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xemacs-beta / man / w3.texi

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\input texinfo
@c
@c Please note that this file uses some constructs not supported by earlier 
@c versions of TeXinfo.  You must be running one of the newer TeXinfo 
@c releases (I currently use version 3.9 from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu
@c
@c Please do not send in bug reports about not being able to format the
@c document with 'makeinfo' or 'tex', just upgrade your installation.
@c
@c Info formatted files are provided in the distribution, and you can
@c retrieve dvi, postscript, and PDF versions from the web site or ftp 
@c site: http://www.cs.indiana.edu/elisp/w3/docs.html
@c
@setfilename w3.info
@settitle Emacs-W3 User's Manual
@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex
@c @setchapternewpage odd
@c @smallbook
@tex
\overfullrule=0pt
%\global\baselineskip 30pt      % for printing in double space
@end tex
@synindex cp fn
@synindex vr fn
@dircategory World Wide Web
@dircategory GNU Emacs Lisp
@direntry
* W3: (w3).                       Emacs-W3 World Wide Web browser.
@end direntry
@ifinfo
This file documents the Emacs-W3 World Wide Web browser.

Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 William M. Perry
Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Free Software Foundation

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through Tex and print the
results, provided the printed document carries copying permission
notice identical to this one except for the removal of this paragraph
(this paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).

@end ignore
@end ifinfo
@c
@titlepage
@sp 6
@center @titlefont{Emacs-W3}
@center @titlefont{User's Manual}
@sp 4
@center Third Edition, Emacs-W3 Version 3.0
@sp 1
@center February 1997
@sp 5
@center William M. Perry
@center @i{wmperry@@cs.indiana.edu}
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1993, 1994, 1995 William M. Perry@*
Copyright @copyright{} 1996, 1997 Free Software Foundation

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of@*
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice@*
are preserved on all copies.

@end titlepage
@page
@ifinfo
@node Top, Getting Started,, (DIR)
Users can browse the World Wide Web from within Emacs by using Emacs-W3.
All of the widely used (and even some not very widely used) @sc{url}
schemes are supported, and it is very easy to add new methods as the
need arises.

Emacs-W3 provides some core functionality that can be readily re-used
from any program in Emacs.  Users and other package writers are
encouraged to @i{Web-enable} their applications and daily work routines
with the library.

Emacs-W3 is completely customizable, both from Emacs-Lisp and from
stylesheets @xref{Style Sheets}  If there is any aspect of Emacs-W3 that
cannot be modified to your satisfaction, please send mail to the
@t{w3-beta@@indiana.edu} mailing list with any suggestions.
@xref{Reporting Bugs}

@menu
* Getting Started::             Getting up and running with Emacs-W3
* Basic Usage::                 Basic movement and usage of Emacs-W3.
* Compatibility::               Explanation of compatibility with
                                other browsers.
* Stylesheets::	                How to control the look of web pages
* MIME Support::                Support for @sc{mime}
* Security::                    Various security methods supported
* Non-Unix Operating Systems::	Special considerations necessary to get
                                up and running correctly under non-unix
                                OS's.
* Speech Integration::          Outputting to a speech synthesizer.
* Advanced Features::           Some of the more arcane features.
* More Help::                   How to get more help---mailing lists,
                                newsgroups, etc.
* Future Directions::           Plans for future revisions

Appendices:
* Reporting Bugs::              How to report a bug in Emacs-W3
* Installing SSL::              Turning on @sc{ssl} support
* Mailcap Files::               An explanation of Mailcap files

Indices:
* General Index::               General Index
* Key Index::                   Menus of command keys and their references
@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node Getting Started, Basic Usage, Top, Top
@chapter Getting Started
@cindex Clueless in Seattle
@cindex Getting Started
@kindex M-x w3
@vindex w3-default-homepage
@findex w3
If installed correctly, starting Emacs-W3 is quite painless.  Just type
@kbd{M-x w3} in a running Emacs sessions.  This will retrieve the
default page that has been configured - by default the documentation for
Emacs-W3 at Indiana University.

If the default page is not retrieved correctly at startup, you will have
to do some customization.

@menu
* Using the Network::           Tell Emacs about your network setup.
* Proxy Gateways::              Using an @sc{http} proxy
* Startup Files::               What is where, and why.
* Preferences Panel::           Quick configuration of common options.
@end menu

@node Using the Network, Proxy Gateways, Getting Started, Getting Started
@section Using the Network
By default, Emacs can support standard @sc{tcp}/@sc{ip} network
connections on almost all the platforms it runs on (Unix, @sc{vms},
Windows, etc).  However, there are several situations where it is not
sufficient.

@table @b
@cindex Firewalls
@item Firewalls
It is becoming more and more common to be behind a firewall or some
other system that restricts your outbound network activity, especially
if you are like me and away from the wonderful world of academia.
Emacs-W3 has several different methods to get around firewalls (not to
worry though - none of them should get you in trouble with the local
@sc{mis} department.)

@item Emacs cannot resolve hostnames.
@cindex Faulty hostname resolvers
@cindex Broken SunOS libc
@cindex Hostname resolution
This happens quite often on SunOS workstations and some ULTRIX machines.
Some C libraries do not include the hostname resolver routines in their
static libraries.  If Emacs was linked statically, and was not linked
with the resolver libraries, it wil not be able to get to any machines
off the local network.  This is characterized by being able to reach
someplace with a raw ip number, but not its hostname
(@url{http://129.79.254.191/} works, but
@url{http://www.cs.indiana.edu/} doesn't).

The best solution for this problem is to recompile Emacs, making sure to
either link dynamically (if available on your operating system), or
include the @file{-lresolv}.

@cindex url-gateway-broken-resolution
If you do not have the disk space or the appropriate permissions to
recompile Emacs, another alternative is using the @file{nslookup}
program to do hostname resolution.  To turn this on, set the variable
@code{url-gateway-broken-resolution} in your @file{~/.emacs} file.  This
runs the program specified by @code{url-gateway-nslookup-program} (by
default "@code{nslookup}" to do hostname resolution.  This program should
expect a single argument on the command line - the hostname to resolve,
and should produce output similar to the standard Unix @file{nslookup}
program:

@example
Name: www.cs.indiana.ed
Address: 129.79.254.191
@end example

@cindex @sc{term}
@item Using @sc{term} (or @sc{term}-like) Networking Software
@sc{term} @footnote{@sc{term} is a user-level protocol for emulating
@sc{ip} over a serial line.  More information is available at
@url{ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/comm/term}} for slip-like
access to the internet.

@sc{note}: XEmacs and Emacs 19.22 or later have patches to enable native
@sc{term} networking.  To enable it, @code{#define TERM} in the
appropriate s/*.h file for the operating system, then change the
@code{SYSTEM_LIBS} definition to include the @file{termnet} library that
comes with the latest versions of @sc{term}.

If you run into any problems with the native @sc{term} networking
support in Emacs or XEmacs, please let @t{wmperry@@cs.indiana.edu} know,
as he is responsible for the original support.
@end table

@vindex url-gateway-local-host-regexp
Emacs-W3 has support for using the gateway mechanism for certain
domains, and directly connecting to others.  The variable
@code{url-gateway-local-host-regexp} controls this behaviour.  This is a
regular expression @footnote{Please see the full Emacs distribution for
a description of regular expressions} that matches local hosts that do
not require the use of a gateway.  If @code{nil}, then all connections
are made through the gateway.

@vindex url-gateway-method
Emacs-W3 supports several methods of getting around gateways.  The
variable @code{url-gateway-method} controls which of these methods is
used.  This variable can have several values (use these as symbol names,
not strings), ie: @samp{(setq url-gateway-method 'telnet)}.  Possible
values are:

@table @dfn
@item telnet
Use this method if you must first telnet and log into a gateway host,
and then run telnet from that host to connect to outside machines.

:: WORK :: document telnet gw variables
This section needs more information, specifically documenting the
following variables.  For now, please do @key{C-h v} on the variable for
more information.

@table @code
@item url-gateway-telnet-host
@item url-gateway-telnet-parameters
@item url-gateway-telnet-password-prompt
@item url-gateway-telnet-puser-name
@item url-gateway-prompt-pattern
@end table

@item rlogin
This method is identical to the @code{telnet} method, but uses
@file{rlogin} to log into the remote machine without having to send the
username and password over the wire every time.

:: WORK :: document rlogin gw variables
This section needs more information, specifically documenting the
following variables.  For now, please do @key{C-h v} on the variable for
more information.

@table @code
@item url-gateway-rlogin-host
@item url-gateway-rlogin-parameters
@item url-gateway-rlogin-user-name
@item url-gateway-prompt-pattern
@end table

@item tcp
Masanobu UMEDA (@i{umerin@@mse.kyutech.ac.jp}) has written a very small
application that you can run in a subprocess to do the network
connections.

@item @sc{socks}
Use if the firewall has a @sc{socks} gateway running on it.

:: WORK :: document socks variables
This section needs more information, specifically documenting the
following variables.  For now, please do @key{C-h v} on the variable for
more information.

@table @code
@item socks-host
@item socks-password
@item socks-username
@item socks-port
@item socks-timeout
@end table

@c @item ssl
@c This probably shouldn't be documented

@item native
This means that Emacs-W3 should use the builtin networking code of
Emacs.  This should be used only if there is no firewall, or the Emacs
source has already been hacked to get around the firewall.
@end table

Emacs-W3 should now be able to get outside the local network.  If none
of this makes sense, its probably my fault.  Please check with the
network administrators to see if they have a program that does most of
this already, since somebody somewhere at the company has probably been
through something similar to this before, and would be much more
helpful/knowledgeable about the local setup than I would be.  But feel
free to mail me as a last resort.
@node Proxy Gateways, Startup Files , Using the Network, Getting Started
@section Proxy Gateways
@vindex url-proxy-services
@cindex Proxy Servers
@cindex Proxies
@cindex Proxies, environment variables
@cindex HTTP Proxy

In late January 1993, Kevin Altis and Lou Montulli proposed and
implemented a new proxy service.  This service requires the use of
environment variables to specify a gateway server/port # to send
protocol requests to.  Each protocol (@sc{http}, @sc{wais}, gopher,
@sc{ftp}, etc.) can have a different gateway server.  The environment
variables are @code{PROTOCOL}_proxy, where @code{PROTOCOL} is one of the
supported network protocols (gopher, file, @sc{http}, @sc{ftp}, etc.)

@cindex No Proxy
@cindex Proxies, exclusion lists
@vindex NO_PROXY
For companies with internal intranets, it will usually be helpful to
define a list of hosts that should be contacted directly, @b{not} sent
through the proxy.  The @code{NO_PROXY} environment variable controls
what hosts are able to be contacted directly.  This should be a comma
separated list of hostnames, domain names, or a mixture of both.
Asterisks can be used as a wildcard.  For example:

@example
NO_PROXY=*.aventail.com,home.com,*.seanet.com
@end example

tells Emacs-W3 to contact all machines in the @b{aventail.com} and
@b{seanet.com} domains directly, as well as the machine named
@b{home.com}.

