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xemacs-beta / man / oo-browser.texi

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\input psfig.sty
\input texinfo  @c -*-texinfo-*-

@c
@c SUMMARY:      The OO-Browser User Manual for V2
@c USAGE:        Hardcopy man from TeX; Info man from `texinfo-format-buffer'.
@c
@c AUTHOR:       Bob Weiner
@c
@c ORG:          InfoDock Associates.  We sell corporate support and
@c               development contracts for InfoDock, Emacs and XEmacs.
@c               E-mail: <info@infodock.com>  Web: http://www.infodock.com
@c               Tel: +1 408-243-3300
@c
@c ORIG-DATE:    10-Apr-90
@c LAST-MOD:     21-Feb-97 at 18:36:33 by Bob Weiner
@c
@c DESCRIPTION:  
@c DESCRIP-END.

@c %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@setfilename ../info/oo-browser.info
@settitle The OO-Browser User Manual
@c %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@synindex vr fn

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@titlepage
@sp 4
@center @titlefont{The OO-Browser User Manual}
@sp 1
@center The Multi-language Object-Oriented Code Browser
@sp 5
@center Bob Weiner
@center InfoDock Associates
@sp 1
@center E-mail: <oo-browser@@infodock.com>  (This is a mailing list.)
@sp 2
@center Edition 2.10
@sp 2
@center February 19, 1997

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1989-1997  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective
holders.

InfoDock Associates, the developer of the OO-Browser and InfoDock (an
industrial quality turn-key version of XEmacs), donates its work on
the OO-Browser to the Free Software Foundation and makes it freely
available for worldwide distribution.

InfoDock Associates is a commercial firm dedicated to radical productivity
improvement in technical environments, whether in software development or
other knowledge intensive disciplines.  Our initial offerings include high
quality commercial support, training, books and custom package development
for InfoDock, XEmacs or GNU Emacs on a variety of platforms.

@example
  E-mail: <info@@infodock.com>
  Web:    http://www.infodock.com
  Tel:    +1 408-243-3300
@end example

@setchapternewpage on
@end titlepage
@page

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Preface

@ifinfo
@noindent
Copyright @copyright{} 1989-1997  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective holders.

InfoDock Associates, the developer of the OO-Browser and InfoDock (an
industrial quality turn-key version of XEmacs), donates its work on
the OO-Browser to the Free Software Foundation and makes it freely
available for worldwide distribution.

InfoDock Associates is a commercial firm dedicated to radical productivity
improvement in technical environments, whether in software development or
other knowledge intensive disciplines.  Our initial offerings include high
quality commercial support, training, books and custom package development
for InfoDock, XEmacs or GNU Emacs on a variety of platforms.

@example
  E-mail: <info@@infodock.com>
  Web:    http://www.infodock.com
  Tel:    +1 408-243-3300
@end example

@end ifinfo

This edition of the OO-Browser User Manual is for use with any version
2.10 or greater of the OO-Browser.  The OO-Browser is available for
free use, distribution, and modification under the terms of version 2 or
later of the GNU Public License (GPL).  No representations are made
about the suitability of this software for any purpose.  It is provided
"as is" without express or implied warranty.

@cindex credits
@cindex InfoDock, obtaining
@cindex OO-Browser, obtaining
@cindex anonymous ftp
The OO-Browser was designed and written by Bob Weiner of InfoDock
Associates.  Motorola, Inc@. help fund early work.  Torgeir Veimo and
Mark Stern helped write the X OO-Browser core.  Don Yacktman helped
write the NEXTSTEP OO-Browser core.  Jeff Sparkes helped with the Java
language support.  Harri Pasanen helped with the Python language
support.

@vindex file, BR-README
@cindex README file
@cindex installation
The OO-Browser and InfoDock can be obtained via anonymous ftp on the
Internet from: @file{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/infodock}.
Installation instructions for the OO-Browser can be found in the
@file{BR-README} file in the OO-Browser distribution.

This manual documents the user interface and operation of the OO-Browser
multi-language browser.  It assumes a very basic familiarity in the use
of the GNU Emacs editor as documented in @cite{[Stallman 87]}.  It also
assumes familiarity with object-oriented software concepts.  However,
many technical terms used in this manual are given precise meaning in
the glossary.  @xref{Glossary}.  The OO-Browser is meant to be easy to
use, so you can point and click to use it, rather than learning all of
the key stroke commands.@refill

Chapter 1 of the manual focuses on OO-Browser Environments to provide
the reader with a picture of how to organize work for use with the
OO-Browser (@pxref{Environments,,Working with Environments}).
@xref{Usage,,Using the OO-Browser}, if you would rather start with the
interactive features of the browser.  @xref{Features,,OO-Browser
Features}, for a quick overview of the browser's features.@refill

Throughout this manual, sequences of key strokes are delimited by braces,
@{@}, command names are delimited by parentheses, (), and variable names
are emphasized.@refill

We hope that you enjoy using the OO-Browser and that it improves your
productivity.

@menu
* Introduction::                Introduction
* Environments::                Working with Environments
* Usage::                       Using the OO-Browser
* Options::                     OO-Browser Options
* Customization::               Personal Customization
* Standalone::                  Using Standalone OO-Browser Features
* Languages::                   Language-Specific Notes
* Features::                    OO-Browser Features
* Commands::                    OO-Browser Command Descriptions
* Glossary::                    Glossary
* References::                  References
* Keys::                        Key Binding Index
* Command Index::               Command and Variable Index
* Concepts::                    Concept Index

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Working with Environments

* Creating Environments::
* Building Environments::
* Loading Environments::
* Saving Environments::

Using the OO-Browser

* Invoking::                    Invoking the OO-Browser
* Top-Level Classes::           Displaying Top-Level Classes
* Moving to Entries::
* Saving Listings::             Writing a Listing to a File
* Children and Parents::        Browsing Children and Parents
* Descendants and Ancestors::   Browsing Descendants and Ancestors
* Viewing and Editing::         Viewing and Editing Classes
* Browsing Elements::
* Browsing Categories::
* Browsing Protocols::
* Browsing Implementors::
* Exiting a Listing::
* Quitting and Refreshing::     Quitting and Refreshing the OO-Browser
* Using the Mouse::
* Getting Help::
* Locating Entries::
* Filtering Entries::
* Ordering Entries::
* Statistics::                  Environment and Class Summaries
* Class Info::                  Language-Specific Class Information
* Adding and Deleting Classes::
* Completing Names::
* Graphical Browsing::          Graphical OO-Browser Interfaces

OO-Browser Options

* External Viewing::            Using An External Viewer or Editor
* Inherited Features::          Toggling Inherited Feature Display
* Graphical Add Features::      Add Features to a Graphical View
* Keep Viewed Classes::         
* Inhibit Version::             Inhibit Version Screen
* Invert Ancestors::            Invert Ancestor Trees
* Save All::                    Save All Lookup Tables
* Use Children::                Build Children Lookup Table
* Sort Options::                Controlling Class Listing Order

Language-Specific Notes

* C Specifics::               
* C++ Specifics::               
* CLOS Specifics::              
* Eiffel Specifics::            
* Java Specifics::               
* Objective-C Specifics::              
* Python Specifics::

C++ Specifics

* C++ Element Selection::       Source Code Element Selection
* C++ Settings::

CLOS Specifics

* CLOS Method Handling::        Method Handling
* CLOS Settings::

Eiffel Specifics

* Eiffel Listings::
* Eiffel Element Selection::    Source Code Element Selection
* Eiffel Settings::

Objective-C Specifics

* Objective-C Categories::
* Objective-C Protocols::
* Objective-C Element Selection::  Source Code Element Selection
* Objective-C Settings::

Python Specifics

* Python Module Lookup::       Source Code Element Selection
* Python Settings::

@end menu

@node Introduction, Environments, Top, Top
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Introduction

@cindex OO-Browser
@cindex Smalltalk
The @dfn{OO-Browser} (pronounced owe-owe-browse-er) is a multi-windowed,
interactive, object-oriented class browser designed for professional
use.  Its user interface is similar to the well-known Smalltalk browsers
@cite{[Goldberg 83]}, yet it is much more flexible and easy to use.

@cindex Eiffel
@cindex C++
@cindex C
@cindex Objective-C
@cindex CLOS
@cindex Python
@cindex Smalltalk
@cindex Info
@noindent
The OO-Browser is unique in several respects:
@itemize @bullet
@item
It currently supports seven object-oriented languages (C++, CLOS (Lisp),
Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Python and Smalltalk), one
non-object-oriented language (C), and one documentation language, (GNU
Info).

@item
It may be used for both system exploration and for browsing purposes as
part of a professional software development tool chest.

@item
It quickly displays and provides views of complicated inheritance trees,
making it an important tool for understanding object-oriented systems.

@item
It has a completely direct-manipulation interface with multiple modalities.

@item
It is integrated with a powerful editing environment that can be
customized to meet personal work styles.
@end itemize

@cindex listing buffer
@cindex listing window
@cindex viewer window
@cindex user interface
The picture on the following page highlights the major components of
the OO-Browser user interface.  (If you are reading the online Info
version of this manual, see the last paragraph of this node for a link
to the aforementioned picture.)

The windows across the top of the OO-Browser frame are called @dfn{class
listing windows}; they display @dfn{listing buffers} with a single class
name per line.  The @dfn{viewer window} fills the bottom half of the
frame.  It is used to display class source and summary information.  It
is also used to display help on the OO-Browser command set.  Pictured
here in the viewer window is part of the browser help buffer,
summarizing its command key bindings.

All key bindings described throughout this manual are effective only
within listing buffers, unless otherwise indicated.  This means
that the keys may not be used within the buffers displayed in the class
viewer window.  Instead, all normal editing keys are available in most
buffers displayed in the viewer window.

@cindex textual interface
@iftex
@sp 2
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/oobr-text.eps}}
@end iftex
@ifinfo
Mouse click on the following filename to view a picture of
the textual OO-Browser: @file{im/oobr-text.eps}.  Under InfoDock, use the
middle mouse button.  Under Emacs with the Hyperbole system loaded, use
the shift-middle mouse button or shift-left on a two button mouse.
Otherwise, there is no built-in way to view the picture.
@end ifinfo

@node Environments, Usage, Introduction, Top
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Working with Environments

@cindex Environment, the
@cindex Library search list
@cindex System search list
Whenever the OO-Browser is in use, an Environment is selected.  An
Environment may be built or simply specified.  An @dfn{Environment
specification} tells the browser what to include in the construction of
an Environment.  (@xref{Creating Environments}, for more information.)
An OO-Browser @dfn{Environment} includes a set of inter-class
relationships together with a few browser settings.  The phrase,
@dfn{the Environment}, refers to the current OO-Browser Environment.
Many browser commands depend on information in the Environment.@refill

The set of classes included in an Environment is specified by two lists
of directories, below which all of the Environment's class source files
are to be found.  (The OO-Browser will automatically search
sub-directories below the directories specified.)  The first list of
directories is called the @dfn{Library search list}; it defines the
locations of stable, typically reusable classes that have been released
for general use.  The second list is called the @dfn{System search
list}; it defines the locations of unreleased classes being developed,
often for a particular system.  All class names within a single
Environment must be unique to ensure proper operation of the browser.

The OO-Browser lets one create, update and save Environments.  Once an
Environment file has been created, it may be loaded at any time.  The
browser will then use this Environment for all of its operations until
another one is loaded.

The browser maintains a separate Environment for each programming
language on which it is used.  Thus, if one switches from Eiffel to
C++ browsing and then back to Eiffel browsing, the Eiffel environment
will not need to be reloaded; it will appear immediately and the
frame will appear as if the Eiffel OO-Browser were invoked for the
first time.

@cindex Environment, default
The recommended default name for Environment files is, @file{OOBR}.
We recommend that you store each Environment in the top-level directory
of the first system pathname in the Environment, i.e@. the root
directory of a system's code.

Environment files are automatically created and loaded by the OO-Browser
so that you need never become familiar with their format.  You are
responsible for remembering which Environment files you create and for
requesting their use whenever desired.  @xref{Invoking,,Invoking the
OO-Browser}, for information on how to specify a different Environment
file for use.@refill

@menu
* Creating Environments::
* Building Environments::
* Loading Environments::
* Saving Environments::
@end menu


@node Creating Environments, Building Environments, Environments, Environments
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Creating Environments

@cindex Environment specification
Environment specifications are useful when one wants to describe a
number of Environments to the OO-Browser but wants to defer their
construction until later.  Large environments then can be built
overnight.  @xref{Building Environments}, for more information.@refill

@kindex C-c C-c
@findex br-env-create
@cindex initialization file
Every Environment must be specified before it can be built or used.
Thus, specifying an Environment is the first step in creating it.
Environment specifications are created with the @{@kbd{C-c C-c}@}
@code{(br-env-create)} command, which prompts for all necessary
information.  This command may be invoked repeatedly to quickly specify
a number of different Environments.@refill

@noindent
Here are the Environment specification components for which you will be
prompted:
@table @code
@item System search directories
List of directories below which other System directories containing
class source code and directories of class source files may be found.

@item Library search directories
List of directories below which Library files of class source code
and directories of class source files may be found.

