise or lower the hierarchical
level a step at a time.

An attempt to raise above `chapters' reproduces chapter commands; an
attempt to lower below `subsubsections' reproduces subsubsection
commands.

@node Nodes, Menus, Structuring, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Nodes

@dfn{Nodes} are the primary segments of a Texinfo file.  They do not
themselves impose a hierarchic or any other kind of structure on a file.
Nodes contain @dfn{node pointers} that name other nodes, and can contain
@dfn{menus} which are lists of nodes.  In Info, the movement commands
can carry you to a pointed-to node or to a node listed in a menu.  Node
pointers and menus provide structure for Info files just as chapters,
sections, subsections, and the like, provide structure for printed
books.@refill

@menu
* Two Paths::                   Different commands to structure
                                  Info output and printed output.
* Node Menu Illustration::      A diagram, and sample nodes and menus.
* node::                        How to write a node, in detail.
* makeinfo Pointer Creation::   How to create node pointers with @code{makeinfo}.
@end menu

@node Two Paths, Node Menu Illustration, Nodes, Nodes
@ifinfo
@heading Two Paths
@end ifinfo

The node and menu commands and the chapter structuring commands are
independent of each other:

@itemize @bullet
@item
In Info, node and menu commands provide structure.  The chapter
structuring commands generate headings with different kinds of
underlining---asterisks for chapters, hyphens for sections, and so on;
they do nothing else.@refill

@item
In @TeX{}, the chapter structuring commands generate chapter and section
numbers and tables of contents.  The node and menu commands provide
information for cross references; they do nothing else.@refill
@end itemize

You can use node pointers and menus to structure an Info file any way
you want; and you can write a Texinfo file so that its Info output has a
different structure than its printed output.  However, most Texinfo
files are written such that the structure for the Info output
corresponds to the structure for the printed output.  It is not
convenient to do otherwise.@refill

Generally, printed output is structured in a tree-like hierarchy in
which the chapters are the major limbs from which the sections branch
out.  Similarly, node pointers and menus are organized to create a
matching structure in the Info output.@refill

@node Node Menu Illustration, node, Two Paths, Nodes
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Node and Menu Illustration

Here is a copy of the diagram shown earlier that illustrates a Texinfo
file with three chapters, each of which contains two sections.@refill

Note that the ``root'' is at the top of the diagram and the ``leaves''
are at the bottom.  This is how such a diagram is drawn conventionally;
it illustrates an upside-down tree.  For this reason, the root node is
called the `Top' node, and `Up' node pointers carry you closer to the
root.@refill

@example
@group
                          Top
                           |
         -------------------------------------
        |                  |                  |
     Chapter 1          Chapter 2          Chapter 3
        |                  |                  |
     --------           --------           --------
    |        |         |        |         |        |
 Section  Section   Section  Section   Section  Section
   1.1      1.2       2.1      2.2       3.1      3.2

@end group
@end example

Write the beginning of the node for Chapter 2 like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@node     Chapter 2,  Chapter 3, Chapter 1, top
@@comment  node-name,  next,      previous,  up
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This @code{@@node} line says that the name of this node is ``Chapter 2'', the
name of the `Next' node is ``Chapter 3'', the name of the `Previous'
node is ``Chapter 1'', and the name of the `Up' node is ``Top''.

@quotation
@strong{Please Note:} `Next' refers to the next node at the same
hierarchical level in the manual, not necessarily to the next node
within the Texinfo file.  In the Texinfo file, the subsequent node may
be at a lower level---a section-level node may follow a chapter-level
node, and a subsection-level node may follow a section-level node.
`Next' and `Previous' refer to nodes at the @emph{same} hierarchical
level.  (The `Top' node contains the exception to this rule.  Since the
`Top' node is the only node at that level, `Next' refers to the first
following node, which is almost always a chapter or chapter-level
node.)@refill
@end quotation

To go to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 using Info, you need a menu inside Chapter
2.  (@xref{Menus}.)  You would write the menu just
before the beginning of Section 2.1, like this:@refill

@example
@group
    @@menu
    * Sect. 2.1::    Description of this section.
    * Sect. 2.2::
    @@end menu
@end group
@end example

Write the node for Sect. 2.1 like this:@refill

@example
@group
    @@node     Sect. 2.1, Sect. 2.2, Chapter 2, Chapter 2
    @@comment  node-name, next,      previous,  up
@end group
@end example

In Info format, the `Next' and `Previous' pointers of a node usually
lead to other nodes at the same level---from chapter to chapter or from
section to section (sometimes, as shown, the `Previous' pointer points
up); an `Up' pointer usually leads to a node at the level above (closer
to the `Top' node); and a `Menu' leads to nodes at a level below (closer
to `leaves').  (A cross reference can point to a node at any level;
see @ref{Cross References}.)@refill

Usually, an @code{@@node} command and a chapter structuring command are
used in sequence, along with indexing commands.  (You may follow the
@code{@@node} line with a comment line that reminds you which pointer is
which.)@refill

Here is the beginning of the chapter in this manual called ``Ending a
Texinfo File''.  This shows an @code{@@node} line followed by a comment
line, an @code{@@chapter} line, and then by indexing lines.@refill

@example
@group
@@node    Ending a File, Structuring, Beginning a File, Top
@@comment node-name,     next,        previous,         up
@@chapter Ending a Texinfo File
@@cindex Ending a Texinfo file
@@cindex Texinfo file ending
@@cindex File ending
@end group
@end example

@node node, makeinfo Pointer Creation, Node Menu Illustration, Nodes
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section The @code{@@node} Command

@cindex Node, defined
A @dfn{node} is a segment of text that begins at an @code{@@node}
command and continues until the next @code{@@node} command.  The
definition of node is different from that for chapter or section.  A
chapter may contain sections and a section may contain subsections;
but a node cannot contain subnodes; the text of a node continues only
until the next @code{@@node} command in the file.  A node usually
contains only one chapter structuring command, the one that follows
the @code{@@node} line.  On the other hand, in printed output nodes
are used only for cross references, so a chapter or section may
contain any number of nodes.  Indeed, a chapter usually contains
several nodes, one for each section, subsection, and
subsubsection.@refill

To create a node, write an @code{@@node} command at the beginning of a
line, and follow it with four arguments, separated by commas, on the
rest of the same line.  These arguments are the name of the node, and
the names of the `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers, in that order.
You may insert spaces before each pointer if you wish; the spaces are
ignored.  You must write the name of the node, and the names of the
`Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers, all on the same line.  Otherwise,
the formatters fail.  (@inforef{Top, info, info}, for more information
about nodes in Info.)@refill

Usually, you write one of the chapter-structuring command lines
immediately after an @code{@@node} line---for example, an
@code{@@section} or @code{@@subsection} line.  (@xref{Structuring
Command Types, , Types of Structuring Commands}.)@refill

@quotation
@strong{Please note:} The GNU Emacs Texinfo mode updating commands work
only with Texinfo files in which @code{@@node} lines are followed by chapter
structuring lines.  @xref{Updating Requirements}.@refill
@end quotation

@TeX{} uses @code{@@node} lines to identify the names to use for cross
references.  For this reason, you must write @code{@@node} lines in a
Texinfo file that you intend to format for printing, even if you do not
intend to format it for Info.  (Cross references, such as the one at the
end of this sentence, are made with @code{@@xref} and its related
commands; see @ref{Cross References}.)@refill

@menu
* Node Names::                  How to choose node and pointer names.
* Writing a Node::              How to write an @code{@@node} line.
* Node Line Tips::              Keep names short.
* Node Line Requirements::      Keep names unique, without @@-commands.
* First Node::                  How to write a `Top' node.
* makeinfo top command::        How to use the @code{@@top} command.
* Top Node Summary::            Write a brief description for readers.
@end menu

@node Node Names, Writing a Node, node, node
@ifinfo
@subheading Choosing Node and Pointer Names
@end ifinfo

The name of a node identifies the node.  The pointers enable
you to reach other nodes and consist of the names of those nodes.@refill

Normally, a node's `Up' pointer contains the name of the node whose menu
mentions that node.  The node's `Next' pointer contains the name of the
node that follows that node in that menu and its `Previous' pointer
contains the name of the node that precedes it in that menu.  When a
node's `Previous' node is the same as its `Up' node, both node pointers
name the same node.@refill

Usually, the first node of a Texinfo file is the `Top' node, and its
`Up' and `Previous' pointers point to the @file{dir} file, which
contains the main menu for all of Info.@refill

The `Top' node itself contains the main or master menu for the manual.
Also, it is helpful to include a brief description of the manual in the
`Top' node.  @xref{First Node}, for information on how to write the
first node of a Texinfo file.@refill

@node Writing a Node, Node Line Tips, Node Names, node
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection How to Write an @code{@@node} Line
@cindex Writing an @code{@@node} line
@cindex @code{@@node} line writing
@cindex Node line writing

The easiest way to write an @code{@@node} line is to write @code{@@node}
at the beginning of a line and then the name of the node, like
this:@refill

@example
@@node @var{node-name}
@end example

If you are using GNU Emacs, you can use the update node commands
provided by Texinfo mode to insert the names of the pointers; or you
can leave the pointers out of the Texinfo file and let @code{makeinfo}
insert node pointers into the Info file it creates.  (@xref{Texinfo
Mode}, and @ref{makeinfo Pointer Creation}.)@refill

Alternatively, you can insert the `Next', `Previous', and `Up'
pointers yourself.  If you do this, you may find it helpful to use the
Texinfo mode keyboard command @kbd{C-c C-c n}.  This command inserts
@samp{@@node} and a comment line listing the names of the pointers in
their proper order.  The comment line helps you keep track of which
arguments are for which pointers.  This comment line is especially useful
if you are not familiar with Texinfo.@refill

The template for a node line with `Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers
looks like this:@refill

@example
@@node @var{node-name}, @var{next}, @var{previous}, @var{up}
@end example

If you wish, you can ignore @code{@@node} lines altogether in your first
draft and then use the @code{texinfo-insert-node-lines} command to
create @code{@@node} lines for you.  However, we do not
recommend this practice.  It is better to name the node itself
at the same time that you
write a segment so you can easily make cross references.  A large number
of cross references are an especially important feature of a good Info
file.@refill

After you have inserted an @code{@@node} line, you should immediately
write an @@-command for the chapter or section and insert its name.
Next (and this is important!), put in several index entries.  Usually,
you will find at least two and often as many as four or five ways of
referring to the node in the index.  Use them all.  This will make it
much easier for people to find the node.@refill

@node Node Line Tips, Node Line Requirements, Writing a Node, node
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@node} Line Tips

Here are three suggestions:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Try to pick node names that are informative but short.@refill

In the Info file, the file name, node name, and pointer names are all
inserted on one line, which may run into the right edge of the window.
(This does not cause a problem with Info, but is ugly.)@refill

@item
Try to pick node names that differ from each other near the beginnings
of their names.  This way, it is easy to use automatic name completion in
Info.@refill

@item
By convention, node names are capitalized just as they would be for
section or chapter titles---initial and significant words are
capitalized; others are not.@refill
@end itemize

@node Node Line Requirements, First Node, Node Line Tips, node
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@node} Line Requirements

@cindex Node line requirements
Here are several requirements for @code{@@node} lines:

@itemize @bullet
@cindex Unique nodename requirement
@cindex Nodename must be unique
@item
All the node names for a single Info file must be unique.@refill

Duplicates confuse the Info movement commands.  This means, for
example, that if you end every chapter with a summary, you must name
each summary node differently.  You cannot just call each one
``Summary''.  You may, however, duplicate the titles of chapters, sections,
and the like.  Thus you can end each chapter in a book with a section
called ``Summary'', so long as the node names for those sections are all
different.@refill

@item
A pointer name must be the name of a node.@refill

The node to which a pointer points may come before or after the
node containing the pointer.@refill

@cindex @@-command in nodename
@cindex Nodename, cannot contain
@item
You cannot use any of the Texinfo @@-commands in a node name;
@w{@@-commands} confuse Info.@refill

@need 750
Thus, the beginning of the section called @code{@@chapter} looks like
this:@refill

@smallexample
@group
@@node  chapter, unnumbered & appendix, makeinfo top, Structuring
@@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@@section @@code@{@@@@chapter@}
@@findex chapter
@end group
@end smallexample

@cindex Comma in nodename
@cindex Apostrophe in nodename
@item
You cannot use commas or apostrophes within a node name; these
confuse @TeX{} or the Info formatters.@refill

@need 700
For example, the following is a section title:

@smallexample
@@code@{@@@@unnumberedsec@}, @@code@{@@@@appendixsec@}, @@code@{@@@@heading@}
@end smallexample

@noindent
The corresponding node name is:

@smallexample
unnumberedsec appendixsec heading
@end smallexample

@cindex Case in nodename
@item
Case is significant.
@end itemize


@node First Node, makeinfo top command, Node Line Requirements, node
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection The First Node
@cindex Top node is first
@cindex First node

The first node of a Texinfo file is the @dfn{Top} node, except in an
included file (@pxref{Include Files}).  The Top node contains the main
or master menu for the document, and a short summary of the document
(@pxref{Top Node Summary}).

@cindex Up node of Top node
@cindex (dir) as Up node of Top node
The Top node (which must be named @samp{top} or @samp{Top}) should have
as its `Up' node the name of a node in another file, where there is a
menu that leads to this file.  Specify the file name in parentheses.  If
the file is to be installed directly in the Info directory file, use
@samp{(dir)} as the parent of the Top node; this is short for
@samp{(dir)top}, and specifies the Top node in the @file{dir} file,
which contains the main menu for the Info system as a whole.  For
example, the @code{@@node Top} line of this manual looks like this:

@example
@@node Top, Copying, , (dir)
@end example

@noindent
(You can use the Texinfo updating commands or the @code{makeinfo}
utility to insert these pointers automatically.)

@cindex Previous node of Top node
Do not define the `Previous' node of the Top node to be @samp{(dir)}, as
it causes confusing behavior for users: if you are in the Top node and
hits @key{DEL} to go backwards, you wind up in the middle of the
some other entry in the @file{dir} file, which has nothing to do with
what you were reading.

@xref{Install an Info File}, for more information about installing
an Info file in the @file{info} directory.


@node makeinfo top command, Top Node Summary, First Node, node
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection The @code{@@top} Sectioning Command
@findex top @r{(@@-command)}

A special sectioning command, @code{@@top}, has been created for use
with the @code{@@node Top} line.  The @code{@@top} sectioning command tells
@code{makeinfo} that it marks the `Top' node in the file.  It provides
the information that @code{makeinfo} needs to insert node
pointers automatically.  Write the @code{@@top} command at the
beginning of the line immediately following the @code{@@node Top}
line.  Write the title on the remaining part of the same line as the
@code{@@top} command.@refill

In Info, the @code{@@top} sectioning command causes the title to appear on a
line by itself, with a line of asterisks inserted underneath.@refill

In @TeX{} and @code{texinfo-format-buffer}, the @code{@@top}
sectioning command is merely a synonym for @code{@@unnumbered}.
Neither of these formatters require an @code{@@top} command, and do
nothing special with it.  You can use @code{@@chapter} or
@code{@@unnumbered} after the @code{@@node Top} line when you use
these formatters.  Also, you can use @code{@@chapter} or
@code{@@unnumbered} when you use the Texinfo updating commands to
create or update pointers and menus.@refill


@node Top Node Summary,  , makeinfo top command, node
@subsection The `Top' Node Summary
@cindex @samp{@r{Top}} node summary

You can help readers by writing a summary in the `Top' node, after the
@code{@@top} line, before the main or master menu.  The summary should
briefly describe the document.  In Info, this summary will appear just
before the master menu.  In a printed manual, this summary will appear
on a page of its own.@refill

If you do not want the summary to appear on a page of its own in a
printed manual, you can enclose the whole of the `Top' node, including
the @code{@@node Top} line and the @code{@@top} sectioning command line
or other sectioning command line between @code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end
ifinfo}.  This prevents any of the text from appearing in the printed
output. (@pxref{Conditionals, , Conditionally Visible Text}).  You can
repeat the brief description from the `Top' node within @code{@@iftex}
@dots{} @code{@@end iftex} at the beginning of the first chapter, for
those who read the printed manual.  This saves paper and may look
neater.@refill

You should write the version number of the program to which the manual
applies in the summary.  This helps the reader keep track of which
manual is for which version of the program.  If the manual changes more
frequently than the program or is independent of it, you should also
include an edition number for the manual.  (The title page should also
contain this information: see @ref{titlepage, ,
@code{@@titlepage}}.)@refill

@node makeinfo Pointer Creation,  , node, Nodes
@section Creating Pointers with @code{makeinfo}
@cindex Creating pointers with @code{makeinfo}
@cindex Pointer creation with @code{makeinfo}
@cindex Automatic pointer creation with @code{makeinfo}

The @code{makeinfo} program has a feature for automatically creating
node pointers for a hierarchically organized file that lacks
them.@refill

When you take advantage of this feature, you do not need to write the
`Next', `Previous', and `Up' pointers after the name of a node.
However, you must write a sectioning command, such as @code{@@chapter}
or @code{@@section}, on the line immediately following each truncated
@code{@@node} line.  You cannot write a comment line after a node
line; the section line must follow it immediately.@refill

In addition, you must follow the `Top' @code{@@node} line with a line beginning
with @code{@@top} to mark the `Top' node in the file. @xref{makeinfo
top, , @code{@@top}}.