@vindex url-proxy-services
@cindex Proxies, setting from lisp
For those adventurous souls who enjoy writing regular expressions, all
the proxy settings can be manipulated from Emacs-Lisp.  The variable
@code{url-proxy-services} controls this.  This is an assoc list, keyed
on the protocol type (@sc{http}, gopher, etc) in all lowercase.  The
@code{cdr} of each entry should be the fully-specified @sc{url} of the proxy
server to contact, or, in the case of the special "no_proxy" entry, a
regular expression that matches any hostnames that should be contacted
directly.

@example
(setq url-proxy-services '(("http"     . "http://proxy.aventail.com/")
                           ("no_proxy" . "^.*\\(aventail\\|seanet\\)\.com")))
@end example

@node Startup Files, Preferences Panel, Proxy Gateways, Getting Started
@section Startup Files
@cindex Startup files
@cindex Default stylesheet
:: WORK :: startup files
This section should document where emacs-w3 looks for its startup files,
and what each one does.  'profile' 'stylesheet' 'hotlist' 'history' etc.

@node Preferences Panel, , Startup Files, Getting Started
@section Preferences Panel
@cindex Preferences
@kindex M-x w3-edit-preferences
:: WORK :: pref panel
This should document the quick preferences panel.  M-x w3-edit-preferences

@node Basic Usage, Movement , Getting Started, Top
@chapter Basic Usage
@cindex Basic Usage
@kindex space
@kindex backspace
@kindex return
@kindex tab
@kindex M-tab
Emacs-W3 is similar to the Info package all Emacs users hold near and
dear to their hearts (@xref{Top,,Info,info, The Info Manual}, for a
description of Info).  Basically, @kbd{space} and @kbd{backspace}
control scrolling, and @kbd{return} or the middle mouse button follows a
hypertext link.  The @kbd{tab} and @kbd{Meta-tab} keys maneuver around the
various links on the page.

@b{NOTE:} Starting with Emacs-W3 3.0, form entry areas in a page can be
typed directly into.  This is one of the main differences in navigation
from version 2.0.  If you are used to using the @kbd{f} and @kbd{b} keys
to navigate around a buffer, I suggest training yourself to always use
@kbd{tab} and @kbd{M-tab} - it will save time and frustration on pages
with lots of form fields.

By default, hypertext links are surrounded by '[[' and ']]' on
non-graphic terminals (VT100, DOS window, etc.).  On a graphics
terminal, the links are in shown in different colors.
@xref{Stylesheets} for information on how to change this.

There are approximately 50 keys bound to special Emacs-W3 functions.
The basic rule of thumb regarding keybindings in Emacs-W3 is that a
lowercase key takes an action on the @b{current document}, and an
uppercase key takes an action on the document pointed to by the
hypertext link @b{under the cursor}.

There are several areas that the keybindings fall into: movement,
information, action, and miscellaneous.

@ifinfo
@menu
* Movement::		Moving around in the buffer.
* Information::		Getting information about a document.
* Action::		Following links, printing, etc.
* Miscellaneous::	Everything else.
@end menu
@end ifinfo
@node Movement, Information, Basic Usage, Basic Usage
@section Movement
All the standard Emacs bindings for movement are still in effect, with a
few additions for convenience.

@table @kbd
@findex w3-scroll-up
@kindex space
@item space
Scroll downward in the buffer.  With prefix arg, scroll down that many
screenfuls. 
@kindex backspace
@findex scroll-down
@item backspace
Scroll upward in the buffer.  With prefix arg, scroll up that many
screenfuls. 
@kindex <
@findex w3-start-of-document
@item <
Goes to the start of document
@kindex >
@findex w3-end-of-document
@item >
Goes to the end of document
@kindex b
@kindex Meta-tab
@findex w3-widget-backward
@item Meta-tab, b
Attempts to move backward one link area in the current document.
Signals an error if no previous links are found.
@kindex f
@kindex tab
@kindex n
@findex w3-widget-forward
@item tab, f, n
Attempts to move forward one link area in the current document.  Signals
an error if no more links are found.
@kindex B
@findex w3-backward-in-history
@item B
Move backwards in the history stack.
@kindex F
@findex w3-forward-in-history
@item F
Move forwards in the history stack.
@kindex l
@findex w3-goto-last-buffer
@item l
Return to the last buffer shown before this buffer.
@kindex q
@findex w3-quit
@item q
Kill this buffer.
@kindex Q, u
@findex w3-leave-buffer
Bury this buffer, but don't kill it
@end table

@node Information, Action, Movement, Basic Usage
@section Information
These functions relate information about one or more links on the
current document.

@table @kbd
@kindex v
@findex url-view-url
@item v
This shows the @sc{url} of the current document in the minibuffer.
@kindex V
@findex w3-view-this-url
@item V
This shows the @sc{url} of the hypertext link under point in the
minibuffer.
@kindex i
@findex w3-document-information
@item i
Shows miscellaneous information about the currently displayed document.
This includes the @sc{url}, the last modified date, @sc{mime} headers,
the @sc{http} response code, and any relationships to other documents.
Any security information is also displayed.
@kindex I
@findex w3-document-information-this-url
@item I
Shows information about the @sc{url} at point.
@kindex s
@findex w3-source-document
@item s
This shows the @sc{html} source of the current document in a separate buffer.
The buffer's name is based on the document's @sc{url}.
@kindex S
@findex w3-source-document-at-point
@item S
Shows the @sc{html} source of the hypertext link under point in a separate
buffer.  The buffer's name is based on the document's @sc{url}.
@kindex k
@findex w3-save-url
@item k
This stores the current document's @sc{url} in the kill ring, and also in the
current window-system's clipboard, if possible.
@kindex K
@findex w3-save-this-url
@item K
Stores the @sc{url} of the document under point in the kill ring, and also in
the current window-system's clipboard, if possible.
@end table

@node Action, Miscellaneous, Information, Basic Usage
@section Action
First, here are the keys and functions that bring up a new hypertext
page, usually creating a new buffer.
@table @kbd
@kindex m
@findex w3-complete-link
@item m
Choose a link from the current buffer and follow it.  A completing-read
is done on all the links, so @kbd{space} and @kbd{TAB} can be used for
completion.
@kindex return
@findex w3-follow-link
@item return 
Pressing return when over a hyperlink attempts to follow the link
under the cursor.  With a prefix argument (@kbd{C-u}), this forces the
file to be saved to disk instead of being passed off to other viewers
or being parsed as @sc{html}.

Pressing return when over a form input field can cause auto-submission
of the form.  This is for Mosaic and Netscape compatibility.  If there
is only one item in the form other than submit or reset buttons, then

minibuffer for the data to insert into the input field.  Type checking
is done, and the data is only entered into the form when data of the
correct type is entered (ie: cannot enter 44 for 'date' field, etc).

@kindex Middle Mouse Button
@findex w3-follow-mouse
@item Middle Mouse Button
Attempt to follow a hypertext link under the mouse cursor.  Clicking on
a form input field will prompt in the minibuffer for the data to insert
into the input field.  Type checking is done, and the data is only
entered into the form when data of the correct type is entered (ie:
cannot enter 44 for 'date' field, etc).

@kindex Control Middle Mouse Button
@kindex Meta return
@findex w3-follow-inlined-image
@item Control Middle Mouse Button, Meta return
Tries to retrieve the inlined image that is under point.  It ignores any
form entry areas or hyperlinks, and blindly follows any inlined image.
Useful for seeing images that are meant to be used as hyperlinks when
not on a terminal capable of displaying graphics.

@kindex p
@findex w3-print-this-url
@item p
Prints out the current buffer in a variety of formats, including
PostScript, @sc{html} source, or formatted text.
@kindex P
@findex w3-print-url-under-point
@item P
Prints out the @sc{url} under point in a variety of formats, including
PostScript, @sc{html} source, or formatted text.
@kindex m
@findex w3-complete-link
@item m
Selects a destination from a list of all the hyperlinks in the current
buffer.  Use @kbd{space} and @kbd{tab} to complete on the links.

@kindex r
@kindex g
@findex w3-reload-document
@item r, g
Reloads the current document.  The position within the buffer remains
the same (unless the document has changed since it was last retrieved,
in which case it should be relatively close).  This causes an
unconditional reload from the remote server - the locally cached copy is
not consulted.
@kindex C-o
@findex w3-fetch
@item C-o
Prompts for a @sc{url} in the minibuffer, and attempts to fetch
it.  If there are any errors, or Emacs-W3 cannot understand the type of link
requested, the errors are displayed in a hypertext buffer.
@kindex o
@findex w3-open-local
@vindex url-use-hypertext-dired
@item o
Opens a local file, interactively.  This prompts for a local file name
to open.  The file must exist, and may be a directory.  If the requested
file is a directory and @code{url-use-hypertext-dired} is @code{nil},
then a dired-mode buffer is displayed.  If non@code{nil}, then Emacs-W3
automatically generates a hypertext listing of the directory.  The
hypertext mode is the default, so that all the keys and functions remain
the same.

@kindex M-s
@findex w3-search
@item M-s
Perform a search, if this is a searchable index.  Searching requires a
server - Emacs-W3 can not do local file searching, as there are too many
possible types of searches people could want to do.  Generally, the only
@sc{url} types that allow searching are @sc{http}, gopher, and X-EXEC.
@kindex Hv
@findex w3-show-history-list
@vindex w3-keep-history
@item Hv
If @code{url-keep-history} is non-@code{nil}, then Emacs-W3 keeps track
of all the @sc{url}s visited in an Emacs session.  This function takes all
the links that are in that internal list, and formats them as hypertext
links in a list.
@end table

@cindex Buffer movement
And here are the commands to move around between Emacs-W3 buffers:

@table @kbd
@kindex l
@findex w3-goto-last-buffer
@item l
Goes to the last WWW buffer seen.
@kindex q
@findex w3-quit
@item q
Quits WWW mode.  This kills the current buffer and goes to the most
recently visited buffer.
@kindex Q
@findex w3-leave-buffer
@item u
This is similar to w3-quit, but the buffer is not killed, it is moved to
the bottom of the buffer list (so it is the least likely to show up as
the default with switch-to-buffer).  This is different from
@code{w3-goto-last-buffer} in that it does not return to the last WWW
page visited - it is the same as using @code{switch-to-buffer} - the
buffer left in the window is fairly random. 
@kindex HB
@kindex B
@findex w3-backward-in-history
@item HB, B
Takes one step back along the path in the current history.  Has no
effect if at the beginning of the session history.
@kindex HF
@kindex F
@findex w3-forward-in-history
@item HF, F
Takes one step forward along the path in the current history.  Has no
effect if at the end of the session history.
@end table

@node Miscellaneous, , Action, Basic Usage
@section Miscellaneous
@table @kbd
@kindex M-m
@findex w3-mail-current-document
@item M-m
Mails the current document to someone.  Choose from several different
formats to mail: formatted text, @sc{html} source, PostScript, or LaTeX source.
When the @sc{html} source is mailed, then an appropriate <base> tag is inserted
at the beginning of the document so that relative links may be followed
correctly by whoever receives the mail.
@kindex M-M
@findex w3-mail-document-under-point
@item M-M
Mails the document pointed to by the hypertext link under point to someone.
Choose from several different formats to mail: formatted text, @sc{html} source,
PostScript, or LaTeX source.  When the @sc{html} source is mailed, then an
appropriate <base> tag is inserted at the beginning of the document so that
relative links may be followed correctly by whoever receives the
mail.
@kindex p
@findex w3-print-this-url
@item p
Prints the current document.  Choose from several different formats to
print: formatted text, @sc{html} source, PostScript (with ps-print), or by using
LaTeX and dvips).

