XEmacs Installation Guide
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Copyright (c) 1994-1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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BUILDING AND INSTALLATION (Unix and Cygwin, see the file nt/README
for instructions on building under Microsoft Windows):
1) Make sure your system has enough swapping space allocated to handle
a program whose pure code is 900k bytes and whose data area is at
least 400k and can reach 8Mb or more. Note that a typical XEmacs
build is much bigger. If the swapping space is
insufficient, you will get an error in the command `temacs -batch
-l loadup dump', found in `./src/Makefile.in.in', or possibly when
running the final dumped XEmacs.
Verify that your users have a high enough stack limit. On some
systems such as OpenBSD and OSF/Tru64 the default is 2MB which is
too low. See 'PROBLEMS' for details.
Building XEmacs requires about 100 Mb of disk space (including the
XEmacs sources). Once installed, XEmacs occupies between 20 and 100 Mb
in the file system where it is installed; this includes the executable files,
Lisp libraries, miscellaneous data files, and on-line documentation. The
exact amount depends greatly on the number of extra lisp packages that are
XEmacs requires an ANSI C compiler, such as GCC. If you wish to build
the documentation yourself, you will need at least version 1.68 of
makeinfo (GNU texinfo-3.11).
2) Decide on what other software packages you would like to use with
XEmacs, but are not yet available on your system. On some systems,
Motif and CDE are optional additions. On Solaris, the SUNWaudmo
package enables native sound support. There are also a number of free
software packages that XEmacs can use. If these are not yet available
on your system, obtain, build and install those external packages
before building XEmacs. The packages XEmacs can use are:
Xaw3d, XPM, JPEG, compface, PNG, zlib, GNU DBM, Berkeley DB, socks,
term, NAS, Canna, Kinput2, SJ3, Wnn.
You can get (most of) them from the XEmacs ftp site at
If you want users on other systems to be able to use the XEmacs you
have built, try to build those packages so that the generated
libraries are statically linked.
Use the --site-includes and --site-libraries options when building
XEmacs to allow configure to find the external software packages.
If you link with dynamic (``.so'') external package libraries, which
is not recommended, you will also need to add the library directories
to the --site-runtime-libraries option. For your convenience these can
be set together by using the --with-site-prefix command. This will set
these variables as needed assuming your libraries are organised as a
typical /usr tree.
3) [N.B. Most of this section can be done during or after the
compilation of the core source code, but is present early to catch
Decide what Initial Lisp you need with XEmacs. XEmacs is
distributed separately from most of its runtime environment. This is
done to make it easier for administrators to tune an installation for
what the local users need. Note that while XEmacs will compile and
install without any packages present at least some additional lisp
packages are needed to bring XEmacs up to "normal" editor
functionality. Installation and upgrading of the packages can be done
almost automatically when from inside XEmacs when it has been compiled
More information and suggestions for which packages to install see the
IMPORTANT! The file README.packages contain information vital to have
a fully working XEmacs. This information was not included in this file
only because it is too large for this terse INSTALL. Please read
By default, packages will be searched for in the path
This may be changed by specifying a different value with the
--package-path configuration option.
4) In the top level directory of the XEmacs distribution, run the
program `configure' as follows:
./configure [CONFIGURATION-NAME] [--OPTION[=VALUE]] ...
Almost always, you should let `configure' (actually the shell script
`config.guess') guess your host type, by omitting the
CONFIGURATION-NAME argument. If you like to experiment, specify a
configuration name in the form MACHINE-VENDOR-OPSYS, for example:
See config.guess and configure.in for valid values for MACHINE,
VENDOR, and OPSYS. Also check `./etc/MACHINES' for advice on building
on particular machines.
If you don't want X support, specify `--without-x'. If you omit this
option, `configure' will try to autodetect whether your system has X,
and arrange to use it if present.
The `--x-includes=DIR' and `--x-libraries=DIR' options tell the build
process where the compiler should look for the include files and
object libraries used with the X Window System. Normally, `configure'
is able to find them; these options are necessary if you have your X
Window System files installed in unusual places.
The `--site-includes=DIR' and `--site-libraries=DIR' options allow you
to specify additional places the compiler should look for include
files and object libraries. You may specify multiple DIR's by
enclosing the list in quotes. All the external packages you want to
use with XEmacs (e.g. xpm, wnn, ...) described later should have their
include and library directories defined using these options.