Finally, you must write the name of each node (except for the `Top'
node) in a menu that is one or more hierarchical levels above the
node's hierarchical level.@refill

This node pointer insertion feature in @code{makeinfo} is an
alternative to the menu and pointer creation and update commands in
Texinfo mode.  (@xref{Updating Nodes and Menus}.)  It is especially
helpful to people who do not use GNU Emacs for writing Texinfo
documents.@refill

@node Menus, Cross References, Nodes, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,          up
@chapter Menus
@cindex Menus
@findex menu

@dfn{Menus} contain pointers to subordinate
nodes.@footnote{Menus can carry you to any node, regardless
of the hierarchical structure; even to nodes in a different
Info file.  However, the GNU Emacs Texinfo mode updating
commands work only to create menus of subordinate nodes.
Conventionally, cross references are used to refer to other
nodes.} In Info, you use menus to go to such nodes.  Menus
have no effect in printed manuals and do not appear in
them.@refill

By convention, a menu is put at the end of a node since a reader who
uses the menu may not see text that follows it.@refill

@ifinfo
A node that has a menu should @emph{not} contain much text.  If you
have a lot of text and a menu, move most of the text into a new
subnode---all but a few lines.@refill
@end ifinfo
@iftex
@emph{A node that has a menu should not contain much text.} If you
have a lot of text and a menu, move most of the text into a new
subnode---all but a few lines.  Otherwise, a reader with a terminal
that displays only a few lines may miss the menu and its associated
text.  As a practical matter, you should locate a menu within 20 lines
of the beginning of the node.@refill
@end iftex

@menu
* Menu Location::               Put a menu in a short node.
* Writing a Menu::              What is a menu?
* Menu Parts::                  A menu entry has three parts.
* Less Cluttered Menu Entry::   Two part menu entry.
* Menu Example::                Two and three part menu entries.
* Other Info Files::            How to refer to a different Info file.
@end menu

@node Menu Location, Writing a Menu, Menus, Menus
@ifinfo
@heading Menus Need Short Nodes
@end ifinfo
@cindex Menu location
@cindex Location of menus
@cindex Nodes for menus are short
@cindex Short nodes for menus

@ifinfo
A reader can easily see a menu that is close to the beginning of the
node.  The node should be short.  As a practical matter, you should
locate a menu within 20 lines of the beginning of the node.
Otherwise, a reader with a terminal that displays only a few lines may
miss the menu and its associated text.@refill
@end ifinfo

The short text before a menu may look awkward in a printed manual.  To
avoid this, you can write a menu near the beginning of its node and
follow the menu by an @code{@@node} line, and then an @code{@@heading}
line located within @code{@@ifinfo} and @code{@@end ifinfo}.  This way,
the menu, @code{@@node} line, and title appear only in the Info file,
not the printed document.@refill

For example, the preceding two paragraphs follow an Info-only menu,
@code{@@node} line, and heading, and look like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
* Menu Location::             Put a menu in a short node.
* Writing a Menu::            What is a menu?
* Menu Parts::                A menu entry has three parts.
* Less Cluttered Menu Entry:: Two part menu entry.
* Menu Example::              Two and three part entries.
* Other Info Files::          How to refer to a different
                                Info file.
@@end menu

@@node Menu Location, Writing a Menu, , Menus
@@ifinfo
@@heading Menus Need Short Nodes
@@end ifinfo
@end group
@end example

The Texinfo file for this document contains more than a dozen
examples of this procedure.  One is at the beginning of this chapter;
another is at the beginning of the ``Cross References'' chapter.@refill

@node Writing a Menu, Menu Parts, Menu Location, Menus
@section Writing a Menu
@cindex Writing a menu
@cindex Menu writing

A menu consists of an @code{@@menu} command on a line by
itself followed by menu entry lines or menu comment lines
and then by an @code{@@end menu} command on a line by
itself.@refill

A menu looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
Larger Units of Text

* Files::                       All about handling files.
* Multiples: Buffers.           Multiple buffers; editing
                                  several files at once.
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

In a menu, every line that begins with an @w{@samp{* }} is a
@dfn{menu entry}.  (Note the space after the asterisk.)  A
line that does not start with an @w{@samp{* }} may also
appear in a menu.  Such a line is not a menu entry but is a
menu comment line that appears in the Info file.  In
the example above, the line @samp{Larger Units of Text} is a
menu comment line; the two lines starting with @w{@samp{* }}
are menu entries.

@node Menu Parts, Less Cluttered Menu Entry, Writing a Menu, Menus
@section The Parts of a Menu
@cindex Parts of a menu
@cindex Menu parts
@cindex @code{@@menu} parts

A menu entry has three parts, only the second of which is required:

@enumerate
@item
The menu entry name (optional).

@item
The name of the node (required).

@item
A description of the item (optional).
@end enumerate

The template for a menu entry looks like this:@refill

@example
* @var{menu-entry-name}: @var{node-name}.   @var{description}
@end example

Follow the menu entry name with a single colon and follow the node name
with tab, comma, period, or newline.@refill

In Info, a user selects a node with the @kbd{m} (@code{Info-menu})
command.  The menu entry name is what the user types after the @kbd{m}
command.@refill

The third part of a menu entry is a descriptive phrase or sentence.
Menu entry names and node names are often short; the description
explains to the reader what the node is about.  A useful description
complements the node name rather than repeats it.  The description,
which is optional, can spread over two or more lines; if it does, some
authors prefer to indent the second line while others prefer to align it
with the first (and all others).  It's up to you.


@node Less Cluttered Menu Entry, Menu Example, Menu Parts, Menus
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Less Cluttered Menu Entry
@cindex Two part menu entry
@cindex Double-colon menu entries
@cindex Menu entries with two colons
@cindex Less cluttered menu entry
@cindex Uncluttered menu entry

When the menu entry name and node name are the same, you can write
the name immediately after the asterisk and space at the beginning of
the line and follow the name with two colons.@refill

@need 800
For example, write

@example
* Name::                                    @var{description}
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
instead of

@example
* Name: Name.                               @var{description}
@end example

You should use the node name for the menu entry name whenever possible,
since it reduces visual clutter in the menu.@refill

@node Menu Example, Other Info Files, Less Cluttered Menu Entry, Menus
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section A Menu Example
@cindex Menu example
@cindex Example menu

A menu looks like this in Texinfo:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
* menu entry name: Node name.   A short description.
* Node name::                   This form is preferred.
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
This produces:

@example
@group
* menu:

* menu entry name: Node name.   A short description.
* Node name::                   This form is preferred.
@end group
@end example

@need 700
Here is an example as you might see it in a Texinfo file:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
Larger Units of Text

* Files::                       All about handling files.
* Multiples: Buffers.           Multiple buffers; editing
                                  several files at once.
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
This produces:

@example
@group
* menu:
Larger Units of Text

* Files::                       All about handling files.
* Multiples: Buffers.           Multiple buffers; editing
                                  several files at once.
@end group
@end example

In this example, the menu has two entries.  @samp{Files} is both a menu
entry name and the name of the node referred to by that name.
@samp{Multiples} is the menu entry name; it refers to the node named
@samp{Buffers}. The line @samp{Larger Units of Text} is a comment; it
appears in the menu, but is not an entry.@refill

Since no file name is specified with either @samp{Files} or
@samp{Buffers}, they must be the names of nodes in the same Info file
(@pxref{Other Info Files, , Referring to Other Info Files}).@refill

@node Other Info Files,  , Menu Example, Menus
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Referring to Other Info Files
@cindex Referring to other Info files
@cindex Nodes in other Info files
@cindex Other Info files' nodes
@cindex Going to other Info files' nodes
@cindex Info; other files' nodes

You can create a menu entry that enables a reader in Info to go to a
node in another Info file by writing the file name in parentheses just
before the node name.  In this case, you should use the three-part menu
entry format, which saves the reader from having to type the file
name.@refill

@need 800
The format looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
* @var{first-entry-name}:(@var{filename})@var{nodename}.     @var{description}
* @var{second-entry-name}:(@var{filename})@var{second-node}. @var{description}
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

For example, to refer directly to the @samp{Outlining} and
@samp{Rebinding} nodes in the @cite{Emacs Manual}, you would write a
menu like this:@refill

@example
@group
@@menu
* Outlining: (emacs)Outline Mode. The major mode for
                                  editing outlines.
* Rebinding: (emacs)Rebinding.    How to redefine the
                                  meaning of a key.
@@end menu
@end group
@end example

If you do not list the node name, but only name the file, then Info
presumes that you are referring to the `Top' node.@refill

The @file{dir} file that contains the main menu for Info has menu
entries that list only file names.  These take you directly to the `Top'
nodes of each Info document.  (@xref{Install an Info File}.)@refill

@need 700
For example:

@example
@group
* Info: (info).         Documentation browsing system.
* Emacs: (emacs).       The extensible, self-documenting
                        text editor.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
(The @file{dir} top level directory for the Info system is an Info file,
not a Texinfo file, but a menu entry looks the same in both types of
file.)@refill

Note that the GNU Emacs Texinfo mode menu updating commands only work
with nodes within the current buffer, so you cannot use them to create
menus that refer to other files.  You must write such menus by hand.@refill

@node Cross References, Marking Text, Menus, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Cross References
@cindex Making cross references
@cindex Cross references
@cindex References

@dfn{Cross references} are used to refer the reader to other parts of the
same or different Texinfo files.  In Texinfo, nodes are the
places to which cross references can refer.@refill

@menu
* References::                  What cross references are for.
* Cross Reference Commands::    A summary of the different commands.
* Cross Reference Parts::       A cross reference has several parts.
* xref::                        Begin a reference with `See' @dots{}
* Top Node Naming::             How to refer to the beginning of another file.
* ref::                         A reference for the last part of a sentence.
* pxref::                       How to write a parenthetical cross reference.
* inforef::                     How to refer to an Info-only file.
* uref::                        How to refer to a uniform resource locator.
@end menu

@node References, Cross Reference Commands, Cross References, Cross References
@ifinfo
@heading What References Are For
@end ifinfo

Often, but not always, a printed document should be designed so that
it can be read sequentially.  People tire of flipping back and forth
to find information that should be presented to them as they need
it.@refill

However, in any document, some information will be too detailed for
the current context, or incidental to it; use cross references to
provide access to such information.  Also, an on-line help system or a
reference manual is not like a novel; few read such documents in
sequence from beginning to end.  Instead, people look up what they
need.  For this reason, such creations should contain many cross
references to help readers find other information that they may not
have read.@refill

In a printed manual, a cross reference results in a page reference,
unless it is to another manual altogether, in which case the cross
reference names that manual.@refill

In Info, a cross reference results in an entry that you can follow using
the Info @samp{f} command.  (@inforef{Help-Adv, Some advanced Info
commands, info}.)@refill

The various cross reference commands use nodes to define cross
reference locations.  This is evident in Info, in which a cross
reference takes you to the specified node.  @TeX{} also uses nodes to
define cross reference locations, but the action is less obvious.  When
@TeX{} generates a DVI file, it records nodes' page numbers and
uses the page numbers in making references.  Thus, if you are writing
a manual that will only be printed, and will not be used on-line, you
must nonetheless write @code{@@node} lines to name the places to which
you make cross references.@refill

@need 800
@node Cross Reference Commands, Cross Reference Parts, References, Cross References
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Different Cross Reference Commands
@cindex Different cross reference commands

There are four different cross reference commands:@refill

@table @code
@item @@xref
Used to start a sentence in the printed manual saying @w{`See @dots{}'}
or an Info cross-reference saying @samp{*Note @var{name}: @var{node}.}.

@item @@ref
Used within or, more often, at the end of a sentence; same as
@code{@@xref} for Info; produces just the reference in the printed
manual without a preceding `See'.@refill

@item @@pxref
Used within parentheses to make a reference that suits both an Info
file and a printed book.  Starts with a lower case `see' within the
printed manual. (@samp{p} is for `parenthesis'.)@refill

@item @@inforef
Used to make a reference to an Info file for which there is no printed
manual.@refill
@end table

@noindent
(The @code{@@cite} command is used to make references to books and
manuals for which there is no corresponding Info file and, therefore,
no node to which to point.   @xref{cite, , @code{@@cite}}.)@refill

@node Cross Reference Parts, xref, Cross Reference Commands, Cross References
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Parts of a Cross Reference
@cindex Cross reference parts
@cindex Parts of a cross reference

A cross reference command requires only one argument, which is the
name of the node to which it refers.  But a cross reference command
may contain up to four additional arguments.  By using these
arguments, you can provide a cross reference name for Info, a topic
description or section title for the printed output, the name of a
different Info file, and the name of a different printed
manual.@refill

Here is a simple cross reference example:@refill

@example
@@xref@{Node name@}.
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
*Note Node name::.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section @var{nnn} [Node name], page @var{ppp}.
@end quotation

@need 700
Here is an example of a full five-part cross reference:@refill

@example
@group
@@xref@{Node name, Cross Reference Name, Particular Topic,
info-file-name, A Printed Manual@}, for details.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
*Note Cross Reference Name: (info-file-name)Node name,
for details.
@end example

@noindent
in Info and

@quotation
See section ``Particular Topic'' in @i{A Printed Manual}, for details.
@end quotation

@noindent
in a printed book.

The five possible arguments for a cross reference are:@refill

@enumerate
@item
The node name (required).  This is the node to which the
cross reference takes you.  In a printed document, the location of the
node provides the page reference only for references within the same
document.@refill

@item
The cross reference name for the Info reference, if it is to be different
from the node name.  If you include this argument, it becomes
the first part of the cross reference.  It is usually omitted.@refill

@item
A topic description or section name.  Often, this is the title of the
section.  This is used as the name of the reference in the printed
manual.  If omitted, the node name is used.@refill

@item
The name of the Info file in which the reference is located, if it is
different from the current file.  You need not include any @samp{.info}
suffix on the file name, since Info readers try appending it
automatically.