@findex lpr-buffer
@vindex lpr-command
@vindex lpr-switches
When the formatted text is printed, the normal @code{lpr-buffer} function
is called, and the variables @code{lpr-command} and @code{lpr-switches}
control how the document is printed.

When the @sc{html} source is printed, then an appropriate <base> tag is
inserted at the beginning of the document.
@vindex w3-print-commnad
@vindex w3-latex-docstyle
When postscript is printed, then the @sc{html} source of the document is
converted into LaTeX source.  There are several variables controlling
what the final LaTeX document looks like.

:: WORK :: Document the new LaTeX backend

@table @code
@item w3-latex-use-latex2e
@vindex w3-latex-use-latex2e
If non-@code{nil}, configures the LaTeX engine to use the LaTeX2e
syntax.  A @code{nil} value indicates that LaTeX 2.0.9 compabibility
will be used instead.
@item w3-latex-docstyle
@vindex w3-latex-docstyle
The document style to use when printing or mailing converted @sc{html} files
in LaTeX.  Good defaults are: @{article@}, [psfig,twocolumn]@{article@},
etc.
@item w3-latex-packages
@vindex w3-latex-packages
List of LaTeX packages to include.  Currently this is only used if 
@code{w3-latex-use-latex2e} is non-@code{nil}.
@item w3-latex-use-maketitle
@vindex w3-latex-use-maketitle
If non-@code{nil}, the LaTeX engine will use real LaTeX title pages for
document titles.
@item w3-latex-print-links
@vindex w3-latex-print-links
If non-@code{nil}, prints the @sc{url}s of hypertext links as endnotes at the
end of the document.  If set to @code{footnote}, prints the @sc{url}'s as
footnotes on each page.
@end table

@kindex P
@findex w3-print-url-under-point
@item P
Prints the document pointed to by the hypertext link under point.
Please see the previous item for more information.
@kindex M-x w3-insert-formatted-url
@findex w3-insert-formatted-url
@item M-x w3-insert-formatted-url
Insert a fully formatted @sc{html} link into another buffer.  This gets the
name and @sc{url} of either the current buffer, or, with a prefix arg, of the
link under point, and construct the appropriate <a...>...</a> markup and
insert it into the desired buffer.
@kindex M-tab
@findex w3-insert-this-url
@item M-tab
Inserts the @sc{url} of the current document into another buffer.  Buffer is
prompted for in the minibuffer.  With prefix arg, uses the @sc{url} of the
link under point.
@kindex U
@findex w3-use-links
@item U
Selects one of the <LINK> tags from this document and fetch it.  Links
are attributes of a specific document, and can tell such things as who
made the document, where a table of contents is located, etc.

Link tags specify relationships between documents in two ways.  Normal
(forward) relationships (where the link has a REL="xxx" attribute), and
reverse relationships (where the link has a REV="xxx" attribute).  This
first asks what type of link to follow (Normal or Reverse), then does
a @code{completing-read} on only the links that have that type of
relationship.
@end table

@node Compatibility, , , Top
@chapter Compatibility with other Browsers
Due to the popularity of several other browsers, Emacs-W3 offers an easy
transition to its much better way of life.  This ranges from being able
to share the same preferences files and disk cache to actually emulating
the keybindings used in other browsers.

@ifinfo
@menu
* Emulation::			Emacs-W3 can emulate the keybindings and
				other behaviours of other browsers.
* Hotlist Handling::            A hotlist is an easy way to keep track of
				interesting Web pages without having to
				remember the exact path to get there.
* Session History::             Keeping a history of documents visited
				in one Emacs sessions allows the use of
				'forward' and 'back' buttons easily.
* Global History::		Keeping a history of all the places ever
				visited on the web.
@end menu
@end ifinfo
@node Emulation, Hotlist Handling, Compatibility, Compatibility
@section Emulation
@cindex Browser emulation
@cindex Emulation of other browsers
@cindex Netscape emulation
@cindex Lynx emulation
@findex turn-on-netscape-emulation
@findex turn-on-lynx-emulation
@findex w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode
@findex w3-lynx-emulation-minor-mode
@vindex w3-mode-hook
:: WORK :: Document lynx emulation
@table @key
@item Down arrow
Highlight next topic
@item Up arrow
Highlight previous topic
@item Right arrow, Return, Enter
Jump to highlighted topic
@item Left arrow
Return to previous topic
@item +
Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
@item -
Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
@item SPACE
Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
@item b
Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
@item C-A
Go to first page of the current document (Home)
@item C-E
Go to last page of the current document (End)
@item C-B
Scroll up to previous page (Page-Up)
@item C-F
Scroll down to next page (Page-Down)
@item C-N
Go forward two lines in the current document
@item C-P
Go back two lines in the current document
@item )
Go forward half a page in the current document
@item (
Go back half a page in the current document
@item #
Go to Toolbar or Banner in the current document
@item ?, h
Help (this screen)
@item a
Add the current link to a bookmark file
@item c
Send a comment to the document owner 
@item d
Download the current link
@item e
Edit the current file
@item g
Goto a user specified @sc{url} or file
@item i
Show an index of documents
@item j
Execute a jump operation
@item k
Show a list of key mappings
@item l
List references (links) in current document
@item m
Return to main screen
@item o
Set your options
@item p
Print the current document
@item q
Quit
@item /
Search for a string within the current document
@item s
Enter a search string for an external search
@item n
Go to the next search string
@item v
View a bookmark file
@item V
Go to the Visited Links Page
@item x
Force submission of form or link with no-cache
@item z
Cancel transfer in progress
@item [backspace]
Go to the history Page
@item =
Show file and link info
@item \
Toggle document source/rendered view
@item !
Spawn your default shell
@item *
Toggle image_links mode on and off
@item [
Toggle pseudo_inlines mode on and off
@item ]
Send an @sc{http} @sc{head} request for the current doc or link
@item C-R
Reload current file and refresh the screen
@item C-W
Refresh the screen
@item C-U
Erase input line
@item C-G
Cancel input or transfer
@item C-T
Toggle trace mode on and off
@item C-K
Invoke the Cookie Jar Page
@end table

:: WORK :: Document netscape emulation
Uh, turn this into pretty tables about what keys are emulated.

@example
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-s" 'w3-save-as)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-m" 'w3-mailto)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-n" 'make-frame)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-l" 'w3-fetch)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-o" 'w3-open-local)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-p" 'w3-print-this-url)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-q" 'w3-quit)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-f" 'w3-search-forward)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-g" 'w3-search-again)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-r" 'w3-reload-document)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-i" 'w3-load-delayed-images)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-a" 'w3-hotlist-add-document)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-b" 'w3-show-hotlist)
(define-key w3-netscape-emulation-minor-mode-map "\M-h" 'w3-show-history-list)

@end example

@node Hotlist Handling, Session History, Emulation, Compatibility
@section Hotlist Handling
:: WORK :: Document that it supports different types of hotlist formats
:: WORK :: Make sure everything hotlist related can be accessed via 'h'
In order to avoid having to traverse many documents to get to the same
document over and over, Emacs-W3 supports a ``hotlist'' like Mosaic.  This is
a file that contains @sc{url}s and aliases.  Hotlists allow quick access to any
document in the Web, providing it has been visited and added to the hotlist.
The variable @code{w3-hotlist-file} determines where this information
is saved.  The structure of the file is compatible with Mosaic's
hotlist file, so this defaults to @file{~/.mosaic-hotlist-default}.

Hotlist commands are:
@table @kbd
@kindex hi
@findex w3-hotlist-add-document
@vindex w3-hotlist-file
@item a
Adds the current document to the hotlist, with the buffer name as its
identifier.  Modifies the file specified by @code{w3-hotlist-file}.  If
this is given a prefix-argument (via @kbd{C-u}), the title is prompted
for instead of automatically defaulting to the document title.

@findex w3-hotlist-refresh
@vindex w3-hotlist-file
@kindex hR
@item hR
This rereads the default hostlist file specified by
@code{w3-hotlist-file}.
@findex w3-hotlist-delete
@vindex w3-hotlist-file
@kindex hd
@item d
Prompts for the alias of the entry to kill.  Pressing the spacebar or
tab will list out partial completions.  The internal representation of
the hotlist and the file specified by @code{w3-hotlist-file} are
updated. 
@item hr
@kindex hr
@findex w3-hotlist-rename-entry
@vindex w3-hotlist-file
Some hotlist item names can be very unwieldy (`Mosaic for X level 2 fill
out form support'), or uninformative (`Index of /').  Prompts for the
item to rename in the minibuffer---use the spacebar or tab key for
completion.  After having chosen an item to rename, prompts for a new
title until a unique title is entered.  Modifies the file specified by
@code{w3-hotlist-file}.

@item hu
@kindex hu
@findex w3-use-hotlist
Prompts for the alias to jump to.  Pressing the @key{spacebar} or
@key{tab} key shows partial completions.

@item hv
@kindex hv
@findex w3-show-hotlist
Converts the hotlist into @sc{html} and displays it.
@item ha
@kindex ha
@findex w3-hotlist-apropos
Shows the hotlist entries matching a regular expression.
@item hA
@kindex hA
@findex w3-hotlist-append
Appends another hotlist file to the one currently in memory.
@end table
@node Session History, Global History, Hotlist Handling, Compatibility
@section History
@cindex History Lists
Almost all web browsers keep track of the @sc{url}s followed from a page, so
that it can provide @b{forward} and @b{back} buttons to keep a @i{path}
of @sc{url}s that can be traversed easily.
@vindex url-keep-history
If the variable @code{url-keep-history} is @code{t}, then Emacs-W3
keeps a list of all the @sc{url}s visited in a session.
@findex w3-show-history
To view a listing of the history for this session of Emacs-W3, use
@code{M-x w3-show-history} from any buffer, and Emacs-W3 generates an
@sc{html} document showing every @sc{url} visited since Emacs started (or
cleared the history list), and then format it.  Any of the links can
be chosen and followed to the original document.  To clear the history
list, choose 'Clear History' from the 'Options' menu.

