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% -*-texinfo-*-

%
\input texinfo

@comment Using viper.info instead of viper in setfilename breaks DOS.
@setfilename ../info/viper.info
@comment @setfilename viper.info

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@titlepage
@title Viper Is a Package for Emacs Rebels
@subtitle a Vi emulator for GNU Emacs 19 and XEmacs 19
@subtitle June 1996, Viper Version 2.90

@author Masahiko Sato (VIP 3.5)
@author Aamod Sane (VIP 4.4)
@author Michael Kifer (Viper)

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1fill
@end titlepage

@unnumbered Distribution

@noindent
Copyright @copyright{} 1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through TeX and print the
results, provided the printed document carries copying permission
notice identical to this one except for the removal of this paragraph
(this paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).

@end ignore
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire
resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission
notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the same conditions as for modified versions.

@ifinfo
@node Top, Overview,, (DIR)

@unnumbered Viper

We believe that one or more of the following statements are adequate
descriptions:

@example
Viper Is a Package for Emacs Rebels;
it is a VI Plan for Emacs Rescue
and/or a venomous VI PERil.
@end example

Technically speaking, Viper is a Vi emulation package for GNU Emacs 19 and
XEmacs 19. Because of its reliance on minor mode keymaps, Viper will not
work under Emacs 18. Viper implements most Vi and Ex commands. It gives you
the best of both worlds: Vi keystrokes for editing combined with the GNU
Emacs environment. Viper also fixes some common complaints with Vi
commands.  This manual describes Viper, concentrating on the differences
from Vi and new features of Viper.

Viper, formerly known as VIP-19, was written by Michael Kifer.  It is based
on VIP version 3.5 by Masahiko Sato and VIP version 4.4 by Aamod Sane.
Viper tries to be compatible with these packages.

Viper is intended to be usable without reading this manual --- the defaults
are set to make Viper as close to Vi as possible.  At startup, Viper will
try to set the most appropriate default environment for you, based on
your familiarity with Emacs. It will also tell you the basic GNU Emacs window
management commands to help you start immediately.

Although this manual explains how to customize Viper, some basic
familiarity with Emacs Lisp would be a plus.

It is recommended that you read the Overview node. The other nodes may
be visited as needed.

Comments and bug reports are welcome.
@code{kifer@@cs.emacs.edu} is the current address for Viper bug reports.
Please use the Ex command @kbd{:submitReport} for this purpose.@refill

@end ifinfo

@menu
* Overview::                    Must read to get started
* Improvements over Vi::        New features, Improvements
* Customization::               How to customize Viper
* Commands::                    Vi and Ex Commands

* Key Index::                   Index of Vi and Ex Commands
* Function Index::              Index of Viper Functions
* Variable Index::              Index of Viper Variables
* Package Index::               Index of Packages Mentioned in this Document
* Concept Index::               Vi, Ex and Emacs concepts

* Acknowledgments::             
@end menu
@iftex
@unnumbered Introduction

We believe that one or more of the following statements are adequate
descriptions:

@example
Viper Is a Package for Emacs Rebels;
it is a VI Plan for Emacs Rescue
and/or a venomous VI PERil.
@end example

Technically speaking, Viper is a Vi emulation package for GNU Emacs 19 and
XEmacs 19. Because of its reliance on minor mode keymaps,
it will not work under Emacs 18. Viper contains virtually all of
Vi and Ex functionality and much more. It gives you the best of both
worlds: Vi keystrokes for editing combined with the GNU Emacs
environment. Viper also fixes some common complaints with Vi commands.
This manual describes Viper, concentrating on the differences from Vi and
on the new features of Viper.

Viper, formerly known as VIP-19, was written by Michael Kifer.  It is based
on VIP version 3.5 by Masahiko Sato and VIP version 4.4 by Aamod Sane.
Viper tries to be compatible with these packages.

Viper is intended to be usable without reading this manual --- the defaults
are set to make Viper as close to Vi as possible.  At startup, Viper will
attempt to set the most appropriate default environment for you, based on
your familiarity with Emacs. It will also tell you the basic GNU Emacs window
management commands to help you start immediately.

Although this manual explains how to customize Viper, some basic
familiarity with Emacs Lisp would be a plus.

It is recommended that you read the chapter Overview. The other chapters
will be useful for customization and advanced usage.

You should also learn to use the Info on-line hypertext manual system that
comes with Emacs. This manual can be read as an Info file. Try the command
@kbd{ESC x info} with vanilla Emacs sometime.

Comments and bug reports are welcome.
@code{kifer@@cs.sunysb.edu} is the current address for Viper bug reports.
Please use the Ex command @kbd{:submitReport} for this purpose.@refill

@end iftex

@node Overview,Improvements over Vi,Top,Top
@chapter Overview of Viper

Viper is a Vi emulation on top of Emacs. At the same time, Viper provides a
virtually unrestricted access to Emacs facilities. Perfect compatibility
with Vi is possible but not desirable. This chapter tells you about the
Emacs ideas that you should know about, how to use Viper within Emacs and
some incompatibilities.

Viper was formerly known as VIP-19, which was 
a descendant of VIP 3.5 by Masahiko Sato and VIP 4.4 by Aamod Sane.

@menu
* Emacs Preliminaries::         Basic concepts in Emacs.
* Loading Viper::                       Loading and Preliminary Configuration.
* States in Viper::             Viper has four states orthogonal to 
                                modes in Emacs.
* The Minibuffer::              Command line in Emacs.
* Multiple Files in Viper::     True multiple file handling.
* Unimplemented Features::      That are unlikely to be implemented.
@end menu

@node Emacs Preliminaries, Loading Viper, Overview, Overview
@section Emacs Preliminaries

@cindex buffer
@cindex point
@cindex mark
@cindex text
@cindex looking at
@cindex end (of buffer)
@cindex end (of line)
@cindex region

Emacs can edit several files at once. A file in Emacs is placed in a
@dfn{buffer} that usually has the same name as the file. Buffers are also used
for other purposes, such as shell interfaces, directory editing, etc.
@xref{Dired,,Directory Editor,emacs,The
Gnu Emacs Manual}, for an example.@refill

A buffer has a distinguished position called the @dfn{point}.
A @dfn{point} is always between 2 characters, and is @dfn{looking at}
the right hand character. The cursor is positioned on the right hand
character. Thus, when the @dfn{point} is looking at the end-of-line,
the cursor is on the end-of-line character, i.e. beyond the last
character on the line. This is the default Emacs behavior.@refill

The default settings of Viper try to mimic the behavior of Vi,
preventing the cursor from going beyond the last character on the line.
By using Emacs commands directly (such as those bound to arrow keys), it is
possible 
to get the cursor beyond the end-of-line. However, this won't (or shouldn't)
happen if you restrict yourself to standard Vi keys, unless you modify the
default editing style. @xref{Customization}.@refill

In addition to the @dfn{point}, there is another distinguished buffer
position called the @dfn{mark}. @xref{Mark,,Mark,emacs,The GNU Emacs
manual}, for more info on the mark. The text between the @dfn{point} and the
@dfn{mark} is called the @dfn{region} of the buffer. For the Viper user,
this simply means that in addition to the Vi textmarkers a--z, there is
another marker called @dfn{mark}. This is similar to the unnamed Vi marker
used by the jump commands (`` and ''), which move the cursor to the
position of the last absolute jump.
Viper provides access to the region in most
text manipulation commands as @kbd{r} and @kbd{R} suffix to commands
that operate on text regions, e.g., @kbd{dr} to delete region, etc.
@xref{Basics}, for more info.@refill

@cindex window
@cindex mode line
@cindex buffer information
@cindex Minibuffer
@cindex command line
@cindex buffer (modified)

Emacs divides the screen into tiled @dfn{windows}. You can see the
contents of a buffer through the window associated with the buffer.  The
cursor of the screen is positioned on the character after @dfn{point}.
Every window has a @dfn{mode line} that displays information about the buffer.
You can change the format of the mode
line, but normally if you see @samp{**} at the beginning of a mode line it
means that the buffer is @dfn{modified}.  If you write out the contents of
a buffer to a file, then the buffer will become not modified.  Also if
you see @samp{%%} at the beginning of the mode line, it means that the file
associated with the buffer is write protected. The mode line will also
show the buffer name and current major and minor modes (see below).
A special buffer called @dfn{Minibuffer} is displayed as the last line
in a Minibuffer window. The Minibuffer window is used for command input
output. Viper uses Minibuffer window for @kbd{/} and @kbd{:}
commands.@refill

@cindex mode
@cindex keymap
@cindex local keymap
@cindex global keymap
@cindex major mode
@cindex minor mode

An Emacs buffer can have a @dfn{major mode} that customizes Emacs for
editing text of a particular sort by changing the functionality of the keys.
Keys are defined using a @dfn{keymap} that records the bindings between 
keystrokes and
functions. The @dfn{global keymap} is common to all the
buffers.  Additionally, each buffer has its @dfn{local keymap} that determines the
@dfn{mode} of the buffer.  If a function is bound to some key in the local
keymap then that function will be executed when you type the key.
If no function is bound to a key in the
local map, however, the function bound to the key in the global map
will be executed. @xref{Major Modes,Major Modes,Major Modes,emacs,The
GNU Emacs Manual}, for more information.@refill

A buffer can also have a @dfn{minor mode}. Minor modes are options that you
can use or not. A buffer in @code{text-mode} can have @code{auto-fill-mode}
as minor mode, which can be turned off or on at any time. In Emacs 19, a
minor mode may have it own keymap, which overrides the local keymap when
the minor mode is turned on.  For more information, @pxref{Minor
Modes,Minor Modes,Minor Modes,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual} @refill

@cindex Viper as minor mode
@cindex Control keys
@cindex Meta key

Viper is implemented as a collection of minor modes. Different minor modes
are involved when Viper emulates Vi command mode, Vi insert mode, etc.
You can also turn Viper on and off at any time while in Vi command mode.
@xref{States in Viper}, for
more information.@refill

Emacs uses Control and Meta modifiers. These are denoted as C
and M, e.g. @kbd{^Z} as @kbd{C-z} and @kbd{Meta-x} as @kbd{M-x}. 
The Meta key is usually located on each side of the Space bar; it is used
in a manner similar to the Control key, e.g., @kbd{M-x} means typing
@kbd{x} while holding the Meta key down.
For keyboards that do not have a Meta key, @key{ESC} is used as Meta.
Thus @kbd{M-x} is typed as @kbd{ESC x}. Viper uses @key{ESC} to switch
from Insert state to Vi state. Therefore Viper defines @kbd{_} as its Meta
key in Vi state. @xref{Vi State}, for more info.@refill

Emacs is structured as a lisp interpreter around a C core. Emacs keys
cause lisp functions to be called. It is possible to call these
functions directly, by typing @kbd{M-x function-name}.

@node Loading Viper, States in Viper, Emacs Preliminaries, Overview
@section Loading Viper

First, make sure that all six Viper files @file{viper*.el} are somewhere on
Emacs @dfn{load path}. The load path is a list of directories where Emacs
looks for its Lisp code; it is similar to Unix environment variable
@var{PATH}.  The load path is determined by the Lisp variable
@code{load-path}.

Type @code{C-h v load-path RET} to check the current load path of your
Emacs. (Here and later, @kbd{RET} stands for carriage return.) If the files
@file{viper*.el} are not in any directory on the load path, you should
create your own directory and put it on the load path; then put
@file{viper*.el} in that directory.  To put a new directory, say
@file{~/emacslib}, on your load path, add the following line at the
beginning of your @file{~/.emacs} file:
@lisp
(setq load-path (cons "~/emacslib" load-path))
@end lisp
It is recommended that you compile @file{viper.el} by running 
@example
make all
@end example
in the directory where Viper was unpacked. The best way to ensure that
Viper is installed properly is to run
@example
make install
@end example
in the directory where Viper was unpacked. See README in the Viper
distribution for the details on which modifications to the make file may be
necessary.

Once Viper is settled on the load path,
the most common way to load it automatically is to include the line:

@lisp
(require 'viper)
@end lisp

@noindent
in your @file{~/.emacs} file.  The @file{.emacs} file is placed in your home
directory and it will be executed every time you invoke Emacs.  
Viper also uses the file @file{~/.vip} for Viper-specific customization.
If you wish
to be in Vi command state whenever this is appropriate, you can include the
following 
line in your @file{.vip}:
@lisp
(setq vip-always t)
@end lisp
@noindent
(@xref{Vi State}, for the explanation of Vi mode.)

Once invoked, Viper will arrange to bring up Emacs buffers in Vi state
whenever this makes sense.
@xref{Packages that Change Keymaps}, to find out when forcing Vi command state
on a buffer may be counter-productive.

Even if your @file{.emacs} and @file{.vip} files do not contain any of the
above lines, you can still load Viper and enter Vi state by typing the
following from within Emacs:

@lisp
M-x load-library RET viper RET
M-x viper-mode
@end lisp

@noindent
Ask your local Emacs administrator if this fails to work.

When Emacs first comes up, if you have not specified a file on the
command line, it will show the @samp{*scratch*} buffer, in the
@samp{Lisp Interaction} mode. After you invoke Viper, you can start
editing files by using @kbd{:e}, @kbd{:vi}, or @kbd{v} commands.
(@xref{File and Buffer Handling}, for more information on @kbd{v} and other
new commands that, in many cases, are more convenient than @kbd{:e},
@kbd{:vi}, and similar old-style Vi commands.)@refill 

@node States in Viper, The Minibuffer, Loading Viper,Overview
@section States in Viper

@kindex @kbd{C-z}
@kindex @kbd{C-z}
@kindex @kbd{ESC}
@kindex @kbd{i}
@cindex Emacs state
@cindex Vi state
@cindex Insert state
@cindex Replace state
@cindex Ex commands

Viper has four states, Emacs, Vi, Insert, and Replace.

@table @samp
@item Emacs state
This is the mode plain vanilla Emacs is normally in. After you have loaded
Viper, @kbd{C-z} will normally take you to Vi command state. Another
@kbd{C-z} will take you back to Emacs state.  This toggle key can be
changed, @pxref{Customization} You can also type @kbd{M-x viper-mode} to
change to Vi state.@refill

For users who chose to set their user level to 1 at Viper setup time,
switching to Emacs state is deliberately made harder in order to not
confuse the novice user. In this case, @kbd{C-z} will either iconify Emacs
(if Emacs runs as an application under X Windows) or it will stop Emacs (if
Emacs runs on a dumb terminal or in an Xterm window).

@item Vi state
This is the Vi command mode. Any of the Vi commands, such as @kbd{i, o, a},
@dots{}, will take you to Insert state. All Vi commands may
be used in this mode. Most Ex commands can also be used.
For a full list of Ex commands supported by Viper, type
@kbd{:} and then @kbd{TAB}. To get help on any issue, including the Ex
commands, type @kbd{:help}. This will invoke Viper Info 
(if it is installed). Then typing @kbd{i} will prompt you for a topic to
search in the index. Note, to search for Ex commands in the index, you
should start them with a ``@kbd{:}'', e.g., @kbd{:WW}.

@item Insert state
Insert state is the Vi insertion mode. @kbd{ESC} will take you back to
Vi state. Insert state editing can be done, including auto-indentation. By
default, Viper disables Emacs keybindings in Insert state.