@emph{EIFFEL NOTE: We strongly suggest that if you have previous
versions of library class source below any of these directories, that
you move them elsewhere, e.g. ISE's Eiffel version "2.1" directory of
source.  These will cause class naming conflicts that the browser will
not resolve to your satisfaction.  The basic rule is that every class
name within a single Environment should be unique.  Use @{@kbd{M-e}@} to
help find duplicate classes.}
@end table


@node Building Environments, Loading Environments, Creating Environments, Environments
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Building Environments

@cindex Environment building
An Environment specification tells the OO-Browser what to include in the
Environment, but the Environment still must be built before use.  When a
new Environment must be built or when a large number of changes have
been made to classes in the Environment, the following commands are
useful:

@findex br-env-rebuild
@findex br-lib-rebuild
@findex br-sys-rebuild
@kindex C-c C-e
@kindex L
@kindex S
@table @kbd
@item @{C-c C-e@}
build all Env classes @code{(br-env-rebuild)}  (This prompts for whether
or not to use a background process to build the Environment.)
@item @{L@}
build Env Library classes only @code{(br-lib-rebuild)}
@item @{S@}
build Env System classes only @code{(br-sys-rebuild)}
@end table


When class names or locations have changed or the Environment's
inheritance structure is modified, the Environment must be rebuilt.  For
small Environment changes, one may use the class addition and deletion
features of the browser.  @xref{Adding and Deleting Classes}, for more
information.@refill

@cindex Environment building, batch
@cindex large Environments
The OO-Browser lets you build large environments in the background so
you can go on to other work while waiting on a build.  When the build is
complete, it will ask you whether you want to browse the built Environment.

Alternatively, very large Environments may be built overnight by
invoking Emacs in batch mode at a scheduled time.  To do this, you must
first create an Environment specification so that the browser knows what
to build.  @xref{Creating Environments}.  Then use a shell command
line of the form below (substitute your local OO-Browser installation
directory for @emph{<BR-DIR>}):@*
@example
emacs -batch -l <BR-DIR>/br-start.el @emph{Env-Spec-File} \
      ... @emph{Spec File} -f br-env-batch-build > log-file
@end example
@noindent
for example:@*
@example
emacs -batch -l br-start.el OOBR -f br-env-batch-build > log-file
@end example

Typically when using the above command line, one should redirect
the standard output stream to a log file for later examination, as is
done in the above example.  This helps ensure that either the
Environment built successfully or a message indicating the cause of
failure is provided.

@node Loading Environments, Saving Environments, Building Environments, Environments
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Loading Environments

@cindex Environment loading
@cindex loading an Environment
@kindex C-c C-o
@findex oo-browser command
@vindex br-env-default-file
@vindex file, OOBR
@cindex default Environment
A new Environment may be loaded for use at any time within the
OO-Browser.  One may either select the load Environment command from the
OO-Browser command summary or may use the @{@kbd{C-c C-o}@}
@code{(oo-browser)} command to select a language and environment to load.
When prompted for the Environment file to load or create, an immediate
@{@key{RET}@} will browse the most recently loaded Environment, if any.
Otherwise, it will create and load the Environment file in the current
directory whose name is given by the @var{br-env-default-file} variable
(default is @file{OOBR}).

@node Saving Environments,  , Loading Environments, Environments
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Saving Environments

The OO-Browser automatically builds and saves Environments in most
cases.  Occasionally one may find a need to force the Environment to
be saved to a file, as in the case when one wants to save an Environment
under a different file name.

@kindex C-c C-s
@findex br-env-save
Use @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@}, the @code{(br-env-save)} command to force an
Environment save to occur.  The command will prompt for a file to save
to, with the default as the current Environment file name.


@node Usage, Options, Environments, Top
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@chapter Using the OO-Browser

@menu
* Invoking::                    Invoking the OO-Browser
* Top-Level Classes::           Displaying Top-Level Classes
* Moving to Entries::
* Saving Listings::             Writing a Listing to a File
* Children and Parents::        Browsing Children and Parents
* Descendants and Ancestors::   Browsing Descendants and Ancestors
* Viewing and Editing::         Viewing and Editing Classes
* Browsing Elements::
* Browsing Categories::
* Browsing Protocols::
* Browsing Implementors::
* Exiting a Listing::
* Quitting and Refreshing::     Quitting and Refreshing the OO-Browser
* Using the Mouse::
* Getting Help::
* Locating Entries::
* Filtering Entries::
* Ordering Entries::
* Statistics::                  Environment and Class Summaries
* Class Info::                  Language-Specific Class Information
* Adding and Deleting Classes::
* Completing Names::
* Graphical Browsing::          Graphical OO-Browser Interfaces
@end menu

@node Invoking, Top-Level Classes, Usage, Usage
@section Invoking the OO-Browser

@cindex invoking the OO-Browser
@cindex starting the OO-Browser
@kindex C-c C-o
@findex oo-browser
@cindex language support
The OO-Browser supports the following languages: C++ or G++, C, Info
(the online manual format), CLOS (Lisp), Eiffel, Objective-C, Java (as
documented in @cite{[Java 95]}), Python and Smalltalk.  The OO-Browser may be
used on source written in any of these languages by using @{@kbd{C-c
C-o}@} or, if that key has not been setup, by using @{@kbd{M-x
oo-browser @key{RET}}@}.  This command will prompt for the language to
browse, the Environment specification of directories to browse, and then
will either load the Environment or build it.  After the Environment is
built, it will display the set of classes (or nodes) in the Environment.
(Choose C++ if you are browsing plain C code.)

@kindex C-u C-c C-o
@cindex current Environment
@cindex Environment, current
@cindex oo-browser, restarting
If you have exited the browser using @{@kbd{q}@} and wish to browse the
same Environment again, use @{@kbd{C-u C-c C-o}@}, which will
immediately redisplay the browser just as you left it.

@findex c++-browse
@findex eif-browse
@findex info-browse
@findex clos-browse
@findex objc-browse
@findex python-browse
@findex smt-browse
Alternatively, you can invoke the browser on a specific language
Environment, e.g@. to bring back the last Environment browsed under that
language.  The language-specific browser invocation commands are:
@{@kbd{M-x eif-browse @key{RET}}@}, @{@kbd{M-x c++-browse @key{RET}}@},
@{@kbd{M-x info-browse @key{RET}}@}, @{@kbd{M-x clos-browse
@key{RET}}@}, @{@kbd{M-x objc-browse @key{RET}}@},
@{@kbd{M-x python-browse @key{RET}}@}.@refill

@cindex Environment file
@cindex prefix argument
@cindex Environment, prompting for
@noindent
A prefix argument given to any of these commands will cause it to prompt
for an Environment file to use as the current Environment.

On startup, if the selected Environment has been saved to a file, it
will be loaded; otherwise, the user will be asked to specify the
Environment.  The specification will be saved under the previously given
file name.  The browser will then load this Environment specification
file.

@cindex aborting
@cindex canceling
@kindex C-g
@findex keyboard-quit
If the browser loads an Environment file and finds only a specification,
it will prompt the user in the minibuffer window with a request to build
the Environment.  It will continue to prompt the user until a full
Environment is built or loaded and then the browser will start,
displaying its multi-windowed interface.  To abort from these prompts
and to cancel the browser invocation request at any time, use
@{@kbd{C-g}@} @code{(keyboard-quit)}, the standard way to abort an
unfinished command within Emacs.

Once an Environment has been loaded, entering and quitting the browser
are rapid actions, allowing a smooth transition between editing and
browsing.


@node Top-Level Classes, Moving to Entries, Invoking, Usage
@section Displaying Top-Level Classes

@cindex classes, top-level
The OO-Browser starts by displaying all top-level classes in the
Environment.  @dfn{Top-level classes} are those that do not inherit from
any others.  The browser can show all top-level classes or System or
Library classes only.  Once in the browser, use:

@kindex s
@findex br-sys-top-classes
@kindex l
@findex br-lib-top-classes
@kindex t
@findex br-top-classes
@table @kbd
@item @{s@}
System top-level classes only
@item @{l@}
Library top-level classes only
@item @{t@}
all top-level classes in Environment
@end table

Note that selection of any of these commands does not affect the ancestry or
descendancy trees for any given class.  Each simply limits which trees are
easily accessible for browsing.  For example, selection of Library
top-level classes only, followed by the browser show children command,
@{@kbd{c}@} @code{(br-children)}, would display the name of a System
class if the System class directly inherits from the selected Library
class.

@cindex classes, all
@cindex Environment, ordering classes
To see an ordered listing of all of the classes in a particular part of
an Environment, use a prefix argument with the commands given above:

@table @kbd
@item @{C-u s@}
all System classes
@item @{C-u l@}
all Library classes
@item @{C-u t@}
all Environment classes.
@end table

@node Moving to Entries, Saving Listings, Top-Level Classes, Usage
@section Moving to Entries

@kindex C-n
@findex br-next-entry
@kindex C-p
@findex br-prev-entry
@cindex previous entry
@cindex entry, previous
@cindex next entry
@cindex entry, next
@cindex movement
Many browser commands operate on the current entry in a listing window.
@{@kbd{C-n}@} @code{(br-next-entry)} moves point to
the next entry in a listing buffer.  @{@kbd{C-p}@}
@code{(br-prev-entry)} moves to the previous entry.  Both take prefix
arguments and use them as the number of entries by which to move.

@node Saving Listings, Children and Parents, Moving to Entries, Usage
@section Writing a Listing to a File

@kindex C-c C-w
@findex br-write-buffer
@cindex listing, editing
@cindex listing, writing to a file
Many standard editing keys are rebound in listing buffers to
provide a useful set of accessible commands.  Nonetheless, one needs to
be able to store and to edit listing buffers.  The @{@kbd{C-c
C-w}@} @code{(br-write-buffer)} command provides this capability.  The
command prompts for a file name under which to save the current buffer.
One may then quit the browser, read in the file and edit it as a plain
text file.

@node Children and Parents, Descendants and Ancestors, Saving Listings, Usage
@section Browsing Children and Parents

@kindex c
@findex br-children
@kindex p
@findex br-parents
@cindex browsing, children
@cindex children
@cindex browsing, parents
@cindex parents
@{@kbd{c}@} displays the children of the class at point; @{@kbd{p}@}
displays its parents.  @{@kbd{C-u c}@} displays the children of all classes
in the present listing window; @{@kbd{C-u p}@} does the same for parents.

@node Descendants and Ancestors, Viewing and Editing, Children and Parents, Usage
@section Browsing Descendants and Ancestors

@cindex browsing, ancestors
@cindex ancestors
@cindex browsing, descendants
@cindex descendants
The OO-Browser is very fast at computing ancestor and descendant hierarchies,
accounting for multiple inheritance and cycles where permitted.  Descendant
and ancestor listings provide an immediate overview of some key relationships
among class groupings.

@kindex d
@findex br-descendants
@kindex a
@findex br-ancestors
With point on any class entry line in a listing buffer, @{@kbd{d}@}
shows descendants for the class and @{@kbd{a}@} shows ancestors.
@{@kbd{C-u d}@} shows the descendant trees for all classes in the
current listing buffer and @{@kbd{C-u a}@} does the same for ancestors.

@cindex ancestors, inverted
@vindex br-invert-ancestors
The ancestor tree for a given root class is normally shown branching out
from the root class.  This means that higher-level ancestors, those
further away from the root class, are shown in descending trees below
lower-level ancestors.  The leaves of the tree represent the ancestors
furthest from the root, as one might expect.

This, however, is the inverse of inheritance trees.  Some people prefer
to see ancestor trees like inheritance trees, with parents above
children.  This is an @dfn{inverted ancestor tree}.  To obtain this
view of ancestors use @{@kbd{M- -1 a}@} for ancestors of the current
class.  For ancestors of all classes in the current buffer, use
@{@kbd{M- -2 a}@}, or any negative prefix argument lest than -1.
Inverted ancestor trees may be made the default by setting
@code{br-invert-ancestors} non-nil, as in:

@display
	@{@kbd{M-x set-variable @key{RET} br-invert-ancestors @key{RET} t @key{RET}}@}
@end display

@noindent
This is a personal setting that affects all Environments used by the browser.

@node Viewing and Editing, Browsing Elements, Descendants and Ancestors, Usage
@section Viewing and Editing Classes

@kindex v
@findex br-view-entry
@cindex classes, viewing
@cindex viewing a class
@kindex e
@findex br-edit-entry
@cindex classes, editing
@cindex editing a class
One of the major uses of the OO-Browser is to view or edit class source
texts.  @{@kbd{v}@} will view the source for the class or element name
at point in a read-only mode in the viewer window; it will not select
the viewer window.  @{@kbd{e}@} does the same, except that it edits the
element source in a read-write mode, if the user has write permission for
the source file.  It also selects the viewer window.

@cindex classes, name completion
@cindex completion
A prefix argument to either of these commands, as in @{@kbd{C-u v}@} or
@{@kbd{C-u e}@}, causes them to prompt for the entry to display.
Full class and element name completion is provided once an Environment
has been loaded and built.  @xref{Completing Names}.@refill

@vindex br-edit-file-function
@vindex br-view-file-function
The value of the variable @var{br-edit-file-function} is the function
that the browser calls when a source file entity is displayed for editing.
The value of @var{br-view-file-function} is the function called to view
a source file entity.  @xref{External Viewing,,Using an External
Viewer or Editor}, for information on using non-Emacs editors and
viewers with the browser.