@item
The name of a printed manual from a different Texinfo file.@refill
@end enumerate

The template for a full five argument cross reference looks like
this:@refill

@example
@group
@@xref@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}, @var{title-or-topic},
@var{info-file-name}, @var{printed-manual-title}@}.
@end group
@end example

Cross references with one, two, three, four, and five arguments are
described separately following the description of @code{@@xref}.@refill

Write a node name in a cross reference in exactly the same way as in
the @code{@@node} line, including the same capitalization; otherwise, the
formatters may not find the reference.@refill

You can write cross reference commands within a paragraph, but note
how Info and @TeX{} format the output of each of the various commands:
write @code{@@xref} at the beginning of a sentence; write
@code{@@pxref} only within parentheses, and so on.@refill

@node xref, Top Node Naming, Cross Reference Parts, Cross References
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@xref}
@findex xref
@cindex Cross references using @code{@@xref}
@cindex References using @code{@@xref}

The @code{@@xref} command generates a cross reference for the
beginning of a sentence.  The Info formatting commands convert it into
an Info cross reference, which the Info @samp{f} command can use to
bring you directly to another node.  The @TeX{} typesetting commands
convert it into a page reference, or a reference to another book or
manual.@refill

@menu
* Reference Syntax::            What a reference looks like and requires.
* One Argument::                @code{@@xref} with one argument.
* Two Arguments::               @code{@@xref} with two arguments.
* Three Arguments::             @code{@@xref} with three arguments.
* Four and Five Arguments::     @code{@@xref} with four and five arguments.
@end menu

@node Reference Syntax, One Argument, xref, xref
@ifinfo
@subheading What a Reference Looks Like and Requires
@end ifinfo

Most often, an Info cross reference looks like this:@refill

@example
*Note @var{node-name}::.
@end example

@noindent
or like this

@example
*Note @var{cross-reference-name}: @var{node-name}.
@end example

@noindent
In @TeX{}, a cross reference looks like this:

@example
See Section @var{section-number} [@var{node-name}], page @var{page}.
@end example

@noindent
or like this

@example
See Section @var{section-number} [@var{title-or-topic}], page @var{page}.
@end example

The @code{@@xref} command does not generate a period or comma to end
the cross reference in either the Info file or the printed output.
You must write that period or comma yourself; otherwise, Info will not
recognize the end of the reference.  (The @code{@@pxref} command works
differently.  @xref{pxref, , @code{@@pxref}}.)@refill

@quotation
@strong{Please note:} A period or comma @strong{must} follow the closing
brace of an @code{@@xref}.  It is required to terminate the cross
reference.  This period or comma will appear in the output, both in
the Info file and in the printed manual.@refill
@end quotation

@code{@@xref} must refer to an Info node by name.  Use @code{@@node}
to define the node (@pxref{Writing a Node}).@refill

@code{@@xref} is followed by several arguments inside braces, separated by
commas.  Whitespace before and after these commas is ignored.@refill

A cross reference requires only the name of a node; but it may contain
up to four additional arguments.  Each of these variations produces a
cross reference that looks somewhat different.@refill

@quotation
@strong{Please note:} Commas separate arguments in a cross reference;
avoid including them in the title or other part lest the formatters
mistake them for separators.@refill
@end quotation

@node One Argument, Two Arguments, Reference Syntax, xref
@subsection @code{@@xref} with One Argument

The simplest form of @code{@@xref} takes one argument, the name of
another node in the same Info file.    The Info formatters produce
output that the Info readers can use to jump to the reference; @TeX{}
produces output that specifies the page and section number for you.@refill

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
@@xref@{Tropical Storms@}.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
*Note Tropical Storms::.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section 3.1 [Tropical Storms], page 24.
@end quotation

@noindent
(Note that in the preceding example the closing brace is followed by a
period.)@refill

You can write a clause after the cross reference, like this:@refill

@example
@@xref@{Tropical Storms@}, for more info.
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
*Note Tropical Storms::, for more info.
@end example

@quotation
See Section 3.1 [Tropical Storms], page 24, for more info.
@end quotation

@noindent
(Note that in the preceding example the closing brace is followed by a
comma, and then by the clause, which is followed by a period.)@refill

@node Two Arguments, Three Arguments, One Argument, xref
@subsection @code{@@xref} with Two Arguments

With two arguments, the second is used as the name of the Info cross
reference, while the first is still the name of the node to which the
cross reference points.@refill

@need 750
@noindent
The template is like this:

@example
@@xref@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}@}.
@end example

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, Lightning@}.
@end example

@noindent
produces:

@example
*Note Lightning: Electrical Effects.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section 5.2 [Electrical Effects], page 57.
@end quotation

@noindent
(Note that in the preceding example the closing brace is followed by a
period; and that the node name is printed, not the cross reference name.)@refill

You can write a clause after the cross reference, like this:@refill

@example
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, Lightning@}, for more info.
@end example

@noindent
which produces
@example
*Note Lightning: Electrical Effects, for more info.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section 5.2 [Electrical Effects], page 57, for more info.
@end quotation

@noindent
(Note that in the preceding example the closing brace is followed by a
comma, and then by the clause, which is followed by a period.)@refill

@node Three Arguments, Four and Five Arguments, Two Arguments, xref
@subsection @code{@@xref} with Three Arguments

A third argument replaces the node name in the @TeX{} output.  The third
argument should be the name of the section in the printed output, or
else state the topic discussed by that section.  Often, you will want to
use initial upper case letters so it will be easier to read when the
reference is printed.  Use a third argument when the node name is
unsuitable because of syntax or meaning.@refill

Remember to avoid placing a comma within the title or topic section of
a cross reference, or within any other section.  The formatters divide
cross references into arguments according to the commas; a comma
within a title or other section will divide it into two arguments.  In
a reference, you need to write a title such as ``Clouds, Mist, and
Fog'' without the commas.@refill

Also, remember to write a comma or period after the closing brace of a
@code{@@xref} to terminate the cross reference.  In the following
examples, a clause follows a terminating comma.@refill


@need 750
@noindent
The template is like this:

@example
@group
@@xref@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}, @var{title-or-topic}@}.
@end group
@end example

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
@group
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, Lightning, Thunder and Lightning@},
for details.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
*Note Lightning: Electrical Effects, for details.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section 5.2 [Thunder and Lightning], page 57, for details.
@end quotation

If a third argument is given and the second one is empty, then the
third argument serves both.  (Note how two commas, side by side, mark
the empty second argument.)@refill

@example
@group
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, , Thunder and Lightning@},
for details.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
*Note Thunder and Lightning: Electrical Effects, for details.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See Section 5.2 [Thunder and Lightning], page 57, for details.
@end quotation

As a practical matter, it is often best to write cross references with
just the first argument if the node name and the section title are the
same, and with the first and third arguments if the node name and title
are different.@refill

Here are several examples from @cite{The GNU Awk User's Guide}:@refill

@smallexample
@@xref@{Sample Program@}.
@@xref@{Glossary@}.
@@xref@{Case-sensitivity, ,Case-sensitivity in Matching@}.
@@xref@{Close Output, , Closing Output Files and Pipes@},
   for more information.
@@xref@{Regexp, , Regular Expressions as Patterns@}.
@end smallexample

@node Four and Five Arguments,  , Three Arguments, xref
@subsection @code{@@xref} with Four and Five Arguments

In a cross reference, a fourth argument specifies the name of another
Info file, different from the file in which the reference appears, and
a fifth argument specifies its title as a printed manual.@refill

Remember that a comma or period must follow the closing brace of an
@code{@@xref} command to terminate the cross reference.  In the
following examples, a clause follows a terminating comma.@refill

@need 800
@noindent
The template is:

@example
@group
@@xref@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}, @var{title-or-topic},
@var{info-file-name}, @var{printed-manual-title}@}.
@end group
@end example

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, Lightning, Thunder and Lightning,
weather, An Introduction to Meteorology@}, for details.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
*Note Lightning: (weather)Electrical Effects, for details.
@end example

@noindent
The name of the Info file is enclosed in parentheses and precedes
the name of the node.

@noindent
In a printed manual, the reference looks like this:@refill

@quotation
See section ``Thunder and Lightning'' in @i{An Introduction to
Meteorology}, for details.
@end quotation

@noindent
The title of the printed manual is typeset in italics; and the
reference lacks a page number since @TeX{} cannot know to which page a
reference refers when that reference is to another manual.@refill

Often, you will leave out the second argument when you use the long
version of @code{@@xref}.  In this case, the third argument, the topic
description, will be used as the cross reference name in Info.@refill

@noindent
The template looks like this:

@example
@@xref@{@var{node-name}, , @var{title-or-topic}, @var{info-file-name},
@var{printed-manual-title}@}, for details.
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
*Note @var{title-or-topic}: (@var{info-file-name})@var{node-name}, for details.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See section @var{title-or-topic} in @var{printed-manual-title}, for details.
@end quotation

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
@@xref@{Electrical Effects, , Thunder and Lightning,
weather, An Introduction to Meteorology@}, for details.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
@group
*Note Thunder and Lightning: (weather)Electrical Effects,
for details.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See section ``Thunder and Lightning'' in @i{An Introduction to
Meteorology}, for details.
@end quotation

On rare occasions, you may want to refer to another Info file that
is within a single printed manual---when multiple Texinfo files are
incorporated into the same @TeX{} run but make separate Info files.
In this case, you need to specify only the fourth argument, and not
the fifth.@refill

@node Top Node Naming, ref, xref, Cross References
@section Naming a `Top' Node
@cindex Naming a `Top' Node in references
@cindex @samp{@r{Top}} node naming for references

In a cross reference, you must always name a node.  This means that in
order to refer to a whole manual, you must identify the `Top' node by
writing it as the first argument to the @code{@@xref} command.  (This
is different from the way you write a menu entry; see @ref{Other Info
Files, , Referring to Other Info Files}.)  At the same time, to
provide a meaningful section topic or title in the printed cross
reference (instead of the word `Top'), you must write an appropriate
entry for the third argument to the @code{@@xref} command.
@refill

@noindent
Thus, to make a cross reference to @cite{The GNU Make Manual},
write:@refill

@example
@@xref@{Top, , Overview, make, The GNU Make Manual@}.
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
*Note Overview: (make)Top.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
See section ``Overview'' in @i{The GNU Make Manual}.
@end quotation

@noindent
In this example, @samp{Top} is the name of the first node, and
@samp{Overview} is the name of the first section of the manual.@refill
@node ref, pxref, Top Node Naming, Cross References
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@ref}
@cindex Cross references using @code{@@ref}
@cindex References using @code{@@ref}
@findex ref

@code{@@ref} is nearly the same as @code{@@xref} except that it does
not generate a `See' in the printed output, just the reference itself.
This makes it useful as the last part of a sentence.@refill

@need 700
@noindent
For example,

@example
For more information, see @@ref@{Hurricanes@}.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
For more information, see *Note Hurricanes.
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
For more information, see Section 8.2 [Hurricanes], page 123.
@end quotation

The @code{@@ref} command sometimes leads writers to express themselves
in a manner that is suitable for a printed manual but looks awkward
in the Info format.  Bear in mind that your audience will be using
both the printed and the Info format.@refill

@need 800
@noindent
For example,

@example
@group
Sea surges are described in @@ref@{Hurricanes@}.
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
produces

@quotation
Sea surges are described in Section 6.7 [Hurricanes], page 72.
@end quotation

@need 800
@noindent
in a printed document, and the following in Info:

@example
Sea surges are described in *Note Hurricanes::.
@end example

@quotation
@strong{Caution:} You @emph{must} write a period or comma immediately
after an @code{@@ref} command with two or more arguments.  Otherwise,
Info will not find the end of the cross reference entry and its
attempt to follow the cross reference will fail.  As a general rule,
you should write a period or comma after every @code{@@ref} command.
This looks best in both the printed and the Info output.@refill
@end quotation

@node pxref, inforef, ref, Cross References
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@pxref}
@cindex Cross references using @code{@@pxref}
@cindex References using @code{@@pxref}
@findex pxref

The parenthetical reference command, @code{@@pxref}, is nearly the
same as @code{@@xref}, but you use it @emph{only} inside parentheses
and you do @emph{not} type a comma or period after the command's
closing brace.  The command differs from @code{@@xref} in two
ways:@refill

@enumerate
@item
@TeX{} typesets the reference for the printed manual with a lower case
`see' rather than an upper case `See'.@refill

@item
The Info formatting commands automatically end the reference with a
closing colon or period.@refill
@end enumerate

Because one type of formatting automatically inserts closing
punctuation and the other does not, you should use @code{@@pxref}
@emph{only} inside parentheses as part of another sentence.  Also, you
yourself should not insert punctuation after the reference, as you do
with @code{@@xref}.@refill

@code{@@pxref} is designed so that the output looks right and works
right between parentheses both in printed output and in an Info file.
In a printed manual, a closing comma or period should not follow a
cross reference within parentheses; such punctuation is wrong.  But in
an Info file, suitable closing punctuation must follow the cross
reference so Info can recognize its end.  @code{@@pxref} spares you
the need to use complicated methods to put a terminator into one form
of the output and not the other.@refill

@noindent
With one argument, a parenthetical cross reference looks like
this:@refill

@example
@dots{} storms cause flooding (@@pxref@{Hurricanes@}) @dots{}
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
which produces

@example
@group
@dots{} storms cause flooding (*Note Hurricanes::) @dots{}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
and

@quotation
@dots{} storms cause flooding (see Section 6.7 [Hurricanes], page 72) @dots{}
@end quotation

With two arguments, a parenthetical cross reference has this
template:@refill

@example
@dots{} (@@pxref@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}@}) @dots{}
@end example

@noindent
which produces

@example
@dots{} (*Note @var{cross-reference-name}: @var{node-name}.) @dots{}
@end example

@noindent
and

@need 1500
@quotation
@dots{} (see Section @var{nnn} [@var{node-name}], page @var{ppp}) @dots{}
@end quotation

@code{@@pxref} can be used with up to five arguments just like
@code{@@xref} (@pxref{xref, , @code{@@xref}}).@refill

@quotation
@strong{Please note:} Use @code{@@pxref} only as a parenthetical
reference.  Do not try to use @code{@@pxref} as a clause in a sentence.
It will look bad in either the Info file, the printed output, or
both.@refill

Also, parenthetical cross references look best at the ends of sentences.
Although you may write them in the middle of a sentence, that location
breaks up the flow of text.@refill
@end quotation

@node inforef, uref, pxref, Cross References
@section @code{@@inforef}
@cindex Cross references using @code{@@inforef}
@cindex References using @code{@@inforef}
@findex inforef

@code{@@inforef} is used for cross references to Info files for which
there are no printed manuals.  Even in a printed manual,
@code{@@inforef} generates a reference directing the user to look in
an Info file.@refill

The command takes either two or three arguments, in the following
order:@refill

@enumerate
@item
The node name.

@item
The cross reference name (optional).

@item
The Info file name.
@end enumerate

@noindent
Separate the arguments with commas, as with @code{@@xref}.  Also, you
must terminate the reference with a comma or period after the
@samp{@}}, as you do with @code{@@xref}.@refill

@noindent
The template is:

@example
@@inforef@{@var{node-name}, @var{cross-reference-name}, @var{info-file-name}@},
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
Thus,

@example
@group
@@inforef@{Expert, Advanced Info commands, info@},
for more information.
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
produces

@example
@group
*Note Advanced Info commands: (info)Expert,
for more information.
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
and

@quotation
See Info file @file{info}, node @samp{Expert}, for more information.
@end quotation

@need 800
@noindent
Similarly,

@example
@group
@@inforef@{Expert, , info@}, for more information.
@end group
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
produces

@example
*Note (info)Expert::, for more information.
@end example

@need 800
@noindent
and

@quotation
See Info file @file{info}, node @samp{Expert}, for more information.
@end quotation

The converse of @code{@@inforef} is @code{@@cite}, which is used to
refer to printed works for which no Info form exists.  @xref{cite, ,
@code{@@cite}}.@refill


@node uref,  , inforef, Cross References
@section @code{@@uref@{@var{url}[, @var{displayed-text}]@}}
@findex uref
@cindex Uniform resource locator, referring to
@cindex URL, referring to

@code{@@uref} produces a reference to a uniform resource locator (URL).
It takes one mandatory argument, the URL, and one optional argument, the
text to display (the default is the URL itself).  In HTML output,
@code{@@uref} produces a link you can follow.  For example:

@example
The official GNU ftp site is
@@uref@{ftp://ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu@}
@end example

@noindent
produces (in text):
@display
The official GNU ftp site is
@uref{ftp://ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu}
@end display

@noindent
whereas
@example
The official
@@uref@{ftp://ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu,
  GNU ftp site@} holds programs and texts.
@end example

@noindent
produces (in text):
@display
The official @uref{ftp://ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu, GNU ftp site} holds
programs and texts.
@end display

@noindent
and (in HTML):
@example
The official <A HREF="ftp://ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu">GNU ftp
site</A> holds programs and texts.
@end example

To merely indicate a URL, use @code{@@url} (@pxref{url, @code{@@url}}).


@node Marking Text, Quotations and Examples, Cross References, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Marking Words and Phrases
@cindex Paragraph, marking text within
@cindex Marking words and phrases
@cindex Words and phrases, marking them
@cindex Marking text within a paragraph

In Texinfo, you can mark words and phrases in a variety of ways.
The Texinfo formatters use this information to determine how to
highlight the text.
You can specify, for example, whether a word or phrase is a
defining occurrence, a metasyntactic variable, or a symbol used in a
program.  Also, you can emphasize text.@refill

@menu
* Indicating::                  How to indicate definitions, files, etc.
* Emphasis::                    How to emphasize text.
@end menu

@node Indicating, Emphasis, Marking Text, Marking Text
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Indicating Definitions, Commands, etc.
@cindex Highlighting text
@cindex Indicating commands, definitions, etc.