The `--site-runtime-libraries=DIR' option specifies directories to
search for shared libraries at run time. This may be necessary if you
link with dynamic libraries that are installed in non-standard
directories, or if you expect some of the libraries used to build
XEmacs to be in a different directory at run time than at build time.
Usually this will add a `-R' to each directory specified and use that
when linking XEmacs. If you use this option, you must specify ALL of
the directories containing shared libraries at run time, including
Rationale: Some people think that directories in --site-libraries
should be automatically used to update --site-runtime-libraries.
Here's a real-life scenario that explains why this is not done: You
build binaries for your company using static libs in
/net/toy/hack/lib. XEmacs adds /net/toy/hack/lib to the runpath of
the executable you've built. Since there are only static libs there,
the system runtime loader will look in this dir, and ignore it,
causing only a .01 second delay in starting XEmacs. You leave the
company for a job at a small Silicon Valley startup. Time passes.
The next guy who inherits your machine objects to working on a machine
named `toy', and gets the sysadmin to rename the machine `godzilla'.
The SA forgets to remove the old entry for `toy' from the hosts file.
Now the system loader will still try to access /net/toy/, and the
automounter will hang trying to access /net/toy. XEmacs suddenly
takes 30 seconds longer to start up, no one can figure out why, and
everyone at your old company curses your name, thinking that you've
put a time bomb into XEmacs. And they're right!
The `--with-gcc' option specifies that the build process should
compile XEmacs using GCC. The `--compiler' option allows you to
specify some other compiler to be used to compile XEmacs. If neither
option is specified, the environment variable CC is used instead.
Otherwise the compiler will then default to 'cc'.
The `--cflags' option specifies the CFLAGS the build process should
use when compiling XEmacs. Otherwise the value of the environment
variable CFLAGS is consulted. If that is also undefined, CFLAGS
defaults to "-g -O" for gcc and "-g" for all other compilers.
The `--dynamic' option specifies that configure should try to link
emacs dynamically rather than statically.
You can build XEmacs for several different machine types from a single
source directory. To do this, you must use a version of `make' that
supports the `VPATH' variable, such as GNU `make'. Create separate
build directories for the different configuration types, and in each
one, run the XEmacs `configure' script. `configure' looks for the
Emacs source code in the directory that `configure' is in.
The `--prefix=PREFIXDIR' option specifies where the installation process
should put XEmacs and its data files. This defaults to `/usr/local'.
- XEmacs (and the other utilities users run) go in PREFIXDIR/bin
(unless the `--exec-prefix' option says otherwise).
- The architecture-independent files go in PREFIXDIR/lib/xemacs-VERSION
(where VERSION is the version number of XEmacs, like `21.0').
- The architecture-dependent files go in
(where CONFIGURATION-NAME is the host type, like mips-dec-ultrix4.2),
unless the `--exec-prefix' option says otherwise.
The `--exec-prefix=EXECDIR' option allows you to specify a separate
portion of the directory tree for installing architecture-specific
files, like executables and utility programs. If specified,
- XEmacs (and the other utilities users run) go in EXECDIR/bin, and
- The architecture-dependent files go in
EXECDIR/bin should be a directory that is normally in users' PATHs.
For example, the command
./configure mips-dec-ultrix --with-x11=yes
configures XEmacs to build for a DECstation running Ultrix, with
support for the X11 window system.
The `--with-menubars=TYPE' option allows you to specify which X
toolkit you wish to use for the menubar. The valid options are
`lucid', `motif' and `no'. The default is `lucid' which is a
Motif-lookalike menubar. We highly recommend its usage over the real
Motif menubar. (In fact, the Motif menubar is currently broken.) If
`no' is specified then support for menubars will not be compiled in.
The `--with-scrollbars=TYPE' option allows you to specify which X
toolkit you wish to use for the scrollbars. The valid options are
`lucid', `motif', `athena', `athena3d', and `no'. The default is
`lucid' which is a Motif-lookalike scrollbar. If `no' is specified
then support for scrollbars will not be compiled in.
The `--with-dialogs=TYPE' option allows you to specify which X toolkit
you wish to use for the dialog boxes. The valid options are `athena',
`athena3d', `motif, and `no. The `lucid' option is accepted and will
result in the `athena' toolkit being used. If the Motif toolkit can be
found the default is `motif'. Otherwise, the default is `athena'. If
`no' is specified then support for dialog boxes will not be compiled
The `--with-toolbars' option allows you to enable or disable toolbar
support. The default is `yes' as long as support for a windowing
system is included.