@item Replace state
Commands like @kbd{cw} invoke the Replace state. When you cross the
boundary of a replacement region (usually designated via a @samp{$} sign),
it will automatically change to Insert state. You do not have to worry
about it. The key bindings remain practically the same as in Insert
state. If you type ESC, Viper will switch to Vi command mode, terminating the
replacement state. @refill
@end table

@cindex mode line

The modes are indicated on the @dfn{mode line} as <E>, <I>, <V>, and <R>,
so that the multiple modes do not confuse you. Most of your editing can be
done in Vi and Insert states. Viper will try to make all new buffers be in Vi
state, but sometimes they may come up in Emacs state.  @kbd{C-z}
will take you to Vi state in such a case.  In some major modes, like Dired,
Info, Gnus, etc., you should not switch to Vi state (and Viper will not
attempt to do so) because these modes are not intended for text editing and
many of the Vi keys have special meaning there. If you plan to read news,
browse directories, read mail, etc., from Emacs (which you should start
doing soon!), you should learn about the meaning of the various keys in
those special modes (typing @kbd{C-h m} in a buffer provides
help with key bindings for the major mode of that buffer).

If you switch to Vi in Dired or similar modes---no harm is
done. It is just that 
the special keybindings provided by those modes will be temporarily
overshadowed by Viper's bindings. Switching back to Viper's
Emacs state will revive the environment provided by the current major mode.

States in Viper are orthogonal to Emacs major modes, such as C mode or Dired
mode. You can turn Viper on and off for any Emacs state. When Viper is turned
on, Vi state can be used to move around. In Insert state, the bindings for
these modes can be accessed.  For beginners (users at Viper levels 1 and 2),
these bindings are suppressed in Insert state, so that new users are not
confused by the Emacs states. Note that unless you allow Emacs bindings in
Insert state, you cannot do many interesting things, like language
sensitive editing. For the novice user (at Viper level 1), all major mode
bindings are turned off in Vi state as well. This includes the bindings for
key sequences that start with @kbd{C-c}, which practically means that all
major mode bindings are supported.  @xref{Customization}, to find out how
to allow Emacs keys in Insert state.

@menu
* Emacs State::         This is the state you should learn more about when
                        you get up to speed with Viper.
* Vi State::            Vi commands are executed in this state.
* Insert State::        You can enter text, and also can do sophisticated
                        editing if you know enough Emacs commands.
* Replace State::       Like Insert mode, but it is invoked via the
                        replacement commands, such as cw, C, R, etc.
@end menu

@node Emacs State, Vi State, States in Viper, States in Viper
@subsection Emacs State

@kindex @kbd{C-z}
@cindex Emacs state


You will be in this mode only by accident (hopefully). This is the state
Emacs is normally in (imagine!!). Now leave it as soon as possible by
typing @kbd{C-z}. The you will be in Vi state (sigh of relief) :-).

Emacs state is actually a Viperism to denote all the major and minor modes
(@xref{Emacs Preliminaries})  other than Viper that Emacs can be in. Emacs
can have several modes, such as C mode for editing C programs, LaTeX mode
for editing LaTeX documents, Dired for directory editing, etc. These are
major modes, each with a different set of key-bindings. Viper states are
orthogonal to these Emacs major modes. The presence of these language
sensitive and other modes is a major win over Vi.  @xref{Improvements over
Vi}, for more.@refill

The bindings for these modes can be made available in the Viper Insert state
as well as in Emacs state.  Unless you specify your user level as 1 (a
novice), all major mode key sequences that start with @kbd{C-x} and
@kbd{C-c} are also available in Vi state.  This is important because major
modes designed for editing files, such as cc-mode or latex-mode, use key
sequences that begin with @kbd{C-x} and @kbd{C-c}.

There is also a key that lets you temporarily escape to Vi command state
from Emacs state: typing @kbd{M-C-z} (or @kbd{ESC C-z}) will let
you execute a single Vi command while staying in Viper's Emacs state.
At present, this works only for 1-character Vi commands (and for some
complex commands).

@node Vi State, Insert State, Emacs State, States in Viper
@subsection Vi State

@cindex Vi state

This is the Vi command mode. When Viper is in Vi state, you will see the sign
<V> in the mode line. Most keys will work as in Vi. The notable
exceptions are:

@table @kbd
@item C-x
@kindex @kbd{C-x}
@kbd{C-x} is used to invoke Emacs commands, mainly those that do window
management. @kbd{C-x 2} will split a window, @kbd{C-x 0} will close a
window. @kbd{C-x 1} will close all other windows. @kbd{C-xb} is used to
switch buffers in a window, and @kbd{C-xo} to move through windows.
These are about the only necessary keystrokes.
For the rest, see the GNU Emacs Manual.

@item C-c
@kindex @kbd{C-c}
For user levels 2 and higher, this key serves as a prefix key for the key
sequences used by various major modes. For users at Viper level 1, @kbd{C-c}
simply beeps.

@item C-g and C-]
@kindex @kbd{C-g}
@kindex @kbd{C-]}

These are the Emacs @samp{quit} keys. 
There will be cases where you will have to
use @kbd{C-g} to quit. Similarly, @kbd{C-]} is used to exit
@samp{Recursive Edits} in Emacs for which there is no comparable Vi
functionality and no key-binding. Recursive edits are indicated by
@samp{[]} brackets framing the modes on the mode line.
@xref{Recursive Edit,Recursive
Edit,Recursive Edit,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}.
At user level 1, @kbd{C-g} is bound to @code{vip-info-on-file}
function instead.
@refill
@item Underscore
@kindex @kbd{_}
@cindex Meta key

Viper uses @kbd{ESC} as a switch between Insert and Vi states. Emacs uses
@kbd{ESC} for Meta. We need a Meta key to call the Meta key functions
such as @kbd{M-x function name}. The underscore key, @kbd{_}, was chosen,
since it is the only reasonable, free Vi key left. Thus, in Vi state, to
get @kbd{M-x}, you should type @kbd{_x} (if the keyboard has no Meta key).
It is possible to use @kbd{ESC} as Meta, but then you cannot
press @kbd{ESC} multiple times in Vi state. @xref{Customization}, to find
out how to rebind ESC to be Meta.@refill
@end table
@noindent
Other differences are mostly improvements. The ones you should know
about are:

@table @samp
@item Undo
@kindex @kbd{u}
@kbd{u} will undo. Undo can be repeated by the @kbd{.} key. Undo itself
can be undone. Another @kbd{u} will change the direction. The presence
of repeatable undo means that @kbd{U}, undoing lines, is not very
important. Therefore, @kbd{U} also calls @code{vip-undo}.
@cindex multiple undo
@cindex undo


@item Counts
Most commands, @kbd{~}, @kbd{[[}, @kbd{p}, @kbd{/}, @dots{}, etc., take counts.

@comment ]] Just to balance parens
@item Regexps
Viper uses Emacs Regular Expressions for searches. These are a superset of
Vi regular
expressions, excepting the change-of-case escapes @samp{\u}, @samp{\L},
@dots{}, etc. @xref{Regular Expressions,,Regular Expressions,emacs,The
GNU Emacs Manual}, for details.
Files specified to @kbd{:e} use @code{csh} regular expressions
(globbing, wildcards, what have you).
However, the function @code{vip-toggle-search-style}, bound to @kbd{C-c /},
lets the user switch from search with regular expressions to plain vanilla
search and vice versa. It also lets one switch from case-sensitive search
to case-insensitive and back.
@xref{Viper Specials}, for more details.
@cindex regular expressions
@cindex vanilla search
@cindex case-sensitive search
@cindex case-insensitive search
@kindex @kbd{C-c /}

@item Ex commands
@cindex Ex commands
The current working directory of a buffer is automatically inserted in the
minibuffer if you
type @kbd{:e} then space.
Absolute filenames are required less often in Viper.
For path names, 
Emacs uses a convention that is slightly different from that of Unix.
It is designed to minimize the need for deleting path names that Emacs
provides in its prompts. (This is usually convenient, but occasionally
the prompt may suggest a wrong path name for you.) If you see a prompt
@kbd{/usr/foo/} and you wish to edit the file @kbd{~/.vip}, you don't
have to erase the prompt. Instead, simply continue typing what you
need. Emacs will interpret @kbd{/usr/foo/~/.vip} correctly. Similarly,
if the prompt is @kbd{~/foo/} and you need to get to @kbd{/bar/file}, keep
typing. Emacs interprets @kbd{~/foo//bar/} as @kbd{/bar/file}, since when it
sees @samp{//}, it understands that @kbd{~/foo/} is to be discarded.

The command @kbd{:cd} will change the default directory for the
current buffer. The command @kbd{:e} will interpret the
filename argument in @code{csh}. @xref{Customization}, if you
want to change the default shell.
The command @kbd{:next} takes counts from
@kbd{:args}, so that @kbd{:rew} is obsolete. Also, @kbd{:args} will show only
the invisible files (i.e., those that are not currently seen in Emacs
windows).

When applicable, Ex commands support file completion and history. This
means that by typing a partial file name and then @kbd{TAB}, Emacs will try
to complete the name or it will offer a menu of possible completions.
This works similarly to Tcsh and extends the behavior of Csh. While Emacs
is waiting for a file name, you can type @kbd{M-p} to get the previous file
name you typed. Repeatedly typing @kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n} will let you
browse through the file history. 

Like file names, partially typed Ex commands can be completed by typing
@kbd{TAB}, and Viper keeps the history of Ex commands. After typing
@kbd{:}, you can browse through the previously entered Ex commands by
typing @kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n}.  Viper tries to rationalize when it puts Ex
commands on the history list.  For instance, if you typed @kbd{:w! foo},
only @kbd{:w!}  will be placed on the history list. This is because the
last history element is the default that can be invoked simply by typing
@kbd{: RET}. If @kbd{:w! foo} were placed on the list, it would be all to
easy to override valuable data in another file. Reconstructing the full
command, @kbd{:w!  foo}, from the history is still not that hard, since Viper
has a separate history for file names. By typing @kbd{: M-p}, you will get
@kbd{:w!} in the Minibuffer. Then, repeated @kbd{M-p} will get you through
the file history, inserting one file name after another.

In contrast to @kbd{:w! foo}, if the command were @kbd{:r foo}, the entire
command will appear in the history list. This is because having @kbd{:r}
alone as a default is meaningless, since this command requires a file
argument.
@refill
@end table
@noindent
As Vi, Viper's destructive commands can be re-executed by typing `@kbd{.}'.
However, in addition, Viper keeps track of the history of such commands. This
history can be perused by typing @kbd{C-c M-p} and @kbd{C-c M-n}.
Having found the appropriate command, it can be then executed by typing
`@kbd{.}'.
@xref{Improvements over Vi}, for more information.

@node Insert State, Replace State, Vi State, States in Viper
@subsection Insert State

@cindex Insert state

To avoid confusing the beginner (at Viper level 1 and 2), Viper makes only the
standard Vi keys available in Insert state. The implication is that
Emacs major modes cannot be used Insert state.
It is strongly recommended that as soon as you are comfortable, make the
Emacs state bindings visible (by changing your user level to 3 or higher).
@xref{Customization}, 
to see how to do this.@refill

Once this is done, it is possible to do quite a bit of editing in 
Insert state. For instance, Emacs has a @dfn{yank} command, @kbd{C-y},
which is similar to Vi's @kbd{p}. However, unlike @kbd{p}, @kbd{C-y} can be
used in Insert state of Viper. Emacs also has a kill ring where it keeps
pieces of text you deleted while editing buffers. The command @kbd{M-y} is
used to delete the text previously put back by Emacs' @kbd{C-y} or by Vi's
@kbd{p} command and reinsert text that was placed on the kill-ring earlier.

This works both in Vi and Insert states.
In Vi state, @kbd{M-y} is a much better alternative to the usual Vi's way
of recovering the 10 previously deleted chunks of text. In Insert state,
you can 
use this as follows. Suppose you deleted a piece of text and now you need
to re-insert it while editing in Insert mode. The key @kbd{C-y} will put
back the most recently deleted chunk. If this is not what you want, type
@kbd{M-y} repeatedly and, hopefully, you will find the chunk you want.

Finally, in Insert and Replace states, Viper provides the history of
pieces of text inserted in previous insert or replace commands.  These
strings of text can be recovered by repeatedly typing @kbd{C-c M-p} or
@kbd{C-c M-n} while in Insert or Replace state. (This feature is disabled
in the minibuffer: the above keys are usually bound to other histories,
which are more appropriate in the minibuffer.)


@cindex Meta key

You can call Meta functions from Insert state. The Vi-to-Emacs toggle key,
normally @kbd{C-z}, is bound to Meta in Insert state. Thus @kbd{M-x} is
typed as @kbd{C-zx}. The key @kbd{_} will now insert itself---it is not a
Meta key in Insert state. (It is well understood that switching Meta keys
around is inconvenient. However, there seems to be no way around this
problem, short of changing Vi ESC key to something
else. @xref{Customization}, for the information on @code{vip-ESC-key}, which
can be used to free up @kbd{ESC} and designate some other key to do escape
from Insert state to Vi state.)

Other Emacs commands that are useful in Insert state are @kbd{C-e}
and @kbd{C-a}, which move the cursor to the end and the beginning of the
current line, respectively. You can also use @kbd{M-f} and @kbd{M-b},
which move the cursor forward (or backward) one word.
If your display has a Meta key, these functions are invoked by holding the
Meta key and then typing @kbd{f} and @kbd{b}, respectively. On displays
without the Meta key, these functions are invoked by typing
@kbd{C-z f} and @kbd{C-z b} (@kbd{C-z} simulates the Meta key in Insert
state, as explained above).

When Viper is in Insert state, you will see <I> in the mode line.

@node Replace State,, Insert State, States in Viper
@subsection Replace State

@cindex Replace state

This state is entered through Vi replacement commands, such as @kbd{C},
@kbd{cw}, etc., or by typing @kbd{R}. In Replace state, Viper puts <R> in the
mode line to let you know which state is in effect. If Replace state is
entered through @kbd{R}, Viper stays in that state until the user hits ESC.
If this state is entered via the other replacement commands, then Replace
state is in effect until you hit @kbd{ESC} or until you cross the rightmost
boundary of the replacement region. In the latter case, Viper changes its
state from Replace to Insert (which you will notice by the change in the
mode line).

Since Viper runs under Emacs, it is possible to switch between buffers
while in Replace state. You can also move the cursor using the arrow keys
(even on dumb terminals!) and the mouse. Because of this freedom (which is
unattainable in regular Vi), it is possible to take the cursor outside the
replacement region. (This may be necessary for several reasons, including
the need to enable text selection and region-setting with the mouse.)

The issue then arises as to what to do when the user
hits the ESC key. In Vi, this would cause the text between cursor and
the end of the replacement region to be deleted. But what if, as is
possible in Viper, the cursor is not inside the replacement region?

To solve the problem, Viper keeps track of the last cursor position while it
was still inside the replacement region. So, in the above situation, Viper
would delete text between this position and the end of the replacement
region.