If a user has no read access rights to a file, this will be apparent
when the browser tries to display the file and fails.  If the user does
not have write permission to the class source file, the standard
@var{br-edit-file-function} may display the file in a read-only mode
(indicated by two percent signs, %%, at the front of the buffer mode
line).  This is a warning that one should not attempt to edit the file.
In some cases, one really wants to try to edit such a file; in those
cases, the buffer may be toggled between read-only and read-write modes
via the Emacs command, @code{(toggle-read-only)}, usually bound to
@{@kbd{C-x C-q}@}.

@kindex SPC
@findex br-viewer-scroll-up
@kindex DEL
@findex br-viewer-scroll-down
@cindex scrolling viewer
@cindex viewer, scrolling
Once a class has been displayed for viewing, @{@key{SPC}@} will scroll its
source text up (forward) almost a windowful; @{@key{DEL}@} will scroll it
down (backward) almost a windowful.  In fact, this is a general means
for scrolling the OO-Browser viewer window whenever point, as shown by
the Emacs cursor, is in a listing window.  When a class is
selected for editing, @{@kbd{C-v}@} will scroll up, @{@kbd{M-v}@} will
scroll down, assuming the standard Emacs key bindings. 

@kindex C-c C-v
@findex br-to-from-viewer
@cindex movement, to or from viewer
Sometimes one needs to quickly switch back and forth between the viewer
window and the current listing window.  The normal Emacs window
movement commands often are cumbersome in such instances.  Instead
@code{(br-to-from-viewer)} bound to @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@}, allows the
desired back and forth movement.  It acts as a toggle switch,
alternately moving between the buffer in the viewer window and the prior
listing buffer.

@cindex class, narrowing view to
@vindex br-narrow-view-to-class
@cindex classes, others same file
@kindex C-x n w
@kindex C-x w
@findex widen
By default, the OO-Browser displays class definition files in their
entirety.  If there are multiple classes in a file, you will be able to
scroll through all of them.  If you prefer that only the selected class
be visible, enable the @code{br-narrow-view-to-class} option flag.  When
set to a non-nil value, this flag narrows the source buffer so that only
the class of interest and its preceding comments are visible.  To
examine other classes in the same file, you must execute a @{@kbd{C-x n
w}@} @code{(widen)} command when in the narrowed buffer.  (Use
@{@kbd{C-x w}@} under Emacs 18.)

@kindex 1 (one)
@findex br-view-full-frame
@kindex C-x 1
@findex delete-other-windows
@cindex viewer, full frame
If the browser is used on a small screen, it may be helpful to use the
a full frame to view or edit a buffer of source code.  If point is in a
listing buffer, pressing @{@kbd{1}@}, the number one, will expand the
viewer window buffer to the full frame.  When the browser is
re-invoked, it will look just as it did before.  If point is in the
viewer window, @{@kbd{C-x 1}@} @code{(delete-other-windows)}, will do
practically the same thing, except that when the browser is re-invoked
it will not look precisely as it did before.

@kindex C-c C-k
@findex br-kill
@kindex C-x k
@findex kill-buffer
@cindex viewer, killing displayed buffer
If point is in a listing window, the buffer displayed in the
viewer window may be killed with the @{@kbd{C-c C-k}@} @code{(br-kill)}
command.  (A killed buffer is removed from the current Emacs session.)

If point is in the viewer window, as it will be after editing a class
buffer, use the standard Emacs command @{@kbd{C-x k}@}
@code{(kill-buffer)} instead.

@node Browsing Elements, Browsing Categories, Viewing and Editing, Usage
@section Browsing Elements
@cindex element
@cindex browsing elements
@cindex element browsing
@cindex instance browsing
@cindex feature
@cindex routine
@cindex attribute
@cindex Common Lisp
@cindex CLOS
A @dfn{feature} of a class is either a routine or attribute defined in
the class.  An @dfn{element} is either a feature or an instance of a
class.  A number of OO-Browser languages support feature browsing, as
documented in @ref{Languages}.  Instance browsing is only supported
in very limited form, for class instances which exist within the code
itself.  For example, under Common Lisp and CLOS, a default class called
@code{[function]} is defined whose instances are all named functions
defined within the environment.  A @dfn{default class} is a class
created to categorize elements of the Environment for browsing; default
classes are not specified within the Environment source code.

@kindex f
@kindex r
@findex br-features
Use @{@kbd{f}@} to display a listing of the features or elements
of the class at point, including inherited features.
Generally, this includes only routines.  Use @{@kbd{M-0 f}@} to turn off
the display of inherited features; use the same command again to
re-enable display of inherited features.

If inherited features are off and there are no feature definitions for
the class, the class definition is displayed instead, so that its
feature declarations may be browsed.

Use @{@kbd{C-u f}@} to display a listing of the features or elements of
all classes in the present listing window.  Prior versions of the
OO-Browser used @{@kbd{r}@} to display features.  This key remains for
backward compatibility but may be used for another purpose in the
future.

@kindex e
@findex br-edit-entry
@cindex edit element
@kindex v
@findex br-view-entry
@cindex view element
@kindex F
@findex br-feature-signature
@cindex signature
@cindex feature
Move point to an element name and use @{@kbd{v}@} to view its source
definition or @{@kbd{e}@} to edit its source.  Use @{@kbd{F}@} to see
the full signature tag of an element, which includes its argument names
and types, if any.  @{@kbd{C-u F}@} lists the signatures of all elements
in the current listing.  This is handy when several elements from the
same class have the same name but differ in signature.

@xref{Using the Mouse}, for how the Action and Assist Keys may be used
for browsing elements.

@node Browsing Categories, Browsing Protocols, Browsing Elements, Usage
@section Browsing Categories

@cindex category
@cindex class category
The definition of a @dfn{category} is language-specific.  Some languages such
as Smalltalk use categories to group related classes together.  The
OO-Browser does not yet support this kind of category.

A set of Objective-C categories segments a single class into groupings
of related features.  When a class category is defined, the category
name appears within a set of parentheses, so the OO-Browser displays
category names with parentheses around them to distinguish them from
classes.  The aggregation of all of the categories defined by a class
and its ancestors represents the complete class definition.  The
OO-Browser does support this kind of category.

@kindex C
Use the @{@kbd{C}@} key when point is on a class listing entry to obtain
a list of the categories defined for the class within the Environment
source code (this excludes inherited categories).  Use @{@kbd{C-u C}@}
to list the categories for all classes in the current listing.  Thus, to
see the full set of categories for a class, use @{@kbd{a}@} to list the
ancestors of the current class and then @{@kbd{C-u C}@} to show all
direct and inherited categories of the class.

@cindex implementor, category
@kindex v
@kindex e
Use @{@kbd{v}@} or @{@kbd{e}@} to view or edit the class category
definition associated with a category entry at point.  @xref{Browsing
Implementors}, for an explanation of how to browse the classes that
directly implement a category.

@kindex f
Use @{@kbd{f}@} with point on the default @code{[category]} class to
list all categories defined in the Environment.

@node Browsing Protocols, Browsing Implementors, Browsing Categories, Usage
@section Browsing Protocols

@cindex protocol
@cindex class protocol
@cindex conformance to protocol
@cindex formal protocol
The definition of a @dfn{protocol} is language-specific.
It generally refers to an interface specification to which a class is
said to conform.  A class conforms to a protocol by implementing the set
of features defined in the protocol.

Presently, the OO-Browser support protocols only under Objective-C.
Objective-C protocols are sometimes called @emph{formal protocols}.
Protocol interfaces are specified in a manner similar to classes but their
features are only implemented in conforming classes.  A single protocol
can inherit from any number of other protocols; thus, any conforming
class must conform to all of its ancestor protocols.

Class definitions list the protocols to which they directly conform,
within a set of angle brackets.  So the OO-Browser displays protocol
names with angle brackets around them to distinguish them from classes.

@kindex P
Use the @{@kbd{P}@} key when point is on a class listing entry to obtain
a list of the protocols to which the class directly conforms
(this excludes inherited protocols).  Use @{@kbd{C-u P}@}
to list the direct protocols for all classes in the current listing.
There is not yet a way to show the complete set of protocols to which a
class conforms, which includes all protocols inherited from other
protocols and all protocols inherited from ancestor classes.

@kindex v
@kindex e
If you use @{@kbd{P}@} when point is on a class' protocol entry, the
specification of the protocol will be displayed.  Use @{@kbd{v}@} or
@{@kbd{e}@} to view or edit the class or class category definition
associated with a protocol entry at point.

@cindex implementor, protocol
Use standard class browsing keys when on a protocol entry to examine its
parents, children, ancestors or descendants.  @xref{Browsing
Implementors}, for an explanation of how to browse the classes that
directly conform to a protocol.

@kindex f
Use @{@kbd{f}@} with point on the default @code{[protocol]} class to
list all protocols defined in the Environment.

@node Browsing Implementors, Exiting a Listing, Browsing Protocols, Usage
@section Browsing Implementors

@cindex implementor
@cindex element
@kindex I
@findex br-implementors
@kindex e
@kindex v
@kindex F
@cindex signature
Sometimes it is important to see the list of classes that define a
particular element name.  These are called the element's
@dfn{implementors}.  With point on an element listing, @{@kbd{I}@} will
compute and display the element's implementor list.  @{@kbd{C-u I}@} will
do the same for all elements in the present listing.

Move point to an implementor class name and then use @{@kbd{v}@} or
@{@kbd{e}@} to view or edit the element associated with the class.  If an
element name is defined with different signatures in a single class, the
class will be listed as an implementor multiple times.  Each class entry
can be used to display a different element.  @{@kbd{C-u F}@} will
display the element signature associated with each class entry in the
same order as the class entries in the present listing buffer.

@node Exiting a Listing, Quitting and Refreshing, Browsing Implementors, Usage
@section Exiting a Listing

@kindex x
@findex br-exit-level
@cindex exiting a listing level
When done with a browser listing buffer, one should clear and exit
from the buffer's display with @{@kbd{x}@}.  This command also displays
the previous listing level, if any, and moves point to its
previous position within this buffer.

In this way, the command provides a quick and clean way to exit back to a
previous listing level; you may exit a single level at a time or all the way
back to the top-level listing buffer through repeated invocation of the
command or by sending a prefix argument value to the command.

There is no need to exit from listing buffers to quit from the browser.  You
may quit, perform other actions, and then re-invoke the browser at the same
point from which you left.

@node Quitting and Refreshing, Using the Mouse, Exiting a Listing, Usage
@section Quitting and Refreshing the OO-Browser

@kindex q
@findex br-quit
@cindex quitting, temporarily
@cindex quitting, permanently
@{@kbd{q}@} quits from the browser temporarily.  The same command with a
prefix argument quits from the browser permanently and kills all
non-modified browser buffers.  It will not kill any of the class source
buffers.

@kindex C-c C-r
@findex br-refresh
@cindex refreshing the browser display
If you are familiar with Emacs windowing, you may quickly alter the window
configuration of the frame while in the browser, either intentionally or
more likely unintentionally.  If you execute non-browser Emacs commands while
in the browser, you may find other buffers have taken the place of your
browser buffers.  In either case, you may refresh the browser display and
restore it to the way it was when you originally invoked it, by using
@{@kbd{M-x br-refresh @key{RET}}@} or with @{@kbd{C-c C-r}@} when in a
browser listing buffer.

@node Using the Mouse, Getting Help, Quitting and Refreshing, Usage
@section Using the Mouse

@cindex mouse control
@kindex H
@findex br-help-ms
@cindex Action Key
@cindex Assist Key
@kindex Action Key
@kindex Assist Key
@cindex XEmacs
@cindex Emacs 19
@cindex InfoDock
@cindex Menu Key
Once configured, mouse control within the OO-Browser is helpful and easy
to use.  Under InfoDock, XEmacs and Emacs 19, the right mouse button,
called the Menu Key, pops up a menu of OO-Browser commands when clicked
within an OO-Browser listing buffer.  Under XEmacs and Emacs 19, the
same menu is added to the menubar used in listing buffers.  Under
InfoDock with mode-specific menus turned on, the menubar is devoted to
OO-Browser commands.

Even if the above features are not available to you, if you have mouse
support in your Emacs, the following features are available.  A single
mouse button, called the @dfn{Action Key}, is used for most purposes.
The Action Key is bound to the shift-middle mouse button under standard
Emacs, to the middle mouse button under InfoDock, or to the shift-left
button on a two-button mouse.

A second button, called the @dfn{Assist Key}, is used for help and other
ancillary functions.  The Assist Key is bound to the shift-right button.
The @file{br-help-ms} file uses a table format to summarize mouse
control within the browser, it may be displayed within the browser via
the @{@kbd{H}@} @code{(br-help-ms)} command.

Within an empty listing buffer, clicking the Action Key displays the
browser command menu; the Assist Key displays a menu listing
language-specific source files.  Within this menu, the Action Key
selects a buffer for display, the Assist Key marks the buffer for
deletion.  To perform the deletes, click the Action Key after the last
line of the menu.  If the Assist Key is clicked after the last line, the
deletes are undone and a list of all current editor buffers is shown,
allowing you to select buffers other than those containing classes.

The mouse buttons can be used to scroll the viewer window a page at a
time by clicking after the end of any line.  The Action Key scrolls the
window up (forward) a windowful and the Assist Key scrolls it down
(backward) a windowful.