@findex w3-forward-in-history
@findex w3-backward-in-history
@findex w3-fetch
Another twist on the history list mechanism is the fact that all
Emacs-W3 buffers remember what @sc{url}, buffer, and buffer position of the
last document, and also keeps track of the next location jumped @b{to}
from that buffer.  This means that the user can go forwards and
backwards very easily along the path taken to reach a particular
document.  To go forward, use the function @code{w3-forward-in-history},
to go backward, use the function @code{w3-backward-in-history}.

@node Global History, , Session History, Compatibility
@section Global History
:: WORK :: Document that the global history can have diff. formats
Most web browsers also support the idea of a ``history'' of @sc{url}s the
user has visited, and it displays them in a different style than normal
@sc{url}s.

@vindex url-keep-history
@vindex url-global-history-file
If the variable @code{url-keep-history} is @code{t}, then Emacs-W3
keeps a list of all the @sc{url}s visited in a session.  The file is
automatically written to disk when exiting emacs.  The list is added to
those already in the file specified by @code{url-global-history-file},
which defaults to @file{~/.mosaic-global-history}.

If any @sc{url} in the list is found in the file, it is not saved, but new
ones are added at the end of the file.

The function that saves the global history list is smart enough to
notice what style of history list is being used (Netscape, Emacs-W3, or
XMosaic), and writes out the new additions appropriately.

@cindex Completion of URLs
@cindex Usefulness of global history
One of the nice things about keeping a global history files is that Emacs-W3
can use it as a completion table.  When doing @kbd{M-x w3-fetch}, pressing
the @kbd{tab} or @kbd{space} key will show all completions for a
partial @sc{url}.  This is very useful, especially for very long @sc{url}s that
are not in a hotlist, or for seeing all the pages from a particular web
site before choosing which to retrieve.

@node Stylesheets, General Formatting, Top, Top
@chapter Stylesheets
@cindex Customizing formatting
@cindex Specifying Fonts
@cindex Fonts
@cindex Stylesheets
@cindex Colors
How Emacs-W3 formats a document is very customizable.  All control over
formatting is now controlled by a default stylesheet set by the user
with the @code{w3-default-stylesheet} variable.

The following sections describe in more detail how to change the
formatting of a document.

@ifinfo
@menu
* General Formatting::                 Changing general things about a
                                       document.
* Character based terminals::          Changing how a document is
                                       displayed on a non-graphics
                                       terminal (vt100, etc.@:) or if
                                       @code{w3-delimit-emphasis} is @code{t}.
* Graphics workstations::              Changing how a document is
                                       displayed on a graphics terminal
                                       (Xwindows, Windows, NeXTstep,
                                       OS/2, etc.)
* Inlined images::                     How to specify how Emacs-W3
                                       handles inlined images/mpegs.
@end menu
@end ifinfo
@node General Formatting, Character based terminals, Stylesheets, Stylesheets
@section General formatting conventions
@iftex
@heading Setting the fill column
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center --------------------
@center Setting the right margin
@center --------------------
@end ifinfo
@cindex Margins
@vindex fill-column
@vindex w3-right-border
Each time a document is parsed, the right margin is recalculated
using the width of the current window and @code{w3-right-border}.
@code{w3-right-border} is an integer specifying how much room at the
right edge of the screen to leave blank.  The @code{fill-column} is set
to @code{(- (window-width) @code{w3-right-border})}.
@iftex
@heading Formatting of directory listings
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center --------------------
@center Formatting of directory listings
@center --------------------
@end ifinfo
@vindex url-use-hypertext-dired
When Emacs-W3 encounters a link to a directory (whether by local file access
or via @sc{ftp}), it can either create an @sc{html} document on the fly, or use
@code{dired-mode} to peruse the listing.  The variable
@code{url-use-hypertext-dired} controls this behavior.

If the value is @code{t}, Emacs-W3 uses @code{directory-files} to list them
out and transform the directory into a hypertext document, then pass it
through the parser like any other document.

If the value is @code{nil}, just pass the directory off to dired using
@code{find-file}.  Using this option loses all the hypertext abilities
of Emacs-W3, and the users is unable to load documents in the directory
directly into Emacs-W3 by clicking with the mouse, etc.

@iftex
@heading Formatting of gopher directories
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center --------------------
@center Formatting of gopher directories
@center --------------------
@end ifinfo
@vindex w3-use-hypertext-gopher
@cindex Gopher+
@cindex ASK blocks
There are two different ways of viewing gopher links.  The built-in
support that converts gopher directories into @sc{html}, or the
@file{gopher.el} package by Scott Snyder (@i{snyder@@fnald0.fnal.gov}).
The variable that controls this is @code{w3-use-hypertext-gopher}.  If
set to @code{nil}, then @file{gopher.el} is used.  Any other value
causes Emacs-W3 to use its internal gopher support.  If using
@file{gopher.el}, all the hypertext capabilities of Emacs-W3 are lost.
All the functionality of @file{gopher.el} is now available in the
hypertext version, and the hypertext version supports Gopher+ and ASK
blocks. 

@vindex w3-gopher-labels
The main way to control the display of gopher directories is by the
variable @code{w3-gopher-labels}.  This variable controls the text that
is inserted at the front of each item.  This is an assoc list of gopher
types (as one character strings), and a string to insert just after the
list item.  All the normal gopher types are defined.  Entries should be
similar to: @samp{("0" . "(TXT)")}.  I have tried to keep all the tags
to three characters plus two parentheses. 
@iftex
@heading Creating a horizontal rule
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center --------------------
@center Creating a horizontal rule
@center --------------------
@end ifinfo
@vindex w3-horizontal-rule-char
Horizontal rules (@b{<HR>} tags in @sc{html}[+]) are used to separate chunks
of a document, and is meant to be rendered as a solid line across the
page.  Some terminals display characters differently, so the variable
@code{w3-horizontal-rule-char} controls which character is used to draw
a horizontal bar.  This variable must be the ASCII value of the
character, @b{not a string}.  The variable is passed through
@code{make-string} whenever a horizontal rule of a certain width is
necessary.

@node Character based terminals, Graphics workstations, General Formatting, Stylesheets
@section On character based terminals
@vindex w3-delimit-emphasis
On character based terminals, there is no easy way to show that a
certain range of text is in bold or italics.  If the variable
@code{w3-delimit-emphasis} is non-@code{nil}, then Emacs-W3 can insert
characters before and after character formatting commands in @sc{html}
documents.  The defaul value of @code{w3-delimit-emphasis} is
automatically set based on the type of window system and version of
Emacs being used. 

@vindex w3-header-chars-assoc
:: WORK ::

@findex w3-upcase-region
@code{w3-header-chars-assoc} is an assoc list of header tags and a list
of formatting instructions.  The @code{car} of the list is the level of
the header (1--6).  The rest of the list should contain three items.
The first item is text to insert before the header.  The second item is
text to insert after the header.  Both should have reserved characters
converted to their @sc{html}[+] entity definitions.  The third item is a
function to call on the area the header is in.  This function is called
with arguments specifying the start and ending character positions of
the header.  The starting point is always first.  To convert a region to
upper case, please use @code{w3-upcase-region} instead of
@code{upcase-region}, so that entities are converted properly.

@node Graphics workstations, Inlined images, Character based terminals, Stylesheets
@section With graphics workstations
Starting with the first public release of version 2.3.0, all formatting
is controlled by the use of stylesheets.

:: WORK :: Graphic workstation stuff - redo for stylesheets

@node Inlined images, , Graphics workstations, Stylesheets
@cindex Inlined images
@cindex Images
@cindex Movies
@cindex Inlined MPEGs
@cindex MPEGs
When running in Lucid Emacs 19.10 or XEmacs 19.11 and higher, Emacs-W3 can
display inlined images and MPEG movies.  There are several variables that
control how and when the images are displayed.

@cindex Netpbm
@cindex Pbmplus
@vindex w3-graphic-converter-alist
Since Lucid/XEmacs only natively understands XPixmaps and XBitmaps, GIFs
and other image types must first be converted to one of these formats.
To do this, the @b{netpbm utilities}@footnote{Available via anonymous
ftp from ftp.x.org:/R5contrib/netpbm-1mar1994.tar.gz, and most large ftp
sites.} programs are normally used.  This is a suite of freeware image
conversion tools.  The variable @code{w3-graphic-converter-alist}
controls how each image type is converted.  This is an assoc list, keyed
on the @sc{mime} content-type.  The @code{car} is the content-type, and
the @code{cdr} is a string suitable to pass to @code{format}.  A %s in
this string will be replaced with a converter from the ppm image format
to an XPixmap (or XBitmap, if being run on a monochrome display).  By
default, the Emacs-W3 browser has converters for:

@enumerate
@item
image/x-xbitmap
@item
image/xbitmap
@item
image/xbm
@item
image/gif
@item
image/jpeg
@item
image/x-fax
@item
image/x-raster
@item
image/windowdump
@item
image/x-icon
@item
image/portable-graymap
@item
image/portable-pixmap
@item
image/x-pixmap
@item
image/x-xpixmap
@item
image/pict
@item
image/x-macpaint
@item
image/x-targa
@item
image/tiff
@end enumerate

@vindex w3-color-max-blue
@vindex w3-color-max-green
@vindex w3-color-max-red
@vindex w3-color-use-reducing
@vindex w3-color-filter
Since most displays are (sadly) not 24-bit, Emacs-W3 can automatically
dither an image, so that it does not fill up the application' colormap too
quickly.  If @code{w3-color-use-reducing} is non-@code{nil}, then the
images will use reduced colors.  If @code{w3-color-filter} is @code{eq} to
@code{'ppmquant}, then the ppmquant program will be used.  If @code{eq} to
@code{'ppmdither}, then the ppmdither program will be used.  The ppmdither
program tends to give better results.  The values of
@code{w3-color-max-red}, @code{w3-color-max-blue}, and
@code{w3-color-max-green} control how many colors the inlined images can
use.  If using ppmquant, then the product of these three variables is used
as the maximum number of colors per image.  If using ppmdither, then only
the set number of color cells can be allocated per image.  See the man
pages for ppmdither and ppmquant for more information on how the dithering
is actually done.  @code{w3-color-filter} may also be a string, specifying
exactly what external filter to use.  An example is: @samp{ppmquant -fs
-map ~/pixmaps/colormap.ppm}.

@cindex MPEGs
@cindex Inlined animations
When running in XEmacs 19.11 or XEmacs 19.12, Emacs-W3 can insert an
MPEG movie in the middle of a buffer.  

:: WORK :: Need a pointer to the new EMBED Internet Draft ::

The basic syntax is:
@example
<embed href="somevideo.mpg" type="video/mpeg">
@end example

@vindex w3-mpeg-args
@vindex w3-mpeg-program
This requires a special version of the standard @file{mpeg_play} mpeg
player.  Patches against the 2.0 version are available at
ftp://ftp.cs.indiana.edu/pub/elisp/w3/mpeg_patch.  The variable
@code{w3-mpeg-program} should point to this executable, and
@code{w3-mpeg-args} should be a list of any additional arguments to be
passed to the player.  By default, this includes @var{-loop}, so the
mpeg plays continuously.