@node The Minibuffer,Multiple Files in Viper, States in Viper, Overview
@section The Minibuffer

@cindex Minibuffer

The Minibuffer is where commands are entered in. Editing can be done
by commands from Insert state, namely:

@table @kbd
@item C-h
Backspace
@item C-w
Delete Word
@item C-u
Erase line
@item C-v
Quote the following character
@item RET
Execute command
@item C-g and C-]
Emacs quit and abort keys. These may be necessary. @xref{Vi State}, for an
explanation. 
@item M-p and M-n
These keys are bound to functions that peruse minibuffer history. The
precise history to be perused depends on the context. It may be the history
of search strings, Ex commands, file names, etc.
@end table

Most of the Emacs keys are functional in the Minibuffer.  While in the
Minibuffer, Viper tries to make editing resemble Vi's behavior when the
latter is waiting for the user to type an Ex command. In particular, you
can use the regular Vi commands to edit the Minibuffer. You can switch
between the Vi state and Insert state at will, and even use the replace mode.
Initially, the Minibuffer comes up in Insert state.

Some users prefer plain Emacs bindings in the Minibuffer. To this end, set
@code{vip-vi-style-in-minibuffer} to @code{nil} in @file{.vip}.
@xref{Customization}, to learn how to do this.

When the Minibuffer changes Viper states, you will notice that the appearance
of the text there changes as well. This is useful because the Minibuffer
has no mode line to tell which Vi state it is in.
The appearance of the text in the Minibuffer can be changed.
@xref{Viper Specials}, for more details.

@node Multiple Files in Viper,Unimplemented Features,The Minibuffer,Overview
@section Multiple Files in Viper

@cindex multiple files
@cindex managing multiple files

Viper can edit multiple files. This means, for example that you never need
to suffer through @code{No write since last change} errors.
Some Viper elements are common over all the files.

@table @samp
@item Textmarkers
@cindex markers
@cindex textmarkers
Textmarkers remember @emph{files and positions}.
If you set marker @samp{a} in
file @file{foo}, start editing file @file{bar} and type @kbd{'a}, then
@emph{YOU WILL SWITCH TO FILE @file{foo}}. You can see the contents of a
textmarker using the Viper command @kbd{[<a-z>} where <a-z> are the
textmarkers, e.g., @kbd{[a} to view marker @samp{a} .@refill
@item Repeated Commands
Command repetitions are common over files. Typing @kbd{!!} will repeat the
last @kbd{!} command whichever file it was issued from.
Typing @kbd{.} will repeat the last command from any file, and
searches will repeat the last search. Ex commands can be repeated by typing
@kbd{:RET}.@refill
Note: in some rare cases, that @kbd{:RET} may do something dangerous.
However, usually its effect can be undone by typing @kbd{u}.
@item Registers
@cindex registers
Registers are common to files. Also, text yanked with @kbd{y} can be
put back (@kbd{p}) into any file. The Viper command @kbd{]<a-z>}, where <a-z> are
the registers, can be used to look at the contents of a register, e.g.,
type @kbd{]a} to view register @samp{a}. 

There is one difference in text deletion that you should be
aware of. This difference comes from Emacs and was adopted in Viper
because we find it very useful. In Vi, if you delete a line, say, and then
another line, these two deletions are separated and are put back
separately if you use the @samp{p} command. In Emacs (and Viper), successive
series of deletions that are @emph{not interrupted} by other commands are
lumped together, so the deleted text gets accumulated and can be put back
as one chunk. If you want to break a sequence of deletions so that the
newly deleted text could be put back separately from the previously deleted
text, you should perform a non-deleting action, e.g., move the cursor one
character in any direction.
@item Absolute Filenames
@cindex absolute paths
The current directory name for a file is automatically prepended to the
file name in any
@kbd{:e}, @kbd{:r}, @kbd{:w}, etc., command (in Emacs, each buffer has a
current directory). 
This directory is inserted in the Minibuffer once you type space after
@kbd{:e, r}, etc. Viper also supports completion of file names and Ex
commands (@kbd{TAB}), and it keeps track of
command and file history (@kbd{M-p}, @kbd{M-n}).
Absolute filenames are required less
often in Viper.

You should be aware that Emacs interprets @kbd{/foo/bar//bla} as
@kbd{/bla} and @kbd{/foo/~/bar} as @kbd{~/bar}. This is designed to
minimize the need for erasing path names that Emacs suggests in its
prompts, if a suggested path name is not what you wanted.

The command @kbd{:cd} will change the default directory for the
current Emacs buffer. The Ex command @kbd{:e} will interpret the
filename argument in @samp{csh}, by default. @xref{Customization}, if you
want to change this.
@end table

@noindent
Currently undisplayed files can be listed using the @kbd{:ar} command.  The
command @kbd{:n} can be given counts from the @kbd{:ar} list to switch to
other files.

@node Unimplemented Features,,Multiple Files in Viper,Overview
@section Unimplemented Features

Unimplemented features include:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@kbd{:ab} and @kbd{:una} are not implemented.
Both @kbd{:map} and @kbd{:ab} are considered obsolete, since Emacs has much
more powerful facilities for defining keyboard macros and abbreviations.
@item
@kbd{:set option?} is not implemented. The current
@kbd{:set} can also be used to set Emacs variables.
@item
@kbd{:se list} requires modification of the display code for Emacs, so
it is not implemented.
A useful alternative is @code{cat -t -e file}. Unfortunately, it cannot
be used directly inside Emacs, since Emacs will obdurately change @samp{^I}
back to normal tabs.@refill
@end itemize

@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@node Improvements over Vi, Customization, Overview, Top
@chapter Improvements over Vi

Some common problems with Vi and Ex have been solved in Viper. This
includes better implementation of existing commands, new commands, and
the facilities provided by Emacs.

@menu
* Basics::                  Basic Viper differences, Multi-file effects.
* Undo and Backups::        Multiple undo, auto-save, backups and changes
* History::                 History for Ex and Vi commands.
* Macros and Registers::    Keyboard Macros (extended ".") @@reg execution.
* Completion::              Filename and Command Completion for Ex.
* Improved Search::         Incremental Search and Buffer Content Search.
* Abbreviation Facilities:: Normal Abbrevs, Templates, and Dynamic Abbrevs.
* Movement and Markers::    Screen Editor movements, viewing textmarkers.
* New Commands::            Commands that do not exist in Vi.
* Useful Packages::         A Sampling of some Emacs packages, and things
                            you should know about.
@end menu

@node Basics, Undo and Backups, Improvements over Vi, Improvements over Vi
@section Basics

The Vi command set is based on the idea of combining motion commands
with other commands. The motion command is used as a text region
specifier for other commands.
We classify motion commands into @dfn{point commands} and
@dfn{line commands}.@refill

@cindex point commands

The point commands are:

@quotation
@kbd{h}, @kbd{l}, @kbd{0},  @kbd{$}, @kbd{w}, @kbd{W}, @kbd{b}, @kbd{B},
@kbd{e}, @kbd{E}, @kbd{(}, @kbd{)}, @kbd{/}, @kbd{?}, @kbd{`}, @kbd{f},
@kbd{F}, @kbd{t}, @kbd{T}, @kbd{%}, @kbd{;}, @kbd{,}, @kbd{^} 
@end quotation

@cindex line commands

The line commands are:

@quotation
@kbd{j}, @kbd{k}, @kbd{+}, @kbd{-}, @kbd{H}, @kbd{M}, @kbd{L}, @kbd{@{},
@kbd{@}}, @kbd{G}, @kbd{'},  @kbd{[[}, @kbd{]]}, @kbd{[]}
@end quotation

@cindex region
@cindex region specification
@cindex expanding (region)
@cindex describing regions
@cindex movement commands

@noindent
If a point command is given as an argument to a modifying command, the
region determined by the point command will be affected by the modifying
command. On the other hand, if a line command is given as an argument to a
modifying command, the region determined by the line command will be
enlarged so that it will become the smallest region properly containing the
region and consisting of whole lines (we call this process @dfn{expanding
the region}), and then the enlarged region will be affected by the modifying
command.
Text Deletion Commands (@xref{Deleting Text}), Change commands
(@xref{Changing Text}), even Shell Commands (@xref{Shell Commands})
use these commands to describe a region of text to operate on.
Thus, type @kbd{dw} to delete a word, @kbd{>@}} to shift a paragraph, or
@kbd{!'afmt} to format a region from @samp{point} to textmarker
@samp{a}.

@cindex r and R region specifiers

Viper adds the region specifiers @samp{r} and @samp{R}. Emacs has a
special marker called @dfn{mark}. The text-area between the current cursor
position @dfn{point} and the @dfn{mark} is called the @dfn{region}.
@samp{r} specifies the raw region and @samp{R} is the expanded region
(i.e., the minimal contiguous chunk of full lines that contains the raw
region).
@kbd{dr} will now delete the region, @kbd{>r} will shift it, etc.
@kbd{r,R} are not motion commands, however. The special mark is set by
@kbd{m.} and other commands. @xref{Marking}, for more info.

Viper also adds counts to most commands for which it would make sense.

In the Overview chapter, some Multiple File issues were discussed
(@xref{Multiple Files in Viper}). In addition to the files, Emacs has
buffers. These can be seen in the @kbd{:args} list and switched using
@kbd{:next} if you type @kbd{:set ex-cycle-through-non-files t}, or
specify @code{(setq ex-cycle-through-non-files t)} in your @file{.vip}
file. @xref{Customization}, for details.

@node Undo and Backups, History, Basics, Improvements over Vi
@section Undo and Backups

@cindex undo

Viper provides multiple undo. The number of undo's and the size is limited
by the machine. The Viper command @kbd{u} does an undo. Undo can be
repeated by typing @kbd{.} (a period). Another @kbd{u} will undo the undo,
and further 
@kbd{.} will repeat it. Typing @kbd{u} does the first undo, and changes the
direction.

@cindex backup files
@cindex auto save

Since the undo size is limited, Viper can create backup files and
auto-save files. It will normally do this automatically. It is possible
to have numbered backups, etc. For details, @pxref{Backup,,Backup and
Auto-Save,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual} @refill

@comment [ balance parens
@cindex viewing registers and markers
@cindex registers
@cindex markers
@cindex textmarkers

The results of the 9 previous changes are available in the 9 numeric
registers, as in Vi. The extra goody is the ability to @emph{view} these
registers, in addition to being able to access them through @kbd{p} and
@kbd{M-y} (@xref{Insert State}, for details.)
The Viper command @kbd{] register} will display the contents of any
register, numeric or alphabetical. The related command @kbd{[ textmarker}
will show the text around the textmarker. @samp{register} and @samp{textmarker}
can be any letters from a through z.
@comment ] balance parens

@node History,  Macros and Registers, Undo and Backups,Improvements over Vi
@section History

@cindex history
@cindex Minibuffer

History is provided for Ex commands, Vi searches, file names, pieces of
text inserted in earlier commands that use Insert or Replace state, and for
destructive commands in Vi state. These are
useful for fixing those small typos that screw up searches and @kbd{:s}, 
and for eliminating routine associated with repeated typing of file names
or pieces of text that need to be inserted frequently.
At the @kbd{:} or @kbd{/} prompts in the Minibuffer, you can do the following:

@table @kbd
@item M-p and M-n
To move to previous and next history items. This causes the history
items to appear on the command line, where you can edit them, or
simply type Return to execute.
@item M-r and M-s
To search backward and forward through the history.
@item RET
Type RET to accept a default (which is displayed in the prompt).
@end table

The history of insertions  can be perused by
typing @kbd{C-c M-p} and @kbd{C-c M-n} while in Insert or Replace state.
The history of destructive Vi commands can be perused via the same keys
when Viper is in Vi state. @xref{Viper Specials}, for details.

All Ex commands have a file history. For instance, typing @kbd{:e}, space
and then @kbd{M-p} will bring up the name of the previously typed file
name. Repeatedly typing @kbd{M-p}, @kbd{M-n}, etc., will let you browse
through the file history. 

Similarly, commands that have to do with switching buffers
have a buffer history, and commands that expect strings or regular
expressions keep a history on those items.

@node Macros and Registers,Completion,History,Improvements over Vi
@section Macros and Registers

@cindex keyboard macros
@cindex macros
@cindex registers
@cindex register execution

Viper facilitates the use of Emacs-style keyboard macros. @kbd{@@#} will
start a macro definition.  As you type, the commands will be executed, and
remembered (This is called ``learn mode'' in some editors.)
@kbd{@@register} will complete the macro, putting it into @samp{register},
where @samp{register} is any character from @samp{a} through @samp{z}. Then
you can execute this macro using @kbd{@@register}. It is, of course,
possible to yank some text into a register and execute it using
@kbd{@@register}. Typing @kbd{@@@@}, @kbd{@@RET}, or @kbd{@@LF} will
execute the last macro that was executed using @kbd{@@register}.@refill

Viper will automatically lowercase the register, so that pressing the
@kbd{SHIFT} key for @kbd{@@} will not create problems. This is for
@kbd{@@} macros and @kbd{"p} @emph{only}. In the case of @kbd{y},
@kbd{"Ayy} will append to @emph{register a}. For @kbd{[,],',`}, it
is an error to use a Uppercase register name.

@comment [ balance parens
@cindex viewing registers and markers

The contents of a register can be seen by @kbd{]register}. (@kbd{[textmarker}
will show the contents of a textmarker).
@comment ] balance parens

@cindex last keyboard macro

The last keyboard macro can also be executed using
@kbd{*}, and it can be yanked into a register using @kbd{@@!register}.
This is useful for Emacs style keyboard macros defined using @kbd{C-x(}
and @kbd{C-x)}. Emacs keyboard macros have more capabilities.
@xref{Keyboard Macros,,Keyboard Macros,emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}, for
details.@refill

Keyboard Macros allow an interesting form of Query-Replace:
@kbd{/pattern} or @kbd{n} to go to the next pattern (the query), followed by a
Keyboard Macro execution @kbd{@@@@} (the replace).

Viper also provides Vi-style macros. @xref{Vi Macros}, for details.


@node Completion, Improved Search, Macros and Registers, Improvements over Vi
@section Completion

@cindex completion

Completion is done when you type @kbd{TAB}. The Emacs completer does not
grok wildcards in filenames. Once you type a wildcard, the completer will
no longer work for that path.  Remember that Emacs interprets a file name
of the form @kbd{/foo//bar} as @kbd{/bar} and @kbd{/foo/~/bar} as
@kbd{~/bar}.

@node Improved Search, Abbreviation Facilities, Completion, Improvements over Vi
@section Improved Search

@cindex buffer search
@cindex word search

Viper provides buffer search, the ability to search the buffer for a region
under the cursor. You have to turn this on in @file{.vip} either by calling

@example
(vip-buffer-search-enable)
@end example

@noindent
or by setting @code{vip-buffer-search-char} to, say, @kbd{f3}:
@example
(setq vip-buffer-search-char [f3])
@end example

@noindent
If the user calls @code{vip-buffer-search-enable} explicitly (the first
method), then @code{vip-buffer-search-char} will be set to @kbd{g}.
Regardless of how this feature is enabled, the key
@code{vip-buffer-search-char} will take movement commands, like
@kbd{w,/,e}, to find a region and then search for the contents of that
region. This command is very useful for searching for variable names, etc.,
in a program. The search can be repeated by @kbd{n} or reversed by @kbd{N}.

@cindex incremental search

Emacs provides incremental search. As you type the string in, the
cursor will move to the next match. You can snarf words from the buffer
as you go along. Incremental Search is normally bound to @kbd{C-s} and
@kbd{C-r}. @xref{Customization}, to find out how to change the bindings
of @kbd{C-r or C-s}.
For details, @pxref{Incremental Search,,Incremental
Search,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual} @refill

@cindex query replace

Viper also provides a query replace function that prompts through the
Minibuffer. It is invoked by the @kbd{Q} key in Vi state.