The Action Key acts as follows when in an OO-Browser listing buffer.  If
the button is pressed:

@itemize @bullet
@item
on a blank line following all entries or in a blank listing buffer, the
browser command help menu is displayed in the viewer window
exited;@refill
@item
at the beginning of a (non-single character) class name, the class'
ancestors are listed;@refill
@item
at the end of an entry line, the listing is scrolled up;@refill
@item
on the `...', following a class name, point is moved to the class
descendency expansion;@refill
@item
before an element name, the implementor classes of the name are listed;@refill
@item
anywhere else on an entry line (i.e. on the entry), the entry's source
is displayed for editing.@refill
@end itemize

The Assist Key acts as follows when in a listing buffer.  If it is pressed: 

@itemize @bullet
@item
in a blank buffer, a selection list of buffer files is displayed;@refill
@item
at the beginning of a (non-single character) class, the class'
descendants are listed;@refill
@item
at the end of an entry line, the listing is scrolled down;@refill
@item
on the `...', following a class name, point is moved to the class
expansion;@refill
@item
anywhere else on a class line, the class' elements are listed;@refill
@item
anywhere else on an element line, the element's implementor classes are
listed;@refill
@item
on a blank line following all entries, the current listing buffer is
exited.@refill
@end itemize

@node Getting Help, Locating Entries, Using the Mouse, Usage
@section Getting Help

@kindex h
@findex br-help
The OO-Browser is very intuitive to operate, but help is always a key or
button press away when needed.  Besides the online and printed versions
of this manual, there is an online quick reference built into the
OO-Browser.  Once the browser windows appear, press @{@kbd{h}@} at any
time to bring up a buffer full of command help.

@kindex C-h k
@findex describe-key
For more extensive documentation on each browser key, use the Emacs command
@{@kbd{C-h k @var{key-sequence}}@}.

@node Locating Entries, Filtering Entries, Getting Help, Usage
@section Locating Entries

@kindex w
@findex br-where
@cindex class, source file
@cindex class, where is
@cindex element, source file
@cindex element, where is
@cindex entry, where is
The @{@kbd{w}@} @code{(br-where)} command can be used to locate the
source file associated with a listing entry.  It prints the full
pathname of the source file in the minibuffer window.
A prefix argument as in, @{@kbd{C-u w}@}, causes the command to prompt
for the class or element name to locate.  Full completion is
provided.  @xref{Completing Names}.@refill

@kindex m
@findex br-match
@cindex classes, matching names
@cindex classes, finding
@cindex matching to class names
@cindex finding classes
@cindex locating classes

The @{@kbd{m}@} @code{(br-match)} command provides a quick mechanism for
locating any classes in the Environment whose names match to an
expression in part or in whole.  The browser will prompt for the
expression to use.  All matching names are displayed in ascending order.

By default the expression is treated as a regular expression.  A prefix
argument sent to the command tells it to treat the expression as a string.

After each search, the command reports the number of matching classes
found and displays them in the current listing window.  It then prompts
for another expression to key on.  The selected set is then filtered
once again.  This cycle continues until the @{@key{RET}@} is pressed
without giving an expression.  This process allows for easy location of
desired classes.

When the command is invoked (first time through the loop), if the
@{@key{RET}@} key is pressed without giving a match expression, the search
will match to all classes referenced in the Environment.

If you want a regular expression to match to whole class names
exclusively, begin it with a `^' and end it with a `$' character which
match to beginning of name and end of name, respectively.  Thus, "^....$"
would match to class names with exactly four characters.  A string
match always matches to any class name that contains the matching
string.

@node Filtering Entries, Ordering Entries, Locating Entries, Usage
@section Filtering Entries

@kindex M
@findex br-match-entries
@cindex entries, matching names
@cindex matching to listing entries
@cindex filtering entries
@cindex locating Entries

The @{@kbd{M}@} @code{(br-match-entries)} command works much like the
@code{(br-match}) command described in, @ref{Locating Entries}, except
that it matches only to entries in the current listing buffer.  It thus
allows you to filter a listing to just those entries that you care to
browse.  It prompts you for a regular expression of entries to match
and then deletes entries that don't match.  A prefix argument sent to
the command tells it to treat the match expression as a string.

After each search, the command reports the number of matching entries
found and displays them in the current listing window.  It then prompts
for another expression to match.  The selected set is then filtered
once again.  This cycle continues until the @{@key{RET}@} is pressed
without giving an expression.  This process allows for easy incremental
filtering of listings.

When the command is invoked (first time through the loop), if the
@{@key{RET}@} key is pressed without giving a match expression, the search
will match to all entries in the listing, so no filtering will be done.

If you want a regular expression to match to whole entries
exclusively, begin it with a `^' and end it with a `$' character which
match to beginning of line and end of line, respectively.  Thus, "^....$"
would match to entry lines with exactly four characters.  A string
match always matches to any entry that contains the matching string.


@node Ordering Entries, Statistics, Filtering Entries, Usage
@section Ordering Entries

@kindex o
@findex br-order
@cindex entries, ordering
@cindex ordering listings
@cindex sorting listings
Once you have a desired set of names in a browser listing window, you
may want to re-order.  For a simple ascending order sort by
name, use @{@kbd{o}@}.  To sort the lines in the current listing window
accounting for leading whitespace, use a positive prefix argument.  To sort
the lines in descending order accounting for leading whitespace, use a
negative prefix argument.  Note that all of the top-level class display
commands automatically order their output lists.  @xref{Top-Level Classes,,
Displaying Top-Level Classes}.@refill

To sort in descending order, first sort into ascending order with
@{@kbd{o}@} to strip any leading whitespace and then use a negative
prefix argument to sort the names into descending order.


@node Statistics, Class Info, Ordering Entries, Usage
@section Environment and Class Summaries

@kindex #
@findex br-count
@cindex number of classes
@cindex class count
The @{@kbd{#}@} @code{(br-count)} command displays in the minibuffer the
number of entries in the present listing buffer.

@kindex M-c
@findex br-class-stats
@cindex class info
@cindex class statistics
The @{@kbd{M-c}@} @code{(br-class-stats)} command displays in the
minibuffer window the number of parents and children for the selected
class; with a prefix argument, it prompts for the class name to use.

@kindex M-e
@findex br-env-stats
@cindex Environment statistics
@cindex Environment spec summary
The @{@kbd{M-e}@} @code{(br-env-stats)} command displays the
specification for the current Environment along with a few Environment
statistics (OO-Browser version used to build the Environment, total
classes, number of System and Library classes, number of duplicate and
undefined classes) in the viewer window.  With a prefix argument, it
displays in the minibuffer window the basic statistics only, leaving the
contents of the viewer window intact.

@node Class Info, Adding and Deleting Classes, Statistics, Usage
@section Language-Specific Class Information

@kindex i
@findex br-entry-info
@cindex entry attributes
@cindex parents
@cindex attributes
@cindex routine calls
@cindex Eiffel, info
Presently, this feature is available only for Eiffel browsing.

With point on a class name in a listing buffer, the command,
@{@kbd{i}@} @code{(br-entry-info)}, displays the class' parents,
attributes and routines with routine call summaries.  This is its
default behavior.

@cindex Eiffel, short
@cindex Eiffel, flat
@{@kbd{M-x eif-info-use-short}@} will instead cause the
@code{(br-entry-info)} command to run the Eiffel `short' command on a
class, thereby displaying its specification.
@{@kbd{M-x eif-info-use-flat}@}, will cause the command to run
the Eiffel `flat' command on a class, thereby displaying its complete
feature set.  Use @{@kbd{M-x eif-info-use-calls}@} to reset this command
to its default behavior.


@node Adding and Deleting Classes, Completing Names, Class Info, Usage
@section Adding and Deleting Classes

@kindex C-c ^
@findex br-add-class-file
@cindex class, adding to Environment
@cindex class, replacing in Environment
@cindex Environment, adding classes
@cindex Environment, replacing classes
@cindex initialization file
A file containing class definitions may be added to the Environment with
the @{@kbd{C-c ^}@} @code{(br-add-class-file)} command.  This will
prompt for the file name, scan the file, and then update the
Environment.  If a class defined in the file is already in the
Environment, its information will be replaced with the information
gathered from the file; otherwise, the class will be added to the
Environment.  This command does not update the browser display; one
must issue a browser command after the add command in order to see any
change.

@cindex Environment, adding individual classes
To add a single class from a file containing multiple classes, read the
file into an Emacs buffer, narrow the buffer to the desired class and
then execute the add command.  @xref{Narrowing,,Narrowing, emacs, The
Gnu Emacs Manual}.@refill

@{@kbd{C-c ^}@} is normally globally bound in the OO-Browser
initialization file, @file{br-init.el}, so that it may be used outside
of the browser when editing classes.

@kindex C-c C-d
@findex br-delete
@cindex class, deleting from Environment
@cindex Environment, deleting classes
To delete a class from the Environment, display the class name in a
listing window using the @{@kbd{m}@} @code{(br-match)} command if
necessary.  (@xref{Locating Entries}.)  Move point to the desired class
name and hit @{@kbd{C-c C-d}@} @code{(br-delete)} to delete the class.
This will remove the class name at point after the class is deleted from
the Environment.@refill


@node Completing Names, Graphical Browsing, Adding and Deleting Classes, Usage
@section Completing Names

Whenever the browser prompts for a name and an Environment has already
been loaded or built, one may use the browser's identifier name
completion facilities to help in entering the name.  These features
allow you to type as much of the name as you know and then have the
browser fill in what it can.  The relevant keys are:

@table @key
@item @{TAB@}
complete as much as possible of a class or element name
@item @{SPC@}
complete up to one word of the class or element name
@item @{@kbd{?}@}
show all possible completions for class or element name
@end table

You may also use the browser's completion facilities outside of the browser,
for example, when editing code.  @xref{Standalone, ,Using Standalone
OO-Browser Features}, and the description of
@code{(br-complete-type)}.@refill

@node Graphical Browsing,  , Completing Names, Usage
@section Graphical OO-Browser Interfaces

@cindex xoobr
@cindex NEXTSTEP OO-Browser
@cindex graphical browsing
The X interface to the OO-Browser is called, @dfn{xoobr}.  It provides a
simple but effective means of navigating through OO-Browser hierarchy
and element relations.  (The NEXTSTEP OO-Browser is very similar to the
X version, so the documentation herein also applies to it.)

Any number of xoobr sessions may be established at the same time.  Each
one is used to gain a particular view on an Environment.  The textual
OO-Browser is used to filter a set of classes for display in an xoobr
process.  For this reason, xoobr is invoked from within the textual
OO-Browser.

@page
@cindex X OO-Browser picture
@cindex xoobr picture
@iftex
Here is a picture of the X OO-Browser.
@sp 2
@centerline{@psfig{figure=im/oobr-x.ps}}
@end iftex
@ifinfo
If running under the X window system, Action Key click on the following
filename to view a picture of the X OO-Browser: @file{im/oobr-x.xwd}.
@end ifinfo

@kindex M-f
@findex br-tree-features-toggle
@cindex xoobr, displaying features
@cindex descendancy view
@{@kbd{M-f}@} @code{(br-tree-features-toggle)} or the menu item,
@emph{Options/Graphical-Add-Features}, is used before creating a
graphical descendency view to determine whether or not to include the
features of each class in the listing as child nodes of the class.
It toggles between showing features and not showing them in descendancy
views.  The setting applies across all OO-Browser languages.  The
default setting is not to add features to the view.

@kindex M-g
@findex br-tree-graph
@cindex xoobr, graphical view
@{@kbd{M-g}@} @code{(br-tree-graph)} displays the current listing
buffer's entries in a graphical form.  It ignores the show
features setting so that you can capture the current listing without
the need to alter that setting.

@kindex M-d
@findex br-tree
@cindex xoobr, descendants
@{@kbd{M-d}@} @code{(br-tree)} selects the current class and displays
its descendancy graph in tree-form by starting a new xoobr session.
With a prefix argument, @{@kbd{C-u M-d}@}, it displays descendancy trees
for all classes at the current browser level.  They are all grouped
under an imaginary root node so as to maintain the concept of one
tree per xoobr view.

@cindex xoobr, view
Xoobr views are meant to complement the textual browser interface.
Therefore, the two most common actions used in the text browser are
performed in a similar manner within an xoobr view.  A click on a node with
the left mouse button highlights the node and then displays the appropriate
class text in the chosen editor, ready for editing.  A click of the
middle button performs similarly but displays the associated class for
viewing only.

@cindex xoobr, node menu
[The right mouse button is disable in this release of the X OO-Browser
because of an inability to debug a problem in limiting its use to tree
nodes.]  The right mouse button when depressed over a node displays a
short menu of commands that may be applied to the node.  The only ones
of real interest at this point are the collapse and expand entries which
let you hide and then restore the display of a node's subtree.  This
allows you precise control over the amount of detail you receive in
various parts of the hierarchy.

@cindex xoobr, help
The Help button in the upper right of the an xoobr session window when
selected displays a few pages of help text regarding the program itself.

@kindex M-k
@findex br-tree-kill
@cindex xoobr, terminating
@cindex xoobr, killing
The @{@kbd{M-k}@} @code{(br-tree-kill)} command will prompt to see if
you want to terminate all xoobr sessions started from within the current
editor session.  If you answer affirmatively, all such processes
disappear, as your screen will quickly indicate.