Texinfo has commands for indicating just what kind of object a piece of
text refers to.  For example, metasyntactic variables are marked by
@code{@@var}, and code by @code{@@code}.  Since the pieces of text are
labelled by commands that tell what kind of object they are, it is easy
to change the way the Texinfo formatters prepare such text.  (Texinfo is
an @emph{intentional} formatting language rather than a @emph{typesetting}
formatting language.)@refill

For example, in a printed manual,
code is usually illustrated in a typewriter font;
@code{@@code} tells @TeX{} to typeset this text in this font.  But it
would be easy to change the way @TeX{} highlights code to use another
font, and this change would not effect how keystroke examples are
highlighted.  If straight typesetting commands were used in the body
of the file and you wanted to make a change, you would need to check
every single occurrence to make sure that you were changing code and
not something else that should not be changed.@refill

@menu
* Useful Highlighting::         Highlighting provides useful information.
* code::                        How to indicate code.
* kbd::                         How to show keyboard input.
* key::                         How to specify keys.
* samp::                        How to show a literal sequence of characters.
* var::                         How to indicate a metasyntactic variable.
* file::                        How to indicate the name of a file.
* dfn::                         How to specify a definition.
* cite::                        How to refer to a book that is not in Info.
* url::                         How to indicate a world wide web reference.
* email::                       How to indicate an electronic mail address.
@end menu

@node Useful Highlighting, code, Indicating, Indicating
@ifinfo
@subheading Highlighting Commands are Useful
@end ifinfo

The highlighting commands can be used to generate useful information
from the file, such as lists of functions or file names.  It is
possible, for example, to write a program in Emacs Lisp (or a keyboard
macro) to insert an index entry after every paragraph that contains
words or phrases marked by a specified command.  You could do this to
construct an index of functions if you had not already made the
entries.@refill

The commands serve a variety of purposes:@refill

@table @code
@item @@code@{@var{sample-code}@}
Indicate text that is a literal example of a piece of a program.@refill

@item @@kbd@{@var{keyboard-characters}@}
Indicate keyboard input.@refill

@item @@key@{@var{key-name}@}
Indicate the conventional name for a key on a keyboard.@refill

@item @@samp@{@var{text}@}
Indicate text that is a literal example of a sequence of characters.@refill

@item @@var@{@var{metasyntactic-variable}@}
Indicate a metasyntactic variable.@refill

@item @@url@{@var{uniform-resource-locator}@}
Indicate a uniform resource locator for the World Wide Web.

@item @@file@{@var{file-name}@}
Indicate the name of a file.@refill

@item @@email@{@var{email-address}[, @var{displayed-text}]@}
Indicate an electronic mail address.

@item @@dfn@{@var{term}@}
Indicate the introductory or defining use of a term.@refill

@item @@cite@{@var{reference}@}
Indicate the name of a book.@refill

@ignore
@item @@ctrl@{@var{ctrl-char}@}
Use for an @sc{ascii} control character.@refill
@end ignore
@end table

@node code, kbd, Useful Highlighting, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@code}@{@var{sample-code}@}
@findex code

Use the @code{@@code} command to indicate text that is a piece of a
program and which consists of entire syntactic tokens.  Enclose the
text in braces.@refill

Thus, you should use @code{@@code} for an expression in a program, for
the name of a variable or function used in a program, or for a
keyword.  Also, you should use @code{@@code} for the name of a
program, such as @code{diff}, that is a name used in the machine. (You
should write the name of a program in the ordinary text font if you
regard it as a new English word, such as `Emacs' or `Bison'.)@refill

Use @code{@@code} for environment variables such as @code{TEXINPUTS},
and other variables.@refill

Use @code{@@code} for command names in command languages that
resemble programming languages, such as Texinfo or the shell.
For example, @code{@@code} and @code{@@samp} are produced by writing
@samp{@@code@{@@@@code@}} and @samp{@@code@{@@@@samp@}} in the Texinfo
source, respectively.@refill

Note, however, that you should not use @code{@@code} for shell options
such as @samp{-c} when such options stand alone. (Use @code{@@samp}.)
Also, an entire shell command often looks better if written using
@code{@@samp} rather than @code{@@code}.  In this case, the rule is to
choose the more pleasing format.@refill

It is incorrect to alter the case of a word inside an @code{@@code}
command when it appears at the beginning of a sentence.  Most computer
languages are case sensitive.  In C, for example, @code{Printf} is
different from the identifier @code{printf}, and most likely is a
misspelling of it.  Even in languages which are not case sensitive, it
is confusing to a human reader to see identifiers spelled in different
ways.  Pick one spelling and always use that.  If you do not want to
start a sentence with a command written all in lower case, you should
rearrange the sentence.@refill

Do not use the @code{@@code} command for a string of characters shorter
than a syntactic token.  If you are writing about @samp{TEXINPU}, which
is just a part of the name for the @code{TEXINPUTS} environment
variable, you should use @code{@@samp}.@refill

In particular, you should not use the @code{@@code} command when writing
about the characters used in a token; do not, for example, use
@code{@@code} when you are explaining what letters or printable symbols
can be used in the names of functions.  (Use @code{@@samp}.)  Also, you
should not use @code{@@code} to mark text that is considered input to
programs unless the input is written in a language that is like a
programming language.  For example, you should not use @code{@@code} for
the keystroke commands of GNU Emacs (use @code{@@kbd} instead) although
you may use @code{@@code} for the names of the Emacs Lisp functions that
the keystroke commands invoke.@refill

In the printed manual, @code{@@code} causes @TeX{} to typeset the
argument in a typewriter face.  In the Info file, it causes the Info
formatting commands to use single quotation marks around the text.

@need 700
For example,

@example
Use @@code@{diff@} to compare two files.
@end example

@noindent
produces this in the printed manual:@refill

@quotation
Use @code{diff} to compare two files.
@end quotation
@iftex

@noindent
and this in the Info file:@refill

@example
Use `diff' to compare two files.
@end example
@end iftex


@node kbd, key, code, Indicating
@subsection @code{@@kbd}@{@var{keyboard-characters}@}
@findex kbd
@cindex keyboard input

Use the @code{@@kbd} command for characters of input to be typed by
users.  For example, to refer to the characters @kbd{M-a},
write@refill

@example
@@kbd@{M-a@}
@end example

@noindent
and to refer to the characters @kbd{M-x shell}, write@refill

@example
@@kbd@{M-x shell@}
@end example

@cindex user input
@cindex slanted typewriter font, for @code{@@kbd}
The @code{@@kbd} command has the same effect as @code{@@code} in Info,
but by default produces a different font (slanted typewriter instead of
normal typewriter) in the printed manual, so users can distinguish the
characters they are supposed to type from those the computer outputs.

@findex kbdinputstyle
Since the usage of @code{@@kbd} varies from manual to manual, you can
control the font switching with the @code{@@kbdinputstyle} command.
This command has no effect on Info output.  Write this command at the
beginning of a line with a single word as an argument, one of the
following:
@vindex distinct@r{, arg to @@kbdinputstyle}
@vindex example@r{, arg to @@kbdinputstyle}
@vindex code@r{, arg to @@kbdinputstyle}
@table @samp
@item code
Always use the same font for @code{@@kbd} as @code{@@code}.
@item example
Use the distinguishing font for @code{@@kbd} only in @code{@@example}
and similar environments.
@item example
(the default) Always use the distinguishing font for @code{@@kbd}.
@end table

You can embed another @@-command inside the braces of an @code{@@kbd}
command.  Here, for example, is the way to describe a command that
would be described more verbosely as ``press an @samp{r} and then
press the @key{RET} key'':@refill

@example
@@kbd@{r @@key@{RET@}@}
@end example

@noindent
This produces: @kbd{r @key{RET}}

You also use the @code{@@kbd} command if you are spelling out the letters
you type; for example:@refill

@example
To give the @@code@{logout@} command,
type the characters @@kbd@{l o g o u t @@key@{RET@}@}.
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@quotation
To give the @code{logout} command,
type the characters @kbd{l o g o u t @key{RET}}.
@end quotation

(Also, this example shows that you can add spaces for clarity.  If you
really want to mention a space character as one of the characters of
input, write @kbd{@@key@{SPC@}} for it.)@refill


@node key, samp, kbd, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@key}@{@var{key-name}@}
@findex key

Use the @code{@@key} command for the conventional name for a key on a
keyboard, as in:@refill

@example
@@key@{RET@}
@end example

You can use the @code{@@key} command within the argument of an
@code{@@kbd} command when the sequence of characters to be typed
includes one or more keys that are described by name.@refill

@need 700
For example, to produce @kbd{C-x @key{ESC}} you would type:@refill

@example
@@kbd@{C-x @@key@{ESC@}@}
@end example

Here is a list of the recommended names for keys:
@cindex Recommended names for keys
@cindex Keys, recommended names
@cindex Names recommended for keys
@cindex Abbreviations for keys

@quotation
@table @t
@item SPC
Space
@item RET
Return
@item LFD
Linefeed (however, since most keyboards nowadays do not have a Linefeed key,
it might be better to call this character @kbd{C-j}.
@item TAB
Tab
@item BS
Backspace
@item ESC
Escape
@item DEL
Delete
@item SHIFT
Shift
@item CTRL
Control
@item META
Meta
@end table
@end quotation

@cindex META key
There are subtleties to handling words like `meta' or `ctrl' that are
names of modifier keys.  When mentioning a character in which the
modifier key is used, such as @kbd{Meta-a}, use the @code{@@kbd} command
alone; do not use the @code{@@key} command; but when you are referring
to the modifier key in isolation, use the @code{@@key} command.  For
example, write @samp{@@kbd@{Meta-a@}} to produce @kbd{Meta-a} and
@samp{@@key@{META@}} to produce @key{META}.

@c I don't think this is a good explanation.
@c I think it will puzzle readers more than it clarifies matters.  -- rms.
@c In other words, use @code{@@kbd} for what you do, and use @code{@@key}
@c for what you talk about: ``Press @code{@@kbd@{M-a@}} to move point to
@c the beginning of the sentence.  The @code{@@key@{META@}} key is often in
@c the lower left of the keyboard.''@refill

@node samp, var, key, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@samp}@{@var{text}@}
@findex samp

Use the @code{@@samp} command to indicate text that is a literal example
or `sample' of a sequence of characters in a file, string, pattern, etc.
Enclose the text in braces.  The argument appears within single
quotation marks in both the Info file and the printed manual; in
addition, it is printed in a fixed-width font.@refill

@example
To match @@samp@{foo@} at the end of the line,
use the regexp @@samp@{foo$@}.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
To match @samp{foo} at the end of the line, use the regexp
@samp{foo$}.@refill
@end quotation

Any time you are referring to single characters, you should use
@code{@@samp} unless @code{@@kbd} or @code{@@key} is more appropriate.
Use @code{@@samp} for the names of command-line options (except in an
@code{@@table}, where @code{@@code} seems to read more easily).  Also,
you may use @code{@@samp} for entire statements in C and for entire
shell commands---in this case, @code{@@samp} often looks better than
@code{@@code}.  Basically, @code{@@samp} is a catchall for whatever is
not covered by @code{@@code}, @code{@@kbd}, or @code{@@key}.@refill

Only include punctuation marks within braces if they are part of the
string you are specifying.  Write punctuation marks outside the braces
if those punctuation marks are part of the English text that surrounds
the string.  In the following sentence, for example, the commas and
period are outside of the braces:@refill

@example
@group
In English, the vowels are @@samp@{a@}, @@samp@{e@},
@@samp@{i@}, @@samp@{o@}, @@samp@{u@}, and sometimes
@@samp@{y@}.
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@quotation
In English, the vowels are @samp{a}, @samp{e},
@samp{i}, @samp{o}, @samp{u},  and sometimes
@samp{y}.
@end quotation

@node var, file, samp, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@var}@{@var{metasyntactic-variable}@}
@findex var

Use the @code{@@var} command to indicate metasyntactic variables.  A
@dfn{metasyntactic variable} is something that stands for another piece of
text.  For example, you should use a metasyntactic variable in the
documentation of a function to describe the arguments that are passed
to that function.@refill

Do not use @code{@@var} for the names of particular variables in
programming languages.  These are specific names from a program, so
@code{@@code} is correct for them.  For example, the Emacs Lisp variable
@code{texinfo-tex-command} is not a metasyntactic variable; it is
properly formatted using @code{@@code}.@refill

The effect of @code{@@var} in the Info file is to change the case of
the argument to all upper case; in the printed manual, to italicize it.

@need 700
For example,

@example
To delete file @@var@{filename@},
type @@code@{rm @@var@{filename@}@}.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
To delete file @var{filename}, type @code{rm @var{filename}}.
@end quotation

@noindent
(Note that @code{@@var} may appear inside @code{@@code},
@code{@@samp}, @code{@@file}, etc.)@refill

Write a metasyntactic variable all in lower case without spaces, and
use hyphens to make it more readable.  Thus, the Texinfo source for
the illustration of how to begin a Texinfo manual looks like
this:@refill

@example
@group
\input texinfo
@@@@setfilename @@var@{info-file-name@}
@@@@settitle @@var@{name-of-manual@}
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@example
@group
\input texinfo
@@setfilename @var{info-file-name}
@@settitle @var{name-of-manual}
@end group
@end example

In some documentation styles, metasyntactic variables are shown with
angle brackets, for example:@refill

@example
@dots{}, type rm <filename>
@end example

@noindent
However, that is not the style that Texinfo uses.  (You can, of
course, modify the sources to @TeX{} and the Info formatting commands
to output the @code{<@dots{}>} format if you wish.)@refill

@node file, dfn, var, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@file}@{@var{file-name}@}
@findex file

Use the @code{@@file} command to indicate text that is the name of a
file, buffer, or directory, or is the name of a node in Info.  You can
also use the command for file name suffixes.  Do not use @code{@@file}
for symbols in a programming language; use @code{@@code}.

Currently, @code{@@file} is equivalent to @code{@@samp} in its effects.
For example,@refill

@example
The @@file@{.el@} files are in
the @@file@{/usr/local/emacs/lisp@} directory.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
The @file{.el} files are in
the @file{/usr/local/emacs/lisp} directory.
@end quotation

@node dfn, cite, file, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@dfn}@{@var{term}@}
@findex dfn

Use the @code{@@dfn} command to identify the introductory or defining
use of a technical term.  Use the command only in passages whose
purpose is to introduce a term which will be used again or which the
reader ought to know.  Mere passing mention of a term for the first
time does not deserve @code{@@dfn}.  The command generates italics in
the printed manual, and double quotation marks in the Info file.  For
example:@refill

@example
Getting rid of a file is called @@dfn@{deleting@} it.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
Getting rid of a file is called @dfn{deleting} it.
@end quotation

As a general rule, a sentence containing the defining occurrence of a
term should be a definition of the term.  The sentence does not need
to say explicitly that it is a definition, but it should contain the
information of a definition---it should make the meaning clear.

@node cite, url, dfn, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@cite}@{@var{reference}@}
@findex cite

Use the @code{@@cite} command for the name of a book that lacks a
companion Info file. The command produces italics in the printed
manual, and quotation marks in the Info file.@refill

(If a book is written in Texinfo, it is better to use a cross reference
command since a reader can easily follow such a reference in Info.
@xref{xref, , @code{@@xref}}.)@refill

@ignore
@c node ctrl, , cite, Indicating
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@c subsection @code{@@ctrl}@{@var{ctrl-char}@}
@findex ctrl

The @code{@@ctrl} command is seldom used.  It describes an @sc{ascii}
control character by inserting the actual character into the Info
file.