@cindex mouse search

On a window display, Viper supports mouse search, i.e., you can search for a
word by clicking on it. @xref{Viper Specials}, for details.

Finally, on a window display, Viper highlights search patterns as it finds
them. This is done through what is known as @emph{faces} in Emacs. The
variable that controls how search patterns are highlighted is
@code{vip-search-face}. 
If you don't want any highlighting at all, put
@example
(copy-face 'default 'vip-search-face)
@end example
@vindex @code{vip-search-face}
@noindent
in @file{~/.vip}. If you want to change how patterns are highlighted, you
will have to set the variable @code{vip-search-face} to some other face,
such as @code{highlight}. If none of the existing faces fits the bill, you
may have to create your own. Further details on faces can be found
in the Emacs Lisp Manual.

@node Abbreviation Facilities,Movement and Markers,Improved Search,Improvements over Vi
@section Abbreviation Facilities

@cindex abbrevs

It is possible in Emacs to define abbrevs based on the contents of the
buffer. 
Sophisticated templates can be defined using the Emacs abbreviation
facilities. @xref{Abbrevs,,Abbreviations,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}, for
details.

@cindex dynamic abbrevs

Emacs also provides Dynamic Abbreviations. Given a partial word, Emacs
will search the buffer to find an extension for this word. For instance,
one can type @samp{Abbreviations} by typing @samp{A}, followed by a keystroke
that completed the @samp{A} to @samp{Abbreviations}. Repeated typing
will search further back in the buffer, so that one could get
@samp{Abbrevs} by repeating the 
keystroke, which appears earlier in the text. Emacs binds this to
@kbd{ESC /}, so you will have to find a key and bind the function
@code{dabbrev-expand} to that key.
Facilities like this make Vi's @kbd{:ab} command obsolete.

@node Movement and Markers, New Commands, Abbreviation Facilities, Improvements over Vi
@section Movement and Markers

@cindex Ex style motion
@cindex line editor motion

Viper can be set free from the line--limited movements in Vi, such as @kbd{l}
refusing to move beyond the line, @kbd{ESC} moving one character back,
etc. These derive from Ex, which is a line editor. If your @file{.vip}
contains

@example
@code{(setq vip-ex-style-motion nil)}
@end example

@noindent
the motion will be a true screen editor motion. One thing you must then
watch out for is that it is possible to be on the end-of-line character.
The keys @kbd{x} and @kbd{%} will still work correctly, i.e., as if they
were on the last character.

@vindex @code{vip-syntax-preference}
@cindex syntax table

The word-movement commands @kbd{w}, @kbd{e}, etc., and the associated
deletion/yanking commands, @kbd{dw}, @kbd{yw}, etc., can be made to
understand Emacs syntax tables. If the variable
@code{vip-syntax-preference} is set to @code{'strict-vi} (the default) then
the meaning of @emph{word} is the same as in
Vi. However, if the value is @code{'reformed-vi} then the alphanumeric
symbols will be those specified by the current Emacs syntax table (which
may be different for different major modes) plus the underscore symbol
@code{_}. The user can also specify the value @code{'emacs}, which would
make Viper use exactly the Emacs notion of word. In particular, the
underscore may not be part of a word. Finally, if
@code{vip-syntax-preference} is set to @code{'extended}, Viper words would
consist of characters that are classified as alphanumeric @emph{or} as
parts of symbols. This is convenient for writing programs and in many other
situations.

@code{vip-syntax-preference} is a local variable, so it can have different
values for different major modes. For instance, in programming modes it can
have the value @code{'extended}. In text modes where words contain special
characters, such as European (non-English) letters, Cyrillic letters, etc.,
the value can be @code{'reformed-vi} or @code{'emacs}.

Changes to @code{vip-syntax-preference} should be done in the hooks to
various major modes. Furthermore, for these changes to take effect, you
should execute @code{(vip-update-alphanumeric-class)} right after changing

The above discussion of the meaning of Viper's words concerns only Viper's
movement commands. In regular expressions, words remain the same as in
Emacs.  That is, the expressions @code{\w}, @code{\>}, @code{\<}, etc., use
Emacs' idea of what is a word, and they don't look into the value of
variable @code{vip-syntax-preference}. This is because Viper doesn't change
syntax tables in fear of upsetting the various major modes that set these
tables.

@cindex textmarkers

Textmarkers in Viper remember the file and the position, so that you can
switch files by simply doing @kbd{'a}. If you set up a regimen for using
Textmarkers, this is very useful. Contents of textmarkers can be viewed
by @kbd{[marker}. (Contents of registers can be viewed by @kbd{]register}).

@node New Commands, Useful Packages, Movement and Markers, Improvements over Vi
@section New Commands

These commands have no Vi analogs.

@table @kbd
@item C-x, C-c
@kindex @kbd{C-x}
@kindex @kbd{C-c}
@kbd{C-x} will exit from Vi state and return to Emacs state
@emph{temporarily}. If
you hit one of these keys, Emacs will believe
that you hit that key in Emacs state. For example, if you hit @kbd{C-x}
followed by @kbd{2}, then the current window will be split into 2 and you
will be in Vi state again. Except for novice users, @kbd{C-c} is also set
to temporarily escape to Emacs and execute a command from the current
major mode.
@kbd{ESC} will do the same, if
you configure @key{ESC} as Meta by setting @code{vip-no-multiple-ESC} to nil
in @file{.vip}. @xref{Customization}. @kbd{C-z}
in Insert state will make Emacs think @kbd{Meta} has been hit.@refill
@item \
@kindex @kbd{\}
Escape to Emacs to execute a single Emacs command. For instance, @kbd{\
ESC} will act like a Meta key.
@item Q
@kindex @kbd{Q}
@cindex query replace
@kbd{Q} is for query replace.  By default,
each string to be replaced is treated as a regular expression. You can use
@code{(setq vip-re-query-replace nil)} in your @file{.emacs} file to
turn this off. (For normal searches, @kbd{:se nomagic} will work. Note
that @kbd{:se nomagic} turns Regexps off completely, unlike Vi).
@item v
@itemx V
@itemx C-v
@kindex @kbd{v}
@kindex @kbd{V}
@kindex @kbd{C-v}
These keys are used to visit files.  @kbd{v} will switch to a buffer
visiting file whose name can be entered in the Minibuffer. @kbd{V} is
similar, but will use a window different from the current window.
@kbd{C-v} is like @kbd{V}, except that a new frame (X window) will be used
instead of a new Emacs window.
@item #
@kindex @kbd{#}
If followed by a certain character @var{ch}, it becomes an operator whose
argument is the region determined by the motion command that follows
(indicated as <move>).
Currently, @var{ch} can be one of @kbd{c}, @kbd{C}, @kbd{g}, @kbd{q}, and
@kbd{s}. For instance, @kbd{#qr} will prompt you for a string and then
prepend this string to each line in the buffer.@refill
@item # c
@kindex @kbd{#c<move>}
@cindex changing case
Change upper case characters in the region to lower case
(@code{downcase-region}).
Emacs command @kbd{M-l} does the same for words.
@item # C
@kindex @kbd{#C<move>}
Change lower case characters in the region to upper case. For instance,
@kbd{# C 3 w} will capitalize 3 words from the current point
(@code{upcase-region}).
Emacs command @kbd{M-u} does the same for words.
@item # g
@kindex @kbd{#g<move>}
Execute last keyboard macro for each line in the region
(@code{vip-global-execute}).@refill
@item # q
@kindex @kbd{#q<move>}
Insert specified string at the beginning of each line in the region
(@code{vip-quote-region}).
@item # s
@kindex @kbd{#s<move>}
Check spelling of words in the region (@code{spell-region}).
The function used for spelling is determined from the variable
@code{vip-spell-function}.
@vindex @code{vip-spell-function}
@item *
@kindex @kbd{*}
Call last keyboard macro.
@item m .
Set mark at point and push old mark off the ring
@item m<
@item m>
Set mark at beginning and end of buffer, respectively.
@item m,
Jump to mark and pop mark off the ring. @xref{Mark,,Mark,emacs,The GNU
Emacs Manual}, for more info.
@item ] register
@kindex @kbd{]<a-z>}
View contents of register
@item [ textmarker
@kindex @kbd{[<a-z>}
View filename and position of textmarker
@item @@#
@item @@register
@item @@!
@kindex @kbd{@@#}
@kindex @kbd{@@<a-z>}
@kindex @kbd{@@!}
@cindex keyboard macros
@cindex register execution

Begin/end keyboard macro. @@register has a different meaning when used after
a @kbd{@@#}. @xref{Macros and Registers}, for details
@item []
@kindex @kbd{[]}
Go to end of heading.
@item g <@emph{movement command}>
Search buffer for text delimited by movement command. The canonical
example is @kbd{gw} to search for the word under the cursor.
@xref{Improved Search}, for details.@refill
@item _
@kindex @kbd{_}
Meta key when in Vi state.@xref{Vi State}, for an explanation.
@item C-g and C-]
@kindex @kbd{C-g}
@kindex @kbd{C-]}
Quit and Abort Recursive edit. These may be necessary on occasion.
@xref{Vi State}, for a reason.
@item C-c g
@kindex @kbd{C-c g}
Hitting @kbd{C-c} followed by @kbd{g} will display the information on the
current buffer. This is the same as hitting  @kbd{C-g} in Vi, but, as
explained above, @kbd{C-g} is needed for other purposes in Emacs.
@item C-c /
@kindex @kbd{C-c /}
Without a prefix argument, this command toggles
case-sensitive/case-insensitive search modes and plain vanilla/regular
expression search. With the prefix argument 1, i.e.,
@kbd{1 C-c /}, this toggles case-sensitivity; with the prefix argument 2,
toggles plain vanilla search and search using
regular expressions. @xref{Viper Specials}, for alternative ways to invoke
this function.
@cindex vanilla search
@cindex case-sensitive search
@cindex case-insensitive search

@item M-p and M-n
@kindex @kbd{M-p}
@kindex @kbd{M-n}
In the Minibuffer, these commands navigate through the minibuffer
histories, such as the history of search strings, Ex commands, etc.

@item C-c M-p and C-c M-n
@kindex @kbd{C-c M-p}
@kindex @kbd{C-c M-n}
@cindex Insertion history
@cindex Insertion ring
@cindex Command history
@cindex Command ring

In Insert or Replace state, these commands let  the user
peruse the history of insertion strings used in previous insert or replace
commands. Try to hit @kbd{C-c M-p} or @kbd{C-c M-n} repeatedly and see what
happens. @xref{Viper Specials}, for more.

In Vi state, these commands let the user peruse the history of Vi-style
destructive commands, such as @kbd{dw}, @kbd{J}, @kbd{a}, etc.
By repeatedly typing @kbd{C-c M-p} or @kbd{C-c M-n} you will cycle Viper
through the recent history of Vi commands, displaying the commands one by
one. Once 
an appropriate command is found, it can be executed by typing `@kbd{.}'.

Since typing @kbd{C-c M-p} is tedious, it is more convenient to bind an
appropriate function to a function key on the keyboard and use that key.
@xref{Viper Specials}, for details.

@item Ex commands
@findex  @kbd{:args}
@findex  @kbd{:n}
@findex  @kbd{:pwd}
@findex  @kbd{:pre}
The commands @kbd{:args}, @kbd{:next}, @kbd{:pre} behave
differently. @kbd{:pwd} exists to get current directory. 
The commands @kbd{:b} and @kbd{:B} switch buffers around. @xref{File and
Buffer Handling}, for details.
There are also the new commands @kbd{:RelatedFile} and
@kbd{PreviousRelatedFile} (which abbreviate to @kbd{R} and @kbd{P},
respectively. @xref{Viper Specials}, for details.
@findex @kbd{:RelatedFile}
@findex @kbd{:PreviousRelatedFile}
@end table

Apart from the new commands, many old commands have been enhanced. Most
notably, Vi style macros are much more powerful in Viper than in Vi. @xref{Vi
Macros}, for details.

@node Useful Packages, ,New Commands, Improvements over Vi
@section Useful Packages

Some Emacs packages are mentioned here as an aid to the new Viper user, to
indicate what Viper is capable of.
A vast number comes with the standard Emacs distribution, and many more exist
on the net and on the archives. 

This manual also mentions some Emacs features a new user
should know about. The details of these are found in the GNU Emacs
Manual.

The features first. For details, look up the Emacs Manual.

@table @samp
@item Make
@cindex make
@cindex compiling

Makes and Compiles can be done from the editor. Error messages will be
parsed and you can move to the error lines.
@item Shell
@cindex shell
@cindex interactive shell
You can talk to Shells from inside the editor. Your entire shell session
can be treated as a file.
@item Mail
@cindex email
@cindex mail
Mail can be read from and sent within the editor. Several sophisticated
packages exist.
@item Language Sensitive Editing
Editing modes are written for most computer  languages in existence. By
controlling indentation, they catch punctuation errors.
@end table

The packages, below, represents a drop in the sea of special-purpose
packages that come with standard distribution of Emacs 19.

@table @samp
@item Transparent FTP
@cindex transparent ftp
@pindex ange-ftp.el
@code{ange-ftp.el} can ftp from the editor to files on other machines
transparent to the user.
@item RCS Interfaces
@cindex version maintenance
@cindex RCS
@pindex vc.el
@code{vc.el} for doing RCS commands from inside the editor
@item Directory Editor
@cindex dired
@pindex dired.el
@code{dired.el} for editing contents of directories and for navigating in
the file system.
@item Syntactic Highlighting
@cindex hilit19
@pindex hilit19.el
@cindex font-lock
@pindex font-lock.el
@code{hilit19.el} and @code{font-lock.el} for automatic highlighting
various parts of a buffer 
using different fonts and colors.
@item Saving Emacs Configuration
@cindex desktop
@pindex desktop.el
@code{desktop.el} for saving/restoring configuration on Emacs exit/startup.
@item Spell Checker
@cindex ispell
@pindex ispell.el
@code{ispell.el} for spell checking the buffer, words, regions, etc.
@item File and Buffer Comparison
@cindex ediff
@pindex ediff.el
@code{ediff.el} for finding differences between files and for applying
patches.
@end table

@noindent
Emacs Lisp archives exist on
@samp{archive.cis.ohio-state.edu}
and @samp{wuarchive.wustl.edu}@refill


@node Customization,Commands,Improvements over Vi,Top
@chapter Customization

@cindex customization

Customization can be done in 2 ways.

@itemize @bullet
@item
@cindex initialization
@cindex .vip
Elisp code in a @file{.vip} file in your home directory. Viper
loads @file{.vip} just before it does the binding for mode
hooks. This is the recommended method.
@item
@cindex .emacs
Elisp code in your @file{.emacs} file before and after the
@code{(require 'viper)} line. This method is not recommended, unless you
are know what you are doing.@refill
@end itemize

@noindent
Emacs customization is done in Emacs Lisp. For the common cases,
examples are provided that you can use directly.