@cindex xoobr, quitting
@kindex C-u q
@findex br-quit
The upper left of a session window contains a set of buttons which
display menus.  The only menu entry you need be concerned with at all is
found under the file menu, labelled "Quit".  xoobr processes may also be
terminated by issuing the kill command mentioned just before.  A third
menas of killing such processes is by sending the permanent
@code{(br-quit)} command, @{@kbd{C-u q}@}, to the textual browser.  You
will then be prompted as to whether you want to terminate all xoobr
sessions started from within the current editor session.

@node Options, Customization, Usage, Top
@chapter OO-Browser Options

@menu
* External Viewing::            Using An External Viewer or Editor
* Inherited Features::          Toggling Inherited Features Display
* Graphical Add Features::      Add Features to a Graphical View
* Keep Viewed Classes::         
* Inhibit Version::             Inhibit Version Screen
* Invert Ancestors::            Invert Ancestor Trees
* Save All::                    Save All Lookup Tables
* Use Children::                Build Children Lookup Table
* Sort Options::                Controlling Class Listing Order
@end menu

@node External Viewing, Inherited Features, Options, Options
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Using an External Viewer or Editor

@cindex editing, externally
@cindex viewing, externally
The OO-Browser allows you to select your desired editor and viewer
programs when you use a multi-windowed display.  By default, both of
these tasks are handled by Emacs so that the browser works on text
terminals.  If you choose an external editor or viewer, Emacs will still
automatically be used whenever you invoke the browser from a text
terminal.

@vindex br-editor-cmd
@cindex vi
If you wish to edit classes displayed by the browser in an editor other
than Emacs, set the @var{br-editor-cmd} variable to the command with
which you wish to edit.  Arguments to the command should be placed in
the variables named @var{br-ed[1-9]}, with one string argument per
variable.  Unused variables should have the value @code{nil}.  Bear in
mind that the command must generate a new window under your window
system.  For example, the vi editor under UNIX does not create its own
window, it runs within the window in which it is created.  Under X one
would create a new xterm window and then invoke vi.  The command line
would be @emph{xterm -e vi}, the settings in your personal
initialization file would then be:

@display
       @code{
(setq br-editor-cmd "xterm" br-ed1 "-e" br-ed2 "vi"
      br-ed3 nil br-ed4 nil br-ed5 nil
      br-ed6 nil br-ed7 nil br-ed8 nil br-ed9 nil)}
@end display

@vindex window-system
This editor will only be used when the browser is run under a window
system external to Emacs, like X.  (In such a case, the Emacs variable
@var{window-system} will be non-nil).

@vindex br-viewer-cmd
@cindex xmore
If you want to view classes in a read-only fashion outside of Emacs, set the
following @var{br-viewer-cmd} and @var{br-vw[1-9]} variables in a similar
manner as you did for the editor variables above.

For example, to use @file{xmore}, an X-compatible version of @file{more}, as
your viewer, use the following settings (assuming all the @var{br-vw}
variables are already null):

@display
       @code{(setq br-viewer-cmd "xmore")}
@end display


@node Inherited Features, Graphical Add Features, External Viewing, Options
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Toggling Inherited Features Display

@cindex inherited features
@cindex feature options
By default, when the OO-Browser lists features of a class, it shows both
the ones lexically defined within the class source text and the ones
inherited from ancestor classes.  Each feature is listed below the class
in which it is originally defined, for clarity.  Sometimes it is useful
to see only the lexically defined features of a class.  In such cases,
the menu item, @emph{Options/Show-Inherited-Features}, toggles this
setting.  If you want this on by default, you can add the following
line to a personal initialization file:

@display
       @code{(setq br-inherited-features-flag nil)}
@end display


@node Graphical Add Features, Keep Viewed Classes, Inherited Features, Options
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Add Features to a Graphical View

@xref{Graphical Browsing,  , Graphical OO-Browser Interfaces}.


@node Keep Viewed Classes, Inhibit Version, Graphical Add Features, Options
@comment  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@section Keep Viewed Classes

@vindex br-keep-viewed-classes
The @var{br-keep-viewed-classes} flag is turned off by default,
indicating that each time a class is viewed immediately after another
one, the prior one is deleted.  If it is set to any non-nil value, all
viewed classes are left around for selection.

In typical use, the burden of having to manage all viewed classes is
greater than the benefit of leaving them in memory.  This is why the
flag is off by default.  The class buffer menu can be used to delete
buffers when you want to trim down the number with which you are dealing.
@xref{Using the Mouse}, for details on this technique.

@findex br-toggle-keep-viewed
@vindex br-keep-viewed-classes
The value of the @var{br-keep-viewed-classes} flag may be easily toggled
with the @code{(br-toggle-keep-viewed)} command or with the menu item,
@emph{Options/Keep-Viewed-Classes}.


@node Inhibit Version, Invert Ancestors, Keep Viewed Classes, Options
@section Inhibit Version Screen

@vindex br-inhibit-version
After you are familiar with the opening OO-Browser version and credits
screen, you may want to disable its display each time the browser is
started.  This is done by setting @var{br-inhibit-version} non-nil, as
in the following line that would go in your personal OO-Browser
initialization file:

@example
	@code{(setq br-inhibit-version t)}
@end example

@kindex C-c #
@findex br-version
@cindex version, browser
@cindex support
@noindent
This option has no effect on the display of the help screen which
is displayed after the version screen.  Even with this option set, you
may display the version screen at any time from within a browser listing
window by using @{@kbd{C-c #}@} @code{(br-version)}.


@node Invert Ancestors, Save All, Inhibit Version, Options
@section Invert Ancestor Trees

@xref{Descendants and Ancestors,,Browsing Descendants and Ancestors},
for more information.@refill

This is a global OO-Browser option, it affects all Environments.

Ancestor trees are normally shown to emphasize how the trees branch out
from their origin.  An initialization file line such as:

@example
	@code{(setq br-invert-ancestors t)}
@end example

@noindent
will cause the display of ancestor trees to be inverted such that the further
ancestors appear as roots of the trees and parents (the nearest ancestors)
appear as leaves in the trees.  This ensures that all listing displays
reflect the class inheritance structure with children below parents.


@node Save All, Use Children, Invert Ancestors, Options
@section Save All Lookup Tables

This is an Environment-specific option set during Environment
specification.  @xref{Creating Environments}.@refill

Half of the browser lookup tables can be built whenever an Environment
is loaded.  If this option is set, these tables will be stored in the
Environment file instead.  This will speed Environment loading somewhat,
at the cost of doubling the file size per saved Environment.

@node Use Children, Sort Options, Save All, Options
@section Build Children Lookup Table

This is an Environment-specific option set during Environment
specification.  @xref{Creating Environments}.@refill

This is a highly recommended option that allows for fast descendant
lookups.  The only time one would turn off this option would be when a
file system is extremely short of space.

@node Sort Options,  , Use Children, Options
@section Controlling Class Listing Order

@vindex br-sort-options
@cindex listing order
@cindex sorting options
@cindex listing options
The OO-Browser normally orders classes and elements in listing windows
according to the ASCII character set.  This sort order is controlled by the
@var{br-sort-options} variable which specifies the command line options
sent to the system @code{sort} command.  (Under any Emacs 19 variant,
this variable is not used by the @code{br-order} command, bound to
@{@kbd{o}@}.)

The value of this variable should be a single string of options such as
@code{-fu} (the default) or @code{nil} for no options.  The @code{-f}
option folds upper and lower case to the same character for sort
comparisons.  The @code{-u} option leaves only unique elements in the
listing by eliminating any duplicate entries.

@node Customization, Standalone, Options, Top
@chapter Personal Customization

@vindex br-skip-dir-regexps
@cindex scanning, skip directories
@cindex directory scanning
The @var{br-skip-dir-regexps} variable is a list of regular expressions
which match directory names that the OO-Browser will not descend when
scanning source code trees.

@vindex br-file-dir-regexp
The @var{br-file-dir-regexp} variable specifies a regular expression
that matches to file and directory names that the OO-Browser should
scan.  Any others, including those matched by @var{br-skip-dir-regexps},
are ignored.

@cindex initialization file
@cindex personal initialization
@vindex file, .br-init.el
The following hook variables are provided so that one may customize what
happens each time the OO-Browser is invoked.  Set them as you would any
other Emacs Lisp hook variables in a personal OO-Browser initialization
file, @file{~/.br-init.el}.  They all default to null operations.

@vindex br-mode-hook
If you want a set of actions to occur each time after the OO-Browser is
invoked, attach them to @var{br-mode-hook}.  For language-specific
actions, a language-specific hook such as @var{br-eif-mode-hook},
or @var{br-c++-mode-hook} is run after @var{br-mode-hook}.

@vindex br-class-list-hook
If you want a set of actions to occur after each time that a new browser
listing buffer is created, set @var{br-class-list-hook}.


@node Standalone, Languages, Customization, Top
@chapter Using Standalone OO-Browser Features

A number of browser features may be used independently of the browser
user interface, assuming that a site-wide or personal OO-Browser
initialization file has been loaded into your current Emacs session.

@kindex C-c C-o
First, an Environment must be selected and loaded into the OO-Browser
via @{@kbd{C-c C-o}@}.  When the browser user interface is displayed,
use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit.

@findex br-env-load
Alternatively, you can load an Environment without invoking the browser
user interface by using @{@kbd{M-x br-env-load @key{RET}}@}.  The
standalone browser features will use the newly loaded Environment.

@noindent
The commands that are available for standalone use include:
@table @code
@findex br-add-class-file
@item br-add-class-file
Add a file of classes to the current Environment.  @xref{Adding and
Deleting Classes}.@refill

@item br-find
@findex br-find
Interactively complete class or ELEMENT name and jump to its definition.

@findex br-find-class
@item br-find-class
Display file of class text matching CLASS-NAME in VIEW-ONLY mode if non-nil.

@findex br-complete-type
@item br-complete-type
Perform in-buffer completion of a type or element identifier before point.

@findex br-class-path
@item br-class-path
Return full path, if any, to CLASS-NAME.
With optional prefix argument INSERT non-nil, insert path at point.
@end table

All of these commands provide full completion.  @xref{Completing Names},
based upon the current OO-Browser Environment.@refill

@findex br-find
@cindex finding an element
@cindex searching for an element
When editing and debugging code, one often wants to look at a class or
element definition without having to invoke the browser to locate it.
The @code{(br-find)} command does exactly that by prompting for a name
and then displaying for editing the class or element definition given by
that name.

@findex br-find-class
@cindex finding a class
@cindex searching for a class
The @code{(br-find-class)} command is similar. It prompts for a class name
and then displays its source file in a viewable, read-only mode.  To
display a class file in an editable mode, send a prefix argument to this
command.

@findex br-complete-type
When writing code and entering class attribute definitions (variable
definitions), one often has to repetitively enter class names as the
static types for the attributes.  The @code{(br-complete-type)} command
completes and inserts a class name at point in the current buffer.
The traditional key to bind such a command to is @{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@}.
The following example illustrates its usage.
@display
	my_list: LIN<-- (point is here)

@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} is hit:

	my_list: LINKED_LIST
@end display

@findex br-class-path
The @code{(br-class-path)} command prompts for a class name and
displays the full path of the associated class source file in the
minibuffer.  With a prefix argument, it inserts the path name at point
in the current buffer.

The following key bindings are recommended when using these standalone
features:

@kindex C-M-i
@kindex M-TAB
@kindex C-c C-f
@kindex C-c C-w
@example
  @code{(define-key eiffel-mode-map    "\C-c\C-f" 'br-find)}
  @code{(define-key c++-mode-map       "\C-c\C-f" 'br-find)}
  @code{(define-key lisp-mode-map      "\C-c\C-f" 'br-find)}
  @code{(define-key objc-mode-map      "\C-c\C-f" 'br-find)}
  @code{(define-key smalltalk-mode-map "\C-c\C-f" 'br-find)}

  ;; @{@kbd{C-M-i}@} means @{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@}.
  @code{(define-key eiffel-mode-map    "\C-\M-i" 'br-complete-type)}
  @code{(define-key c++-mode-map       "\C-\M-i" 'br-complete-type)}
  @code{(define-key lisp-mode-map      "\C-\M-i" 'br-complete-type)}
  @code{(define-key objc-mode-map      "\C-\M-i" 'br-complete-type)}
  @code{(define-key smalltalk-mode-map "\C-\M-i" 'br-complete-type)}

  @code{(define-key eiffel-mode-map    "\C-c\C-w" 'br-class-path)}
  @code{(define-key c++-mode-map       "\C-c\C-w" 'br-class-path)}
  @code{(define-key lisp-mode-map      "\C-c\C-w" 'br-class-path)}
  @code{(define-key objc-mode-map      "\C-c\C-w" 'br-class-path)}
  @code{(define-key smalltalk-mode-map "\C-c\C-w" 'br-class-path)}.
@end example

@xref{Eiffel Specifics}, for an Eiffel-specific standalone browser
feature.@refill

@node Languages, Features, Standalone, Top
@chapter Language-Specific Notes

@menu
* C Specifics::
* C++ Specifics::
* CLOS Specifics::
* Eiffel Specifics::
* Java Specifics::
* Objective-C Specifics::
* Python Specifics::
@end menu

@node C Specifics, C++ Specifics, Languages, Languages
@section C Specifics

@vindex br-c-tags-flag
@findex br-toggle-c-tags
The @var{br-c-tags-flag} variable controls whether or not C constructs
are included within C and C-based language Environments.  By default,
this flag is true.  Use @code{M-x br-toggle-c-tags RET} to toggle its
value.  If you set it false before building an Environment, then C
constructs will not be included in the Environment.  (Note that C
functions are always included in C++ Environments, regardless of this
flag value.)