The `--with-xpm' option specifies that XEmacs should support X11
Pixmaps. `configure' will attempt to detect if you have the Xpm
libraries and define `--with-xpm' for you.
The `--with-xface' option specifies that XEmacs should support
X-Faces. `configure' will attempt to detect if you have the compface
library and define `--with-xface' for you.
The `--with-database' option specifies that XEmacs should be built
with additional database support. The valid options are `no' or a
comma-separated list of one or more of `dbm', `gnudbm' or `berkdb'.
`configure' will attempt to detect the necessary libraries and header
files and define `--with-database' for you.
The `--with-socks' option specifies that XEmacs should be built with
SOCKS support. This requires the libsocks library.
The `--with-tooltalk' option specifies that XEmacs should be built
with ToolTalk support for interconnecting with other applications.
ToolTalk is not yet supported on all architectures. If you use this
option, you should have the tooltalk package (see etc/PACKAGES)
installed prior to building XEmacs.
The `--with-sparcworks' option specifies that XEmacs should be built
with support for Sun Sparcworks 3.0.1 and up (including Sun WorkShop).
This functionality is only of use on SunOS 4.1.x and Solaris 2.x
systems. If you use this option, you should have the Sun package (see
etc/PACKAGES) installed prior to building XEmacs.
The `--with-cde' option allows you to enable or disable CDE drag and
drop support. `configure' will attempt to detect this option and
define `--with-cde' for you.
The `--with-offix' option allows you to enable or disable OffiX drag
and drop support. This requires no external library support, so if
X11 support is available, then this option defaults to `yes'. OffiX
support can be explicitly disabled via the `--with-offix=no' option.
The `--external-widget' option specifies that XEmacs should be built
with support for being used as a widget by other X11 applications.
This functionality should be considered beta.
The `--without-xmu' option can be used if your vendor doesn't ship
the Xmu library.
The `--puresize' option can be used to change the amount of purespace
allocated for the dumped XEmacs. As of XEmacs 20.1 usage of this
parameter is deprecated and will be ignored.
The `--with-sound=TYPE' option specifies that XEmacs should be built
with sound support. Native (`--with-sound=native') sound support is
currently available only on Sun SparcStations, SGI's, HP9000s, and
systems (such as Linux) with soundcard.h. Network Audio Support (NAS)
(`--with-sound=nas' or `--with-sound=both') is an extension to X that
you may or may not have for your system. For NAS, you will probably
need to provide the paths to the nas include and library directories
to configure. If `--with-sound' is not specified, `configure' will
attempt to determine if your configuration supports native sound and
define --with-sound for you. If your native sound library is not in a
standard location you can specify it with the `--native-sound-lib=LIB'
flag. For Linux, `/dev/audio' is required for SunAudio files and
`/dev/dsp' is required for raw data and WAVE format files.
The `--rel-alloc' option can be used to either enable or disable use
of the relocating allocator. Turning on --rel-alloc will allow XEmacs
to return unused memory to the operating system, thereby reducing its
memory footprint. However, it may make XEmacs runs more slowly,
especially if your system's `mmap' implemntation is missing or
inefficient. Generally, it's best to go with the default
configuration for your system. You can tweak this based on how you
use XEmacs, and the memory and cpu resources available on your system.
The `--with-system-malloc' option can be use to either enable or
disable use of the system malloc. Generally, it's best to go with the
default configuration for your system. Note that on many systems
using the system malloc disables the use of the relocating allocator.
The `--with-debug-malloc' option can be used to link a special debugging
version of malloc. Debug Malloc is not included with XEmacs, is
intended for use only by the developers and may be obtained from
The `--debug' and `--error-checking' options are intended for use only
by the developers. `--debug' adds code to be compiled in for
performing various tests. `--error-checking' adds additional tests to
many of the commonly used macros.
The `--verbose' and `--extra-verbose' options are intended for use
only by the developers. `--verbose' causes the results of all
configure tests to be displayed. `--extra-verbose' displays
additional information, useful for debugging. Another help for
determining configure failures is the file `config.log', which
contains the results of the compile and link tests used by configure.