@menu
* Rudimentary Changes::          Simple constant definitions.
* Keybindings::                  Enabling Emacs Keys, Rebinding keys, etc.
* Packages that Change Keymaps:: How to deal with such beasts.
* Viper Specials::               Special Viper commands.
* Vi Macros::                    How to do Vi style macros.
@end menu

@node Rudimentary Changes,Keybindings,Customization,Customization
@section Rudimentary Changes

@cindex setting variables
@cindex variables for customization
@findex @kbd{:set}

An easy way to customize Viper is to change the values of constants used in
Viper.  Here is the list of the constants used in Viper and their default
values. The corresponding :se command is also indicated. (The symbols
@code{t} and @code{nil} represent ``true'' and ``false'' in Lisp).

Viper supports both the abbreviated Vi variable names and their full
names. Variable completion is done on full names only. @kbd{TAB} and
@kbd{SPC} complete
variable names. Typing `=' will complete the name and then will prompt for
a value, if applicable. For instance, @kbd{:se auSPC} will complete the
command to @kbd{:set autoindent}; @kbd{:se taSPC} will complete the command
and prompt further like this: @kbd{:set tabstop = }.
However, typing @kbd{:se tsSPC} will produce a ``No match'' message
because @kbd{ts} is an abbreviation for @kbd{tabstop} and Viper supports
completion on full names only. However, you can still hit @kbd{RET}
or @kbd{=}, which will complete the command like this: @kbd{:set ts = } and
Viper will be waiting for you to type a value for the tabstop variable.
To get the full list of Vi variables, type @kbd{:se SPC TAB}.

@table @code
@item vip-auto-indent nil
@itemx :se ai (:se autoindent)
@itemx :se gai (:se global-autoindent)
If @code{t}, enable auto indentation.
by @kbd{RET}, @kbd{o} or @kbd{O} command.

@code{vip-auto-indent} is a local variable. To change the value globally, use
@code{setq-default}. It may be useful for certain major modes to have their
own values of @code{vip-auto-indent}. This can be achieved by using
@code{setq} to change the local value of this variable in the hooks to the
appropriate major modes.

@kbd{:se ai} changes the value of @code{vip-auto-indent} in the current
buffer only; @kbd{:se gai} does the same globally.
@item vip-electric-mode t
If @code{t}, auto-indentation becomes electric, which means that @kbd{RET},
@kbd{O}, and @kbd{o} indent cursor according to the current major mode. In
the future, this variable may control additional electric features.

This is a local variable: @code{setq} changes the value of this variable
in the current buffer only. Use @code{setq-default} to change the value in
all buffers.
@item vip-case-fold-search nil
@itemx :se ic (:se ignorecase)
If @code{t}, search ignores cases.
This can also be toggled by quickly hitting @kbd{/} twice.
@item vip-re-search nil
@itemx :se magic
If @code{t} then search is reg-exp search, if @code{nil} then vanilla
search.
This behavior can also be toggled by quickly hitting @kbd{/} trice.
@item buffer-read-only
@itemx :se ro (:se readonly)
Set current buffer to read only. To change globally put
@code{(setq-default buffer-read-only t)} in your @file{.emacs} file.
@item blink-matching-paren t
@itemx :se sm (:se showmatch)
Show matching parens by blinking cursor. 
@item tab-width t (default setting via @code{setq-default})
@itemx :se ts=value (:se tabstop=value)
@itemx :se gts=value (:se global-tabstop=value)
@code{tab-width} is a local variable that controls the width of the tab stops.
To change the value globally, use @code{setq-default}; for local settings,
use @code{setq}.

The command @kbd{:se ts}
sets the tab width in the current
buffer only; it has no effect on other buffers.

The command @kbd{:se gts} sets tab width globally,
for all buffers where the tab is not yet set locally,
including the new buffers.

Note that typing @kbd{TAB} normally
doesn't insert the tab, since this key is usually bound to 
a text-formatting function, @code{indent-for-tab-command} (which facilitates
programming and document writing). Instead, the tab is inserted via the
command @code{vip-insert-tab}, which is bound to @kbd{S-tab} (shift + tab).

On some non-windowing terminals, Shift doesn't modify the @kbd{TAB} key, so
@kbd{S-tab} behaves as if it were @kbd{TAB}. In such a case, you will have
to bind @code{vip-insert-tab} to some other convenient key.

@item vip-shift-width 8
@itemx :se sw=value  (:se shiftwidth=value)
The number of columns shifted by @kbd{>} and @kbd{<} commands.
@item vip-search-wrap-around t
@itemx :se ws (:se wrapscan)
If @code{t}, search wraps around the end/beginning of buffer.
@item vip-tags-file-name "TAGS"
The name of the file used as the tag table.
@item vip-re-query-replace nil
If @code{t}, use reg-exp replace in query replace.
@item vip-want-ctl-h-help nil
If @code{t}, @kbd{C-h} is bound to @code{help-command};
if @code{nil}, it is bound to @code{delete-backward-char}.
@item vip-vi-style-in-minibuffer t
If @code{t}, Viper provides a high degree of compatibility with Vi insert mode
when you type text in the Minibuffer; if @code{nil}, typing in the
Minibuffer feels like plain Emacs.
@item vip-no-multiple-ESC t
If you set this to @code{nil}, you can use @kbd{ESC} as Meta in Vi state.
Normally, this is not necessary, since graphical displays have separate
Meta keys (usually on each side of the space bar). On a dumb terminal, Viper
sets this variable to @code{twice}, which is almost like @code{nil}, except
that double @kbd{ESC} beeps. This, too, lets ESC to be used as a Meta.
@item vip-keysequence-delay 140
Escape sequences separated by this much delay are interpreted as command,
ignoring the special meaning of ESC in VI. The default is suitable for most
terminals. However, if your terminal is extremely slow, you
might want to increase this slightly. You will know if your terminal is
slow if the ESC key sequences emitted by the arrow keys are interpreted as
separately typed characters (and thus the arrow keys won't work).
Making this value too large will slow you down, so exercise restraint.
@item vip-ex-style-motion t
Set this to @code{nil}, if you want @kbd{l,h} to cross
lines, etc. @xref{Movement and Markers}, for more info.
@item vip-ex-style-editing-in-insert t
Set this to @code{nil}, if you want @kbd{ESC} to not move back and
@kbd{C-h} to not stop
at the beginning of a line in Insert state.
@item vip-always t
Leave it to Viper to decide when a buffer must be brought up in Vi state,
Insert state, or Emacs state. This heuristics works well in virtually all
cases.
This option must be
set before Viper is loaded or in the @file{.vip} file.
@item vip-custom-file-name "~/.vip"
Change this if you want. Must be set in @file{.emacs} (not @file{.vip}!)
before Viper is loaded. Note that you 
have to set it as a string inside double quotes.
@item vip-spell-function 'ispell-region
Function used by the command @kbd{#c<move>} to spell.
@item ex-nontrivial-find-file-function
The value of this variable is the function used to find all files that
match a wildcard. This is usually done when the user types @kbd{:e} and
specifies a wildcard in the file name (or if the file name contains unusual
symbols (e.g., a space). Viper provides two functions for this: one for
Unix-like systems (@code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-unix}) and one for
DOS, W95, and NT (@code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-ms}). If the default
function doesn't quite do what you expect or if you prefer to use ``fancy''
shells, you may have to write your own version of this function and make it
into the value of @code{ex-nontrivial-find-file-function}.  Use
@code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-unix} and
@code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-ms} as examples.
@vindex @code{ex-nontrivial-find-file-function}.
@findex @code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-ms}
@findex @code{vip-ex-nontrivial-find-file-unix}
@item ex-cycle-other-window t
If @code{t}, @kbd{:n} and @kbd{:b} will cycle through files in another
window, if one exists.
@item ex-cycle-through-non-files nil
@kbd{:n} does not normally cycle through buffers. Set this to get
buffers also.
@item vip-automatic-iso-accents nil
If @kbd{t}, ISO accents will be turned on in insert/replace Viper states
and turned off in Vi state. This is useful for editing text in European
languages. This variable is buffer-local. If used, it should be set in the
hooks to the appropriate major modes (usually setting it in
@code{text-mode-hook} is enough).
@item vip-want-emacs-keys-in-insert 
This is set to @code{nil} for user levels 1 and 2 and to @code{t} for user
levels 3 and 4. Users who specify level 5 are allowed to set this variable
as they please (the default for this level is @code{t}). If set to
@code{nil}, complete Vi compatibility is provided in Insert state. This is
really not recommended, as this precludes you from using language-specific
features provided by the major modes.
@item vip-want-emacs-keys-in-vi
This is set to @code{nil} for user
level 1 and to @code{t} for user levels 2--4.
At level 5, users are allowed to set this variable as they please (the
default for this level is @code{t}).
If set to @code{nil}, complete Vi compatibility is provided
in Vi command state. Setting this to @code{nil} is really a bad idea,
unless you are a novice, as this precludes the use
of language-specific features provided by the major modes.
@item vip-keep-point-on-repeat t
If @code{t}, point is not moved when the user repeats the previous command
by typing `.'  This is very useful for doing repeated changes with the
@kbd{.} key.
@item vip-repeat-from-history-key 'f12
Prefix key used to invoke the macros @kbd{f12 1} and @kbd{f12 2} that repeat
the second-last and the third-last destructive command.
Both these macros are bound (as Viper macros) to
@code{vip-repeat-from-history},
which checks the second key by which it is invoked to see which of the
previous commands to invoke. Viper binds @kbd{f12 1} and @kbd{f12 2} only,
but the user can bind more in @file{~/.vip}. @xref{Vi Macros}, for how to do
this.
@item vip-keep-point-on-undo nil
If @code{t}, Viper tries to not move point when undoing commands.
Instead, it will briefly move the cursor to the place where change has
taken place. However, if the undone piece of text is not seen in window,
then point will be moved to the place where the change took place.
Set it to @code{t} and see if you like it better.
@item vip-delete-backwards-in-replace nil
If @code{t}, DEL key will delete characters while moving the cursor backwards.
If @code{nil}, the cursor will move backwards without deleting anything.
@item vip-replace-overlay-face 'vip-replace-overlay-face
On a graphical display, Viper highlights replacement regions instead of
putting a @samp{$} at the end. This variable controls the so called
@dfn{face} used to highlight the region. 

By default, @code{vip-replace-overlay-face} underlines the replacement
on monochrome displays and highlights it with color on  color displays.
If you know something about Emacs
faces and don't like how Viper highlights replacement regions, you can change
this variable to specify a new face name. (Emacs faces are described in the
Emacs Lisp reference.)
On a color display, the following customization method is usually
most effective:
@example
(set-face-foreground vip-replace-overlay-face "DarkSlateBlue")
(set-face-background vip-replace-overlay-face "yellow")
@end example
For a complete list of colors available to you, evaluate the
expression @code{(x-defined-colors)}. (Type it in the buffer @code{*scratch*}
and then hit the @kbd{C-j} key.
@item vip-replace-overlay-cursor-color  "Red"
Cursor color when it is inside the replacement region.
This has effect only on color displays and only when Emacs runs as an X
application.
@item vip-replace-region-end-delimiter "$"
A string used to mark the end of replacement regions.  It is used only with
TTYs or if @code{vip-use-replace-region-delimiters} is non-nil.
@item vip-replace-region-start-delimiter  ""
A string used to mark the beginning of replacement regions.  It is used
only with TTYs or if @code{vip-use-replace-region-delimiters} is non-nil.
@item vip-use-replace-region-delimiters
If non-nil, Viper will always use @code{vip-replace-region-end-delimiter} and
@code{vip-replace-region-start-delimiter} to delimit replacement regions,
even on color displays (where this is unnecessary). By default, this
variable is non-nil only on TTYs or monochrome displays.
@item vip-toggle-key "\C-z"
Specifies the key used to switch from Emacs to Vi and back.
Must be set in @file{.vip} or prior to loading Viper. This variable can't be
changed interactively after Viper is loaded.
@item vip-ESC-key "\e"
Specifies the key used to escape from Insert/Replace states to Vi.
Must be set in @file{.vip} or prior to loading Viper. This variable cannot be
changed interactively after Viper is loaded.
@item vip-buffer-search-char nil
Key used for buffer search. @xref{Viper Specials}, for details.
@item vip-surrounding-word-function 'vip-surrounding-word
The value of this variable is a function name that is used to determine
what constitutes a word clicked upon by the mouse. This is used by mouse
search and insert.
@item vip-search-face 'vip-search-face
Variable that controls how search patterns are highlighted when they are
found.
@item vip-vi-state-hook nil
List of parameterless functions to be run just after entering the Vi
command state.
@item vip-insert-state-hook nil
Same for Insert state. This hook is also run after entering Replace state.
@item vip-replace-state-hook  nil
List of (parameterless) functions called just after entering Replace state
(and after all @code{vip-insert-state-hook}).
@item vip-emacs-state-hook nil
List of (parameterless) functions called just after switching from Vi state
to Emacs state.
@item vip-load-hook nil
List of (parameterless) functions called just after loading Viper. This is
the last chance to do customization before Viper is up and running.
@end table
@noindent
You can reset some of these constants in Viper with the Ex command @kbd{:set}
(when so indicated in the table).  Or you
can include a line like this in your @file{.vip} file:
@example
(setq vip-case-fold-search t)
@end example
@vindex @code{vip-auto-indent}
@vindex @code{vip-electric-mode}
@vindex @code{vip-case-fold-search}
@vindex @code{vip-re-search}
@vindex @code{vip-shift-width}
@vindex @code{buffer-read-only}
@vindex @code{vip-search-wrap-around}
@vindex @code{vip-search-face}
@vindex @code{vip-tags-file-name}
@vindex @code{vip-re-query-replace}
@vindex @code{vip-want-ctl-h-help}
@vindex @code{vip-vi-style-in-minibuffer}
@vindex @code{vip-no-multiple-ESC}
@vindex @code{vip-always}
@vindex @code{vip-keysequence-delay}
@vindex @code{vip-ex-style-motion}
@vindex @code{vip-ex-style-editing-in-insert}
@vindex @code{vip-custom-file-name}
@vindex @code{vip-spell-function}
@vindex @code{ex-cycle-other-window}
@vindex @code{ex-cycle-through-non-files}
@vindex @code{vip-automatic-iso-accents}
@vindex @code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-insert}
@vindex @code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-vi}
@vindex @code{vip-keep-point-on-repeat}
@vindex @code{vip-keep-point-on-undo}
@vindex @code{vip-delete-backwards-in-replace}
@vindex @code{vip-replace-overlay-face}
@vindex @code{vip-replace-region-end-symbol}
@vindex @code{vip-replace-region-start-symbol}
@vindex @code{vip-toggle-key}
@vindex @code{vip-ESC-key}
@vindex @code{vip-buffer-search-char}
@vindex @code{vip-surrounding-word-function}
@vindex @code{vip-vi-state-hook}
@vindex @code{vip-insert-state-hook}
@vindex @code{vip-replace-state-hook}
@vindex @code{vip-emacs-state-hook}

@node Keybindings, Packages that Change Keymaps, Rudimentary Changes,Customization
@section Keybindings

@cindex keybindings
@cindex keymaps

Viper lets you define hot keys, i.e., you can associate keyboard keys
such as F1, Help, PgDn, etc., with Emacs Lisp functions (that may already
exist or that you will write). Each key has a "preferred form" in
Emacs. For instance, the Up key's preferred form is [up], the Help key's
preferred form is [help], and the Undo key has the preferred form [f14].
You can find out the preferred form of a key by typing @kbd{M-x
describe-key-briefly} and then typing the key you want to know about.