If you wish to build an Environment whose source code is entirely C,
ensure that the @var{br-c-tags-flag} is enabled and then select C++ when
asked for the language to browse.  In the future, a language setting for
C will probably be added.

C constructs are grouped into default classes for browsing.  The
elements of each default class are the instances of the associated
construct within the Environment.  Use normal element/feature commands
to browse each instance.

@example
         DEFAULT CLASS    C CONSTRUCT
         --------------------------------------
         [constant]       #define constant
         [enumeration]    enum @{@}
         [function]       non-member function()
         [macro]          #define macro()
         [structure]      struct @{@}
         [type]           typedef @{@}
         [union]          union @{@}
@end example

@node C++ Specifics, CLOS Specifics, C Specifics, Languages
@section C++ Specifics

@xref{C Specifics}, for details on C-specific support within C++
Environments.

@menu
* C++ Element Selection::       Source Code Element Selection
* C++ Settings::
@end menu

@node C++ Element Selection, C++ Settings, C++ Specifics, C++ Specifics
@subsection Source Code Element Selection

@cindex C++ feature listings
@cindex pure virtual function
@cindex function, pure virtual
@cindex deferred function
C++ pure virtual function declarations, which specify method interfaces
but no implementation, appear in class feature listings.  The function
name is preceded by the @code{"> "} string to identify the function as a
pure virtual (deferred) function.  Pure virtuals may be treated like any
other member functions within the browser.  Since there is no definition
for such a function within the class in which it is listed, its
declaration will be shown instead, when requested.

@cindex friend
@cindex function, friend
@cindex class, friend
@findex br-view-friend
@kindex V
Friend functions and friend classes give members of another class
access to the private parts of the current class.  They appear
in class feature listings preceded by the @code{"% "} string.
The keys, @{@kbd{v}@} or @{@kbd{e}@}, display the friend declaration
within the current class.  Use @{@kbd{V}@}, @code{(br-view-friend)} to
view the definition of the friend class or function.

@cindex constructor
@cindex destructor
@cindex operator new
@cindex operator delete
Methods and operators associated with creating and destroying objects
are preceded by the @code{"+ "} string in listing buffers.  All other
method listing entries are preceded by the @code{"- "} string.

@cindex C++
One can jump from a C++ declaration to its definition by clicking the
Action Key when within the declaration.  Most importantly, once a class
header file is displayed, simply click on a method declaration to see
its corresponding definition.  Each feature declaration should be
terminated with a semicolon to ensure accurate scanning.  If the method
is inherited from another class, a message at the bottom of the frame
will describe which class the method is defined in once the browser
displays the method definition.

Parent classes may be browsed in a similar manner by clicking on their
names in an inheritance or declaration clause.  It is therefore
important to click on the method name part of a declaration when that is
the element desired.

@vindex c++-include-dirs
@cindex #include
@cindex include files
Include files may be browsed by selecting their inclusion declarations
(#include ...) within a source file.  Include files delimited by double
quotes are searched for in the following places:  first, the directory of
the current source file, then the directories listed in the variable
@var{c++-include-dirs}, and then in any directories included in the
current environment.

@vindex c++-cpp-include-dirs
Include files delimited by angle brackets are searched for in the
following places:  first, the directories listed in the variable
@var{c++-include-dirs}, then the directories listed in the variable
@var{c++-cpp-include-dirs}, and then in any directories included in the
current environment.  The variable @var{c++-cpp-include-dirs} should
hold a list of the standard directories searched by your C++ pre-processor.
Each directory entry must end with a directory separator.  On UNIX
systems, this is the `/' character.

@node C++ Settings,  , C++ Element Selection, C++ Specifics
@subsection C++ Settings
@vindex c++-class-keyword
@cindex class definition keywords
By default, @code{class}, @code{struct} and @code{union} definitions all
constitute class definitions to the C++ OO-Browser.  If you prefer some
other criteria, you will need to modify the definition of
@var{c++-class-keyword} in @file{br-c++.el}.

@vindex c++-src-file-regexp
@cindex file suffixes
If you find that the browser is not scanning some of your C++ source
files, you may be using file suffixes which it does not recognize.
Examine the value of @var{c++-src-file-regexp} and add any special file
suffixes you use to it.@refill

@node CLOS Specifics, Eiffel Specifics, C++ Specifics, Languages
@section CLOS Specifics

@menu
* CLOS Method Handling::        Method Handling
* CLOS Settings::
@end menu

@node CLOS Method Handling, CLOS Settings, CLOS Specifics, CLOS Specifics
@subsection Method Handling
@cindex CLOS methods
@cindex CLOS types
@cindex specialized parameters
@cindex methods, specialized parameters
In CLOS, methods may have typed parameters of the form,
@code{(<parameter-name> <class>)}; these are called @dfn{specialized
parameters}.  Each such parameter defines the method within
@code{<class>}.  Thus, a single method definition can generate methods
associated with many classes.  The OO-Browser lets you navigate to a
method definition from any of the classes for which it is defined, since
a method is included as an element of each of its constituent classes.

CLOS permits compile-time computation of the @code{<class>} of a
specialized parameter, through use of the expression, @code{(eql
<form>)}.  Since the OO-Browser cannot perform this computation, it
treats such a parameter as non-specialized.

@cindex CLOS, the class t
Methods may also contain non-specialized parameters of the form,
@code{<parameter-name>}.  The type of each such parameter defaults to
the default root class @code{t} in CLOS.  But a method is only included
in the class @code{t} by the OO-Browser if none of its parameters are
specialized.  Otherwise, methods with more specific types which happened
to include one or more non-specialized parameters would appear to not
have a more specific type than @code{t}.

@node CLOS Settings,  , CLOS Method Handling, CLOS Specifics
@subsection CLOS Settings
The OO-Browser automatically works with CLOS class and method
definitions.  But Lisp contains many other standard object types such as
functions, macros and variables which you may wish to browse.  These are
handled through a configuration variable as explained below.

@vindex clos-element-type-alist
@cindex default class
@cindex element type
The @var{clos-element-type-alist} variable determines the Lisp definition
constructs that the browser looks for and the associated default class
under which instances of each construct type are grouped.  Each element
in the association list is a cons cell whose first part is the function
name string that defines an instance of a particular type,
e.g@. @code{"defun"}.

The second part is a default class name, a string, under which to assign
each instance of the type, e.g@. @code{"function"}.  The OO-Browser
always displays default class names with square brackets around them,
e.g@. @code{[function]}, to distinguish them from classes defined within
the Environment.

@noindent
Here is the default @var{clos-element-type-alist} setting:

@example
  '(("defconstant"  . "constant")
    ("defconst"     . "constant")
    ("defun"        . "function")
    ("defgeneric"   . "generic")
    ("defmacro"     . "macro")
    ("defpackage"   . "package")
    ("defparameter" . "parameter")
    ("defsetf"      . "setfunction")
    ("defstruct"    . "structure")
    ("deftype"      . "type")
    ("defvar"       . "variable")
    ("fset"         . "function"))
@end example

@vindex clos-def-form-with-args-regexp
The @var{clos-def-form-with-args-regexp} is a regular expression which
includes a subset of the definition symbol names from
@var{clos-element-type-alist}, namely those which require an argument
list to uniquely distinguish them from other elements, e.g@. functions.


@node Eiffel Specifics, Java Specifics, CLOS Specifics, Languages
@section Eiffel Specifics

Eiffel support has now been updated to Eiffel version 3, to the best
of our knowledge.  If you find any problems, please report them
to <oo-browser@@infodock.com> (this is a public mailing list).

@menu
* Eiffel Listings::
* Eiffel Element Selection::    Source Code Element Selection
* Eiffel Settings::
@end menu

@node Eiffel Listings, Eiffel Element Selection, Eiffel Specifics, Eiffel Specifics
@subsection Eiffel Listings

Eiffel entities are categorized when shown within OO-Browser listing
buffers.  Classes are shown by name, without any prefix.  Features
are shown by name but are preceded by a special character that indicates
the kind of feature.  The following table describes each prefix.

@table @code
@item -
precedes regular routines;
@item =
precedes attributes;
@item 1
precedes once routines, which create shared objects;
@item >
precedes deferred features, which are specified but not defined within
this class;
@item /
precedes external features, which are defined in a non-Eiffel language.
@end table

@node Eiffel Element Selection, Eiffel Settings, Eiffel Listings, Eiffel Specifics
@subsection Source Code Element Selection
@cindex Eiffel
One can jump from an Eiffel element reference to its definition by
clicking the Action Key when within the reference.  Selection of a
feature name in an export clause displays the feature definition, even
if it is renamed several times within ancestors.  Parent classes may be
browsed in a similar manner by clicking on their names in an inheritance
or declaration clause.

The following example of locating a renamed feature is taken from an
actual set of Eiffel library classes:

@example
User selects feature @code{subwindow} of @code{POPUP_MENU}
   inherited from @code{WINDOW} which renames @code{child} as @code{subwindow}
      inherited from @code{TWO_WAY_TREE} which renames @code{active} as @code{child}
         inherited from @code{TWO_WAY_LIST}
            inherited from @code{LINKED_LIST} which defines @code{active}.
@end example

The browser would display the feature @code{active} and explain to the
user that feature @code{subwindow} of class @code{POPUP_MENU} is
inherited from feature @code{active} of class @code{LINKED_LIST}.
Location of this sort of feature definition would be incredibly tedious
without programmatic support.

The algorithm used to locate features is dynamic, so if another class
were inserted into the inheritance structure given above, the feature
definition would still be located properly.

@node Eiffel Settings,  , Eiffel Element Selection, Eiffel Specifics
@subsection Eiffel Settings

@findex eif-get-parents-from-source
Be sure that the `inherit' and `feature' clauses in your classes begin in
column 0; otherwise the browser parser will not work properly.  If you prefer
some other indentation style, you will need to slightly alter
@code{(eif-get-parents-from-source)} in @file{br-eif.el}; specifically,
the lines that contain `^inherit' and `^feature'.

@cindex Eiffel, error parsing
@cindex error parsing
Emacs has a feature called error parsing which lets one quickly jump to
the line of code that supposedly triggered an error.
(@xref{Compilation, ,Compilation Errors, emacs, The Gnu Emacs Manual},
for information on error parsing.)  Some object-oriented language
compilers display the name of the class and line number with each error
message but do not include the filename containing the class source
code.  Emacs then has no way of parsing the error message.  The browser
class location facilities enable one to perform error parsing across any
set of classes in a single Environment, given only this type of
message.  Interactive Software Engineering's Eiffel compiler is an
example of a compiler that produces this type of error.  The code for
parsing these Eiffel error messages is included in
@file{eif-ise-err.el}.@refill

@node Java Specifics, Objective-C Specifics, Eiffel Specifics, Languages
@section Java Specifics

@cindex Java feature listings
@cindex Java attribute
@cindex attribute, Java
Java attribute names are precededed by @code{"= "} in feature listings.

@cindex abstract method
@cindex method, abstract
@cindex deferred function
Java abstract method declarations, which specify method interfaces
but no implementation, appear in class feature listings.  The method
name is preceded by the @code{"> "} string to identify the method as an
abstract (deferred) method.  Abstract methods may be treated like any
other methods within the browser.  Since there is no definition
for such a method within the class in which it is listed, its
declaration will be shown instead, when requested.

@cindex native method
@cindex method, native
Native methods are like abstract methods in that only their interfaces
are specified in Java.  Unlike abstract methods, their method bodies are
defined in external languages such as C to allow for machine-specific
dependencies.  Native methods are listed in the browser prefixed by the
@code{"/ "} string, indicating that they are divided between Java and
another language.

@cindex constructor
@cindex destructor
Methods associated with creating and destroying objects
are preceded by the @code{"+ "} string in listing buffers.  All other
method listing entries are preceded by the @code{"- "} string.

@vindex Java-class-keyword
@cindex class definition keywords
Java interface specifications, which specify protocols to which classes
must conform, are treated just like class definitions in browser
listings. All the methods of such interfaces are abstract, however.

@node Objective-C Specifics,  , Java Specifics, Languages
@section Objective-C Specifics

@xref{C Specifics}, for details on C-specific support within Objective-C
Environments.

The OO-Browser supports browsing Objective-C classes, methods,
categories and formal protocols.  Earlier sections of this manual explain
how to browse these entities.  This section documents Objective-C
language specifics, including variable settings.

Objective-C entities are categorized when shown within OO-Browser listing
buffers.  Classes are shown by name, without any prefix.  Methods
are shown by name but are preceded by a special character that indicates
the kind of method.  The following table describes each prefix.

@table @code
@item -
precedes instance methods;
@item +
precedes class (factory) methods that affect the factory object for the
class.
@end table

@menu
* Objective-C Categories::
* Objective-C Protocols::
* Objective-C Element Selection::  Source Code Element Selection
* Objective-C Settings::
@end menu

@node Objective-C Categories, Objective-C Protocols, Objective-C Specifics, Objective-C Specifics
@subsection Objective-C Categories
@cindex category
@cindex Objective-C category
An @dfn{Objective-C category} is an internal class grouping that
specifies and implements a set of related class features.  The
aggregation of all of the categories defined by a class and its
ancestors represents the complete class definition.