Usually, in Texinfo, you talk what you type as keyboard entry by
describing it with @code{@@kbd}: thus, @samp{@@kbd@{C-a@}} for
@kbd{C-a}.  Use @code{@@kbd} in this way when talking about a control
character that is typed on the keyboard by the user.  When talking
about a control character appearing in a file or a string, do not use
@code{@@kbd} since the control character is not typed.  Also, do not
use @samp{C-} but spell out @code{control-}, as in @samp{control-a},
to make it easier for a reader to understand.@refill

@code{@@ctrl} is an idea from the beginnings of Texinfo which may not
really fit in to the scheme of things.  But there may be times when
you want to use the command.  The pattern is
@code{@@ctrl@{@var{ch}@}}, where @var{ch} is an @sc{ascii} character
whose control-equivalent is wanted.  For example, to specify
@samp{control-f}, you would enter@refill

@example
@@ctrl@{f@}
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
@ctrl{f}
@end quotation

In the Info file, this generates the specified control character, output
literally into the file.  This is done so a user can copy the specified
control character (along with whatever else he or she wants) into another
Emacs buffer and use it.  Since the `control-h',`control-i', and
`control-j' characters are formatting characters, they should not be
indicated with @code{@@ctrl}.@refill

In a printed manual, @code{@@ctrl} generates text to describe or
identify that control character: an uparrow followed by the character
@var{ch}.@refill
@end ignore


@node url, email, cite, Indicating
@subsection @code{@@url}@{@var{uniform-resource-locator}@}
@findex url
@cindex Uniform resource locator, indicating
@cindex URL, indicating

Use the @code{@@url} to indicate a uniform resource locator on the World
Wide Web.  This is analogous to @code{@@file}, @code{@@var}, etc., and
is purely for markup purposes.  It does not produce a link you can
follow in HTML output (the @code{@@uref} command does, @pxref{uref,,
@code{@@uref}}).  It is useful for example URL's which do not actually
exist.  For example:

@c Two lines because one is too long for smallbook format.
@example
For example, the url might be
@@url@{http://host.domain.org/path@}.
@end example


@node email,  , url, Indicating
@subsection @code{@@email}@{@var{email-address}[, @var{displayed-text}]@}
@findex email

Use the @code{@@email} command to indicate an electronic mail address.
It takes one mandatory argument, the address, and one optional argument, the
text to display (the default is the address itself).

@cindex mailto link
In Info and @TeX{}, the address is shown in angle brackets, preceded by
the text to display if any.  In HTML output, @code{@@email} produces a
@samp{mailto} link that usually brings up a mail composition window.
For example:

@example
Send bug reports to @@email@{bug-texinfo@@@@gnu.org@}.
Send suggestions to the @@email@{bug-texinfo@@@@gnu.org, same place@}.
@end example
@noindent
produces
@example
Send bug reports to @email{bug-texinfo@@gnu.org}.
Send suggestions to the @email{bug-texinfo@@gnu.org, same place}.
@end example


@node Emphasis,  , Indicating, Marking Text
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Emphasizing Text
@cindex Emphasizing text

Usually, Texinfo changes the font to mark words in the text according to
what category the words belong to; an example is the @code{@@code} command.
Most often, this is the best way to mark words.
However, sometimes you will want to emphasize text without indicating a
category.  Texinfo has two commands to do this.  Also, Texinfo has
several commands that specify the font in which @TeX{} will typeset
text.  These commands have no affect on Info and only one of them,
the @code{@@r} command, has any regular use.@refill

@menu
* emph & strong::               How to emphasize text in Texinfo.
* Smallcaps::                   How to use the small caps font.
* Fonts::                       Various font commands for printed output.
* Customized Highlighting::     How to define highlighting commands.
@end menu

@node emph & strong, Smallcaps, Emphasis, Emphasis
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@emph}@{@var{text}@} and @code{@@strong}@{@var{text}@}
@cindex Emphasizing text, font for
@findex emph
@findex strong

The @code{@@emph} and @code{@@strong} commands are for emphasis;
@code{@@strong} is stronger.  In printed output, @code{@@emph}
produces @emph{italics} and @code{@@strong} produces
@strong{bold}.@refill

@need 800
For example,

@example
@group
@@quotation
@@strong@{Caution:@} @@samp@{rm * .[^.]*@} removes @@emph@{all@}
files in the directory.
@@end quotation
@end group
@end example

@iftex
@noindent
produces the following in printed output:

@quotation
@strong{Caution}: @code{rm * .[^.]*} removes @emph{all}
files in the directory.
@end quotation

@noindent
and the following in Info:
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@noindent
produces:
@end ifinfo

@example
     *Caution*: `rm * .[^.]*' removes *all*
     files in the directory.
@end example

The @code{@@strong} command is seldom used except to mark what is, in
effect, a typographical element, such as the word `Caution' in the
preceding example.

In the Info file, both @code{@@emph} and @code{@@strong} put asterisks
around the text.@refill

@quotation
@strong{Caution:} Do not use @code{@@emph} or @code{@@strong} with the
word @samp{Note}; Info will mistake the combination for a cross
reference.  Use a phrase such as @strong{Please note} or
@strong{Caution} instead.@refill
@end quotation

@node Smallcaps, Fonts, emph & strong, Emphasis
@subsection @code{@@sc}@{@var{text}@}: The Small Caps Font
@cindex Small caps font
@findex sc @r{(small caps font)}

@iftex
Use the @samp{@@sc} command to set text in the printed output in @sc{a
small caps font} and set text in the Info file in upper case letters.@refill
@end iftex
@ifinfo
Use the @samp{@@sc} command to set text in the printed output in a
small caps font and set text in the Info file in upper case letters.@refill
@end ifinfo

Write the text between braces in lower case, like this:@refill

@example
The @@sc@{acm@} and @@sc@{ieee@} are technical societies.
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@display
The @sc{acm} and @sc{ieee} are technical societies.
@end display

@TeX{} typesets the small caps font in a manner that prevents the
letters from `jumping out at you on the page'.  This makes small caps
text easier to read than text in all upper case.  The Info formatting
commands set all small caps text in upper case.@refill

@ifinfo
If the text between the braces of an @code{@@sc} command is upper case,
@TeX{} typesets in full-size capitals.  Use full-size capitals
sparingly.@refill
@end ifinfo
@iftex
If the text between the braces of an @code{@@sc} command is upper case,
@TeX{} typesets in @sc{FULL-SIZE CAPITALS}.  Use full-size capitals
sparingly.@refill
@end iftex

You may also use the small caps font for a jargon word such as
@sc{ato} (a @sc{nasa} word meaning `abort to orbit').@refill

There are subtleties to using the small caps font with a jargon word
such as @sc{cdr}, a word used in Lisp programming.  In this case, you
should use the small caps font when the word refers to the second and
subsequent elements of a list (the @sc{cdr} of the list), but you
should use @samp{@@code} when the word refers to the Lisp function of
the same spelling.@refill

@node Fonts, Customized Highlighting, Smallcaps, Emphasis
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Fonts for Printing, Not Info
@cindex Fonts for printing, not for Info
@findex i @r{(italic font)}
@findex b @r{(bold font)}
@findex t @r{(typewriter font)}
@findex r @r{(Roman font)}

Texinfo provides four font commands that specify font changes in the
printed manual but have no effect in the Info file.  @code{@@i}
requests @i{italic} font (in some versions of @TeX{}, a slanted font
is used), @code{@@b} requests @b{bold} face, @code{@@t} requests the
@t{fixed-width}, typewriter-style font used by @code{@@code}, and @code{@@r} requests a
@r{roman} font, which is the usual font in which text is printed.  All
four commands apply to an argument that follows, surrounded by
braces.@refill

Only the @code{@@r} command has much use: in example programs, you
can use the @code{@@r} command to convert code comments from the
fixed-width font to a roman font.  This looks better in printed
output.@refill

@need 700
For example,

@example
@group
@@lisp
(+ 2 2)    ; @@r@{Add two plus two.@}
@@end lisp
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@lisp
(+ 2 2)    ; @r{Add two plus two.}
@end lisp

If possible, you should avoid using the other three font commands.  If
you need to use one, it probably indicates a gap in the Texinfo
language.@refill

@node Customized Highlighting,  , Fonts, Emphasis
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection Customized Highlighting
@cindex Highlighting, customized
@cindex Customized highlighting

@c I think this whole section is obsolete with the advent of macros
@c --karl, 15sep96.
You can use regular @TeX{} commands inside of @code{@@iftex} @dots{}
@code{@@end iftex} to create your own customized highlighting commands
for Texinfo.  The easiest way to do this is to equate your customized
commands with pre-existing commands, such as those for italics.  Such
new commands work only with @TeX{}.@refill

@findex definfoenclose
@cindex Enclosure command for Info
You can use the @code{@@definfoenclose} command inside of
@code{@@ifinfo} @dots{} @code{@@end ifinfo} to define commands for Info
with the same names as new commands for @TeX{}.
@code{@@definfoenclose} creates new commands for Info that mark text by
enclosing it in strings that precede and follow the text.
@footnote{Currently, @code{@@definfoenclose} works only with
@code{texinfo-format-buffer} and @code{texinfo-format-region}, not with
@code{makeinfo}.}@refill

Here is how to create a new @@-command called @code{@@phoo} that causes
@TeX{} to typeset its argument in italics and causes Info to display the
argument between @samp{//} and @samp{\\}.@refill

@need 1300
For @TeX{}, write the following to equate the @code{@@phoo} command with
the existing @code{@@i} italics command:@refill

@example
@group
@@iftex
@@global@@let@@phoo=@@i
@@end iftex
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This defines @code{@@phoo} as a command that causes @TeX{} to typeset
the argument to @code{@@phoo} in italics.  @code{@@global@@let} tells
@TeX{} to equate the next argument with the argument that follows the
equals sign.

@need 1300
For Info, write the following to tell the Info formatters to enclose the
argument between @samp{//} and @samp{\\}:

@example
@group
@@ifinfo
@@definfoenclose phoo, //, \\
@@end ifinfo
@end group
@end example

@noindent
Write the @code{@@definfoenclose} command on a line and follow it with
three arguments separated by commas (commas are used as separators in an
@code{@@node} line in the same way).@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
The first argument to @code{@@definfoenclose} is the @@-command name
@strong{without} the @samp{@@};

@item
the second argument is the Info start delimiter string; and,

@item
the third argument is the Info end delimiter string.
@end itemize

@noindent
The latter two arguments enclose the highlighted text in the Info file.
A delimiter string may contain spaces.  Neither the start nor end
delimiter is required.  However, if you do not provide a start
delimiter, you must follow the command name with two commas in a row;
otherwise, the Info formatting commands will misinterpret the end
delimiter string as a start delimiter string.@refill

After you have defined @code{@@phoo} both for @TeX{} and for Info, you
can then write @code{@@phoo@{bar@}} to see @samp{//bar\\}
in Info and see
@ifinfo
@samp{bar} in italics in printed output.
@end ifinfo
@iftex
@i{bar} in italics in printed output.
@end iftex

Note that each definition applies to its own formatter: one for @TeX{},
the other for Info.

@need 1200
Here is another example:

@example
@group
@@ifinfo
@@definfoenclose headword, , :
@@end ifinfo
@@iftex
@@global@@let@@headword=@@b
@@end iftex
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This defines @code{@@headword} as an Info formatting command that
inserts nothing before and a colon after the argument and as a @TeX{}
formatting command to typeset its argument in bold.

@node Quotations and Examples, Lists and Tables, Marking Text, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Quotations and Examples

Quotations and examples are blocks of text consisting of one or more
whole paragraphs that are set off from the bulk of the text and
treated differently.  They are usually indented.@refill

In Texinfo, you always begin a quotation or example by writing an
@@-command at the beginning of a line by itself, and end it by writing
an @code{@@end} command that is also at the beginning of a line by
itself.  For instance, you begin an example by writing @code{@@example}
by itself at the beginning of a line and end the example by writing
@code{@@end example} on a line by itself, at the beginning of that
line.@refill
@findex end

@menu
* Block Enclosing Commands::    Use different constructs for
                                  different purposes.
* quotation::                   How to write a quotation.
* example::                     How to write an example in a fixed-width font.
* noindent::                    How to prevent paragraph indentation.
* Lisp Example::                How to illustrate Lisp code.
* smallexample & smalllisp::    Forms for the @code{@@smallbook} option.
* display::                     How to write an example in the current font.
* format::                      How to write an example that does not narrow
                                  the margins.
* exdent::                      How to undo the indentation of a line.
* flushleft & flushright::      How to push text flushleft or flushright.
* cartouche::                   How to draw cartouches around examples.
@end menu

@node Block Enclosing Commands, quotation, Quotations and Examples, Quotations and Examples
@section The Block Enclosing Commands

Here are commands for quotations and examples:@refill

@table @code
@item @@quotation
Indicate text that is quoted. The text is filled, indented, and
printed in a roman font by default.@refill

@item @@example
Illustrate code, commands, and the like. The text is printed
in a fixed-width font, and indented but not filled.@refill

@item @@lisp
Illustrate Lisp code. The text is printed in a fixed-width font,
and indented but not filled.@refill

@item @@smallexample
Illustrate code, commands, and the like.  Similar to
@code{@@example}, except that in @TeX{} this command typesets text in
a smaller font for the smaller @code{@@smallbook} format than for the
8.5 by 11 inch format.@refill

@item @@smalllisp
Illustrate Lisp code.  Similar to @code{@@lisp}, except that
in @TeX{} this command typesets text in a smaller font for the smaller
@code{@@smallbook} format than for the 8.5 by 11 inch format.@refill

@item @@display
Display illustrative text.  The text is indented but not filled, and
no font is specified (so, by default, the font is roman).@refill

@item @@format
Print illustrative text.  The text is not indented and not filled
and no font is specified (so, by default, the font is roman).@refill
@end table

The @code{@@exdent} command is used within the above constructs to
undo the indentation of a line.

The @code{@@flushleft} and @code{@@flushright} commands are used to line
up the left or right margins of unfilled text.@refill

The @code{@@noindent} command may be used after one of the above
constructs to prevent the following text from being indented as a new
paragraph.@refill

You can use the @code{@@cartouche} command within one of the above
constructs to highlight the example or quotation by drawing a box with
rounded corners around it.  (The @code{@@cartouche} command affects
only the printed manual; it has no effect in the Info file; see
@ref{cartouche, , Drawing Cartouches Around Examples}.)@refill

@node quotation, example, Block Enclosing Commands, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@quotation}
@cindex Quotations
@findex quotation

The text of a quotation is
processed normally except that:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
the margins are closer to the center of the page, so the whole of the
quotation is indented;@refill

@item
the first lines of paragraphs are indented no more than other
lines;@refill

@item
in the printed output, interparagraph spacing is reduced.@refill
@end itemize

@quotation
This is an example of text written between an @code{@@quotation}
command and an @code{@@end quotation} command.  An @code{@@quotation}
command is most often used to indicate text that is excerpted from
another (real or hypothetical) printed work.@refill
@end quotation

Write an @code{@@quotation} command as text on a line by itself.  This
line will disappear from the output.  Mark the end of the quotation
with a line beginning with and containing only @code{@@end quotation}.
The @code{@@end quotation} line will likewise disappear from the
output.  Thus, the following,@refill

@example
@@quotation
This is
a foo.
@@end quotation
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
This is a foo.
@end quotation

@node example, noindent, quotation, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@example}
@cindex Examples, formatting them
@cindex Formatting examples
@findex example

The @code{@@example} command is used to indicate an example that is
not part of the running text, such as computer input or output.@refill

@example
@group
This is an example of text written between an
@code{@@example} command
and an @code{@@end example} command.
The text is indented but not filled.
@end group

@group
In the printed manual, the text is typeset in a
fixed-width font, and extra spaces and blank lines are
significant.  In the Info file, an analogous result is
obtained by indenting each line with five spaces.
@end group
@end example

Write an @code{@@example} command at the beginning of a line by itself.
This line will disappear from the output.  Mark the end of the example
with an @code{@@end example} command, also written at the beginning of a
line by itself.  The @code{@@end example} will disappear from the
output.@refill

@need 700
For example,

@example
@@example
mv foo bar
@@end example
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
mv foo bar
@end example

Since the lines containing @code{@@example} and @code{@@end example}
will disappear, you should put a blank line before the
@code{@@example} and another blank line after the @code{@@end
example}.  (Remember that blank lines between the beginning
@code{@@example} and the ending @code{@@end example} will appear in
the output.)@refill

@quotation
@strong{Caution:} Do not use tabs in the lines of an example (or anywhere
else in Texinfo, for that matter)!  @TeX{} treats tabs as single
spaces, and that is not what they look like.  This is a problem with
@TeX{}.  (If necessary, in Emacs, you can use @kbd{M-x untabify} to
convert tabs in a region to multiple spaces.)@refill
@end quotation

Examples are often, logically speaking, ``in the middle'' of a
paragraph, and the text continues after an example should not be
indented.  The @code{@@noindent} command prevents a piece of text from
being indented as if it were a new paragraph.
@ifinfo
(@xref{noindent}.)
@end ifinfo

(The @code{@@code} command is used for examples of code that are
embedded within sentences, not set off from preceding and following
text.  @xref{code, , @code{@@code}}.)