Under X Windows, every keyboard key emits its preferred form, so you can
just type

@lisp
(global-set-key [f11] 'calendar)                        ; L1, Stop
(global-set-key [f14] 'undo)                            ; L4, Undo
@end lisp

@noindent
to bind L1 so it will invoke the Emacs Calendar and to bind L4 so it will
undo changes.
However, on a dumb terminal or in an Xterm window, even the standard arrow
keys may 
not emit the right signals for Emacs to understand. To let Emacs know about
those keys, you will have to find out which key sequences they emit
by typing @kbd{C-q} and then the key (you should switch to Emacs state
first). Then you can bind those sequences to their preferred forms using
@code{function-key-map} as follows:

@lisp
(cond ((string= (getenv "TERM") "xterm")
       (define-key function-key-map "\e[192z" [f11])    ; L1
       (define-key function-key-map "\e[195z" [f14])    ; L4, Undo
@end lisp

The above illustrates how to do this for Xterm. On VT100, you would have to
replace "xterm" with "vt100" and also change the key sequences (the same
key may emit different sequences on different types of terminals).

The above keys are global, so they are overwritten by the local maps
defined by the major modes and by Viper itself. Therefore, if you wish to
change a binding set by a major mode or by Viper, read this.

Viper users who wish to specify their own key bindings should be concerned
only with the following three keymaps:
@code{vip-vi-global-user-map} for Vi state commands,
@code{vip-insert-global-user-map} for Insert state commands,
and @code{vip-emacs-global-user-map} for Emacs state commands (note:
customized bindings for Emacs state made to @code{vip-emacs-global-user-map}
are @emph{not} inherited by Insert state).

For more information on Viper keymaps, see the header of the file
@file{viper.el}.
If you wish to change a Viper binding, you can use the
@code{define-key} command, to modify @code{vip-vi-global-user-map},
@code{vip-insert-global-user-map}, and @code{vip-emacs-global-user-map}, as
explained below. Each of these key maps affects the corresponding Viper state. 
The keymap @code{vip-vi-global-user-map} also affects Viper's Replace state.

@noindent
If you want to
bind a key, say @kbd{C-v}, to the function that scrolls
page down and to make @kbd{0} display information on the current buffer,
putting this in @file{.vip} will do the trick in Vi state:
@example
(define-key vip-vi-global-user-map "\C-v" 'scroll-down)
@end example
@noindent
To set a key globally, 
@example
(define-key vip-emacs-global-user-map "\C-c m" 'smail)
(define-key vip-vi-global-user-map "0" 'vip-info-on-file)
@end example
@noindent
Note, however, that this binding may be overwritten by other keymaps, since
the global keymap has the lowest priority.
To make sure that nothing will override a binding in Emacs state, you
can write this:
@example
(define-key vip-emacs-global-user-map "\C-c m" 'smail)
@end example
@noindent
To customize the binding for @kbd{C-h} in Insert state:
@example
(define-key vip-insert-global-user-map "\C-h" 'my-del-backwards-function)
@end example
@noindent

Each Emacs command key calls some lisp function. If you have enabled the
Help, (@xref{Rudimentary Changes}) @kbd{C-h k} will show you the function
for each specific key; @kbd{C-h b} will show all bindings, and @kbd{C-h m}
will provide information on the major mode in effect. If Help is not
enabled, you can still get help in Vi state by prefixing the above commands
with @kbd{\}, e.g., @kbd{\ C-h k} (or you can use the Help menu in the
menu bar, if Emacs runs under X Windows).

Viper users can also change bindings on a per major mode basis.  As with
global bindings, this can be done separately for each of the three main Viper
states.  To this end, Viper provides the function
@code{vip-modify-major-mode}.
@findex @code{vip-modify-major-mode}

To modify keys in Emacs state for @code{my-favorite-major-mode}, the user
needs to create a sparse keymap, say, @code{my-fancy-map}, bind whatever
keys necessary in that keymap, and put

@example
(vip-modify-major-mode 'dired-mode 'emacs-state my-fancy-map)
@end example

@noindent
in @file{~/.vip}. To do the same in Vi and Insert states, one should use
@code{vi-state} and @code{insert-state}. Changes in Insert state are also
in effect in Replace state.  For instance, suppose that the user wants to
use @kbd{dd} in Vi state under Dired mode to delete files, @kbd{u} to unmark
files, etc. The following code in @file{~/.vip} will then do the job:

@example
(setq my-dired-modifier-map (make-sparse-keymap))
(define-key my-dired-modifier-map "dd" 'dired-flag-file-deletion)
(define-key my-dired-modifier-map "u" 'dired-unmark)
(vip-modify-major-mode 'dired-mode 'vi-state my-dired-modifier-map)
@end example

A Vi purist may want to modify Emacs state under Dired mode so that
@kbd{k}, @kbd{l}, etc., will move around in directory buffers, as in
Vi. Although this is not recommended, as these keys are bound to useful
Dired functions, the trick can be accomplished via the following code:

@example
(setq my-dired-vi-purist-map (make-sparse-keymap))
(define-key my-dired-vi-purist-map "k" 'vip-previous-line)
(define-key my-dired-vi-purist-map "l" 'vip-forward-char)
(vip-modify-major-mode 'dired-mode 'emacs-state my-dired-vi-purist-map)
@end example

Similar effect can be achieved by defining Vi keyboard macros using the
Ex commands @kbd{:map} and @kbd{:map!}. The difference is that multi-key
Vi macros do not override the keys they are bound to, unless these keys are
typed in quick succession. So, with macros, one can use the normal keys
alongside with the macros. If per-mode modifications are needed, the user
can try both ways and see which one is more convenient.
@findex @kbd{:map}
@xref{Vi Macros}, for details.

Note: in major modes that come up in @emph{Emacs state} by default, the
aforesaid modifications may not take place immediately (but only after the
buffer switches to some other Viper state and then back to Emacs state).  To
avoid this, one should add @code{vip-change-state-to-emacs} to an
appropriate hook of that major mode. (Check the function
@code{vip-set-hooks} in @file{viper.el} for examples.)  However, if you
have set @code{vip-always} to @code{t}, chances are that you won't need to
perform the above procedure, because Viper will take care of most useful
defaults.


Finally, Viper has a facility that lets the user define per-buffer
bindings, i.e., bindings that are in effect in some specific buffers
only. Unlike per-mode bindings described above, per-buffer bindings can be
defined based on considerations other than the major mode.  This is done
via the function @code{vip-add-local-keys}, which lets one specify bindings
that should be in effect in the current buffer only and for a specific Viper
state. For instance,
@lisp
(vip-add-local-keys 'vi-state '(("ZZ" . TeX-command-master) 
                                ("ZQ" . vip-save-kill-buffer)))
@end lisp
@noindent
redefines @kbd{ZZ} to invoke @code{TeX-command-master} in @code{vi-state}
and @kbd{ZQ} to save-then-kill the current buffer. These bindings take
effect only in the buffer where this command is executed. The typical use
of this function is to execute the above expression from within a function
that is included in a hook to some major mode. For instance, the above
expression
could be called from a function, @code{my-tex-init}, which may be added to
@code{tex-mode-hook} as follows:
@lisp
(add-hook 'tex-mode-hook 'my-tex-init)
@end lisp
@noindent
When TeX mode starts, the hook is executed and the above Lisp expression is
evaluated. Then, the bindings for @kbd{ZZ} and @kbd{ZQ} are changed in Vi
command mode for all buffers in TeX mode.

Another useful application is to bind @kbd{ZZ} to @code{send-mail}
in the Mail mode buffers (the specifics of this depend on which mail
package you are using, @code{rmail}, @code{mh-e}, @code{vm}, etc.
For instance, here is how to do this for @code{mh-e}, the Emacs interface
to MH:
@lisp
(defun mh-add-vi-keys ()
  "Set up ZZ for MH-e and XMH."
  (vip-add-local-keys 'vi-state '(("ZZ" . mh-send-letter))))
(add-hook 'mh-letter-mode-hook 'mh-add-vi-keys)
@end lisp

You can also use @code{vip-add-local-keys} to set per buffer
bindings in Insert state and Emacs state by passing as a parameter the
symbols @code{'insert-state} and @code{'emacs-state}, respectively.
As with global bindings, customized local bindings done to Emacs state
are not inherited by Insert state.

On rare occasions, local keys may be added by mistake. Usually this is done
indirectly, by invoking a major mode that adds local keys (e.g.,
@code{shell-mode} redefines @kbd{RET}). In such a case, exiting the wrong
major mode won't rid you from unwanted local keys, since these keys are
local to Viper state and the current buffer, not to the major mode.
In such situations, the remedy is to type @kbd{M-x vip-zap-local-keys}.

So much about Viper-specific bindings.
@xref{Customization,,Customization,emacs,The GNU Emacs
Manual}, and the Emacs quick reference card for the general info on key
bindings in Emacs.

@vindex @code{function-key-map}
@vindex @code{vip-vi-global-user-map}
@vindex @code{vip-insert-global-user-map}
@vindex @code{vip-emacs-global-user-map}
@findex @code{vip-add-local-keys}
@findex @code{vip-zap-local-keys}

@node Packages that Change Keymaps,Viper Specials,Keybindings,Customization
@subsection Packages that Change Keymaps
@cindex C-c and Viper
@cindex Viper and C-c

Viper is designed to coexist with all major and minor modes of Emacs. This
means that bindings set by those modes are generally available with Viper
(unless you explicitly prohibit them by setting
@code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-vi} and @code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-insert} to 
@code{nil}). 
If @code{vip-always} is set to @code{t}, Viper will try to bring each buffer
in the a Viper state that is most appropriate for that buffer.
Usually, this would be the Vi state, but sometimes it could be the Insert
state or the Emacs state.

Some major mode bindings will necessarily be overwritten by Viper. Indeed, in
Vi state, most of the 1-character keys are used for Vi-style editing.  This
usually causes no problems because most packages designed for editing files
typically do not bind such keys. Instead, they use key sequences that start
with @kbd{C-x} and @kbd{C-c}. This is why it was so important for us to
free up @kbd{C-x} and @kbd{C-c}.
It is common for language-specific major modes to bind @kbd{TAB} and
@kbd{LFD} (the line feed) keys to various formatting functions. This is
extremely useful, but may require some getting used to for a Vi user. If you
decide that this feature is not for you, you can re-bind these keys as
explained earlier (@xref{Customization}).

Binding for @kbd{TAB} is one of the most unusual aspects of Viper for many
novice users.  In Emacs, @kbd{TAB} is used to format text and programs, and
is extremely useful. For instance, hitting @kbd{TAB} causes the current
line to be re-indented in accordance with the context.  In programming,
this is very important, since improper automatic indentation would
immediately alert the programmer to a possible error. For instance, if a
@kbd{)} or a @kbd{"} is missing somewhere above the current
line, @kbd{TAB} is likely to mis-indent the line.

For this reason, Viper doesn't change the standard Emacs binding of
@kbd{TAB}, thereby sacrificing Vi compatibility
(except for users at level 1). Instead, in Viper, the key
@kbd{S-tab} (shift+ tab) is chosen to emulate Vi's @kbd{TAB}.

We should note that on some non-windowing terminals, Shift doesn't modify
the @kbd{TAB} key, so @kbd{S-tab} behaves as if it were @kbd{TAB}. In such
a case, you will have to bind @code{vip-insert-tab} to some other
convenient key.

Some packages, notably Dired, Gnus, Info, etc., attach special meaning
to common keys like @kbd{SPC}, @kbd{x}, @kbd{d}, @kbd{v}, and others. This
means that Vi command state is inappropriate for working with these
packages. Fortunately, these modes operate on read-only buffers and are
designed not for editing files, but for special-purpose browsing, reading
news, mail, etc., and Vi commands are meaningless in these situations. For
this reason, Viper doesn't force Vi state on such major modes.  Rather, it
brings them in Emacs state. You can switch to Vi state by typing @kbd{C-z}
if, for instance, you want to do Vi-style search in a buffer (although,
usually, incremental search, which is bound to @kbd{C-s}, is sufficient in
these situations). But you should then switch back to Emacs state if you
plan to continue using these major modes productively. You can also switch
to Vi temporarily, to execute one 1-character command. This is done by
typing @kbd{M-C-z} (or @kbd{ESC C-z}).
This facility cannot execute several complex Vi commands, such as @kbd{dw},
@kbd{de}, etc.

It is also possible to harness some major modes, even though they may bind
common keys to specialized commands. Harnessing can make sense for modes
that bind only a small number of common keys.  For instance, if
@code{vip-always} is set to @code{t} in your @file{~/.vip} file, Viper will
harness the Shell mode by changing the bindings for @kbd{C-m} and @kbd{C-d}
using @code{vip-add-local-keys} described in section on customization
(@xref{Customization}). In general, there is no single recipe for
harnessing modes. It can be as simple as adding the function
@code{viper-mode} to a hook associated with the mode, or it can be more
complex, as in the case of Shell mode and Emerge. Take a look at
@code{vip-set-hooks} function for some examples.

Conversely, it may be the case that most of the major modes harnessed 
by @code{vip-set-hooks} function fit your working style, except one or two
cases. In this case, you may still be able to set @code{vip-always} to
@code{t} and then remove a hook that forces Vi command state. For instance,
to unharness @code{lisp-interaction-mode}, you can put the following line
in your @file{.emacs} (not @code{.vip}!) file after @code{(require 'viper)}:
@lisp
(remove-hook 'lisp-interaction-mode-hook 'viper-mode)
@end lisp

In some rare cases, some minor modes may override certain essential
bindings in Vi command state.  This is not really catastrophic because this
may happen only in the beginning, when the minor mode kicks in. Typing
@code{M-x viper-mode} will correct the situation.  Viper knows about
several such minor modes and takes care of them, so that the above trick
is usually not necessary.  If you find that some minor mode, e.g.,
@code{nasty-mode.el} interferes with Viper, putting the following in
@file{.vip} should fix the problem:
@lisp
(vip-harness-minor-mode "nasty-mode")
@end lisp
@noindent
The argument to @code{vip-harness-minor-mode} is the name of the file for the
offending minor mode with the suffixes @file{.el} and @file{.elc} removed.

It may be tricky, however, to find out which minor mode is at fault. The
only guidance here is to look into the file that defines the minor mode you
are suspecting, say @code{nasty-mode.el}, and see if it has a variable
called @code{nasty-mode-map}. Then check if there is a statement of the form
@lisp
(define-key nasty-mode-map key function)
@end lisp
@noindent
that binds the misbehaving
keys. If so, use the above line to harness @code{nasty-mode}. If your
suspicion is wrong, no harm is done if you harness a minor mode that
doesn't need to be harnessed.

@vindex @code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-vi}
@vindex @code{vip-want-emacs-keys-in-insert}
@vindex @code{vip-always}
@findex @code{vip-set-hooks}
@findex @code{viper-mode}
@findex @code{vip-harness-minor-mode}
@findex @code{remove-hook}
@findex @code{add-hook}

@node Viper Specials,Vi Macros,Packages that Change Keymaps,Customization
@section Viper Specials

Viper extends Vi with a number of useful features. This includes various
search functions, histories of search strings, Ex commands, insertions, and
Vi's destructive commands. In addition, Viper supports file name completion
and history, completion of Ex commands and variables, and many other
features. Some of these features are explained in detail elsewhere in this
document. Other features are explained here.