@cindex Delaying inlined images
@cindex Delaying inlined animations
@vindex w3-delay-image-loads
@vindex w3-delay-mpeg-loads
Because images and movies can take up an incredible amount of bandwidth,
it is useful to be able to control whether they are loaded or not.  By
default, images and movies are loaded automatically, but the variables
@code{w3-delay-image-loads} and @code{w3-delay-mpeg-loads} control this.
If set to non-@code{nil}, then the images or movies are not
loaded until explicitly requested by the user.

@cindex Loading delayed images
@cindex Loading delayed movies
@findex w3-load-delayed-images
@findex w3-load-delayed-mpegs
To load any delayed images, use the function
@code{w3-load-delayed-images}.  Its counterpart for delayed movies is
@code{w3-load-delayed-mpegs}

@node MIME Support, Adding MIME types based on file extensions, , Top
@chapter MIME Support
@sc{mime} is an emerging standard for multimedia mail.  It offers a very
flexible typing mechanism.  The type of a file or message is specified
in two parts, separated by a '/'.  The first part is the general
category of the data (text, application, image, etc.).  The second part
is the specific type of data (postscript, gif, jpeg, etc.).  So
@samp{text/html} specifies an @sc{html} document, whereas
@samp{image/x-xwindowdump} specifies an image of an Xwindow taken with
the @file{xwd} program.


This typing allows much more flexibility in naming files.  @sc{http}/1.0
servers can now send back content-type headers in response to a request,
and not have the client second-guess it based on file extensions.  @sc{html}
files can now be named @file{something.gif} (not a great idea, but
possible).

@ifinfo
@menu
* Adding MIME types based on file extensions::  How to map file
                                                extensions onto MIME
                                                types (e.g., @samp{.gif ->
                                                image/gif)}.
* Specifying Viewers::  How to specify external and internal viewers
                        for files that Emacs-W3 cannot handle natively.
@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node Adding MIME types based on file extensions, Specifying Viewers, MIME Support, MIME Support
@section Adding MIME types based on file extensions
@vindex mm-mime-extensions
For some protocols however, it is still necessary to guess the content
of a file based on the file extension.  This type of guess-work should
only be needed when accessing files via @sc{ftp}, local file access, or old
@sc{http}/0.9 servers.

Instead of specifying how to view things twice, once based on
content-type and once based on the file extension, it is easier to map
file extensions to MIME content-types.  The variable that controls this
is @code{mm-mime-extensions}.

This variable is an assoc list of file extensions and the corresponding
MIME content-type.  A sample entry looks like: @samp{(".movie"
. "video/x-sgi-movie")} This makes all files that end in @file{.movie}
(@file{foo.movie} and @file{bar.movie}) be interpreted as SGI animation
files.  If a content-type is defined for the document, then this is
over-ridden.  Regular expressions can @b{NOT} be used.

@cindex mime-types file
@findex mm-parse-mimetypes
Both Mosaic and the NCSA @sc{http} daemon rely on a separate file for mapping
file extensions to MIME types.  Instead of having the users of Emacs-W3
duplicate this in lisp, this file can be parsed using the
@code{url-parse-mimetypes} function.  This function is called each time
w3 is loaded.  It tries to locate mimetype files in several places. If
the environment variable @code{MIMETYPES} is nonempty, then this is
assumed to specify a UNIX-like path of mimetype files (this is a colon
separated string of pathnames).  If the @code{MIMETYPES} environment
variable is empty, then Emacs-W3 looks for these files:

@enumerate
@item
@file{~/.mime-types}
@item
@file{/etc/mime-types}
@item
@file{/usr/etc/mime-types}
@item
@file{/usr/local/etc/mime-types}
@item
@file{/usr/local/www/conf/mime-types}
@end enumerate

Each line contains information for one @sc{http} type.  These types resemble
MIME types.  To add new ones, use subtypes beginning with x-, such as
application/x-myprogram.  Lines beginning with # are comment lines, and
suitably ignored.  Each line consists of:

type/subtype ext1 ext2 ...  ext@var{n}

type/subtype is the MIME-like type of the document. ext* is any number
of space-separated filename extensions which correspond to the MIME
type.

@node Specifying Viewers, ,Adding MIME types based on file extensions, MIME Support
@section Specifying Viewers
Not all files look as they should when parsed as an @sc{html} document
(whitespace is stripped, paragraphs are reformatted, and lots of little
changes that make the document look unrecognizable).  Files may be
passed to external programs or Emacs Lisp functions to be viewed.

Not all files can be viewed accurately from within an Emacs session (GIF
files for example, or audio files).  For this reason, the user can
specify file "viewers" based on MIME content-types.  This is done with
a standard mailcap file.  @xref{Mailcap Files}

@findex mm-add-mailcap-entry
As an alternative, the function @code{mm-add-mailcap-entry} can also be
used from an appropriate hook.@xref{Hooks}  This functions takes three
arguments, the major type ("@i{image}"), the minor type ("@i{gif}"), and
an assoc list of information about the viewer.  Please see the @sc{url}
documentation for more specific information on what this assoc list
should look like.

@node Security, Non-Unix Operating Systems, , Top
@chapter Security
@cindex Security
@cindex Paranoia
There are an increasing number of ways to authenticate a user to a web
service.  Emacs-W3 tries to support as many as possible.  Emacs-W3
currently supports:

@table @b
@item Basic Authentication
@cindex Security, Basic
@cindex HTTP/1.0 Authentication
@cindex Authentication, Basic
The weakest authentication available, not recommended if serious
security is necessary.  This is simply a string that looks like
@samp{user:password} that has been Base64 encoded, as defined in RFC
1421.
@item Digest Authentication
@cindex Security, Digest
@cindex HTTP/1.0 Authentication
@cindex Authentication, Digest
Jeffery L. Hostetler, John Franks, Philip Hallam-Baker, Ari Luotonen,
Eric W. Sink, and Lawrence C. Stewart have an internet draft for a new
authentication mechanism.  For the complete specification, please see
draft-ietf-http-digest-aa-01.txt in the nearest internet drafts
archive@footnote{One is ftp://ds.internic.net/internet-drafts}.
@item SSL Encryption
@cindex HTTP/1.0 Authentication
@cindex Secure Sockets Layer
@cindex SSL
@cindex Gag Puke Retch
@cindex Exportability
@cindex Export Restrictions
SSL is the @code{Secure Sockets Layer} interface developed by Netscape
Communications @footnote{http://www.netscape.com/}.  Emacs-W3 supports
@sc{http} transfers over an SSL encrypted channel, if the appropriate files
have been installed.@xref{Installing SSL}
@end table

@node Non-Unix Operating Systems, VMS, Security, Top
@chapter Non-Unix Operating Systems
@cindex Non-Unix Operating Systems
@ifinfo
@menu
* VMS::                 The wonderful world of VAX|AXP-VMS!
* OS/2::                The next-best thing to Unix.
* MS-DOS::              The wonderful world of MS-DOG!
* Windows::             Windows NT, Chicago/Windows 95.
@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node VMS, OS/2, Non-Unix Operating Systems, Non-Unix Operating Systems
@section VMS
@cindex VAX-VMS
@cindex AXP-VMS
@cindex Digital VMS
@cindex VMS
:: WORK :: VMS Specific instriuctions

@node OS/2, MS-DOS, VMS, Non-Unix Operating Systems
@section OS/2
@cindex OS/2
@cindex Warp
:: WORK :: OS/2 Specific instructions

@node MS-DOS, Windows, OS/2, Non-Unix Operating Systems
@section MS-DOS
@cindex MS-DOS
@cindex Microsloth
@cindex DOS
@cindex MS-DOG
:: WORK :: DOS Specific instructions

@node Windows, Speech Integration , MS-DOS, Non-Unix Operating Systems
@section Windows
@cindex Windows (32-Bit)
@cindex 32-Bit Windows
@cindex Microsloth
@cindex Windows '95
:: WORK :: 32bit Windows Specific instructions

@node Speech Integration, Advanced Features, Windows, Top
@chapter Speech Integration
:: WORK :: Emacspeak integration

@node Advanced Features, Style Sheets, Speech Integration, Top
@chapter Advanced Features

@ifinfo
@menu
* Style Sheets::        Formatting control, the right way
* Disk Caching::        Improving performance by using a local disk cache
* Interfacing to Mail/News::	How to make VM understand hypertext links
* Debugging HTML::      How to make Emacs-W3 display warnings about invalid
                        @sc{html}/@sc{html}+ constructs.
* Native WAIS Support:: How to make Emacs-W3 understand WAIS links without
                        using a gateway.
* Rating Links::        How to make Emacs-W3 put an 'interestingness' value
                        next to each link.
* Gopher Plus Support:: How Emacs-W3 makes use of the Gopher+ protocol.
* Hooks::               Various hooks to use throughout Emacs-W3
* Other Variables::     Miscellaneous variables that control the real
                        guts of Emacs-W3.
@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node Style Sheets, Disk Caching, Advanced Features, Advanced Features
@section Style Sheets
@cindex Formatting control
@cindex Style sheets
@cindex Look and Feel
@cindex Layout control
@cindex Experimental style sheet mechanism
Emacs-W3 currently supports the experimental style sheet mechanism
proposed by H&kon W. Lie of the W3 Consortium.  This allows for the
author to specify what a document should look like, and yet allow the
end user to override any of the stylistic changes.  This allows for
people with special needs (most notably the visually impaired) to
override style bindings that could make a document totally
unreadable.

@example
<style notation="css">
/* This is a comment
** These will be ignored, up to the terminating */

h1 @{ align: center,
     color: yellow,
     background: red,
     font-size: 24pt
   @}
h2 @{ align: right,
     font-family: palatino,
     font-size: 18pt
   @}
</style>
@end example

:: WORK :: Much more information on stylesheets

@cindex <style>
To include a stylesheet into a document, simply use the <style> tag.
Use the @b{notation} attribute to specify what language the stylesheet
is specified in.  The default is @b{css}.  The data between the <style>
and </style> tags is the stylsheet proper - no @sc{html} parsing is done to
this data - it is treated similar to an <XMP> section of text.  To
reference an external stylesheet, use the <link> tag.
@example
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/bill.style">
@end example
If these two mechanisms are mixed, then the @sc{url} is resolved first, and
the contents of the <style> tag take precedence if there are any
conflicting directives.

@cindex DSSSL
@cindex DSSSL-lite
In the future, DSSSL and DSSSL-lite will be supported as valid
stylesheet languages, but not in this release.  For more information on
DSSSL-lite see http://www.falch.no/~pepper/DSSSL-Lite/ - for more
information on full DSSSL, see
ftp://ftp.jclark.com/pub/dsssl/dsssl.ps.gz

@node Disk Caching, Interfacing to Mail/News, Style Sheets, Advanced Features
@section Disk Caching
@cindex Caching
@cindex Persistent Cache
@cindex Disk Cache
A cache stores the information on a page on the local machine.  When
requesting a page that is in the cache, Emacs-W3 can retrieve the page
from the cache more quickly than retrieving the page again from its
location out on the network.  With a well-populated cache, browsing the
web is dramatically faster.