@node noindent, Lisp Example, example, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@noindent}
@findex noindent

An example or other inclusion can break a paragraph into segments.
Ordinarily, the formatters indent text that follows an example as a new
paragraph.  However, you can prevent this by writing @code{@@noindent}
at the beginning of a line by itself preceding the continuation
text.@refill

@need 1500
For example:

@example
@group
@@example
This is an example
@@end example

@@noindent
This line is not indented.  As you can see, the
beginning of the line is fully flush left with the line
that follows after it.  (This whole example is between
@@code@{@@@@display@} and @@code@{@@@@end display@}.)
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@display
@example
This is an example
@end example
@tex
% Remove extra vskip; this is a kludge to counter the effect of display
\vskip-3.5\baselineskip
@end tex

@noindent
This line is not indented.  As you can see, the
beginning of the line is fully flush left with the line
that follows after it.  (This whole example is between
@code{@@display} and @code{@@end display}.)
@end display

To adjust the number of blank lines properly in the Info file output,
remember that the line containing @code{@@noindent} does not generate a
blank line, and neither does the @code{@@end example} line.@refill

In the Texinfo source file for this manual, each line that says
`produces' is preceded by a line containing @code{@@noindent}.@refill

Do not put braces after an @code{@@noindent} command; they are not
necessary, since @code{@@noindent} is a command used outside of
paragraphs (@pxref{Command Syntax}).@refill

@node Lisp Example, smallexample & smalllisp, noindent, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@lisp}
@cindex Lisp example
@findex lisp

The @code{@@lisp} command is used for Lisp code.  It is synonymous
with the @code{@@example} command.

@lisp
This is an example of text written between an
@code{@@lisp} command and an @code{@@end lisp} command.
@end lisp

Use @code{@@lisp} instead of @code{@@example} to preserve information
regarding the nature of the example.  This is useful, for example, if
you write a function that evaluates only and all the Lisp code in a
Texinfo file.  Then you can use the Texinfo file as a Lisp
library.@footnote{It would be straightforward to extend Texinfo to work
in a similar fashion for C, Fortran, or other languages.}@refill

Mark the end of @code{@@lisp} with @code{@@end lisp} on a line by
itself.@refill

@node smallexample & smalllisp, display, Lisp Example, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp}
@cindex Small book example
@cindex Example for a small book
@cindex Lisp example for a small book
@findex smallexample
@findex smalllisp

In addition to the regular @code{@@example} and @code{@@lisp} commands,
Texinfo has two other ``example-style'' commands.  These are the
@code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp} commands.  Both these
commands are designed for use with the @code{@@smallbook} command that
causes @TeX{} to produce a printed manual in a 7 by 9.25 inch format
rather than the regular 8.5 by 11 inch format.@refill

In @TeX{}, the @code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp} commands
typeset text in a smaller font for the smaller @code{@@smallbook}
format than for the 8.5 by 11 inch format.  Consequently, many examples
containing long lines fit in a narrower, @code{@@smallbook} page
without needing to be shortened.  Both commands typeset in the normal
font size when you format for the 8.5 by 11 inch size; indeed,
in this situation, the @code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp}
commands are defined to be the @code{@@example} and @code{@@lisp}
commands.@refill

In Info, the @code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp} commands are
equivalent to the @code{@@example} and @code{@@lisp} commands, and work
exactly the same.@refill

Mark the end of @code{@@smallexample} or @code{@@smalllisp} with
@code{@@end smallexample} or @code{@@end smalllisp},
respectively.@refill

@iftex
Here is an example written in the small font used by the
@code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp} commands:

@ifclear smallbook
@display
@tex
% Remove extra vskip; this is a kludge to counter the effect of display
\vskip-3\baselineskip
{\ninett
\dots{} to make sure that you have the freedom to
distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source
code or can get it if you want it, that you can
change the software or use pieces of it in new free
programs; and that you know you can do these things.}
@end tex
@end display
@end ifclear
@end iftex
@ifset smallbook
@iftex
@smallexample
This is an example of text written between @code{@@smallexample} and
@code{@@end smallexample}.  In Info and in an 8.5 by 11 inch manual,
this text appears in its normal size; but in a 7 by 9.25 inch manual,
this text appears in a smaller font.
@end smallexample
@end iftex
@end ifset
@ifinfo
@smallexample
This is an example of text written between @code{@@smallexample} and
@code{@@end smallexample}.  In Info and in an 8.5 by 11 inch manual,
this text appears in its normal size; but in a 7 by 9.25 inch manual,
this text appears in a smaller font.
@end smallexample
@end ifinfo

The @code{@@smallexample} and @code{@@smalllisp} commands make it
easier to prepare smaller format manuals without forcing you to edit
examples by hand to fit them onto narrower pages.@refill

As a general rule, a printed document looks better if you write all the
examples in a chapter consistently in @code{@@example} or in
@code{@@smallexample}.  Only occasionally should you mix the two
formats.@refill

@xref{smallbook, , Printing ``Small'' Books}, for more information
about the @code{@@smallbook} command.@refill

@node display, format, smallexample & smalllisp, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@display}
@cindex Display formatting
@findex display

The @code{@@display} command begins a kind of example.  It is like the
@code{@@example} command
except that, in
a printed manual, @code{@@display} does not select the fixed-width
font.  In fact, it does not specify the font at all, so that the text
appears in the same font it would have appeared in without the
@code{@@display} command.@refill

@display
This is an example of text written between an @code{@@display} command
and an @code{@@end display} command.  The @code{@@display} command
indents the text, but does not fill it.
@end display

@node format, exdent, display, Quotations and Examples
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section @code{@@format}
@findex format

The @code{@@format} command is similar to @code{@@example} except
that, in the printed manual, @code{@@format} does not select the
fixed-width font and does not narrow the margins.@refill

@format
This is an example of text written between an @code{@@format} command
and an @code{@@end format} command.  As you can see
from this example,
the @code{@@format} command does not fill the text.
@end format

@node exdent, flushleft & flushright, format, Quotations and Examples
@section @code{@@exdent}: Undoing a Line's Indentation
@cindex Indentation undoing
@findex exdent

The @code{@@exdent} command removes any indentation a line might have.
The command is written at the beginning of a line and applies only to
the text that follows the command that is on the same line.  Do not use
braces around the text.  In a printed manual, the text on an
@code{@@exdent} line is printed in the roman font.@refill

@code{@@exdent} is usually used within examples.  Thus,@refill

@example
@group
@@example
This line follows an @@@@example command.
@@exdent This line is exdented.
This line follows the exdented line.
The @@@@end example comes on the next line.
@@end group
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
@group
This line follows an @@example command.
@exdent This line is exdented.
This line follows the exdented line.
The @@end example comes on the next line.
@end group
@end example

In practice, the @code{@@exdent} command is rarely used.
Usually, you un-indent text by ending the example and
returning the page to its normal width.@refill

@node flushleft & flushright, cartouche, exdent, Quotations and Examples
@section @code{@@flushleft} and @code{@@flushright}
@findex flushleft
@findex flushright

The @code{@@flushleft} and @code{@@flushright} commands line up the
ends of lines on the left and right margins of a page,
but do not fill the text.  The commands are written on lines of their
own, without braces.  The @code{@@flushleft} and @code{@@flushright}
commands are ended by @code{@@end flushleft} and @code{@@end
flushright} commands on lines of their own.@refill

@need 1500
For example,

@example
@group
@@flushleft
This text is
written flushleft.
@@end flushleft
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
@flushleft
This text is
written flushleft.
@end flushleft
@end quotation


@code{@@flushright} produces the type of indentation often used in the
return address of letters.  For example,

@example
@group
@@flushright
Here is an example of text written
flushright.  The @@code@{@@flushright@} command
right justifies every line but leaves the
left end ragged.
@@end flushright
@end group
@end example

@noindent
produces

@flushright
Here is an example of text written
flushright.  The @code{@@flushright} command
right justifies every line but leaves the
left end ragged.
@end flushright

@node cartouche,  , flushleft & flushright, Quotations and Examples
@section Drawing Cartouches Around Examples
@findex cartouche
@cindex Box with rounded corners

In a printed manual, the @code{@@cartouche} command draws a box with
rounded corners around its contents.  You can use this command to
further highlight an example or quotation.  For instance, you could
write a manual in which one type of example is surrounded by a cartouche
for emphasis.@refill

The @code{@@cartouche} command affects only the printed manual; it has
no effect in the Info file.@refill

@need 1500
For example,

@example
@group
@@example
@@cartouche
% pwd
/usr/local/share/emacs
@@end cartouche
@@end example
@end group
@end example

@noindent
surrounds the two-line example with a box with rounded corners, in the
printed manual.

@iftex
In a printed manual, the example looks like this:@refill

@example
@group
@cartouche
% pwd
/usr/local/lib/emacs/info
@end cartouche
@end group
@end example
@end iftex


@node Lists and Tables, Indices, Quotations and Examples, Top
@chapter Lists and Tables
@cindex Making lists and tables
@cindex Lists and tables, making
@cindex Tables and lists, making

Texinfo has several ways of making lists and tables.  Lists can be
bulleted or numbered; two-column tables can highlight the items in
the first column; multi-column tables are also supported.

@menu
* Introducing Lists::           Texinfo formats lists for you.
* itemize::                     How to construct a simple list.
* enumerate::                   How to construct a numbered list.
* Two-column Tables::           How to construct a two-column table.
* Multi-column Tables::         How to construct generalized tables.
@end menu

@ifinfo
@node Introducing Lists, itemize, Lists and Tables, Lists and Tables
@heading Introducing Lists
@end ifinfo

Texinfo automatically indents the text in lists or tables, and numbers
an enumerated list.  This last feature is useful if you modify the
list, since you do not need to renumber it yourself.@refill

Numbered lists and tables begin with the appropriate @@-command at the
beginning of a line, and end with the corresponding @code{@@end}
command on a line by itself.  The table and itemized-list commands
also require that you write formatting information on the same line as
the beginning @@-command.@refill

Begin an enumerated list, for example, with an @code{@@enumerate}
command and end the list with an @code{@@end enumerate} command.
Begin an itemized list with an @code{@@itemize} command, followed on
the same line by a formatting command such as @code{@@bullet}, and end
the list with an @code{@@end itemize} command.@refill
@findex end

Precede each element of a list with an @code{@@item} or @code{@@itemx}
command.@refill

@sp 1
@noindent
Here is an itemized list of the different kinds of table and lists:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
Itemized lists with and without bullets.

@item
Enumerated lists, using numbers or letters.

@item
Two-column tables with highlighting.
@end itemize

@sp 1
@noindent
Here is an enumerated list with the same items:@refill

@enumerate
@item
Itemized lists with and without bullets.

@item
Enumerated lists, using numbers or letters.

@item
Two-column tables with highlighting.
@end enumerate

@sp 1
@noindent
And here is a two-column table with the same items and their
@w{@@-commands}:@refill

@table @code
@item @@itemize
Itemized lists with and without bullets.

@item @@enumerate
Enumerated lists, using numbers or letters.

@item @@table
@itemx @@ftable
@itemx @@vtable
Two-column tables with indexing.
@end table

@node itemize, enumerate, Introducing Lists, Lists and Tables
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Making an Itemized List
@cindex Itemization
@findex itemize

The @code{@@itemize} command produces sequences of indented
paragraphs, with a bullet or other mark inside the left margin
at the beginning of each paragraph for which such a mark is desired.@refill

Begin an itemized list by writing @code{@@itemize} at the beginning of
a line.  Follow the command, on the same line, with a character or a
Texinfo command that generates a mark.  Usually, you will write
@code{@@bullet} after @code{@@itemize}, but you can use
@code{@@minus}, or any character or any special symbol that results in
a single character in the Info file.  (When you write @code{@@bullet}
or @code{@@minus} after an @code{@@itemize} command, you may omit the
@samp{@{@}}.)@refill

Write the text of the indented paragraphs themselves after the
@code{@@itemize}, up to another line that says @code{@@end
itemize}.@refill

Before each paragraph for which a mark in the margin is desired, write
a line that says just @code{@@item}.  Do not write any other text on this
line.@refill
@findex item

Usually, you should put a blank line before an @code{@@item}.  This
puts a blank line in the Info file. (@TeX{} inserts the proper
interline whitespace in either case.)  Except when the entries are
very brief, these blank lines make the list look better.@refill

Here is an example of the use of @code{@@itemize}, followed by the
output it produces.  Note that @code{@@bullet} produces an @samp{*} in
Info and a round dot in @TeX{}.@refill

@example
@group
@@itemize @@bullet
@@item
Some text for foo.

@@item
Some text
for bar.
@@end itemize
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@quotation
@itemize @bullet
@item
Some text for foo.

@item
Some text
for bar.
@end itemize
@end quotation

Itemized lists may be embedded within other itemized lists.  Here is a
list marked with dashes embedded in a list marked with bullets:@refill

@example
@group
@@itemize @@bullet
@@item
First item.

@@itemize @@minus
@@item
Inner item.

@@item
Second inner item.
@@end itemize

@@item
Second outer item.
@@end itemize
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@quotation
@itemize @bullet
@item
First item.

@itemize @minus
@item
Inner item.

@item
Second inner item.
@end itemize

@item
Second outer item.
@end itemize
@end quotation

@node enumerate, Two-column Tables, itemize, Lists and Tables
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Making a Numbered or Lettered List
@cindex Enumeration
@findex enumerate

@code{@@enumerate} is like @code{@@itemize} (@pxref{itemize,,
@code{@@itemize}}), except that the labels on the items are
successive integers or letters instead of bullets.

Write the @code{@@enumerate} command at the beginning of a line.  The
command does not require an argument, but accepts either a number or a
letter as an option.  Without an argument, @code{@@enumerate} starts the
list with the number @samp{1}.  With a numeric argument, such as
@samp{3}, the command starts the list with that number.  With an upper
or lower case letter, such as @samp{a} or @samp{A}, the command starts
the list with that letter.@refill

Write the text of the enumerated list in the same way you write an
itemized list: put @code{@@item} on a line of its own before the start
of each paragraph that you want enumerated.  Do not write any other text
on the line beginning with @code{@@item}.@refill

You should put a blank line between entries in the list.
This generally makes it easier to read the Info file.@refill

@need 1500
Here is an example of @code{@@enumerate} without an argument:@refill

@example
@group
@@enumerate
@@item
Underlying causes.

@@item
Proximate causes.
@@end enumerate
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@enumerate
@item
Underlying causes.

@item
Proximate causes.
@end enumerate
@sp 1
Here is an example with an argument of @kbd{3}:@refill
@sp 1
@example
@group
@@enumerate 3
@@item
Predisposing causes.

@@item
Precipitating causes.

@@item
Perpetuating causes.
@@end enumerate
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@enumerate 3
@item
Predisposing causes.

@item
Precipitating causes.

@item
Perpetuating causes.
@end enumerate
@sp 1
Here is a brief summary of the alternatives.  The summary is constructed
using @code{@@enumerate} with an argument of @kbd{a}.@refill
@sp 1
@enumerate a
@item
@code{@@enumerate}

Without an argument, produce a numbered list, starting with the number
1.@refill

@item
@code{@@enumerate @var{positive-integer}}

With a (positive) numeric argument, start a numbered list with that
number.  You can use this to continue a list that you interrupted with
other text.@refill

@item
@code{@@enumerate @var{upper-case-letter}}

With an upper case letter as argument, start a list
in which each item is marked
by a letter, beginning with that upper case letter.@refill

@item
@code{@@enumerate @var{lower-case-letter}}

With a lower case letter as argument, start a list
in which each item is marked by
a letter, beginning with that lower case letter.@refill
@end enumerate

You can also nest enumerated lists, as in an outline.@refill

@node Two-column Tables, Multi-column Tables, enumerate, Lists and Tables
@section Making a Two-column Table
@cindex Tables, making two-column
@findex table

@code{@@table} is similar to @code{@@itemize} (@pxref{itemize,,
@code{@@itemize}}), but allows you to specify a name or heading line for
each item.  The @code{@@table} command is used to produce two-column
tables, and is especially useful for glossaries, explanatory
exhibits, and command-line option summaries.