The `--with-mule' option enables (MUlti-Lingual Emacs) support, needed
to suport non-Latin-1 (including Asian) languages. The Mule support
is not yet as stable or efficient as the `Latin1' support. Enabling
Mule support requires the mule-base package installed prior to
building XEmacs. The following options require Mule support:
The `--with-xim' option enables use of the X11 XIM mechanism to allow
an input method to input text into XEmacs. The input method is shared
among all the X applications sharing an X display and using the same
language. The XIM support comes in two flavors: `motif' and `xlib'.
The Motif support (the XmIm* functions) is preferred when available.
The xlib XIM support works reasonably well so long as the X11 libraries
are recent enough. It has been fairly well tested on Linux with glibc
2.0.5 and 2.0.6 and Kinput2 as an XIM server. In this configuration
X11 must be recompiled with X_LOCALE defined because glibc is lacking
localization for Japanese. The XIM support defaults to `no' except
when Motif is detected where it is stable with OSF libraries. The XIM
support in Lesstif (a Free Motif replacement) does not work as of
v0.82. If you enable this option, you will probably wish to install
the `locale' package which contains localized Splash screens and
The `--with-xfs' option enables use of a multilingual Menubar. At the
present time, only Japanese and French locales are supported. In
order to use a multilingual Menubar you must have the `locale' package
installed. The `locale' package does not have to be installed when
The `--with-canna' option enables the use of the Canna Japanese input
method. This is stable code and fairly well tested. In order to use
it, you will have to have the Canna server installed and running.
Canna versions 3.2pl2 and 3.5b2 are known to work. Version 3.2pl2 is
considered most stable than version 3.5b2. If Canna is already
installed, configure will autodetect it, so you never need to
explicitly use this option unless your Canna libraries are somewhere
strange. Canna run time support is currently bundled with the
`mule-base' package so there is nothing additional to install in order
to use it.
The `--with-wnn' and `--with-wnn6' options are for compiling with the Wnn
multi-language input method. `--with-wnn' is for compiling with Wnn-4.2,
the Free version of WNN. `--with-wnn6' is for compiling against WNN6,
the commercial version of WNN available from OMRON Corporation. This is
stable code and fairly well tested. In order to build with this
option, you will need to have the `egg-its' lisp package already
Please note that it is safe to build with as many of the options
`--with-xim', `--with-canna' and `--with-wnn' as your system
`configure' doesn't do any compilation or installation itself. It
just creates the files that influence those things: `./src/config.h',
and all the Makefile's in the build tree.
The `--with-pop', `--with-hesiod', and `--with-kerberos' options are used
in conjunction with movemail. As of XEmacs 20.1, movemail is identical
to the one used in Emacs.
When it is done, `configure' prints a description of what it did and
creates a shell script `config.status' which, when run, recreates the
same configuration. If `configure' exits with an error after
disturbing the status quo, it removes `config.status'.
5) Look at `./lisp/paths.el'; if some of those values are not right
for your system, set up the file `./lisp/site-init.el' with XEmacs
Lisp code to override them; it is not a good idea to edit paths.el
itself. YOU MUST USE THE LISP FUNCTION `setq' TO ASSIGN VALUES,
rather than `defvar', as used by `./lisp/paths.el'. For example,
(setq news-inews-program "/usr/bin/inews")
is how you would override the default value of the variable
news-inews-program (which is "/usr/local/inews").
Before you override a variable this way, *look at the value* that the
variable gets by default! Make sure you know what kind of value the
variable should have. If you don't pay attention to what you are
doing, you'll make a mistake.
Things may malfunction if the variable `directory-abbrev-alist' is not
set up to translate "temporary" automounter mount points into the
canonical form. XEmacs tries to detect how your automounter is
configured. If you have an unusual automounter configuration that
XEmacs cannot detect, you may need to change the value of
6) Put into `./lisp/site-init.el' or `./lisp/site-load.el' any Emacs
Lisp code you want XEmacs to load before it is dumped out. Use
site-load.el for additional libraries if you arrange for their
documentation strings to be in the lib-src/DOC file (see
src/Makefile.in.in if you wish to figure out how to do that). For all
else, use site-init.el.
If you set load-path to a different value in site-init.el or
site-load.el, XEmacs will use *precisely* that value when it starts up
again. If you do this, you are on your own!
Note that, on some systems, the code you place in site-init.el must
not use expand-file-name or any other function which may look
something up in the system's password and user information database.
See `./PROBLEMS' for more details on which systems this affects.
The `site-*.el' files are nonexistent in the distribution. You do not
need to create them if you have nothing to put in them.