The first time a page is requested, Emacs-W3 retrieves the page from the
network.  When requesting a page that is in the cache, Emacs-W3 checks
to see if the page has changed since it was last retrieved from the
remote machine.  If it has not changed, the local copy is used, saving
the transmission of the file over the network.

@vindex url-automatic-caching
@cindex Turning on caching
@cindex Cleaning the cache
@cindex Clearing the cache
@cindex Cache cleaning
@cindex Limiting the size of the cache
To turn on disk caching, set the variable @code{url-automatic-caching}
to non-@code{nil}, or choose the 'Caching' menu item (under `Options').
That is all there is to it.  Running the @code{clean-cache} shell script
fist is recommended, to allow for future cleaning of the cache.  This
shell script will remove all files that have not been accessed since it
was last run.  To keep the cache pared down, it is recommended that this
script be run from @i{at} or @i{cron} (see the manual pages for
crontab(5) or at(1) for more information)


@cindex Relying on cache
@cindex Cache only mode
@cindex Standalone mode
@cindex Browsing with no network connection
@cindex Netless browsing
@vindex url-standalone-mode
With a large cache of documents on the local disk, it can be very handy
when traveling, or any other time the network connection is not active
(a laptop with a dial-on-demand PPP connection, etc).  Emacs-W3 can rely
solely on its cache, and avoid checking to see if the page has changed
on the remote server.  In the case of a dial-on-demand PPP connection,
this will keep the phone line free as long as possible, only bringing up
the PPP connection when asking for a page that is not located in the
cache.  This is very useful for demonstrations as well.  To turn this
feature on, set the variable @code{url-standalone-mode} to
non-@code{nil}, or choose the `Use Cache Only' menu item (under
`Options')

@cindex Caching options
@cindex Alternate caching method
Emacs-W3 caches files under the temporary directory specified by
@code{url-temporary-directory}, in a user-specific subdirectory
(determined by the @code{user-real-login-name} function).  The cache
files are stored under their original names, so a @sc{url} like:
http://www.aventail.com/foo/bar/baz.html would be stored in a cache file
named: /tmp/wmperry/com/aventail/www/foo/bar/baz.html.  Sometimes,
espcially with gopher links, there will be name conflicts, and an error
will be signalled.  This cannot be avoided, and still have reasonable
performance at startup time (reading in an index file of all the cached
pages can take a long time on slow machines, or even fast machines with
large caches).  When running XEmacs 19.12 or later, a different naming
scheme can be used.  This avoids name conflicts, but loses the human
readability of the cache file names.  The cache files will look like:
/tmp/wmperry/acbd18db4cc2f85cedef654fccc4a4d8, which is certainly
unique, but not very user-friendly.  To turn this on, add this to the
@file{.emacs} file:


@example
(add-hook 'w3-load-hooks '(lambda ()
                             (fset 'url-create-cached-filename
                                   'url-create-cached-filename-using-md5)))
@end example

If other versions of emacs will not be sharing the cache, I highly
recommend this method of creating the cache filename.
 

@node Interfacing to Mail/News, Debugging HTML, Disk Caching, Advanced Features
@section Interfacing to Mail/News
@cindex Interfacing to Mail/News
@cindex VM
@cindex Using Emacs-W3 with VM
@cindex GNUS
@cindex Using Emacs-W3 with Gnus
@cindex RMAIL
@cindex Using Emacs-W3 with RMAIL
More and more people are including @sc{url}s in their signatures, and within
the body of mail messages.  It can get quite tedious to type these into
the minibuffer to follow one. 

@vindex browse-url-browser-function
With the latest versions of VM (the 5.9x series of betas) and Gnus
(5.x), @sc{url}s are automatically highlighted, and can be followed with the
mouse or the return key.  How the @sc{url}s are viewed is determined by the
variable @code{browse-url-browser-function}, and it should be set to the
symbol @code{browse-url-w3}.

To access @sc{url}s from within RMAIL, the following hook should do the
trick.
@example
(add-hook 'rmail-mode-hook
	  (function
	   (lambda ()
	     (define-key rmail-mode-map [mouse-2] 'w3-maybe-follow-link-mouse)
	     (define-key rmail-mode-map "\r"      'w3-maybe-follow-link))))
@end example

@node Debugging HTML, Native WAIS Support, Interfacing to Mail/News, Advanced Features
@section Debugging HTML
@cindex Debugging
@cindex Invalid HTML
@cindex Bad HTML
@vindex w3-debug-buffer
@vindex w3-debug-html
For those people that are adventurous, or are just as anal as I am about
people writing valid @sc{html}, set the variable @code{w3-debug-html} to
@code{t} and see what happens.


If a Emacs-W3 thinks it has encountered invalid @sc{html}, then a debugging
message is displayed.

:: WORK :: Need to list the different values w3-debug-html can have, and
:: WORK :: what they do ::

@node Native WAIS Support, Rating Links, Debugging HTML, Advanced Features
@section Native WAIS Support
This version of Emacs-W3 supports native WAIS querying (earlier
versions required the use of a gateway program).  In order to use the
native WAIS support, a working @dfn{waisq} binary is required.  I
recommend the distribution from think.com -
ftp://think.com/wais/wais-8-b6.1.tar.Z is a good place to start.

@vindex url-waisq-prog
@vindex url-wais-gateway-server
@vindex url-wais-gateway-port
The variable @code{url-waisq-prog} must point to this executable, and
one of @code{url-wais-gateway-server} or @code{url-wais-gateway-port}
should be @code{nil}.

When a WAIS @sc{url} is encountered, a form will be automatically generated
and displayed.  After typing in the search term, the query will be sent
to the server by running the @code{url-waisq-prog} in a subprocess.  The
results will be converted into @sc{html} and displayed.

@node Rating Links, Gopher Plus Support, Native WAIS Support, Advanced Features
@section Rating Links
The @code{w3-link-info-display-function} variable can be used to 'rate' a @sc{url}
when it shows up in an @sc{html} page.  If non-@code{nil}, then this should
be a list specifying (or a symbol specifying the name) of a function.
This function should expect one argument, a fully specified @sc{url}, and
should return a string.  This string is inserted after the link
text.

If a user has decided that all links served from blort.com are too laden
with images, and wants to be warned that a link points at this host,
they could do something like this:

@example
(defun check-url (url)
  (if (string-match "://[^/]blort.com" url)
     "[SLOW!]" ""))

(setq w3-link-info-display-function 'check-url)
@end example

So that all links pointing to any site at blort.com shows up as "Some
link[SLOW!]" instead of just "Some link".

@node Gopher Plus Support, Hooks, Rating Links, Advanced Features
@section Gopher+ Support
@cindex Gopher+
The gopher+ support in Emacs-W3 is limited to the conversion of ASK
blocks into @sc{html} 3.0 forms, and the usage of the content-length given by
the gopher+ server to give a nice status bar on the bottom of the
screen.

This will hopefully be extended to include the Gopher+ method of
content-type negotiation, but this may be a while.

@node Hooks, Other Variables, Gopher Plus Support, Advanced Features
@section Hooks
@cindex Hooks
These are the various hooks that can be used to customize some of
Emacs-W3's behavior.  They are arranged in the order in which they would
happen when retrieving a document.  All of these are functions (or lists
of functions) that are called consecutively.

@table @code
@vindex w3-load-hooks
@item w3-load-hooks
These hooks are run by @code{w3-do-setup} the first time a @sc{url} is
fetched.  All the w3 variables are initialized before this hook is
run.
@item w3-file-done-hooks
These hooks are run by @code{w3-prepare-buffer} after all parsing on a
document has been done.  All @code{url-current-}@var{*} and
@code{w3-current-}@var{*} variables are initialized when this hook is run.
This is run before the buffer is shown, and before any inlined images
are downloaded and converted.
@item w3-file-prepare-hooks
These hooks are run by @code{w3-prepare-buffer} before any parsing is
done on the @sc{html} file.  The @sc{http}/1.0 headers specified by
@code{w3-show-headers} have been inserted, and the syntax table has been
set to @code{w3-parse-args-syntax-table} by the time this hook is run.
@item w3-mode-hooks
These hooks are run after a buffer has been parsed and displayed, but
before any inlined images are downloaded and converted.
@item w3-source-file-hooks
These hooks are run after displaying a document's source
@end table

@node Other Variables, , Hooks, Advanced Features
@section Miscellaneous variables
There are lots of variables that control the real nitty-gritty of Emacs-W3
that the beginning user probably shouldn't mess with.  Here they are.

@table @code
@item url-bad-port-list
@vindex url-bad-port-list
List of ports to warn the user about connecting to.  Defaults to just
the mail and @sc{nntp} ports so a malicious @sc{html} author cannot spoof mail or
news to other people.
@item url-confirmation-func
@vindex url-confirmation-func
What function to use for asking yes or no functions.  Possible values
are @code{'yes-or-no-p} or @code{'y-or-n-p}, or any function that takes
a single argument (the prompt), and returns @code{t} only if a positive
answer is gotten.  Defaults to @code{'yes-or-no-p}.
@item w3-default-action
@vindex w3-default-action
A lisp symbol specifying what action to take for files with extensions
that are not in the @code{mm-mime-extensions} assoc list.  This is
useful in case Emacs-W3 ever run across files with weird extensions
(.foo, .README, .READMEFIRST, etc.).  In most circumstances, this should
not be required anymore.

Possible values: any lisp symbol.  Should be a function that takes no
arguments.  The return value does not matter, it is ignored.  Some examples
are @code{'w3-prepare-buffer} or @code{'indented-text-mode}.
@ignore
@item w3-icon-directory-list
@vindex w3-icon-directory-list
A list of directorys to look in for the w3 standard icons...  must end
in a /!  If the directory @code{data-directory}/w3 exists, then this is
automatically added to the default value of
http://cs.indiana.edu/elisp/w3/icons/.
@end ignore
@item w3-keep-old-buffers
@vindex w3-keep-old-buffers
Whether to keep old buffers around when following links.  To avoid lots
of buffers in one Emacs session, set this variable to @code{nil}.  I
recommend setting it to @code{t}, so that backtracking from one link to
another is faster.

@item url-passwd-entry-func
@vindex url-passwd-entry-func
This is a symbol indicating which function to call to read in a
password.  If this variable is @code{nil} at startup, it is initialized
depending on whether @dfn{EFS} or @dfn{ange-ftp} is being used.  This
function should accept the prompt string as its first argument, and the
default value as its second argument.