@menu
* table::                       How to construct a two-column table.
* ftable vtable::               Automatic indexing for two-column tables.
* itemx::                       How to put more entries in the first column.
@end menu

@ifinfo
@node table, ftable vtable, Two-column Tables, Two-column Tables
@subheading Using the @code{@@table} Command

Use the @code{@@table} command to produce two-column tables.@refill
@end ifinfo

Write the @code{@@table} command at the beginning of a line and follow
it on the same line with an argument that is a Texinfo ``indicating''
command such as @code{@@code}, @code{@@samp}, @code{@@var}, or
@code{@@kbd} (@pxref{Indicating}).  Although these commands are usually
followed by arguments in braces, in this case you use the command name
without an argument because @code{@@item} will supply the argument.
This command will be applied to the text that goes into the first column
of each item and determines how it will be highlighted.  For example,
@code{@@code} will cause the text in the first column to be highlighted
with an @code{@@code} command.  (We recommend @code{@@code} for
@code{@@table}'s of command-line options.)

@findex asis
You may also choose to use the @code{@@asis} command as an argument to
@code{@@table}.  @code{@@asis} is a command that does nothing; if you
use this command after @code{@@table}, @TeX{} and the Info formatting
commands output the first column entries without added highlighting
(``as is'').@refill

(The @code{@@table} command may work with other commands besides those
listed here.  However, you can only use commands that normally take
arguments in braces.)@refill

Begin each table entry with an @code{@@item} command at the beginning
of a line.  Write the first column text on the same line as the
@code{@@item} command.  Write the second column text on the line
following the @code{@@item} line and on subsequent lines.  (You do not
need to type anything for an empty second column entry.)  You may
write as many lines of supporting text as you wish, even several
paragraphs.  But only text on the same line as the @code{@@item} will
be placed in the first column.@refill
@findex item

Normally, you should put a blank line before an @code{@@item} line.
This puts a blank like in the Info file.  Except when the entries are
very brief, a blank line looks better.@refill

@need 1500
The following table, for example, highlights the text in the first
column with an @code{@@samp} command:@refill

@example
@group
@@table @@samp
@@item foo
This is the text for
@@samp@{foo@}.

@@item bar
Text for @@samp@{bar@}.
@@end table
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@table @samp
@item foo
This is the text for
@samp{foo}.
@item bar
Text for @samp{bar}.
@end table

If you want to list two or more named items with a single block of
text, use the @code{@@itemx} command.  (@xref{itemx, ,
@code{@@itemx}}.)@refill

@node ftable vtable, itemx, table, Two-column Tables
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@ftable} and @code{@@vtable}
@cindex Tables with indexes
@cindex Indexing table entries automatically
@findex ftable
@findex vtable

The @code{@@ftable} and @code{@@vtable} commands are the same as the
@code{@@table} command except that @code{@@ftable} automatically enters
each of the items in the first column of the table into the index of
functions and @code{@@vtable} automatically enters each of the items in
the first column of the table into the index of variables.  This
simplifies the task of creating indices.  Only the items on the same
line as the @code{@@item} commands are indexed, and they are indexed in
exactly the form that they appear on that line.  @xref{Indices, ,
Creating Indices}, for more information about indices.@refill

Begin a two-column table using @code{@@ftable} or @code{@@vtable} by
writing the @@-command at the beginning of a line, followed on the same
line by an argument that is a Texinfo command such as @code{@@code},
exactly as you would for an @code{@@table} command; and end the table
with an @code{@@end ftable} or @code{@@end vtable} command on a line by
itself.

See the example for @code{@@table} in the previous section.

@node itemx,  , ftable vtable, Two-column Tables
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@subsection @code{@@itemx}
@cindex Two named items for @code{@@table}
@findex itemx

Use the @code{@@itemx} command inside a table when you have two or more
first column entries for the same item, each of which should appear on a
line of its own.  Use @code{@@itemx} for all but the first entry;
@code{@@itemx} should always follow an @code{@@item} command.  The
@code{@@itemx} command works exactly like @code{@@item} except that it
does not generate extra vertical space above the first column text.

@need 1000
For example,

@example
@group
@@table @@code
@@item upcase
@@itemx downcase
These two functions accept a character or a string as
argument, and return the corresponding upper case (lower
case) character or string.
@@end table
@end group
@end example

@noindent
This produces:

@table @code
@item upcase
@itemx downcase
These two functions accept a character or a string as
argument, and return the corresponding upper case (lower
case) character or string.@refill
@end table

@noindent
(Note also that this example illustrates multi-line supporting text in
a two-column table.)@refill


@node Multi-column Tables,  , Two-column Tables, Lists and Tables
@section Multi-column Tables
@cindex Tables, making multi-column
@findex multitable

@code{@@multitable} allows you to construct tables with any number of
columns, with each column having any width you like.

You define the column widths on the @code{@@multitable} line itself, and
write each row of the actual table following an @code{@@item} command,
with columns separated by an @code{@@tab} command.  Finally, @code{@@end
multitable} completes the table.  Details in the sections below.

@menu
* Multitable Column Widths::    Defining multitable column widths.
* Multitable Rows::             Defining multitable rows, with examples.
@end menu

@node Multitable Column Widths, Multitable Rows, Multi-column Tables, Multi-column Tables
@subsection Multitable Column Widths
@cindex Multitable column widths
@cindex Column widths, defining for multitables
@cindex Widths, defining multitable column

You can define the column widths for a multitable in two ways: as
fractions of the line length; or with a prototype row.  Mixing the two
methods is not supported.  In either case, the widths are defined
entirely on the same line as the @code{@@multitable} command.

@enumerate
@item
@findex columnfractions
@cindex Line length, column widths as fraction of
To specify column widths as fractions of the line length, write
@code{@@columnfractions} and the decimal numbers (presumably less than
1) after the @code{@@multitable} command, as in:

@example
@@multitable @@columnfractions .33 .33 .33
@end example

@noindent
The fractions need not add up exactly to 1.0, as these do
not.  This allows you to produce tables that do not need the full line
length.

@item
@cindex Prototype row, column widths defined by
To specify a prototype row, write the longest entry for each column
enclosed in braces after the @code{@@multitable} command.  For example:

@example
@@multitable @{some text for column one@} @{for column two@}
@end example

@noindent
The first column will then have the width of the typeset `some text for
column one', and the second column the width of `for column two'.

The prototype entries need not appear in the table itself.

Although we used simple text in this example, the prototype entries can
contain Texinfo commands; markup commands such as @code{@@code} are
particularly likely to be useful.

@end enumerate


@node Multitable Rows,  , Multitable Column Widths, Multi-column Tables
@subsection Multitable Rows
@cindex Multitable rows
@cindex Rows, of a multitable

@findex item
@cindex tab
After the @code{@@multitable} command defining the column widths (see
the previous section), you begin each row in the body of a multitable
with @code{@@item}, and separate the column entries with @code{@@tab}.
Line breaks are not special within the table body, and you may break
input lines in your source file as necessary.

Here is a complete example of a multi-column table (the text is from
@cite{The GNU Emacs Manual}, @pxref{Split Window,, Splitting Windows,
xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}):

@example
@@multitable @@columnfractions .15 .45 .4
@@item Key @@tab Command @@tab Description
@@item C-x 2
@@tab @@code@{split-window-vertically@}
@@tab Split the selected window into two windows,
with one above the other.
@@item C-x 3
@@tab @@code@{split-window-horizontally@}
@@tab Split the selected window into two windows
positioned side by side.
@@item C-Mouse-2
@@tab
@@tab In the mode line or scroll bar of a window,
split that window.
@@end multitable
@end example

@noindent
produces:

@multitable @columnfractions .15 .45 .4
@item Key @tab Command @tab Description
@item C-x 2
@tab @code{split-window-vertically}
@tab Split the selected window into two windows,
with one above the other.
@item C-x 3
@tab @code{split-window-horizontally}
@tab Split the selected window into two windows
positioned side by side.
@item C-Mouse-2
@tab
@tab In the mode line or scroll bar of a window,
split that window.
@end multitable


@node Indices, Insertions, Lists and Tables, Top
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Creating Indices
@cindex Indices
@cindex Creating indices

Using Texinfo, you can generate indices without having to sort and
collate entries manually.  In an index, the entries are listed in
alphabetical order, together with information on how to find the
discussion of each entry.  In a printed manual, this information
consists of page numbers.  In an Info file, this information is a menu
entry leading to the first node referenced.@refill

Texinfo provides several predefined kinds of index: an index
for functions, an index for variables, an index for concepts, and so
on.  You can combine indices or use them for other than their
canonical purpose.  If you wish, you can define your own indices.@refill

@menu
* Index Entries::               Choose different words for index entries.
* Predefined Indices::          Use different indices for different kinds
                                  of entry.
* Indexing Commands::           How to make an index entry.
* Combining Indices::           How to combine indices.
* New Indices::                 How to define your own indices.
@end menu

@node Index Entries, Predefined Indices, Indices, Indices
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Making Index Entries
@cindex Index entries, making
@cindex Entries, making index

When you are making index entries, it is good practice to think of the
different ways people may look for something.  Different people
@emph{do not} think of the same words when they look something up.  A
helpful index will have items indexed under all the different words
that people may use.  For example, one reader may think it obvious that
the two-letter names for indices should be listed under ``Indices,
two-letter names'', since the word ``Index'' is the general concept.
But another reader may remember the specific concept of two-letter
names and search for the entry listed as ``Two letter names for
indices''.  A good index will have both entries and will help both
readers.@refill

Like typesetting, the construction of an index is a highly skilled,
professional art, the subtleties of which are not appreciated until you
need to do it yourself.@refill

@xref{Printing Indices & Menus}, for information about printing an index
at the end of a book or creating an index menu in an Info file.@refill

@node Predefined Indices, Indexing Commands, Index Entries, Indices
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Predefined Indices

Texinfo provides six predefined indices:@refill

@itemize @bullet
@item
A @dfn{concept index} listing concepts that are discussed.@refill

@item
A @dfn{function index} listing functions (such as entry points of
libraries).@refill

@item
A @dfn{variables index} listing variables (such as global variables
of libraries).@refill

@item
A @dfn{keystroke index} listing keyboard commands.@refill

@item
A @dfn{program index} listing names of programs.@refill

@item
A @dfn{data type index} listing data types (such as structures defined in
header files).@refill
@end itemize

@noindent
Not every manual needs all of these, and most manuals use two or three
of them.  This manual has two indices: a
concept index and an @@-command index (that is actually the function
index but is called a command index in the chapter heading).  Two or
more indices can be combined into one using the @code{@@synindex} or
@code{@@syncodeindex} commands.  @xref{Combining Indices}.@refill

@node Indexing Commands, Combining Indices, Predefined Indices, Indices
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Defining the Entries of an Index
@cindex Defining indexing entries
@cindex Index entries
@cindex Entries for an index
@cindex Specifying index entries
@cindex Creating index entries

The data to make an index come from many individual indexing commands
scattered throughout the Texinfo source file.  Each command says to add
one entry to a particular index; after formatting, the index will give
the current page number or node name as the reference.@refill

An index entry consists of an indexing command at the beginning of a
line followed, on the rest of the line, by the entry.@refill

For example, this section begins with the following five entries for
the concept index:@refill

@example
@@cindex Defining indexing entries
@@cindex Index entries
@@cindex Entries for an index
@@cindex Specifying index entries
@@cindex Creating index entries
@end example

Each predefined index has its own indexing command---@code{@@cindex}
for the concept index, @code{@@findex} for the function index, and so
on.@refill

@cindex Writing index entries
@cindex Index entry writing
Concept index entries consist of text.  The best way to write an index
is to choose entries that are terse yet clear.  If you can do this,
the index often looks better if the entries are not capitalized, but
written just as they would appear in the middle of a sentence.
(Capitalize proper names and acronyms that always call for upper case
letters.)  This is the case convention we use in most GNU manuals'
indices.

If you don't see how to make an entry terse yet clear, make it longer
and clear---not terse and confusing.  If many of the entries are several
words long, the index may look better if you use a different convention:
to capitalize the first word of each entry.  But do not capitalize a
case-sensitive name such as a C or Lisp function name or a shell
command; that would be a spelling error.

Whichever case convention you use, please use it consistently!

@ignore
Concept index entries consist of English text.  The usual convention
is to capitalize the first word of each such index entry, unless that
word is the name of a function, variable, or other such entity that
should not be capitalized.  However, if your concept index entries are
consistently short (one or two words each) it may look better for each
regular entry to start with a lower case letter, aside from proper
names and acronyms that always call for upper case letters.  Whichever
convention you adapt, please be consistent!
@end ignore

Entries in indices other than the concept index are symbol names in
programming languages, or program names; these names are usually
case-sensitive, so use upper and lower case as required for them.

By default, entries for a concept index are printed in a small roman
font and entries for the other indices are printed in a small
@code{@@code} font.  You may change the way part of an entry is
printed with the usual Texinfo commands, such as @code{@@file} for
file names and @code{@@emph} for emphasis (@pxref{Marking
Text}).@refill
@cindex Index font types

@cindex Predefined indexing commands
@cindex Indexing commands, predefined
The six indexing commands for predefined indices are:

@table @code
@item @@cindex @var{concept}
@findex cindex
Make an entry in the concept index for @var{concept}.@refill

@item @@findex @var{function}
@findex findex
Make an entry in the function index for @var{function}.@refill

@item @@vindex @var{variable}
@findex vindex
Make an entry in the variable index for @var{variable}.@refill

@item @@kindex @var{keystroke}
@findex kindex
Make an entry in the key index for @var{keystroke}.@refill

@item @@pindex @var{program}
@findex pindex
Make an entry in the program index for @var{program}.@refill

@item @@tindex @var{data type}
@findex tindex
Make an entry in the data type index for @var{data type}.@refill
@end table

@quotation
@strong{Caution:} Do not use a colon in an index entry.  In Info, a
colon separates the menu entry name from the node name.  An extra
colon confuses Info.
@xref{Menu Parts, , The Parts of a Menu},
for more information about the structure of a menu entry.@refill
@end quotation

If you write several identical index entries in different places in a
Texinfo file, the index in the printed manual will list all the pages to
which those entries refer.  However, the index in the Info file will
list @strong{only} the node that references the @strong{first} of those
index entries.  Therefore, it is best to write indices in which each
entry refers to only one place in the Texinfo file.  Fortunately, this
constraint is a feature rather than a loss since it means that the index
will be easy to use.  Otherwise, you could create an index that lists
several pages for one entry and your reader would not know to which page
to turn.  If you have two identical entries for one topic, change the
topics slightly, or qualify them to indicate the difference.@refill

You are not actually required to use the predefined indices for their
canonical purposes.  For example, suppose you wish to index some C
preprocessor macros.  You could put them in the function index along
with actual functions, just by writing @code{@@findex} commands for
them; then, when you print the ``Function Index'' as an unnumbered
chapter, you could give it the title `Function and Macro Index' and
all will be consistent for the reader.  Or you could put the macros in
with the data types by writing @code{@@tindex} commands for them, and
give that index a suitable title so the reader will understand.
(@xref{Printing Indices & Menus}.)@refill

@node Combining Indices, New Indices, Indexing Commands, Indices
@comment node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Combining Indices
@cindex Combining indices
@cindex Indices, combining them

Sometimes you will want to combine two disparate indices such as functions
and concepts, perhaps because you have few enough of one of them that
a separate index for them would look silly.@refill

You could put functions into the concept index by writing
@code{@@cindex} commands for them instead of @code{@@findex} commands,
and produce a consistent manual by printing the concept index with the
title `Function and Concept Index' and not printing the `Function
Index' at all; but this is not a robust procedure.  It works only if
your document is never included as part of another
document that is designed to have a separate function index; if your
document were to be included with such a document, the functions from
your document and those from the other would not end up together.
Also, to make your function names appear in the right font in the
concept index, you would need to enclose every one of them between
the braces of @code{@@code}.@refill

@menu
* syncodeindex::                How to merge two indices, using @code{@@code}
                                  font for the merged-from index.
* synindex::                    How to merge two indices, using the
                                  default font of the merged-to index.
@end menu

@node syncodeindex, synindex, Combining Indices, Combining Indices
@subsection @code{@@syncodeindex}
@findex syncodeindex

When you want to combine functions and concepts into one index, you
should index the functions with @code{@@findex} and index the concepts
with @code{@@cindex}, and use the @code{@@syncodeindex} command to
redirect the function index entries into the concept index.@refill
@findex syncodeindex

The @code{@@syncodeindex} command takes two arguments; they are the name
of the index to redirect, and the name of the index to redirect it to.
The template looks like this:@refill

@example
@@syncodeindex @var{from} @var{to}
@end example

@cindex Predefined names for indices
@cindex Two letter names for indices
@cindex Indices, two letter names
@cindex Names for indices
For this purpose, the indices are given two-letter names:@refill