7) Refer to the file `./etc/TERMS' for information on fields you may
wish to add to various termcap entries. The files `./etc/termcap.ucb'
and `./etc/termcap.dat' may already contain appropriately-modified
8) Run `make' in the top directory of the XEmacs distribution to finish
building XEmacs in the standard way. The final executable file is
named `src/emacs'. You can execute this file "in place" without
copying it, if you wish; then it automatically uses the sibling
directories ../lisp, ../lib-src, ../info.
Or you can "install" the executable and the other XEmacs into their
installed locations, with `make install'. By default, XEmacs's files
are installed in the following directories:
By default, XEmacs installs its files in the following directories:
`/usr/local/bin' holds the executable programs users normally run -
`xemacs', `etags', `ctags', `b2m', `emacsclient', `ellcc',
`gnuclient', `gnudoit', `gnuattach', and `rcs-checkin'.
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/lisp' holds the Emacs Lisp libraries;
`VERSION' stands for the number of the XEmacs version
you are installing, like `18.59' or `19.14'. Since
the lisp libraries change from one version of XEmacs to
another, including the version number in the path
allows you to have several versions of XEmacs installed
at the same time; this means that you don't have to
make XEmacs unavailable while installing a new version.
XEmacs searches for its lisp files in these
directories, and then in
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/etc' holds the XEmacs tutorial, the
`yow' database, and other architecture-independent
files XEmacs might need while running. VERSION is as
specified for `.../lisp'.
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs/lock' contains files indicating who is
editing what, so XEmacs can detect editing clashes
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME' contains executable
programs used by XEmacs that users are not expected to
run themselves, and the DOC file. `VERSION' is the
number of the XEmacs version you are installing, and
`CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the host type of your system.
Since these files are specific to the version of
XEmacs, operating system, and architecture in use,
including the configuration name in the path allows
you to have several versions of XEmacs for any mix of
machines and operating systems installed at the same
time; this is useful for sites at which different
kinds of machines share the file system XEmacs is
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME/modules' holds the Emacs
dynamically loadable modules. These are special programs
typically written in C that can be loaded in much the same
way that Lisp packages are. Not all systems support
dynamic modules, so do not be alarmed if this directory
does not exist or is empty.
XEmacs searches for modules in this directory, or any
sub-directory of it, and then in
`/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/info' holds the on-line documentation
for XEmacs, known as "info files".
`/usr/local/man/man1' holds the man pages for the programs installed
If these directories are not what you want, you can specify where to
install XEmacs's libraries and data files or where XEmacs should search
for its lisp files by giving values for `make' variables as part of
the command. See the section below called `MAKE VARIABLES' for more
information on this.
Using GNU Make allows for simultaneous builds with and without the
9) If your system uses lock files to interlock access to mailer inbox
files, then you might need to make the movemail program setuid or
setgid to enable it to write the lock files. We believe this is safe.
The setuid/setgid bits need not be set on any other XEmacs-related
10) You are done with the hard part! You can remove executables and
object files from the build directory by typing `make clean'. To also
remove the files that `configure' created (so you can compile XEmacs
for a different configuration), type `make distclean'.
11) You should now go to the XEmacs web page at http://www.xemacs.org/
and decide what additional Lisp support you wish to have.
You can change where the build process installs XEmacs and its data
files by specifying values for `make' variables as part of the `make'
command line. For example, if you type
make install bindir=/usr/local/gnubin
the `bindir=/usr/local/gnubin' argument indicates that the XEmacs
executable files should go in `/usr/local/gnubin', not
Here is a complete list of the variables you may want to set.
`bindir' indicates where to put executable programs that users can
run. This defaults to /usr/local/bin.
`datadir' indicates where to put the architecture-independent
read-only data files that XEmacs refers to while it runs; it
defaults to /usr/local/lib. We create the following
subdirectories under `datadir':
- `xemacs-VERSION/lisp', containing the XEmacs lisp libraries, and
- `xemacs-VERSION/etc', containing the XEmacs tutorial and the
`VERSION' is the number of the XEmacs version you are installing,
like `18.59' or `19.14'. Since these files vary from one version
of XEmacs to another, including the version number in the path
allows you to have several versions of XEmacs installed at the
same time; this means that you don't have to make XEmacs
unavailable while installing a new version.