@item w3-reuse-buffers
@vindex w3-reuse-buffers
Determines what happens when @code{w3-fetch} is called on a document
that has already been loaded into another buffer.  Possible values are:
@code{nil}, @code{yes}, and @code{no}.  @code{nil} will ask the user if
Emacs-W3 should reuse the buffer (this is the default value).  A value of
@code{yes} means assume the user wants to always reuse the buffer.  A
value of @code{no} means assume the user always wants to re-fetch the
document.
@item w3-show-headers
@vindex w3-show-headers
This is a list of @sc{http}/1.0 headers to show at the end of a buffer.  All
the headers should be in lowercase.  They are inserted at the end of the
buffer in a <UL> list.  Alternatively, if this is simply @code{t}, then
all the @sc{http}/1.0 headers are shown.  The default value is
@code{nil}.
@item w3-show-status, url-show-status
@vindex url-show-status
@vindex w3-show-status
Whether to show progress messages in the minibuffer.
@code{w3-show-status} controls if messages about the parsing are
displayed, and @code{url-show-status} controls if a running total of the
number of bytes transferred is displayed.  These Can cause a large
performance hit if using a remote X display over a slow link, or a
terminal with a slow modem.
@item mm-content-transfer-encodings
@vindex mm-content-transfer-encodings
An assoc list of @var{Content-Transfer-Encodings} or
@var{Content-Encodings} and the appropriate decoding algorithms for each.
If the @code{cdr} of a node is a list, then this specifies the decoder is
an external program, with the program as the first item in the list, and
the rest of the list specifying arguments to be passed on the command line.
If using an external decoder, it must accept its input from @code{stdin}
and send its output to @code{stdout}.

If the @code{cdr} of a node is a symbol whose function definition is
non-@code{nil}, then that encoding can be handled internally.  The function
is called with 2 arguments, buffer positions bounding the region to be
decoded.  The function should completely replace that region with the
unencoded information.

Currently supported transfer encodings are: base64, x-gzip, 7bit, 8bit,
binary, x-compress, x-hqx, and quoted-printable.
@item url-uncompressor-alist
@vindex url-uncompressor-alist
An assoc list of file extensions and the appropriate uncompression
programs for each.  This is used to build the Accept-encoding header for
@sc{http}/1.0 requests.
@item url-waisq-prog
@vindex url-waisq-prog
Name of the waisq executable on this system.  This should be the
@file{waisq} program from think.com's wais8-b5.1 distribution.
@end table

@node More Help, Future Directions, , Top
@chapter More Help
@cindex Relevant Newsgroups
@cindex Newsgroups
@cindex Support
For more help on Emacs-W3, please send me mail
(@i{wmperry@@cs.indiana.edu}).  Several discussion lists have also been
created for Emacs-W3.  To subscribe, send mail to
@i{majordomo@@indiana.edu}, with the body of the message 'subscribe
@var{listname} @var{<email addres>}'.  All other mail should go to
@i{<listname>@@indiana.edu}.


@itemize @bullet
@item
w3-announce -- this list is for anyone interested in Emacs-W3, and
should in general only be used by me.  The gnu.emacs.sources newsgroup
and a few other mailing lists are included on this.  Please only use
this list for major package releases related to Emacs-W3.
(@i{www-announce@@w3.org} is included on this list).
@item
w3-beta -- this list is for beta testers of Emacs-W3.  These brave souls test
out not-quite stable code.
@item
w3-dev -- a list consisting of myself and a few other people who are
interested in the internals of Emacs-W3, and doing active development work.
Pretty dead right now, but I hope it will grow.
@end itemize

For more help on the World Wide Web in general, please refer to the
comp.infosystems.www.* newsgroups.  There are also several discussion
lists concerning the Web.  Send mail to @i{<listname>-request@@w3.org}
with a subject line of 'subscribe <listname>'.  All mail should go to
@i{<listname>@@w3.org}.  Administrative mail should go to
@i{www-admin@@w3.org}.  The lists are:


@itemize @bullet
@item
www-talk -- for general discussion of the World Wide Web, where its
going, new features, etc.  All the major developers are subscribed to
this list.
@item
www-announce -- for announcements concerning the World Wide Web.  Server
changes, new servers, new software, etc.
@end itemize

As a last resort, mail me.  I'll try to answer as quickly as I can.

@node Future Directions, Reporting Bugs, More Help, Top
@chapter Future Directions
Changes are constantly being made to the Emacs browser (hopefully all
for the better).  This is a list of the things that are being worked on
right now.

:: WORK :: Revamp the todo list

@node Reporting Bugs, Installing SSL, Future Directions, Top
@appendix Reporting Bugs
@cindex Reporting Bugs
@cindex Bugs
@cindex Contacting the author

If any bugs are discovered in Emacs-W3, please report them to the
mailing list @t{w3-beta@@indiana.edu} - this is where the brave souls
who beta test the latest versions of Emacs-W3 reside, and are generally
very responsive to bug reports.

@kindex w
Please make sure to use the bug submission feature of Emacs-W3, so that
all relevant information will be sent along with your bug report.  By
default this is bound to the `@key{w}' key when in an Emacs-W3 buffer,
or you can use @key{M-x w3-submit-bug} from anywhere within Emacs.

For problems that are causing emacs to signal and error, please send a
backtrace.  You can get a backtrace by @kbd{M-x setvariable RET
debug-on-error RET t RET}, and then reproduce the error.

If the problem is visual, please capture a copy of the output and mail
it along with the bug report (preferably as a MIME attachment, but
anything will do).  You can use the @code{xwd} program under X-windows
for this, or @key{Alt-PrintScreen} under Windows 95/NT.  Sorry, but I
don't remember what the magic incarnation is for doing a screen dump
under NeXTstep or OS/2.

If the problem is actually causing Emacs to crash, then you will need to
also mail the maintainers of the various Emacs distributions with the
bug.  Please use the @t{gnu.emacs.bug} newgroup for reporting bugs with
GNU Emacs 19, and @t{comp.emacs.xemacs} for reporting bugs with XEmacs
19 or XEmacs 20.  I am actively involved with the beta testing of the
latest versions of both branches of Emacs, and if I can reproduce the
problem, I will do my best to see it gets fixed in the next release.

It is also important to always maintain as much context as possible in
your responses.  I get so much email from my various Emacs-activities
and work, that I cannot remember everything.  If you send a bug report,
and I send you a reply, and you reply with 'no that didn't work', then
odds are I will have no clue what didn't work, much less what that was
trying to fix in the first place.  It will be much quicker and less
painful if I don't have to waste a round-trip email exchange saying
'what are you talking about'.

@node Installing SSL, Mailcap Files, Reporting Bugs, Top 
@appendix Installing SSL
@cindex HTTP/1.0 Authentication
@cindex Secure Sockets Layer
@cindex SSL
@cindex Gag Puke Retch
@cindex Exportability
@cindex Export Restrictions
In order to use SSL in Emacs-W3, an implementation of SSL is necessary.
These are the implementations that I am aware of:

@table @code
@item SSLRef 2.0
Available from Netscape Communications @footnote{http://www.netscape.com/newsref/std/sslref.html}.  This requires the
RSARef library, which is not exportable.  The RSARef library is
available from ftp://ftp.rsa.com/rsaref/
@item SSLeay 0.4
An implementation by Eric Young (eay@@mincom.oz.au) that is free for
commerial or noncommercial use, and was developed completely outside the
US by a non-US citizen.  More information can be found at
ftp://ftp.psy.uq.oz.au/pub/Crypto/SSL/
@end table

@vindex ssl-program-name
Whichever reference implementation is used (I recommend the SSLeay
distribution, just to thumb a nose at the NSA :), there is a program
that can be run in a subprocess that takes a hostname and port number on
the command line, and reads/writes to standard input/output (the
Netscape implementation comes with one of these by default).  Set the
variable @code{ssl-program-name} to point to this program.


This should be all the configuration necessary.  In the future, I will
be distributing a set of patches to Emacs 19.xx and XEmacs 19.xx to
SSL-enable them, for the sake of speed.

@node Mailcap Files, General Index, Installing SSL, Top
@appendix Mailcap Files
NCSA Mosaic and almost all other WWW browsers rely on a separate file
for mapping MIME types to external viewing programs.  This takes some of
the burden off of browser developers, so each browser does not have to
support all image formats, or postscript, etc.  Instead of having the
users of Emacs-W3 duplicate this in lisp, this file can be parsed using
the @code{mm-parse-mailcaps} function.  This function is called each
time Emacs-W3 is loaded.  It tries to locate mimetype files in several
places. If the environment variable @code{MAILCAPS} is nonempty, then
this is assumed to specify a UNIX-like path of mimetype files (this is a
colon separated string of pathnames).  If the @code{MAILCAPS}
environment variable is empty, then Emacs-W3 looks for these
files:

@enumerate
@item
@file{~/.mailcap}
@item
@file{/etc/mailcap}
@item
@file{/usr/etc/mailcap}
@item
@file{/usr/local/etc/mailcap}
@end enumerate

This format of this file is specified in RFC 1343, but a brief synopsis
follows (this is taken verbatim from sections of RFC 1343).

Each mailcap file consists of a set of entries that describe the proper
handling of one media type at the local site.  For example, one line
might tell how to display a message in Group III fax format.  A mailcap
file consists of a sequence of such individual entries, separated by
newlines (according to the operating system's newline
conventions). Blank lines and lines that start with the "#" character
(ASCII 35) are considered comments, and are ignored.  Long entries may
be continued on multiple lines if each non-terminal line ends with a
backslash character ('\', ASCII 92), in which case the multiple lines
are to be treated as a single mailcap entry.  Note that for such
"continued" lines, the backslash must be the last character on the line
to be continued.

Each mailcap entry consists of a number of fields, separated by
semi-colons.  The first two fields are required, and must occur in the
specified order.  The remaining fields are optional, and may appear in
any order.

The first field is the content-type, which indicates the type of data
this mailcap entry describes how to handle.  It is to be matched against
the type/subtype specification in the "Content-Type" header field of an
Internet mail message.  If the subtype is specified as "*", it is
intended to match all subtypes of the named content-type.

The second field, view-command, is a specification of how the message or
body part can be viewed at the local site.  Although the syntax of this
field is fully specified, the semantics of program execution are
necessarily somewhat operating system dependent.