@table @samp
@item cp
concept index
@item fn
function index
@item vr
variable index
@item ky
key index
@item pg
program index
@item tp
data type index
@end table

Write an @code{@@syncodeindex} command before or shortly after the
end-of-header line at the beginning of a Texinfo file.  For example,
to merge a function index with a concept index, write the
following:@refill

@example
@@syncodeindex fn cp
@end example

@noindent
This will cause all entries designated for the function index to merge
in with the concept index instead.@refill

To merge both a variables index and a function index into a concept
index, write the following:@refill

@example
@group
@@syncodeindex vr cp
@@syncodeindex fn cp
@end group
@end example

@cindex Fonts for indices
The @code{@@syncodeindex} command puts all the entries from the `from'
index (the redirected index) into the @code{@@code} font, overriding
whatever default font is used by the index to which the entries are
now directed.  This way, if you direct function names from a function
index into a concept index, all the function names are printed in the
@code{@@code} font as you would expect.@refill

@node synindex,  , syncodeindex, Combining Indices
@subsection @code{@@synindex}
@findex synindex

The @code{@@synindex} command is nearly the same as the
@code{@@syncodeindex} command, except that it does not put the
`from' index  entries into the @code{@@code} font; rather it puts
them in the roman font.  Thus, you use @code{@@synindex} when you
merge a concept index into a function index.@refill

@xref{Printing Indices & Menus}, for information about printing an index
at the end of a book or creating an index menu in an Info file.@refill

@node New Indices,  , Combining Indices, Indices
@section Defining New Indices
@cindex Defining new indices
@cindex Indices, defining new
@cindex New index defining
@findex defindex
@findex defcodeindex

In addition to the predefined indices, you may use the
@code{@@defindex} and @code{@@defcodeindex} commands to define new
indices.  These commands create new indexing @@-commands with which
you mark index entries.  The @code{@@defindex }command is used like
this:@refill

@example
@@defindex @var{name}
@end example

The name of an index should be a two letter word, such as @samp{au}.
For example:@refill

@example
@@defindex au
@end example

This defines a new index, called the @samp{au} index.  At the same
time, it creates a new indexing command, @code{@@auindex}, that you
can use to make index entries.  Use the new indexing command just as
you would use a predefined indexing command.@refill

For example, here is a section heading followed by a concept index
entry and two @samp{au} index entries.@refill

@example
@@section Cognitive Semantics
@@cindex kinesthetic image schemas
@@auindex Johnson, Mark
@@auindex Lakoff, George
@end example

@noindent
(Evidently, @samp{au} serves here as an abbreviation for ``author''.)
Texinfo constructs the new indexing command by concatenating the name
of the index with @samp{index}; thus, defining an @samp{au} index
leads to the automatic creation of an @code{@@auindex} command.@refill

Use the @code{@@printindex} command to print the index, as you do with
the predefined indices.  For example:@refill

@example
@group
@@node Author Index, Subject Index, , Top
@@unnumbered Author Index

@@printindex au
@end group
@end example

The @code{@@defcodeindex} is like the @code{@@defindex} command, except
that, in the printed output, it prints entries in an @code{@@code} font
instead of a roman font.  Thus, it parallels the @code{@@findex} command
rather than the @code{@@cindex} command.@refill

You should define new indices within or right after the end-of-header
line of a Texinfo file, before any @code{@@synindex} or
@code{@@syncodeindex} commands (@pxref{Header}).@refill

@node Insertions, Breaks, Indices, Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Special Insertions
@cindex Inserting special characters and symbols
@cindex Special insertions

Texinfo provides several commands for inserting characters that have
special meaning in Texinfo, such as braces, and for other graphic
elements that do not correspond to simple characters you can type.

@iftex
These are:

@itemize @bullet
@item Braces, @samp{@@} and periods.
@item Whitespace within and around a sentence.
@item Accents.
@item Dots and bullets.
@item The @TeX{} logo and the copyright symbol.
@item Mathematical expressions.
@end itemize
@end iftex

@menu
* Braces Atsigns::              How to insert braces, @samp{@@}.
* Inserting Space::             How to insert the right amount of space
                                  within a sentence.
* Inserting Accents::           How to insert accents and special characters.
* Dots Bullets::                How to insert dots and bullets.
* TeX and copyright::           How to insert the @TeX{} logo
                                  and the copyright symbol.
* pounds::                      How to insert the pounds currency symbol.
* minus::                       How to insert a minus sign.
* math::                        How to format a mathematical expression.
* Glyphs::                      How to indicate results of evaluation,
                                  expansion of macros, errors, etc.
* Images::                      How to include graphics.
@end menu


@node Braces Atsigns, Inserting Space, Insertions, Insertions
@section Inserting @@ and Braces
@cindex Inserting @@, braces
@cindex Braces, inserting
@cindex Special characters, commands to insert
@cindex Commands to insert special characters

@samp{@@} and curly braces are special characters in Texinfo.  To insert
these characters so they appear in text, you must put an @samp{@@} in
front of these characters to prevent Texinfo from misinterpreting
them.

Do not put braces after any of these commands; they are not
necessary.

@menu
* Inserting An Atsign::         How to insert @samp{@@}.
* Inserting Braces::            How to insert @samp{@{} and @samp{@}}.
@end menu

@node Inserting An Atsign, Inserting Braces, Braces Atsigns, Braces Atsigns
@subsection Inserting @samp{@@} with @@@@
@findex @@ @r{(single @samp{@@})}

@code{@@@@} stands for a single @samp{@@} in either printed or Info
output.

Do not put braces after an @code{@@@@} command.

@node Inserting Braces,  , Inserting An Atsign, Braces Atsigns
@subsection Inserting @samp{@{} and @samp{@}}with @@@{ and @@@}
@findex @{ @r{(single @samp{@{})}
@findex @} @r{(single @samp{@}})}

@code{@@@{} stands for a single @samp{@{} in either printed or Info
output.

@code{@@@}} stands for a single @samp{@}} in either printed or Info
output.

Do not put braces after either an @code{@@@{} or an @code{@@@}}
command.


@node Inserting Space, Inserting Accents, Braces Atsigns, Insertions
@section Inserting Space

@cindex Inserting space
@cindex Spacing, inserting
@cindex Whitespace, inserting
The following sections describe commands that control spacing of various
kinds within and after sentences.

@menu
* Not Ending a Sentence::       Sometimes a . doesn't end a sentence.
* Ending a Sentence::           Sometimes it does.
* Multiple Spaces::             Inserting multiple spaces.
* dmn::                         How to format a dimension.
@end menu

@node Not Ending a Sentence, Ending a Sentence, Inserting Space, Inserting Space
@subsection Not Ending a Sentence

@cindex Not ending a sentence
@cindex Sentence non-ending punctuation
@cindex Periods, inserting
Depending on whether a period or exclamation point or question mark is
inside or at the end of a sentence, less or more space is inserted after
a period in a typeset manual.  Since it is not always possible for
Texinfo to determine when a period ends a sentence and when it is used
in an abbreviation, special commands are needed in some circumstances.
(Usually, Texinfo can guess how to handle periods, so you do not need to
use the special commands; you just enter a period as you would if you
were using a typewriter, which means you put two spaces after the
period, question mark, or exclamation mark that ends a sentence.)

@findex : @r{(suppress widening)}
Use the @code{@@:}@: command after a period, question mark,
exclamation mark, or colon that should not be followed by extra space.
For example, use @code{@@:}@: after periods that end abbreviations
which are not at the ends of sentences.

@need 700
For example,

@example
The s.o.p.@@: has three parts @dots{}
The s.o.p. has three parts @dots{}
@end example

@noindent
@ifinfo
produces
@end ifinfo
@iftex
produces the following.  If you look carefully at this printed output,
you will see a little more whitespace after @samp{s.o.p.} in the second
line.@refill
@end iftex

@quotation
The s.o.p.@: has three parts @dots{}@*
The s.o.p. has three parts @dots{}
@end quotation

@noindent
(Incidentally, @samp{s.o.p.} is an abbreviation for ``Standard Operating
Procedure''.)

@code{@@:} has no effect on the Info output.  Do not put braces after
@code{@@:}.


@node Ending a Sentence, Multiple Spaces, Not Ending a Sentence, Inserting Space
@subsection Ending a Sentence

@cindex Ending a Sentence
@cindex Sentence ending punctuation

@findex .  @r{(end of sentence)}
@findex ! @r{(end of sentence)}
@findex ? @r{(end of sentence)}
Use @code{@@.}@: instead of a period, @code{@@!}@: instead of an
exclamation point, and @code{@@?}@: instead of a question mark at the end
of a sentence that ends with a single capital letter.  Otherwise, @TeX{}
will think the letter is an abbreviation and will not insert the correct
end-of-sentence spacing.  Here is an example:

@example
Give it to M.I.B. and to M.E.W@@.  Also, give it to R.J.C@@.
Give it to M.I.B. and to M.E.W.  Also, give it to R.J.C.
@end example

@noindent
@ifinfo
produces
@end ifinfo
@iftex
produces the following.  If you look carefully at this printed output,
you will see a little more whitespace after the @samp{W} in the first
line.
@end iftex

@quotation
Give it to M.I.B. and to M.E.W@.  Also, give it to R.J.C@.@*
Give it to M.I.B. and to M.E.W.  Also, give it to R.J.C.
@end quotation

In the Info file output, @code{@@.}@: is equivalent to a simple
@samp{.}; likewise for @code{@@!}@: and @code{@@?}@:.

The meanings of @code{@@:} and @code{@@.}@: in Texinfo are designed to
work well with the Emacs sentence motion commands (@pxref{Sentences,,,
xemacs, XEmacs User's Manual}).  This made it necessary for them to be
incompatible with some other formatting systems that use @@-commands.

Do not put braces after any of these commands.


@node Multiple Spaces, dmn, Ending a Sentence, Inserting Space
@subsection Multiple Spaces

@cindex Multiple spaces
@cindex Whitespace, inserting
@findex (space)
@findex (tab)
@findex (newline)

Ordinarily, @TeX{} collapses multiple whitespace characters (space, tab,
and newline) into a single space.  Info output, on the other hand,
preserves whitespace as you type it, except for changing a newline into
a space; this is why it is important to put two spaces at the end of
sentences in Texinfo documents.

Occasionally, you may want to actually insert several consecutive
spaces, either for purposes of example (what your program does with
multiple spaces as input), or merely for purposes of appearance in
headings or lists.  Texinfo supports three commands:
@code{@@@kbd{SPACE}}, @code{@@@kbd{TAB}}, and @code{@@@kbd{NL}}, all of
which insert a single space into the output.  (Here,
@code{@@@kbd{SPACE}} represents an @samp{@@} character followed by a
space, i.e., @samp{@@ }, and @kbd{TAB} and @kbd{NL} represent the tab
character and end-of-line, i.e., when @samp{@@} is the last character on
a line.)

For example,
@example
Spacey@@ @@ @@ @@
example.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@example
Spacey@ @ @ @
example.
@end example

Other possible uses of @code{@@@kbd{SPACE}} have been subsumed by
@code{@@multitable} (@pxref{Multi-column Tables}).

Do not follow any of these commands with braces.


@node dmn,  , Multiple Spaces, Inserting Space
@subsection @code{@@dmn}@{@var{dimension}@}: Format a Dimension
@cindex Thin space between number, dimension
@cindex Dimension formatting
@cindex Format a dimension
@findex dmn

At times, you may want to write @samp{12@dmn{pt}} or
@samp{8.5@dmn{in}} with little or no space between the number and the
abbreviation for the dimension.  You can use the @code{@@dmn} command
to do this.  On seeing the command, @TeX{} inserts just enough space
for proper typesetting; the Info formatting commands insert no space
at all, since the Info file does not require it.@refill

To use the @code{@@dmn} command, write the number and then follow it
immediately, with no intervening space, by @code{@@dmn}, and then by
the dimension within braces.  For example,

@example
A4 paper is 8.27@@dmn@{in@} wide.
@end example

@noindent
produces

@quotation
A4 paper is 8.27@dmn{in} wide.
@end quotation

Not everyone uses this style.  Some people prefer @w{@samp{8.27 in.@@:}}
or @w{@samp{8.27 inches}} to @samp{8.27@@dmn@{in@}} in the Texinfo file.
In these cases, however, the formatters may insert a line break between
the number and the dimension, so use @code{@@w} (@pxref{w}).  Also, if
you write a period after an abbreviation within a sentence, you should
write @samp{@@:} after the period to prevent @TeX{} from inserting extra
whitespace, as shown here.  @xref{Inserting Space}.


@node Inserting Accents, Dots Bullets, Inserting Space, Insertions
@section Inserting Accents

@cindex Inserting accents
@cindex Accents, inserting
@cindex Floating accents, inserting

Here is a table with the commands Texinfo provides for inserting
floating accents.  The commands with non-alphabetic names do not take
braces around their argument (which is taken to be the next character).
(Exception: @code{@@,} @emph{does} take braces around its argument.)
This is so as to make the source as convenient to type and read as
possible, since accented characters are very common in some languages.

@findex "
@cindex Umlaut accent
@findex '
@cindex Acute accent
@findex =
@cindex Macron accent
@findex ^
@cindex Circumflex accent
@findex `
@cindex Grave accent
@findex ~
@cindex Tilde accent
@findex ,
@cindex Cedilla accent
@findex dotaccent
@cindex Dot accent
@findex H
@cindex Hungariam umlaut accent
@findex ringaccent
@cindex Ring accent
@findex tieaccent
@cindex Tie-after accent
@findex u
@cindex Breve accent
@findex ubaraccent
@cindex Underbar accent
@findex udotaccent
@cindex Underdot accent
@findex v
@cindex Check accent
@multitable {@@questiondown@{@}} {Output} {macron/overbar accent}
@item Command               @tab Output         @tab What
@item @t{@@"o}              @tab @"o            @tab umlaut accent
@item @t{@@'o}              @tab @'o            @tab acute accent
@item @t{@@,@{c@}}          @tab @,{c}          @tab cedilla accent
@item @t{@@=o}              @tab @=o            @tab macron/overbar accent
@item @t{@@^o}              @tab @^o            @tab circumflex accent
@item @t{@@`o}              @tab @`o            @tab grave accent
@item @t{@@~o}              @tab @~o            @tab tilde accent
@item @t{@@dotaccent@{o@}}  @tab @dotaccent{o}  @tab overdot accent
@item @t{@@H@{o@}}          @tab @H{o}          @tab long Hungarian umlaut
@item @t{@@ringaccent@{o@}} @tab @ringaccent{o} @tab ring accent
@item @t{@@tieaccent@{oo@}} @tab @tieaccent{oo} @tab tie-after accent
@item @t{@@u@{o@}}          @tab @u{o}          @tab breve accent
@item @t{@@ubaraccent@{o@}} @tab @ubaraccent{o} @tab underbar accent
@item @t{@@udotaccent@{o@}} @tab @udotaccent{o} @tab underdot accent
@item @t{@@v@{o@}}          @tab @v{o}          @tab hacek or check accent
@end multitable

This table lists the Texinfo commands for inserting other characters
commonly used in languages other than English.

@findex questiondown
@cindex @questiondown{}
@findex exclamdown
@cindex @exclamdown{}
@findex aa
@cindex @aa{}
@findex AA
@cindex @AA{}
@findex ae
@cindex @ae{}
@findex AE
@cindex @AE{}
@findex dotless
@cindex @dotless{i}
@cindex @dotless{j}
@cindex Dotless i, j
@findex l
@cindex @l{}
@findex L
@cindex @L{}
@findex o
@cindex @o{}
@findex O
@cindex @O{}
@findex oe
@cindex @oe{}
@findex OE
@cindex @OE{}
@findex ss
@cindex @ss{}
@cindex Es-zet
@cindex Sharp S
@cindex German S
@multitable {@@questiondown@{@}} {oe,OE} {es-zet or sharp S}
@item @t{@@exclamdown@{@}}   @tab @exclamdown{}   @tab upside-down !
@item @t{@@questiondown@{@}} @tab @questiondown{} @tab upside-down ?
@item @t{@@aa@{@},@@AA@{@}}  @tab @aa{},@AA{}     @tab A,a with circle
@item @t{@@ae@{@},@@AE@{@}}  @tab @ae{},@AE{}     @tab ae,AE ligatures
@item @t{@@dotless@{i@}}     @tab @dotless{i}     @tab dotless i