`statedir' indicates where to put architecture-independent data files
that XEmacs modifies while it runs; it defaults to
/usr/local/lib as well. We create the following
subdirectories under `statedir':
- `xemacs/lock', containing files indicating who is editing
what, so XEmacs can detect editing clashes between
`libdir' indicates where to put architecture-specific data files that
XEmacs refers to as it runs; it too defaults to `/usr/local/lib'.
We create the following subdirectories under `libdir':
- `xemacs-VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME', containing executable
programs used by XEmacs that users are not expected to run
themselves and the DOC file.
`VERSION' is the number of the XEmacs version you are installing,
and `CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the host type of your system.
Since these files are specific to the version of XEmacs,
operating system, and architecture in use, including the
configuration name in the path allows you to have several
versions of XEmacs for any mix of machines and operating
systems installed at the same time; this is useful for sites
at which different kinds of machines share the file system
XEmacs is installed on.
`infodir' indicates where to put the info files distributed with
XEmacs; it defaults to `/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/info'.
`mandir' indicates where to put the man pages for XEmacs and its
utilities (like `etags'); it defaults to
`prefix' doesn't give a path for any specific part of XEmacs; instead,
its value is used to determine the defaults for all the
architecture-independent path variables - `datadir',
`statedir', `infodir', and `mandir'. Its default value is
`/usr/local'; the other variables add on `lib' or `man' to it
For example, suppose your site generally places GNU software
under `/usr/users/software/gnusoft' instead of `/usr/local'.
in the arguments to `make', you can instruct the build process
to place all of the XEmacs data files in the appropriate
directories under that path.
`exec_prefix' serves the same purpose as `prefix', but instead
determines the default values for the architecture-dependent
path variables - `bindir' and `libdir'.
The above variables serve analogous purposes in the makefiles for all
GNU software; here are some variables specific to XEmacs.
`lispdir' indicates where XEmacs installs and expects its lisp
libraries. Its default value, based on `datadir' (see above),
is `/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/lisp' (where `VERSION' is as
`sitelispdir' indicates where XEmacs should search for lisp libraries
specific to your site. XEmacs checks them in order before
checking `lispdir'. Its default value, based on `datadir'
(see above), is `/usr/local/lib/xemacs/site-lisp'.
`etcdir' indicates where XEmacs should install and expect the rest of
its architecture-independent data, like the tutorial and yow
database. Its default value, based on `datadir'
(see above), is `/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/etc' (where
`VERSION' is as described above).
`lockdir' indicates the directory where XEmacs keeps track of its
locking information. Its default value, based on `statedir'
(see above), is `/usr/local/lib/xemacs/lock'.
`archlibdir' indicates where XEmacs installs and expects the
executable files and other architecture-dependent data it uses
while running. Its default value, based on `libdir' (see
above), is `/usr/local/lib/xemacs-VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME'
(where VERSION and CONFIGURATION-NAME are as described above).
`docdir' indicates where to put Lisp documentation strings that XEmacs
refers to as it runs. It defaults the value of `archlibdir'
`moduledir' indicates where XEmacs installs and expects to find
any dynamic modules. Its default value, based on
`archlibdir' (see above) is
(where VERSION and CONFIGURATION-NAME are as described above).
By their very nature, dynamic loadable modules are architecture-
dependant, and care should be taken not to set this directory
to a system- or architecture-independant directory.
Remember that you must specify any variable values you need each time
you run `make' in the top directory. If you run `make' once to build
xemacs, test it, and then run `make' again to install the files, you
must provide the same variable settings each time. To make the
settings persist, you can edit them into the `Makefile' in the top
directory, but be aware that running the `configure' program erases
`Makefile' and rebuilds it from `Makefile.in'.
The top-level Makefile stores the variable settings it used in the
Makefiles for the subdirectories, so you don't have to specify them
when running make in the subdirectories.
CONFIGURATION BY HAND
Instead of running the `configure' program, you have to perform the
1) Copy `./src/config.h.in' to `./src/config.h'.
2) Consult `./etc/MACHINES' to see what configuration name you should
use for your system. Look at the code of the `configure' script to
see which operating system and architecture description files from
`src/s' and `src/m' should be used for that configuration name. Edit
`src/config.h', and change the two `#include' directives to include
the appropriate system and architecture description files.
3) Edit `./src/config.h' to set the right options for your system. If
you need to override any of the definitions in the s/*.h and m/*.h
files for your system and machine, do so by editing config.h, not by
changing the s/*.h and m/*.h files. Occasionally you may need to
redefine parameters used in `./lib-src/movemail.c'.