The optional fields, which may be given in any order, are as follows:
@itemize @bullet
@item
The "compose" field may be used to specify a program that can be used to
compose a new body or body part in the given format.  Its intended use
is to support mail composing agents that support the composition of
multiple types of mail using external composing agents.  As with the
view- command, the semantics of program execution are operating system
dependent.  The result of the composing program may be data that is not
yet suitable for mail transport---that is, a Content-Transfer-Encoding
may need to be applied to the data.
@item
The "composetyped" field is similar to the "compose" field, but is to be
used when the composing program needs to specify the Content-type header
field to be applied to the composed data.  The "compose" field is
simpler, and is preferred for use with existing (non-mail-oriented)
programs for composing data in a given format.  The "composetyped" field
is necessary when the Content-type information must include auxilliary
parameters, and the composition program must then know enough about mail
formats to produce output that includes the mail type
information.
@item
The "edit" field may be used to specify a program that can be used to
edit a body or body part in the given format.  In many cases, it may be
identical in content to the "compose" field, and shares the
operating-system dependent semantics for program execution.
@item
The "print" field may be used to specify a program that can be used to
print a message or body part in the given format.  As with the
view-command, the semantics of program execution are operating system
dependent.
@item
The "test" field may be used to test some external condition (e.g.  the
machine architecture, or the window system in use) to determine whether
or not the mailcap line applies.  It specifies a program to be run to
test some condition.  The semantics of execution and of the value
returned by the test program are operating system dependent.  If the
test fails, a subsequent mailcap entry should be sought.  Multiple test
fields are not permitted---since a test can call a program, it can
already be arbitrarily complex.
@item
The "needsterminal" field indicates that the view-command must be run on
an interactive terminal.  This is needed to inform window-oriented user
agents that an interactive terminal is needed.  (The decision is not
left exclusively to the view-command because in some circumstances it
may not be possible for such programs to tell whether or not they are on
interactive terminals.)  The needsterminal command should be assumed to
apply to the compose and edit commands, too, if they exist.  Note that
this is NOT a test---it is a requirement for the environment in which
the program will be executed, and should typically cause the creation of
a terminal window when not executed on either a real terminal or a
terminal window.
@item
The "copiousoutput" field indicates that the output from the
view-command will be an extended stream of output, and is to be
interpreted as advice to the UA (User Agent mail- reading program) that
the output should be either paged or made scrollable. Note that it is
probably a mistake if needsterminal and copiousoutput are both
specified.
@item
The "description" field simply provides a textual description,
optionally quoted, that describes the type of data, to be used
optionally by mail readers that wish to describe the data before
offering to display it.
@item
The "x11-bitmap" field names a file, in X11 bitmap (xbm) format, which
points to an appropriate icon to be used to visually denote the presence
of this kind of data.
@item
Any other fields beginning with "x-" may be included for local or
mailer-specific extensions of this format.  Implementations should
simply ignore all such unrecognized fields to permit such extensions,
some of which might be standardized in a future version of this
document.
@end itemize

@node General Index, Key Index, Mailcap Files, Top
@appendix General Index
@printindex fn
@node Key Index, , General Index, Top
@appendix Key Index
@printindex ky
@contents
@bye

@c @ifinfo
@c Here is some more specific information about what languages and
@c protocols Emacs-W3 supports.
@c @menu
@c * Markup Languages Supported::	Markup languages supported by Emacs-W3
@c * Stylesheets::                 Stylesheet languages supported by Emacs-W3
@c * Supported Protocols::		Network protocols supported by Emacs-W3
@c @end menu
@c @end ifinfo
@c @node Markup Languages Supported, Stylesheets, Introduction, Introduction
@c @chapter Supported Markup Languages
@c Several different markup languages, and various extensions to those
@c languages, are supported by Emacs-W3.
@c @ifinfo
@c @center ----------
@c @center HTML 2.0
@c @center ----------
@c @end ifinfo
@c @iftex
@c @section HTML 2.0
@c @end iftex
@c @cindex HTML 2.0

@c :: WORK :: Reference to the HTML 2.0 RFC
@c :: WORK :: Basic explanation of HTML, tag structure, etc.

@c @ifinfo
@c @center ----------
@c @center HTML 3.2
@c @center ----------
@c @end ifinfo
@c @iftex
@c @section HTML 3.2
@c @end iftex
@c @cindex HTML 3.2
@c The HTML 3.2 language is an extension of HTML, with a large degree of
@c backward compatibility with HTML 2.0.  This basically documents current
@c practice as of January, 1996.

@c @ifinfo
@c @center ----------
@c @center SGML Features
@c @center ----------
@c @end ifinfo
@c @iftex
@c @section SGML Features
@c @end iftex
@c @cindex SGML Features
@c @cindex Entity Definitions
@c @cindex Marked Sections

@c :: WORK :: Document marked sections, SGML features

@c @ifinfo
@c @center ----------
@c @center Extras
@c @center ----------
@c @end ifinfo
@c @iftex
@c @section Extra Markup
@c @end iftex
@c @cindex Easter Eggs
@c @cindex Fluff
@c @cindex Pomp & Circumstance
@c There are several different markup elements that are not officially part
@c of HTML or HTML 3.2 that Emacs-W3 supports.  These are either items that
@c were dropped from HTML 3.@var{x} after I had implemented them, things I
@c find just completely hilarious, or experimental parts of HTML that
@c should not be counted as "official" or long lived.
@c @itemize @bullet
@c @item
@c FLAME support.  For truly interesting dynamic documents.  This is
@c replaced with a random quote from Mr. Angry (see @kbd{M-x flame} for a
@c sample).
@c @item
@c The top ten tags that did not make it into netscape.  These tags were
@c posted to the newsgroup comp.infosystems.www.misc by Laura Lemay
@c (@i{lemay@@netcom.com}).  Much thanks to her for the humor.
@c @table @b
@c @item <wired>...</wired>
@c Renders the enclosed text in a suitably ugly font/color combination.  If
@c no default has been set up by the user, this is the default font, with
@c red text on a yellow background.
@c @item <roach>...</roach>
@c When selected, the enclosed text runs and hides under the nearest
@c window.  OR, giggles a lot and demands nachos, depending on the
@c definition of "roach." (the formal definition, of course, to be
@c determined by the Official Honorary Internet Standards Committee For
@c Moving Really Slowly.)
@c @item <pinhead>
@c Inserts "zippyisms" into the enclosed text.  Perfect for those professional
@c documents.  This is sure to be a favorite of mine!
@c @item <secret>...</secret>
@c Must use secret spy decoder glasses (available direct from Netscape for
@c a reasonable fee) in order to read the enclosed text.  Can also be read
@c by holding the computer in front of a full moon during the autumn
@c solstice.

@c In Emacs-W3, this displays the text using rot13 encoding.
@c @item <hype>
@c Causes Marc Andreesen to magically appear and grant an interview (wanted
@c or not).  Please use this tag sparingly.
@c @item <peek>....</peek>
@c @item <poke>...</poke>
@c Need more control over screen layout in HTML?  Well, here ya go.
@c n
@c Actually, <peek> could almost be considered useful.  The VARIABLE
@c attribute can be used to insert the value of an emacs variable into the
@c current document.  Things like 'Welcome to my page, <peek
@c variable=user-mail-address>' can be useful in spreading fear,
@c uncertainty, and doubt among users.
@c @item <yogsothoth>
@c @cindex Gates Bill
@c @cindex Yogsothoth
@c Summons the elder gods to suck away your immortal soul.  Or Bill Gates,
@c if the elder gods are busy.  Unpredictable (but amusing) results occur
@c when the <YOGSOTHOTH> and <HYPE> tags are used in close proximity.

@c @item <blink>...</blink>
@c Causes the enclosed text to .... ooops that one made it in.
@c @end table
@c @end itemize

@c @node Stylesheets, Supported Protocols, Markup Languages Supported,Introduction
@c @chapter Stylesheets
@c @cindex Stylesheets
@c @cindex Cascading Style Sheets
@c @cindex Aural Cascading Style Sheets
@c @cindex CSS
@c @cindex DSSSL
@c :: WORK :: Document CSS support
@c CSS Information at http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/TR/REC-CSS1
@c Style guide at http://www.htmlhelp.com/reference/css/
@c :: WORK :: Document ACSS support
@c ACSS Information at http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Style/CSS/Speech/NOTE-ACSS
@c :: WORK :: Document DSSSL support

@c @node Supported Protocols, , Stylesheets, Introduction
@c @chapter Supported Protocols
@c @cindex Network Protocols
@c @cindex Protocols Supported
@c @cindex Supported Protocols
@c Emacs-W3 supports the following protocols
@c @table @b
@c @item Usenet News
@c Can either display an entire newsgroup or specific articles by
@c Message-ID: header.  Instead of rewriting a newsreader, this integrates
@c with the Gnus newsreader.  It requires at least Gnus 5.0, but it is
@c always safest to use the latest version.  Gnus supports some very
@c advanced features, including virtual newsgroups, mail and news
@c integration, and reading news from multiple servers.  @inforef{Gnus,
@c Top,gnus}, for more info.

@c To be more in line with the other @sc{url} schemes, the hostname and port of
@c an @sc{nntp} server can be specified.  @sc{url}s of the form
@c news://hostname:port/messageID work, but might not work in some other
@c browsers.

@c @item @sc{http}
@c Supports the @sc{http}/0.9, @sc{http}/1.0, and parts of the @sc{http}/1.1 protocols.
@c @item Gopher
@c Support for all gopher types, including CSO queries.
@c @item Gopher+
@c Support for Gopher+ retrievals. Support for converting ASK blocks into
@c HTML forms and submitting them back to the server.
@c @item @sc{ftp}
@c @sc{ftp} is handled by either ange-ftp or efs.
@c @inforef{Ange-FTP,Top,ange-ftp}, for more information on Ange-FTP, or
@c @inforef{EFS, Top,efs}, for information on EFS.
@c @item Local files
@c Local files are of course handled, and MIME content-types are derived
@c from the file extensions.
@c @item telnet, tn3270, rlogin
@c Telnet, tn3270, and rogin are handled by running the appropriate program
@c in an emacs buffer, or running an external process.
@c @item mailto
@c Causes a mail message to be started to a specific address.  Supports the
@c Netscape @i{extensions} to specify arbitrary headers on the message.
@c @item data
@c A quick and easy way to `inline' small pieces of information that you do
@c not necessarily want to download over the net separately.  Can speed up
@c display of small icons, stylesheet information, etc.  See the internet
@c draft draft-masinter-url-data-02.txt for more information.
@c @item mailserver
@c A more powerful version of mailto, which allows the author to specify
@c the subject and body text of the mail message.  This type of link is
@c never fully executed without user confirmation, because it is possible
@c to insert insulting or threatening (and possibly illegal) data into the
@c message.  The mail message is displayed, and the user must confirm the
@c message before it is sent.
@c @item x-exec
@c A @sc{url} can cause a local executable to be run, and its output interpreted
@c as if it had come from an @sc{http} server.  This is very useful, but is
@c still an experimental protocol, hence the X- prefix.  This @sc{url} protocol
@c is deprecated, but might be useful in the future.
@c @item @sc{nfs}
@c Retrieves information over @sc{nfs}.  This requires that your operating
@c system support auto-mounting of @sc{nfs} volumes.
@c @item finger
@c Retrieves information about a user via the 'finger' protocol.
@c @item Info
@c Creates a link to an GNU-style info file.  @inforef{Info,Top,info}, for more
@c information on the Info format.
@c @item SSL
@c SSL requires a set of patches to the Emacs C code and SSLRef 2.0, or an
@c external program to run in a subprocess (similar to the @file{tcp.el}
@c package that comes with GNUS.  @xref{Installing SSL}
@c @end table