@table @code
@item (vip-buffer-search-enable)
@item vip-buffer-search-char nil
Enable buffer search. Explicit call to @code{vip-buffer-search-enable}
sets @code{vip-buffer-search-char} to @kbd{g}. Alternatively, the user can
set @code{vip-buffer-search-char} in @file{.vip} to a key sequence
to be used for buffer search. There is no need to call
@code{vip-buffer-search-enable} in that case.
@findex @code{vip-buffer-search-enable}
@vindex @code{vip-buffer-search-char}
@item vip-toggle-search-style
This function, bound to @kbd{C-c /}, lets one toggle case-sensitive and
case-insensitive search, and also switch between plain vanilla search and
search via regular expressions. Without the prefix argument, the user is
asked which mode to toggle. With prefix argument 1, this toggles
case-sensitivity. With prefix argument 2, regular expression/vanilla search
will be toggled. 

However, we found that the most convenient way to toggle
these options is to bind a Vi macro to
bind @kbd{//} to toggles case sensitivity and to @kbd{///} to toggles
vanilla search. Thus, quickly hitting @kbd{/} twice will switch Viper from
case sensitive search to case-insensitive. Repeating this once again will
restore the original state. Likewise, quickly hitting @kbd{/} three times
will switch you from vanilla-style search to search via regular expressions.
If you hit something other than @kbd{/} after the first @kbd{/} or if the
second @kbd{/} doesn't follow quickly enough, then Viper will issue the
usual prompt @kbd{/} and will wait for input, as usual in Vi.
If you don't like this behavior, you can ``unrecord'' these macros in your
@file{~/.vip} file. For instance, if u don't like the above feature, put
this in @file{~/.vip}:
@example
(vip-unrecord-kbd-macro "//" 'vi-state)
(vip-unrecord-kbd-macro "///" 'vi-state)
@end example
@findex @code{vip-unrecord-kbd-macro}

@xref{Vi Macros}, for more information on Vi macros.
@item vip-heading-start 
@item vip-heading-end
@cindex headings
@cindex sections
@cindex paragraphs
@cindex sentences
Regular Expressions for @kbd{[[} and @kbd{]]}. Note that Emacs defines
Regexps for paragraphs and sentences. @xref{Paragraphs,,Paragraphs and
Sentences,emacs,The GNU Emacs Manual}, for details.
@item M-x vip-set-expert-level
@findex @code{vip-set-expert-level}
Change your user level interactively.
@item vip-smart-suffix-list  '("" "tex" "c" "cc" "el" "p")
@vindex @code{vip-smart-suffix-list}
Viper supports Emacs-style file completion when it prompts the user for a
file name. However, in many cases, the same directory may contain files
with identical prefix but different suffixes, e.g., prog.c, prog.o,
paper.tex, paper.dvi. In such cases, completion will stop at the `.'.
If the above variable is a list of strings representing suffixes, Viper will
try these suffixes 
in the order listed and will check if the corresponding file exists.

For instance, if completion stopped at `paper.' and the user typed RET,
then Viper will check if the files `paper.', `paper.tex', `paper.c', etc., exist.
It will take the first such file. If no file exists, Viper will give a chance
to complete the file name by typing the appropriate suffix. If `paper.' was
the intended file name, hitting return will accept it.

To turn this feature off, set the above variable to @code{nil}.

@item vip-insertion-ring-size  14
@vindex @code{vip-insertion-ring-size}
@cindex Insertion ring
Viper remembers what was previously inserted in Insert and Replace states.
Several such recent insertions are kept in a special ring of strings of size
@code{vip-insertion-ring-size}.
If you enter Insert or Replace state you can reinsert strings from this
ring by typing @kbd{C-c M-p} or @kbd{C-c M-n}. The former will search the
ring in 
the direction of older insertions, and the latter will search in
the direction of newer insertions. Hitting @kbd{C-c M-p} or @kbd{C-c M-n}
in succession 
will undo the previous insertion from the ring and insert the next item on
the ring. If a larger ring size is needed, change the value of the above
variable in the @file{~/.vip} file.

Since typing these sequences of keys may be tedious, it is suggested that the
user should bind a function key, such as @kbd{f31}, as follows:
@example
(define-key vip-insert-global-user-map [f31]
            'vip-insert-prev-from-insertion-ring)
@end example
This binds @kbd{f31} (which is usually @kbd{R11} on a Sun workstation)
to the function that inserts the previous string in the insertion history.
To rotate the history in the opposite
direction, you can either bind an unused key to
@code{vip-insert-next-from-insertion-ring} or hit any digit (1 to 9) then
@kbd{f31}.

One should not bind the above functions to @kbd{M-p} or @kbd{M-n}, since
this will interfere with the Minibuffer histories and, possibly, other
major modes.

@item vip-command-ring-size  14
@vindex @code{vip-command-ring-size}
@cindex Destructive command ring
@cindex Destructive command history
Viper keeps track of the recent history of destructive
commands, such as @kbd{dw}, @kbd{i}, etc.
In Vi state,
the most recent command can be re-executed by hitting `@kbd{.}', as in Vi.
However, repeated typing @kbd{C-c M-p} will cause Viper to show the
previous destructive commands in the minibuffer. Subsequent hitting `@kbd{.}'
will execute the command that was displayed last.
The key @kbd{C-c M-n} will cycle through the command history in the
opposite direction.
Since typing @kbd{C-c M-p} may be tedious, it is more convenient to bind an
appropriate function to an unused function key on the keyboard and use that
key. For instance, the following
@example
(define-key vip-vi-global-user-map [f31]
            'vip-prev-destructive-command)
@end example
binds the key @kbd{f31} (which is usually @kbd{R11} on a Sun workstation)
to the function that searches the command history in the direction of older
commands. To search in the opposite
direction, you can either bind an unused key to
@code{vip-next-destructive-command} or hit any digit (1 to 9) then @kbd{f31}.

One should not bind the above functions to @kbd{M-p} or @kbd{M-n}, since
this will interfere with the Minibuffer histories and, possibly, other
major modes.

@item vip-minibuffer-vi-face  'vip-minibuffer-vi-face
@item vip-minibuffer-insert-face  'vip-minibuffer-insert-face
@item vip-minibuffer-emacs-face  'vip-minibuffer-emacs-face
These faces control the appearance of the minibuffer text in the
corresponding Viper states. For heavy-duty customization, consult
the Lisp Reference to Emacs. You can also take a look how these faces are
defined in @file{viper.el}.

However, on a color workstation, the following method usually suffices:
@example
(set-face-foreground vip-minibuffer-vi-face "blue")
(set-face-background vip-minibuffer-emacs-face "orchid")
@end example
This will make a blue foreground in the Minibuffer when it is in Vi
state; its background will turn to orchid when it switches to Emacs state.

Note that only the text you type in is affected by the above faces.
Prompts and Minibuffer messages are not affected.

Purists who do not like adornments in the minibuffer can always zap them by
putting
@example
(copy-face 'default 'vip-minibuffer-vi-face)
(copy-face 'default 'vip-minibuffer-insert-face)
(copy-face 'default 'vip-minibuffer-emacs-face)
@end example
in the @file{~/.vip} file. However, in that case, the user will not have any
indication of the current Viper state in the minibuffer. (This is important
if the user accidentally switches to another Viper state by typing @kbd{ESC} or
@kbd{C-z}.
@end table

@cindex Multifile documents and programs

Viper provides some support for multi-file documents and programs.
If a document consists of several files we can designate one of them as a
master and put the following at the end of that file:
@lisp
;;; Local Variables:
;;; eval: (vip-setup-master-buffer "file1" "file2" "file3" "file5" "file5")
;;; End:
@end lisp
@noindent
where @code{file1} to @code{file5} are names of files related to the master
file. Next time, when the master file is visited, the command
@code{vip-setup-master-buffer} will be evaluated and the above files will
be associated with the master file. Then, the new Ex command
@kbd{:RelatedFile} (abbr. @kbd{:R}) will display files 1 to 5 one after
another, so you can edit them. If a file is not in any Emacs buffer, it
will be visited.  The command @kbd{PreviousRelatedFile} (abbr., @kbd{:P})
goes through the file list in the opposite direction.
@findex @kbd{:RelatedFile}
@findex @kbd{:PreviousRelatedFile}

These commands are akin to @kbd{:n} and @kbd{:N}, but they allow the user to
focus on relevant files only.

Note that only the master file needs to have the aforementioned block of
commands. Also, ";;;" above can be replaced by some other
markers. Semicolon is good for Lisp programs, since it is considered a
comment designator there. For LaTeX, this could be "%%%", and for C the
above block should be commented out.

Even though these commands are sometimes useful, they are no substitute for
the powerful @emph{tag table} facility of Emacs. Viper's @kbd{:tag} command
in a primitive interface to Emacs tags. @xref{Tags,Tags,Tags,emacs,
The Gnu Emacs Manual}, for more information on tags.

The following two commands are normally bound to a mouse click and are part
of Viper. They work only if Emacs runs as an application under X
Windows (or under some other window system for which a port of GNU Emacs 19
is available). Clicking the mouse when Emacs is invoked in an Xterm window
(using @code{emacs -nw}) will do no good.

@table @code
@cindex mouse
@item M-S-mouse-1 (Emacs)
@item meta shift button1up (XEmacs)
Holding Meta and Shift while clicking mouse button 1
will initiate search for a region under the
mouse pointer (defined below).  This command can take a prefix argument,
which indicates the occurrence of the pattern to search for.

Note: Viper binds this mouse action only if it is not already bound to
something else. If you want to use this feature and @kbd{M-S-mouse-1}
is already used for something else, you can rebind mouse-search as, for
example, in the following example:
@lisp
(global-set-key [M-mouse-1] 'vip-mouse-click-search-word)
(global-set-key [M-down-mouse-1] 'vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch)
@end lisp
This would bind mouse search to the action invoked by pressing the
Meta key and clicking mouse button 1. Note: if
@code{vip-mouse-click-search-word} is bound to an action, then
@code{vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch} must be bound to a down-action, as
shown in the above example.

In XEmacs, you can change bindings as follows:
@lisp
(global-set-key [(meta control button1up)]
                'vip-mouse-click-search-word)
(global-set-key [(meta control button1)]
                'vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch)
@end lisp
if, say, you prefer to hold both meta and control while clicking.

Like in Emacs, there are special rules for binding these functions: the
first must be bound to a button-up event while the second must be bound to
a button-event (which is XEmacs' equivalent of a down-mouse event).  Also,
in Emacs, the double-click and triple-click actions for the same button
(@code{double-S-mouse-1}, etc., if the above default binding is used)
should not be bound (or it should be bound to the same function,
@code{vip-mouse-click-search-word}).

The region that is chosen as a pattern to search for is determined as
follows. If search is invoked via a single click, Viper chooses the region
that lies between the beginning of the ``word'' under the pointer (``word''
is understood in Vi sense) and the end of that word.  The only difference
with Vi's words is that in Lisp major modes `-' is considered an
alphanumeric symbol. This is done for the convenience of working with Lisp
symbols, which often have an `-' in them.  Also, if you click on a
non-alphanumeric character that is not a word separator (in Vi sense) then
this character will also be considered alphanumeric, provided that it is
adjacent (from either side) to an alphanumeric character.  This useful
feature gives added control over the patterns selected by the mouse click.

On a double-click, the region is determined by the beginning of the current
Vi's ``Word'' (i.e., the largest non-separator chunk of text) and the End
of that ``Word'' (as determined by the @kbd{E} command).

On a triple-click, the region consists of the entire line where the click
occurred with all leading and trailing spaces and tabs removed.

@item M-S-mouse-2 (Emacs)
@item meta shift button2up (XEmacs)
Holding Meta and Shift while clicking mouse button 2
will insert the region surrounding the
mouse pointer.  The rules defining this region are the same as for
mouse-search.  This command takes an optional prefix argument, which
indicates how many such regions to snarf from the buffer and insert.  (In
case of a triple-click, the prefix argument is ignored.)

Note: Viper binds this mouse action only if it not already bound to
something else. If you want to use this feature and @kbd{S-mouse-2}
is already used for something else, you can rebind mouse-insert as follows:
@lisp
(global-set-key [M-mouse-2] 'vip-mouse-click-insert-word)
(global-set-key [M-down-mouse-2] 'vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch)
@end lisp
In XEmacs, you can change the bindings as follows:
@lisp
(global-set-key [(meta control button2up)]
                'vip-mouse-click-insert-word)
(global-set-key [(meta control button2)]
                'vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch)
@end lisp

@item vip-multiclick-timeout
This variable controls the rate at which double-clicking must occur for the
purpose of mouse search and mouse insert. By default, this is set to
@code{double-click-time} in Emacs and to
@code{mouse-track-multi-click-time} milliseconds in XEmacs.
@end table        
@kindex @kbd{S-mouse-1}
@kindex @kbd{S-mouse-2}
@kindex @kbd{meta shift button1up}
@kindex @kbd{meta shift button2up}
@vindex @code{vip-multiclick-timeout}
@findex @code{vip-mouse-click-insert-word}
@findex @code{vip-mouse-click-search-word}

Note: The above functions search and insert in the selected window of
the latest active frame. This means that you can click in another window or
another frame and have search or insertion done in the frame and window you
just left.  This lets one use these functions in a multi-frame
configuration.  However, this may require some getting used to. For
instance, if you are typing in a frame, A, and then move the mouse to frame
B and click to invoke mouse search, search (or insertion) will be performed
in frame A. To perform search/insertion in frame B, you will first have to
shift focus there, which doesn't happen until you type a character or
perform some other action in frame B---mouse search doesn't shift focus (in
XEmacs, to shift focus to frame B, you will have to select this frame with
a mouse, by clicking.

If you decide that you don't like the above feature and always want
search/insertion be performed in the frame where the click occurs, don't
bind (and unbind, if necessary) @code{vip-mouse-catch-frame-switch} from
the mouse event it is bound to.

Mouse search is integrated with Vi-style search, so you can
repeat it with @kbd{n} and @kbd{N}. It should be also noted that, while
case-sensitivity of search in Viper is controlled by the variable
@code{vip-case-fold-search}, the case of mouse search is
controlled by the Emacs variable @code{case-fold-search}, which may be set
differently from @code{vip-case-fold-search}. Therefore, case-sensitivity
of mouse search may be different from that of the usual Vi-style search.

Finally, if the way Viper determines the word to be searched for or to be
inserted is not what you want, there is a variable,
@code{vip-surrounding-word-function}, which can be changed to indicate
another function for snarfing words out of the buffer. The catch is that
you will then have to write such a function and make it known to your
Emacs. The function @code{vip-surrounding-word} in @file{viper.el} can be
used as a guiding example.

@node Vi Macros, ,Viper Specials,Customization
@section Vi Macros

@cindex Vi macros

Viper supports much enhanced Vi-style macros and also facilitates the use
of Emacs-style macros.  To define a temporary macro, it is generally more
convenient to use Emacs keyboard macro facility. Emacs keyboard macros are
usually defined anonymously, and the latest macro can be executed by typing
@kbd{C-x e} (or @kbd{*}, if Viper is in Vi state). If you need to use several
temporary macros, Viper lets you save them to a
register (a lowercase letter); such macros can then be executed by typing
@kbd{@@a} in Vi state (if a macro was previously saved in register
@kbd{a}).
@xref{Macros and Registers}, for details.