4) If you're going to use the make utility to build XEmacs, you will
still need to run `configure' first, giving the appropriate values for
the variables in the sections entitled "Things `configure' Might Edit"
and "Where To Install Things." Note that you may only need to change
the variables `prefix' and `exec_prefix', since the rest of the
variables have reasonable defaults based on them. For each Makefile
variable of this type, there is a corresponding configure option; for
example, to change the location of the lock directory, you might use
The `configure' script is built from `configure.in' by the `autoconf'
program. However, since XEmacs has configuration requirements that
autoconf can't meet, `configure.in' uses a marriage of custom-baked
configuration code and autoconf macros. New versions of autoconf
could very well break this arrangement, so it may be wise to avoid
rebuilding `configure' from `configure.in' when possible.
BUILDING XEMACS BY HAND
Once XEmacs is configured, running `make' in the top directory performs
the following steps.
1) Run `make src/paths.h' in the top directory. This produces
`./src/paths.h' from the template file `./src/paths.h.in', changing
the paths to the values specified in `./Makefile'.
2) Cd to `./lib-src' and run `make'. This creates executables named
`ctags' and `etags' and `wakeup' and `make-docfile' and `digest-doc'
and `test-distrib'. And others.
3) Cd to `./src' and Run `make'. This refers to files in the `./lisp'
and `./lib-src' subdirectories using names `../lisp' and
This creates a file `./src/xemacs' which is the runnable XEmacs,
assigning it a new build version number by incrementing the build
version stored in `./lisp/version.el'.
It also creates a file in `./lib-src' whose name is `DOC' followed by
the current XEmacs version. This file contains documentation strings
for all the functions in XEmacs. Each time you run make to make a new
xemacs, a new DOC file with a new name is made. You must keep the DOC
file for an XEmacs version as long as you keep using that XEmacs
INSTALLATION BY HAND
The steps below are done by running `make install' in the main
directory of the XEmacs distribution.
1) Copy `./lisp' and its subdirectories, `./etc', and the executables
in `./lib-src' to their final destinations, as selected in `./src/paths.h'.
Strictly speaking, not all of the executables in `./lib-src' need be copied.
- The programs `cvtmail', `emacsserver', `env', `fakemail', `hexl',
`movemail', `timer', `vcdiff', `wakeup', and `yow' are used by
XEmacs; they do need to be copied.
- The programs `etags', `ctags', `emacsclient', `b2m', `rcs2log',
`gnuclient', `gnudoit', and `gnuattach' are intended to be run
by users; they are handled below.
- The programs `make-docfile' and `test-distrib' were
used in building XEmacs, and are not needed any more.
- The programs `digest-doc' and `sorted-doc' convert a `DOC' file into
a file for users to read. There is no important reason to move them.
2) Copy the files in `./info' to the place specified in
`./lisp/site-init.el' or `./lisp/paths.el'. Note that if the
destination directory already contains a file named `dir', you
probably don't want to replace it with the `dir' file in the XEmacs
distribution. Instead, you should make sure that the existing `dir'
file contains an appropriate menu entry for the XEmacs info.
3) Create a directory for XEmacs to use for clash detection, named as
indicated by the PATH_LOCK macro in `./src/paths.h'.
4) Copy `./src/xemacs' to `/usr/local/bin', or to some other directory
in users' search paths. `./src/xemacs' has an alternate name
`./src/emacs-EMACSVERSION'; you may wish to make a symbolic link named
`/usr/local/bin/xemacs' pointing to that alternate name, as an easy way
of installing different versions.
You can delete `./src/temacs'.
5) Copy the programs `b2m', `emacsclient', `ctags', `etags', `rcs2log',
`gnuclient', `gnudoit', and `gnuattach' from `./lib-src' to
`/usr/local/bin'. These programs are intended for users to run.
6) Copy the man pages in `./etc' for xemacs, ctags, etags, and gnuserv
into the appropriate man directories.
7) The files in the `./src' subdirectory, except for `xemacs', are not
used by XEmacs once it is built. The source would be handy for
The most likely problem is that you forgot to read and follow the
directions in README.packages. You can not have a working XEmacs
without downloading some additional packages.
See the file PROBLEMS in this directory for a list of various
problems sometimes encountered, and what to do about them.
If all else fails, please see etc/InstallGuide courtesy
of Jonathan Seth Hayward.