The OO-Browser can list and browse the source for: the categories of a
class, all class categories in an Environment, and the classes which
implement a category.  @xref{Browsing Categories}, for details.

@node Objective-C Protocols, Objective-C Element Selection, Objective-C Categories, Objective-C Specifics
@subsection Objective-C Protocols
@cindex protocol
@cindex Objective-C protocol
An @dfn{Objective-C protocol} is an interface specification to which a
class may conform.  The protocol includes a set of method signatures
which any conforming class must implement.  One protocol may inherit
from a list of other protocols, and thus expand the set of methods which
a conforming class must implement.  The OO-Browser can list and browse
the source for: the protocols to which a class conforms, all protocols
in an Environment, and the implementors of a protocol.  @xref{Browsing
Protocols}, for details.

@node Objective-C Element Selection, Objective-C Settings, Objective-C Protocols, Objective-C Specifics
@subsection Source Code Element Selection
@cindex Objective-C
One can jump from an Objective-C declaration to its definition by
clicking the Action Key when within the declaration.  Most importantly,
once a class header file is displayed, simply click on a method
declaration to see its corresponding definition.  If the method is
inherited from another class, a message at the bottom of the frame will
describe which class the method is defined in once the browser displays
the method definition.

Parent classes may be browsed in a similar manner by clicking on their
names in an inheritance or declaration clause.  It is therefore
important to click on the method name part of a declaration when that is
the element desired.

@vindex objc-include-dirs
@cindex #import
@cindex include files
Include files may be browsed by selecting their inclusion declarations
(#import ...) within a source file.  Include files delimited by double
quotes are searched for in the following places:  first, the directory of
the current source file, then the directories listed in the variable
@var{objc-include-dirs}, and then in any directories included in the
current environment.

@vindex objc-cpp-include-dirs
Include files delimited by angle brackets are searched for in the
following places:  first, the directories listed in the variable
@var{objc-include-dirs}, then the directories listed in the variable
@var{objc-cpp-include-dirs}, and then in any directories included in the
current environment.  The variable @var{objc-cpp-include-dirs} should
hold a list of the standard directories searched by your Objective-C
pre-processor.  Each directory entry must end with a directory
separator.  On UNIX systems, this is the `/' character.

@node Objective-C Settings, Python Specifics, Objective-C Element Selection, Objective-C Specifics
@subsection Objective-C Settings
@vindex objc-class-keyword
@cindex class definition keywords
By default, the @code{@@interface} keyword indicates a class definition to the
Objective-C OO-Browser.  If you prefer some other criteria, you will need to
modify the definition of @var{objc-class-keyword} in @file{br-objc.el}.

@vindex objc-src-file-regexp
@cindex file suffixes
If you find that the browser is not scanning some of your Objective-C
source files, you may be using file suffixes which it does not
recognize.  Examine the value of @var{objc-src-file-regexp} and add any
special file suffixes you use to it.@refill


@node Python Specifics, Python Module Lookup, Objective-C Settings, Languages
@section Python Specifics

@cindex Python doc strings
The OO-Browser supports browsing Python classes and methods.
Documentation strings for classes or methods may be displayed
from a listing buffer with the @{@kbd{i}@} key.

Python method names are preceded by the @code{"- "} string in listing
buffers.

@cindex Python functions
Global functions are grouped under the default class @code{[function]} to 
distinguish them from classes or class methods.

Nested classes are not recognized by the browser, nor are run-time
modifications to classes.

@menu
* Python Module Lookup::       Source Code Element Selection
* Python Settings::
@end menu

@node Python Module Lookup, Python Settings , Python Specifics, Python Specifics
@subsection Python Module Lookup

The @file{br-help-ms} file summarizes mouse key operation within the
browser.  Use @{@kbd{H}@}, the @code{(br-help-ms)} command, to display
this help when point is within a listing window.

@cindex Python import statement
An Action Key press on a module name within a Python import statement
will display the source for the module, if it is found within the
current Environment.

@node Python Settings,  , Python Module Lookup, Python Specifics
@subsection Python Settings

@vindex python-import-dirs
A press of the Action Key on an import statement, tries to display the
module to be imported.  First, the module is looked up within the
current Environment directories.  If not found, the path
@file{/usr/local/lib/python} is searched.  Modify
the variable, @var{python-import-dirs}, to alter the set of paths
searched after the Environment directories..


@c   ***************************
@c          Appendices
@c   ***************************


@node Features, Commands, Languages, Top
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@appendix OO-Browser Features

@itemize @bullet

@item
Support for C, C++, Common Lisp and its Object System (CLOS), Eiffel,
Java, Objective-C, Python and Smalltalk class browsing is included.
Additionally, support for browsing large amounts of material in Info
format by node name (a popular online documentation format with cross
references and hierarchical structure) is included.  All languages
provide class browsing via either a textual or a graphical interface.

@item
Method and typically attribute browsing is supported for all languages
except Smalltalk.  CLOS supports browsing all elements defined with
(def* constructs.  In-source feature browsing is also supported for all
of these languages.  One simply selects a feature name to jump to its
corresponding source.  Method name overloading in C++ and inherited
feature renaming in Eiffel are fully supported.

@item
C code browsing is supported for C++, Objective-C and C source code.

@item
Objective-C category and formal protocol browsing are supported.

@item
C++ parameterized template classes and methods are supported.

@item
Java abstract and native (externally defined) methods are supported.

@item
Building Environments is fast compared to many other tools and browser
startup once an Environment has been built is very fast.  Response times
on workstations are excellent; for example, in one test case, less than
two real seconds were required to display a set of complex inheritance
graphs involving over 400 classes.

@item
Class inheritance networks may be displayed.  Either a single
inheritance level (parents or children) or the entire inheritance
network (ancestors or descendants) for a set of classes may be shown.

@cindex multiple inheritance
@item
Multiple inheritance support is built-in, where applicable.

@item
The user need not know the location of class source; the browser will display
or edit a class source based solely upon its class name.

@item
Immediate switching among languages is allowed.  One can switch from Eiffel
browsing to C++ browsing in an instant, if so desired.  Or simply run two
browsers side by side.

@item
Class files may be added, replaced or deleted one at a time or as a
group by specifying a root directory below which all class files are
found, including those in subdirectories.

@item
The OO-Browser uses class source code only, hence no compiler is
necessary for proper browser operation.  This allows one to explore
class libraries without the need for additional tools.

@item
Library (stable) and System (in development) classes may be maintained and
listed separately or together.  Any number of Libraries and Systems may be
combined for listing in a single Environment.  There are no fixed limits
on the number of classes per Environment nor on the number of
Environments that may be browsed.

@item
The number of listing windows is limited only by the frame width and
the width setting used for listing windows.

@item
Statistics on classes and Environments may be displayed.

@item
Language-specific class information may be shown.  Presently this feature is
supported only for Eiffel.  A listing of class parents, attributes,
routines and best guess (highly accurate) list of routine calls may be
displayed.  Outputs from the Eiffel `short' and `flat' commands may also be
shown.

@item
Machine-independent mouse support is included along with an extremely
intuitive point and click interface.  The OO-Browser is pre-configured
for use with the X window system, NEXTSTEP, Sunview or Apollo's DM
window system under InfoDock, Emacs V19, XEmacs, Epoch, and Emacs V18.
Online mouse usage help is always one key away.  (Don't try that level
of platform independence with Java!)

@item
X and NEXTSTEP hierarchy display browsers are included.  They provide
views of class inheritance structure and lexically included elements,
which allows for quick random access to entire Environments.  A click on
a class or element name immediately jumps to it in the editor, providing
rapid, visual browsing.  One can pop up several graphical browsers to
gain several views of classes in the same or in multiple environments.
All graphical browsers can communicate with a single textual browser, so
one can quickly display and edit classes from different environments
(even different languages).  Multiple inheritance is handled through
repetition of nodes throughout the tree; repeated nodes are followed by
ellipses to indicate multiple inheritance.

@item
Popup and pulldown command menus are available under InfoDock, Emacs V19
and XEmacs.

@item
All browser outputs are text which may be edited as desired or saved to
files.

@item
A single key provides ASCII ordering of class names, ascending or
descending, including those from inheritance trees.  Classes may be
easily located by matching a regular expression or string to the set of
class names in an Environment, with repeated searches incrementally
narrowing the selected set.

@item
Browser functions may be used standalone within the editor without using
the multi-windowed browser interface.  One useful example is to point to
a class name such as a parent class in the text of another class and
have the parent's source appear in an editable fashion.  An alternative
editor and viewer may be selected to adapt the browser to personal
taste.

@cindex CLOS
@item
The browser is adaptable to any class-based object-oriented language.
It works best with languages that focus on static class creation such as
Eiffel and C++.  Those that use dynamic (runtime) class creation such as
CLOS must be interfaced to the browser so that classes created at runtime
are added to the browser's Environment.

@cindex GNU Emacs
@cindex UNIX
@item
The OO-Browser is integrated with the powerful GNU Emacs editor; it works on
any UNIX system display supported by Emacs.  Most browser commands may
be executed by direct selection, providing a very natural interface.

@cindex source code
@item
All source code, over 400 kilobytes, is included and is heavily documented.
@end itemize


@node Commands, Glossary, Features, Top
@appendix  OO-Browser Command Descriptions

@c Call {M-x doc} to insert documentation in table.
@c Call (br-cmd-doc t) to remove documentation from table.

@cindex arguments
@cindex formal arguments
@cindex programming
The following documentation is meant for programmers who want to modify
the OO-Browser but is included here since some users of the OO-Browser
may find it useful.  All commands that are bound to keys and that are
specific to the OO-Browser are listed here.  Within each command
description, identifiers shown in all capitals are the names of the
command's formal arguments; all formal arguments are presented in the
order in which they are required by the command.  If a command takes
optional arguments, the first optional argument is labeled
@emph{optional}; all following arguments are assumed to be optional.

@cindex command documentation
@cindex OO-Browser commands
@table @code

@findex br-add-class-file
@item br-add-class-file  @{@kbd{C-c ^}@}
Adds a file of classes to the current Environment.  Interactively or
when optional CLASS-PATH is nil, defaults to current buffer file as
CLASS-PATH.  If optional LIB-TABLE-P is non-nil, add to Library
Environment, otherwise add to System Environment.  If optional SAVE-FILE
is t, the Environment is then stored to the filename given by
@var{br-env-file}.  If SAVE-FILE is non-nil and not t, its string value
is used as the file to which to save the Environment.

@findex br-ancestors
@item br-ancestors  @{@kbd{a}@}
Display ancestor tree whose root is the current class.  With optional
prefix ARG, display all ancestor trees whose roots are visible classes
at the current level.  ARG = -1 inverts current class ancestry tree.
That is, it shows branches going down towards the root class, so that
parents appear above children.  ARG < -1 inverts all ancestry trees.

@findex br-at
@item br-at  @{@kbd{@@}@}
Display current class location in the inheritance graph.
The class is displayed among both its ancestors and descendants.
With optional prefix ARG, display location for all visible classes at the
current level.

@findex br-buffer-menu
@item br-buffer-menu  @{@kbd{b}@}
Display selection list of buffers with attached files in viewer window.

@findex br-children
@item br-children  @{@kbd{c}@}
Display children of current class.  With optional prefix ARG, display
children of all visible classes at the current level.

@findex br-class-stats
@item br-class-stats  @{@kbd{M-c}@}
Display statistics summary for current class.  Optional prefix arg
PROMPT means prompt for class name.

@findex br-copyright
@item br-copyright
@cindex copyright
Display browser copyright information in viewer window.

@findex br-count
@item br-count  @{@kbd{#}@}
Count number of classes visible in current listing buffer.  Print
text result in minibuffer when called interactively.

@findex br-delete
@item br-delete  @{@kbd{C-c C-d}@}
Delete class from current Environment.  Optional prefix arg PROMPT means
prompt for class name.

@findex br-descendants
@item br-descendants  @{@kbd{d}@}
Display descendant tree whose root is the current class.  With optional
prefix ARG, display all descendant trees whose roots are visible classes
at the current level.

@findex br-edit-entry
@item br-edit-entry  @{@kbd{e}@}
Edits source for any browser listing entry, such as a class or a feature.
Optional prefix arg PROMPT means prompt for entry name.

@findex br-env-create
@item br-env-create  @{@kbd{C-c C-c}@}
Create and save the specification of a new OO-Browser Environment.
Interactively prompt for the Environment file name or use optional
ENV-FILE.  Interactively prompt for the Environment language to use or
use optional LANG-PREFIX as language indicator.  Return the name of the
Envir spec file created.  Do not build the Environment.  Use
`br-env-build' to construct an Environment from its specification.

@findex br-env-load
@item br-env-load  @{@kbd{C-c C-l}@}
Load browser Environment or spec from optional ENV-FILE or `br-env-file'.
Non-nil PROMPT means prompt user before building tables.
Non-nil NO-BUILD means skip build of Environment entirely.
Return t if load is successful, else nil.

@findex br-env-rebuild
@item br-env-rebuild  @{@kbd{C-c C-e}@}
Rescan System and Library sources associated with the current Environment.