If, however, you need to use a macro regularly, it must be given a
permanent name and saved. Emacs manual explains how to do this, but
invocation of named Emacs macros is quite different from Vi's. First,
invocation of permanent Emacs macros takes time because of the extra keys.
Second, binding such macros to function keys, for
fast access, hogs valuable real estate on the keyboard.

Vi-style macros are better in that respect, since Vi lets the user overload
the meaning of key sequences: keys typed in fast succession are treated
specially, if this key sequence is bound to a macro.

Viper provides keyboard macros through the usual Ex commands, @kbd{:map} and
@kbd{:map!}. Vi-style macros are much more powerful in Viper than
they are in the original Vi and in other emulators. This is because Viper
implements an enhanced vi-style
interface to the powerful Emacs keyboard macro facility.

First, any Emacs
command can be executed while defining a macro, not just the Vi
commands. In particular, the user can invoke Emacs commands via @kbd{M-x
command-name} or by pressing various function keys on the keyboard. One
can even use the mouse, although this is usually not useful and is not
recommended (and macros defined with the use of the mouse cannot be saved in
command history and in the startup file, for future use).

Macros defined by mixing Vi and Emacs commands are represented as
vectors. So, don't be confused when you see one (usually through the
history of Ex commands). For instance, if @kbd{gg} is defined by typing
@kbd{l}, the up-arrow key and @kbd{M-x next-line}, its definition will look
as follows in Emacs (in XEmacs, it looks slightly different, see below):

@example
[l up (meta x) n e x t - l i n e return]
@end example

Second, Viper macros are defined in a WYSIWYG style. This means that
commands are executed as you type them, so you can see precisely what is
being defined.  Third, macros can be bound to arbitrary sequences of keys,
not just to printable keys. For instance, one can define a macro that will
be invoked by hitting @kbd{f3} then @kbd{f2} function keys. (The keys
@kbd{delete} and @kbd{backspace} are excluded; also, a macro invocation
sequence can't start with ESC. Some other keys, such as @kbd{f1} and
@kbd{help}, can't be bound to macros under Emacs (not XEmacs), since they
are bound in @code{key-translation-map}, which overrides any other binding
the user gives to keys. In general, keys that have a binding in
@code{key-translation-map} can't be bound to a macro.)

Fourth, in Viper, one can define macros that are specific to a given
buffer, a given major mode, or macros that are defined for all buffers.  In
fact, the same macro name can have several different definitions: one
global, several definitions for various major modes, and
definitions for various specific buffers. Buffer-specific definitions
override mode-specific definitions, which, in turn, override global
definitions.

As if all that is not enough, Viper (through its interface to Emacs
macros) lets the user define keyboard macros that ask for confirmation or
even prompt the user for input and then continue. To do this, one should
type @kbd{C-x q} (for confirmation) or @kbd{C-u C-x q} (for prompt).
For details, @pxref{Kbd Macro Query,,Customization,emacs,The GNU Emacs
Manual} @refill

When the user finishes defining a macro (which is done by typing @kbd{C-x)} ---
a departure from Vi), you will be asked whether you want this
macro to be global, mode-specific, or buffer-specific. You will also be
given a chance to save the macro in your @file{~/.vip} file.
This is the easiest way to save a macro and make
it permanently available. If you work your startup files with bare hands,
here is how Viper saves the above macro so that it will be
available in Viper's Insert state (and Replace state) in buffer @code{my-buf}
only: 

@example
 (vip-record-kbd-macro "gg" 'insert-state 
        [l up (meta x) n e x t - l i n e return]
        "my-buf")
@end example

@noindent
To do the same for Vi state and all buffers with the major mode
@code{cc-mode}, use:

@example
 (vip-record-kbd-macro "gg" 'vi-state 
        [l up (meta x) n e x t - l i n e return]
        'cc-mode)
@end example

@noindent
Both macro names and macro definitions are vectors of symbols that denote
keys on the keyboard. Some keys, like @kbd{\}, @kbd{ }, or digit-keys must
be escaped with a backslash. Modified keys are represented as lists. For
instance, holding Meta and Control and pressing @kbd{f4} is represented as
@kbd{(control meta f4)}.
If all members of a vectors are printable characters (or sequences, such as
@kbd{\e}, @kbd{\t}, for ESC and TAB), then they can also be represented as
strings:

@example
 (vip-record-kbd-macro "aa" 'vi-state  "aaa\e"  "my-buffer")
@end example

@noindent
Thus, typing @kbd{aa} fast in Vi state will switch Viper to Insert state
(due to the first @kbd{a}), insert @kbd{aa}, and then it will switch back to Vi
state. All this will take effect only in the buffer named @code{my-buffer}.

Note that the last argument to @code{vip-record-kbd-macro} must be either a
string (a buffer name), a symbol representing a major mode, or @code{t};
the latter says that the macro is to be defined for all buffers
(which is how macros are defined in original Vi).

For convenience, Viper also lets you define Vi-style macros in its Emacs
state. There is no Ex command, like @kbd{:map} and @kbd{:map!} for doing
this, but the user can include such a macro in the @file{~/.vip} file. The
only thing is that the @code{vip-record-kbd-macro} command should specify
@code{'emacs-state} instead of @code{'vi-state} or @code{'insert-state}.

The user can get rid of a macro either by using the Ex commands @kbd{:unmap}
and @kbd{:unmap!} or by issuing a call to @code{vip-unrecord-kbd-macro}.
The latter is more powerful, since it can delete macros even in
@code{'emacs-state}. However, @code{vip-unrecord-kbd-macro} is usually
needed only when the user needs to get rid of the macros that are already
predefined in Viper.
The syntax is:
@findex @code{vip-unrecord-kbd-macro}
@example
(vip-unrecord-kbd-macro macro state)
@end example
@noindent
The second argument must be @code{'vi-state}, @code{'insert-state}, or
@code{'emacs-state}. The first argument is a name of a macro.  To avoid
mistakes in specifying names of existing macros, type @kbd{M-x
vip-describe-kbd-macros} and use a name from the list displayed by this
command.

If an error occurs during macro definition, Emacs
aborts the process, and it must be repeated. This is analogous to Vi,
except that in Vi the user doesn't know there is an error until the macro is
actually run. All that means that in order for a definition to be
successful, the user must do some simple planning of the process in
advance, to avoid errors.  For instance, if you want to map @kbd{gg} to
@kbd{llll} in Vi state, you must make sure that there is enough room on the
current line. Since @kbd{l} moves the cursor forward, it may signal an
error on reaching the end of line, which will abort the definition.

These precautions are necessary only when defining macros; they will help
avoid the need to redo the job. When macros are actually run, an error
during the execution will simply terminate the current execution
(but the macro will remain mapped).

A macro name can be a string of characters or a vector of keys.
The latter makes it possible to define macros bound to, say, double-hits
on a function key, such as @kbd{up} or @kbd{f13}.
This is very useful if you run out of function keys on your keyboard; it
makes Viper macro facility a @emph{keyboard doubler}, so to speak.

Elsewhere (@xref{Keybindings}, for details), we review
the standard Emacs mechanism for binding function keys to commands.
For instance, 

@example
(global-set-key [f13] 'repeat-complex-command)
@end example

@noindent
binds the key f13 to the Emacs function that repeats the last minibuffer
command. Under Viper, however, you may still use this key for additional
purposes, if you bind, say, a double-hitting action for that key to some
other function. Emacs doesn't allow the user to do that, but Viper does
this through its keyboard macro facility. To do this, type @kbd{:map }
first. When you are asked to enter a macro name, hit f13 twice, followed by
RET or SPC.

Emacs will now start the mapping process by actually executing 
Vi and Emacs commands, so that you could see what will happen each time the
macro is executed. Suppose now we wanted to bind the key sequence
@kbd{f13 f13} to the command @code{eval-last-sexp}. To accomplish this, we
can type @kbd{M-x eval-last-sexp} followed by @kbd{C-x )}.
If you answer positively to Viper's offer to save this macro in @file{~/.vip}
for future uses, the following will be inserted in that file:

@example
(vip-record-kbd-macro [f16 f16] 'vi-state
         [(meta x) e v a l - l a s t - s e x p]
         'lisp-interaction-mode)
@end example

To illustrate the above point, Viper provides two canned macros, which, by
default, are bound to @kbd{[f12 \1]} and @kbd{[f12 \2]} (invoked by typing
@kbd{f12} then @kbd{1} and @kbd{2}, respectively).  These macros are useful
shortcuts to Viper's command ring history.  The first macro will execute the
second-last destructive command (the last one is executed by @kbd{.}, as
usual). The second macro executes the third-last command.

If you need to go deeper into the command history, you will have to use
other commands, as described earlier in this section; or you can bind,
say, @kbd{f12 \3} like this:

@example
(vip-record-kbd-macro [f12 \3] 'vi-state
                      [(meta x) r e p e a t - f r o m - h i s t o r y]
                      t)
@end example


Note that even though the macro uses the function key @kbd{f12}, the key is
actually free and can still be bound to some Emacs function via
@code{define-key} or @code{global-set-key}.


Viper allows the user to define macro names that are prefixes of other macros.
For instance, one can define @kbd{[[} and @kbd{[[[[} to be macros.
If you type the exact sequence of such keys and then pause, Viper will
execute the right macro. However, if you don't pause and, say, type
@kbd{[[[[text} then the conflict is resolved as follows. If only one of the
key sequences, @kbd{[[} or @kbd{[[[[} has a definition applicable to the
current buffer, then, in fact, there is no conflict and the right macro
will be chosen. If both have applicable definitions, then the first one
found will be executed. Usually this is the macro with a shorter name. So,
in our case, @kbd{[[[[text} will cause the macro @kbd{[[} to be executed
twice and then the remaining keys, @kbd{t e x t}, will be processed.

When defining macros using @kbd{:map} or @kbd{:map!}, the user enters the
actually keys to be used to invoke the macro. For instance, you should hit
the actual key @kbd{f6} if it is to be part of a macro name; you do
@emph{not} write `f 6'. When entering keys, Viper displays them as strings or
vectors (e.g., "abc" or [f6 f7 a]). The same holds for unmapping. Hitting
TAB while typing a macro name in the @kbd{:unmap} or @kbd{:unmap!} command
will cause name completion. Completions are displayed as strings or vectors.
However, as before, you don't actually type ``"'', ``['', or ``]'' that
appear in the completions. These are meta-symbols that indicate whether
the corresponding macro name is a vector or a string.

One last difference from Vi: Vi-style keyboard macros cannot be defined in
terms of other Vi-style keyboard macros (but named Emacs macros are OK).
More precisely, while defining or executing a macro, the special meaning 
of key sequences (as Vi macros) is ignored.
This is because it is all too easy to create an infinite loop in this way.
Since Viper macros are much more powerful than Vi's it is impossible to
detect such loops. In practice, this is not really a limitation but,
rather, a feature.

We should also note that Vi macros are disabled in the Minibuffer, which
helps keep some potential troubles away.

The rate at which the user must type keys in order for them to be
recognized as a timeout macro is controlled by the variable
@code{vip-fast-keyseq-timeout}, which defaults to 200 milliseconds.
@vindex @code{vip-fast-keyseq-timeout}

For the most part, Viper macros defined in @file{~/.vip} can be shared
between Emacs, XEmacs, and X and TTY modes.  However, macros defined via
function keys may need separate definitions when XEmacs and Emacs have
different names for the same keyboard key. For instance, the `Page Up' key
may be known in Emacs as @kbd{prior} and in XEmacs as @kbd{pgup}.
The problem with TTY may be that the function keys there generate sequences
of events instead of a single event (as under a window system).
Both Emacs and XEmacs mape some of these sequences back to the logical keys
(e.g., the sequences generated by the arrow keys are mapped to @kbd{up},
@kbd{left}, etc.). However, not all function keys are mapped in this way.
Macros that are bound to key sequences that contain such unmapped function
keys have to be redefined for TTY's (and possibly for every type of TTY you
may be using). To do this, start Emacs on an appropriate TTY device and
define the macro using @kbd{:map}, as usual.

@findex @code{vip-describe-kbd-macros}
Finally, Viper provides a function that conveniently displays all macros
currently defined. To see all macros along with their definitions, type
@kbd{M-x vip-describe-kbd-macros}.

@include viper-cmd.texi

@node Acknowledgments,,,Top
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Acknowledgments

Viper, formerly known as VIP-19, was written by Michael Kifer. Viper is
based on the original VIP package by Masahiko Sato and on its enhancement,
VIP 4.4, by Aamod Sane. This manual is an adaptation of the manual for VIP
4.4, which, in turn, was based on Sato's manual for VIP 3.5.

Many contributors on the net pointed out bugs and suggested a number of
useful features. Here is a (hopefully) complete list of contributors:

@example
jjm@@hplb.hpl.hp.com (Jean-Jacques Moreau), jl@@cse.ogi.edu (John
Launchbury), rxga@@ulysses.att.com, jamesm@@bga.com (D.J. Miller II),
ascott@@fws214.intel.com (Andy Scott), toma@@convex.convex.com,
dave@@hellgate.utah.edu, cook@@biostat.wisc.edu
(Tom Cook), lindstro@@biostat.wisc.edu (Mary Lindstrom),
edmonds@@edmonds.home.cs.ubc.ca (Brian Edmonds), mveiga@@dit.upm.es
(Marcelino Veiga Tuimil), dwight@@toolucky.llnl.gov (Dwight Shih),
phil_brooks@@MENTORG.COM (Phil Brooks), kin@@isi.com (Kin Cho),
ahg@@panix.com (Al Gelders), dwallach@@cs.princeton.edu (Dan Wallach),
hpz@@ibmhpz.aug.ipp-garching.mpg.de (Hans-Peter Zehrfeld),
simonb@@prl.philips.co.uk (Simon Blanchard), Mark.Bordas@@East.Sun.COM
(Mark Bordas), gviswana@@cs.wisc.edu (Guhan Viswanathan),
meyering@@comco.com (Jim Meyering), pfister@@cs.sunysb.edu (Hanspeter
Pfister),  amade@@diagram.fr (Paul-Bernard Amade),
jackr@@dblues.engr.sgi.com (Jack Repenning),
pogrell@@informatik.hu-berlin.de (Lutz Pogrell),
csdayton@@midway.uchicago.edu (Soren Dayton),
pradyut@@cs.uchicago.edu (Pradyut Shah),
vrenjak@@sun1.racal.com (Milan Vrenjak),
gvr@@halcyon.com (George V. Reilly),
whicken@@dragon.parasoft.com (Wendell Hicken),
terra@@diku.dk (Morten Welinder),
kanze@@gabi-soft.fr (James Kanze),
hatazaki@@bach.convex.com (Takao Hatazaki),
sawdey@@lcse.umn.edu (Aaron Sawdey),
jobrien@@hchp.org (John O'Brien),
mrb@@Eng.Sun.COM (Martin Buchholz)
@end example


@node Key Index,Function Index,,Top    
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@node Function Index,Variable Index,Key Index,Top    
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Function Index

@printindex fn

@node Variable Index,Package Index,Function Index,Top    
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Variable Index

@printindex vr

@node Package Index,Concept Index,Variable Index,Top    
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Package Index

@printindex pg

@node Concept Index,,Package Index,Top    
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp

@contents
@bye