@findex br-env-save
@item br-env-save  @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@}
Save changed Environment to file given by optional SAVE-FILE or
`br-env-file'.

@findex br-env-stats
@item br-env-stats  @{@kbd{M-e}@}
Display summary for current Environment in viewer window.
With optional prefix ARG, display class totals in minibuffer.

@findex br-exit-level
@item br-exit-level  @{@kbd{x}@}
Return to prefix ARGth previous inheritance level listing.
The command is ignored with ARG < 1.

@findex br-find
@item br-find
Interactively completes class or feature ELEMENT-NAME and jumps to its definition.
Returns ELEMENT-NAME or signals an error.

@findex br-feature-signature
@item br-feature-signature  @{@kbd{F}@}
Show full feature signature in the view window.
With optional prefix ARG, display signatures of all features from the
current buffer.

@findex br-help
@item br-help  @{@kbd{h}@}
Display browser operation help information in viewer window.

@findex br-help-ms
@item br-help-ms  @{@kbd{H}@}
Display browser mouse usage help information in viewer window.

@findex br-entry-info
@item br-entry-info  @{@kbd{i}@}
Display attributes of the current entry in the viewer window.

@findex br-implementors
@item br-implementors  @{@kbd{I}@}
Display hierarchy of classes that define current feature.  Ignore
inherited features.  With optional prefix ARG, display implementors of
all features at the current level.

@findex br-kill
@item br-kill  @{@kbd{C-c C-k}@}
Kill buffer in viewer window and redisplay help text.

@findex br-lib-top-classes
@item br-lib-top-classes  @{@kbd{l}@}
Display list of top level Library classes.  With prefix ARG, display all
Library classes.

@findex br-lib-rebuild
@item br-lib-rebuild  @{@kbd{L}@}
Rescan Library components of the current Environment.

@findex br-match
@item br-match  @{@kbd{m}@}
Show all class names in current Environment that contain optional EXPR.
Nil value of EXPR means prompt for a value.  With optional prefix ARG, EXPR
is treated as a string.  By default, it is treated as a regular expresion.
AGAIN non-nil shows the number of classes MATCHED from the last search,
allowing repeated narrowing of the search set.  Empty EXPR when AGAIN is nil
matches to all classes in the Environment.

@findex br-match-entries
@item br-match-entries  @{@kbd{M}@}
Show all entries in current listing that contain optional EXPR.
Nil value of EXPR means prompt for a value.  With optional prefix ARG, EXPR
is treated as a string.  By default, it is treated as a regular expresion.
AGAIN non-nil means show the number of entries MATCHED from last search,
allowing repeated narrowing of the search set.  Empty EXPR when AGAIN is nil
matches to all entries in the listing.

@findex br-next-entry
@item br-next-entry  @{@kbd{C-n}@}
Move point vertically down prefix ARG number of lines in listing
buffer.

@findex br-order
@item br-order  @{@kbd{o}@}
Order current browser listing window entries.
With prefix ARG other than 1 (the default), don't remove leading space from
entry lines before ordering.  Negative ARG means order in descending Ascii
sequence, otherwise order in ascending sequence.

@findex br-parents
@item br-parents  @{@kbd{p}@}
Display parents of current class.  With optional prefix ARG, display
parents of all visible classes at the current level.

@findex br-prev-entry
@item br-prev-entry  @{@kbd{C-p}@}
Move point vertically up prefix ARG number of lines in listing
buffer.

@findex br-quit
@item br-quit  @{@kbd{q}@}
Quit browser.  With optional prefix ARG, delete window configurations
and listing buffers associated with the browser.

@findex br-refresh
@item br-refresh  @{@kbd{C-c C-r}@}
Restore OO-Browser to its state upon startup.

@findex br-resize-narrow
@item br-resize-narrow  @{@kbd{C-x -}@}
Resize listing windows so are narrower by 10 characters.

@findex br-resize-widen
@item br-resize-widen  @{@kbd{C-x +}@}
Resize listing windows so are wider by 10 characters.

@findex br-features
@vindex br-inherited-features-flag
@item br-features  @{@kbd{f}@}
Display features/elements of the current class (prefix ARG = 1) or of
the current listing if ARG is other than 0 or 1.

With ARG = 0, the value of the variable, @var{br-inherited-features-flag},
is toggled and no other action is taken.

If @var{br-inherited-features-flag} is @code{t}, all features of each
class are shown.  If @code{nil}, only lexically included features are
shown and if the features of a single class are requested and none are
defined, the class definition is displayed so that its feature
declarations may be browsed.

@findex br-sys-rebuild
@item br-sys-rebuild  @{@kbd{S}@}
Rescan System components of the current Environment.

@findex br-sys-top-classes
@item br-sys-top-classes  @{@kbd{s}@}
Display list of top level System classes.
With prefix ARG, display all System classes.

@findex br-to-from-viewer
@item br-to-from-viewer  @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@}
Move point to viewer window or back to last recorded listing
window.

@findex br-toggle-keep-viewed
@vindex br-keep-viewed-classes
@item br-toggle-keep-viewed
Toggle the value of the @var{br-keep-viewed-classes} flag.

@findex br-top-classes
@item br-top-classes  @{@kbd{t}@}
Display list of top level classes.
With prefix ARG, display all Environment classes.

@findex br-unique
@item br-unique  @{@kbd{u}@}
Eliminate adjacent duplicate entry names from the current listing window.
If two adjacent entries look the same one is eliminated, even if they refer
to different class elements.

@findex br-version
@item br-version  @{@kbd{C-c #}@}
Display browser version number.

@findex br-view-entry
@item br-view-entry  @{@kbd{v}@}
Displays source for any browser listing entry.
Optional prefix arg PROMPT means prompt for entry name.

@findex br-view-friend
@item br-view-friend @{@kbd{V}@}
With point on a friend listing entry, view its source code definition.
With optional OTHER-WIN non-nil, display in another window.
With optional SIG-AT-POINT-FLAG non-nil, assume point is within a friend
signature in a source buffer.

@findex br-view-full-frame
@item br-view-full-frame  @{@kbd{1}@}
Use full frame to display contents of viewer window.

@findex br-viewer-scroll-down
@item br-viewer-scroll-down  @{@kbd{DEL}@}
Scroll viewer window downward ARG lines or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex br-viewer-scroll-up
@item br-viewer-scroll-up  @{@kbd{SPC}@}
Scroll viewer window upward ARG lines or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex br-where
@item br-where  @{@kbd{w}@}
Display in minibuffer and return full path of a browser listing entry.
Optional prefix arg PROMPT means prompt for entry name."

@findex br-write-buffer
@item br-write-buffer  @{@kbd{C-c C-w}@}
Write narrowed portion of current browser buffer to a file.

@findex br-tree
@item br-tree  @{@kbd{M-d}@}
Start the @file{xbr} application with descendency tree of current class.
With optional prefix ARG, a descendency tree for each class in current
buffer.

@findex br-tree-graph
@item br-tree-graph  @{@kbd{M-g}@}
Start the appropriate tree application with the tree from current
listing buffer.

@findex br-tree-kill
@item br-tree-kill  @{@kbd{M-k}@}
Prompt user whether to kill all @file{xbr} sub-processes.

@findex br-tree-features-toggle
@item br-tree-features-toggle  @{@kbd{M-f}@}
Toggle between showing features and hiding them when @code{br-tree} is
invoked to display descendants graphically. 

@end table


@c   ***************************
@c       Unnumbered Chapters
@c   ***************************

@node Glossary, References, Commands, Top
@unnumbered Glossary

Concepts pertinent to operational usage of the OO-Browser are defined here.

If some GNU Emacs terms are unfamiliar to you, see @cite{[Stallman 87]}.

@table @code
@item Ancestors
All classes above a class in the inheritance hierarchy.@refill

@item Category
Under most languages, a logical grouping of related classes.  The
OO-Browser does not yet have any support for this kind of category.

Under Objective-C, a partial class definition that implements a related
set of methods.  The full class definitions is formed from the
conjunction of all of the class' categories.  The OO-Browser supports
Objective-C category browsing.@refill

@item Children
First level of classes below a class in the inheritance hierarchy.  Those
that directly inherit from a class.@refill

@item Class
A category from which object instances are created.  The OO-Browser
can display classes along with their elements, categories and formal
protocols.

@item Class at Point
Class name in a listing buffer whose name appears on the same line as
point.@refill

@item Declaration
A specification of a programatic entity, for reference by other parts of
a program.  See also @code{Definition}.  The declaration of a method
specifies its signature but not its body.@refill

@item Default Class
A class that the OO-Browser creates to simplify browsing a particular
category of objects such as class protocols or global functions.
Default class names begin and end with square bracket delimiters, as in
@code{[protocol]}.@refill

@item Definition
Programmatic definition of an entity, e.g@. defining the body of a
method.

@item Completion
The act of filling in the non-ambiguous part of a requested item, such
as a class name or a file name.@refill

@item Decendants
All classes below a class in the inheritance hierarchy.@refill

@item Element
A feature or an instance of a class.

@item Environment
A series of browser lookup tables and control variables that specify the set
of classes and inter-class relationships with which the browser works.@refill

@item Environment File
A file used to store browser Environments.@refill

@item Environment Specification
Unambiguously tells the browser what to include in the construction of
an Environment.@refill

@item Feature
An method, attribute, or other component of a class.  Features may be
public or private and in some languages, non-inheritable.

@item Formal Protocol
See @code{Protocol}.@refill

@item Implementor
A class in which a particular element is defined.  This does not include
classes which inherit an element.

@item Initialization File
See @code{Personal Initialization File}.@refill

@item Instance
An object which has a particular class as its type.  The class serves as
a template for instance creation.

@item Library Classes
Stable, seldomly changed classes that have been released for general
usage.@refill

@item Listing Window
One of a number of browser windows used to display lists of classes.
Inheritance relations are shown by class name indentation and by the class
level numbers in the listing buffer mode lines.@refill

@item Lookup Table
A store used to help the browser quickly determine inter-class
relationships.@refill

@item Member
See @code{Feature}.

@item Method
A callable function defined within one or more classes.

@item Minibuffer Window
The single line window at the bottom of an Emacs frame.  It is used to
interact with the user by displaying messages and prompting for
input.@refill

@item Parents
First level of classes above a class in the inheritance hierarchy.  Those
from which a class directly inherits.@refill

@vindex file, .br-init.el
@item Personal Initialization File
The optional file, @file{~/.br-init.el}, which sets user-specific
options affecting operation of the OO-Browser, thereby configuring the
browser for personal use.@refill

@item Point
The point in the current buffer in front of the character which the Emacs
cursor is over but after any prior character.@refill

@item Protocol
An interface specification to which a class conforms.  Some languages
use abstract classes for this purpose.  Under Objective-C, one may also
define formal protocols which include a set of method signatures which a
class must implement if it conforms to the protocol.  Also under
Objective-C, one protocol may inherit from a list of other protocols,
and thus expand the set of methods which a conforming class must
implement.

@item Routine
See @code{Method}.

@item Signature
An interface specification for a method.  It includes the method's
class, type of return value and the types of its formal parameters.

@item Smart System
The Smart System is another handy program that helps you to work smarter
and faster.  It consists of two parts, the Smart Key System, a direct
manipulation keyboard interface that gives you control of most GNU Emacs
subsystems by using only two keys, and the Smart Menu System.  This
provides a hierarchy of menus within Emacs that you use instead of
keyboard commands.  Just point and click on a menu entry.  One of its
uses is to invoke the OO-Browser on any desired language Environment.
(The Smart Key System is included with the Smart Menu System.)@refill

@item Smart Menu System
See @code{Smart System}.

@item System Classes
Classes still in development whose interfaces are likely to change.
They are typically part of a specific project and are often not meant to
be reused elsewhere.@refill

@item Top-Level Classes
Classes without parents.  Those at the top of the inheritance tree for a
given Environment.@refill

@item Viewer Window
The largest, bottom-most window in the browser used for displaying class
source and help information.@refill
@end table


@node References, Keys, Glossary, Top
@unnumbered References

@table @b
@item [Meyer 88]
Meyer, Bertrand.  Object-oriented Software Construction.  Prentice Hall
International: UK, 1988.

@item [Meyer 89]
Meyer, Bertrand.  Eiffel: The Language.  Interactive Software
Engineering: Santa Barbara, CA, 1989.  (Also being republished by
Prentice Hall.)

@item [Goldberg 83]
Goldberg, Adele and David Robson.  @emph{Smalltalk-80: The Language and
its Implementation}.  Addison-Wesley, 1983.@refill

@item [Stallman 87]
Stallman, Richard.  @emph{GNU Emacs Manual}.  Free Software Foundation,
Cambridge: MA, March 1987.@refill

@item [Java 95]
@emph{The Java Language Specification}.  Sun Microsystems Computer
Corporation, Mountain View, CA, February 1, 1995.@refill
@end table


@c   ***************************
@c           Indices
@c   ***************************

@node Keys, Command Index, References, Top
@unnumbered Key Binding Index

@printindex ky

@node Command Index, Concepts, Keys, Top
@unnumbered Command and Variable Index

@printindex fn

@node Concepts,  , Command Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp

@page
@page
@summarycontents
@contents
@bye

@c Locl Variables: ;;;
@c eval: (progn (load "cmd-doc") (defun doc () (interactive) (br-cmd-doc) (save-buffer))) ;;;
@c End: ;;;
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.