XEmacs / man / hyperbole.texi

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\input texinfo
@c
@c FILE:         hypb.texi
@c SUMMARY:      The Hyperbole User Manual for V3
@c USAGE:        Hardcopy man from TeX; Info man from 'texinfo-format-buffer'.
@c
@c AUTHOR:       Bob Weiner
@c ORG:          Brown U.
@c
@c ORIG-DATE:     6-Nov-91 at 11:18:03
@c LAST-MOD:      3-Nov-95 at 23:55:27 by Bob Weiner

@c %**start of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@setfilename ../info/hyperbole.info
@settitle Hyperbole User Manual
@c %**end of header (This is for running Texinfo on a region.)
@synindex vr fn

@iftex
@finalout
@end iftex

@titlepage
@sp 4
@center @titlefont{Hyperbole Manual}
@sp 1
@center Everyday Information Management
@sp 5
@center Bob Weiner
@sp 1
@center E-mail: <hyperbole@@hub.ucsb.edu>  (This is a mail list.)
@sp 2
@center Edition 4.01
@sp 2
@center November 3, 1995

@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective
holders.
@setchapternewpage odd
@end titlepage
@page

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@c  node-name,  next,  previous,  up
@unnumbered Preface

@ifinfo
@noindent
Copyright @copyright{} 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

All trademarks referenced herein are trademarks of their respective holders.

@end ifinfo
This edition of the Hyperbole User Manual is for use with any version
4.01 or greater of Hyperbole.

Hyperbole is free software; you can use it, redistribute it and/or modify it
without fee under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later
version.

Hyperbole is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs or XEmacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

@cindex credits
@cindex InfoDock, obtaining
@cindex Hyperbole, obtaining
@cindex anonymous ftp
Hyperbole was designed and written by Bob Weiner.  Motorola,
Inc@. funded and donated this work for free redistribution as part of
the InfoDock integrated software engineering and productivity toolset.
For information on how to obtain Hyperbole, @ref{Obtaining}.  InfoDock
can be found at the same location.

This manual explains user operation and summarizes basic developer
facilities of Hyperbole.  This major release of Hyperbole concentrates
on providing convenient access to information and control over its
display.  The Hyperbole outliner emphasizes flexible views and structure
manipulation within bodies of information.

@cindex Hyperbole
@cindex hypertext
@cindex Emacs Lisp
@cindex Emacs 19
@cindex Epoch
@cindex XEmacs
@cindex Lucid Emacs
Hyperbole (pronounced Hi-purr-boe-lee) is an open, efficient,
programmable information management and hypertext system.  It is
intended for everyday work on any UNIX platform supported by GNU Emacs.
It works well with the versions of Emacs that support multiple X or
NEXTSTEP windows: Emacs 19, XEmacs (formerly called Lucid Emacs) and
Epoch.  Hyperbole allows hypertext buttons to be embedded within
unstructured and structured files, mail messages and news articles.  It
offers intuitive mouse-based control of information display within
multiple windows.  It also provides point-and-click access to Info
manuals, ftp archives, Wide-Area Information Servers (WAIS), and the
World-Wide Web (WWW) hypertext system through encapsulations of software
that support these protocols.

@noindent
Hyperbole consists of four parts:

@table @bullet
@item Info Management
an interactive information management interface, including a powerful
rolodex, which anyone can use.  It is easy to pick up and use since it
introduces only a few new mechanisms and provides user-level facilities
through a menu interface, which you control from the keyboard or the
mouse;

@item Hypertext Outliner
an outliner with multi-level autonumbering and permanent ids attached to
each outline node for use as hypertext link anchors, plus flexible view
specifications that can be embedded within links or used interactively;

@item Button Types
a set of hyper-button types that provides core hypertext and other
behaviors.  Users can make simple changes to button types and those
familiar with Emacs Lisp can quickly prototype and deliver new types;

@item Programming Library
a set of programming library classes for system developers who want to
integrate Hyperbole with another user interface or as a back-end to a
distinct system.  (All of Hyperbole is written in Emacs Lisp for ease of
modification.  Although Hyperbole was initially designed as a prototype,
it has been engineered for real-world usage and is well structured.)
@end table

@cindex GNU Emacs
@kindex C-h t
@vindex file, DEMO
@cindex demonstration
@cindex button demo
Hyperbole may be used simply for browsing through documents
pre-configured with Hyperbole buttons, in which case, one can safely
ignore most of the information in this manual.  The @file{DEMO} file
included in the Hyperbole distribution demonstrates many of Hyperbole's
standard facilities.  It offers a much less technical introduction for
Hyperbole users by providing good examples of how buttons may be
used and an introduction to the outliner.

So if this manual is too detailed for your taste, you can skip it
entirely and just jump right into the demonstration, normally by typing
@{@kbd{C-h h d d}@}, assuming Hyperbole has already been installed at
your site.  Otherwise, @ref{Installation}, for Hyperbole installation
and configuration information.

Many users, however, will want to do more than browse with Hyperbole,
e.g@.  create their own buttons.  The standard Hyperbole button editing
user interface is GNU Emacs-based, so a basic familiarity with the Emacs
editing model is useful.  The material covered in the GNU Emacs
tutorial, normally bound to @{@kbd{C-h t}@} within Emacs, is more than
sufficient as background.  If some GNU Emacs terms are unfamiliar to
you, @ref{Glossary, Emacs Glossary,, emacs, the GNU Emacs Manual}.

Before we delve into Hyperbole, a number of acknowledgments are in
order.  Peter Wegner has encouraged the growth in this work.  Morris
Moore has helped me pursue my own research visions and kept me striving
for excellence.  Doug Engelbart has shown me the bigger picture and
continues to be an inspiration.  His work provides a model from which I
am beginning to draw.  Kellie Clark and I jointly designed the Hyperbole
outliner while sharing a life together.  Chris Nuzum, as a user of
Hyperbole, has helped demonstrate its power since its inception; he
knows how to work with Hyperbole far better than I.

@menu
* Introduction::
* Installation::
* Buttons::
* Smart Keys::
* Menus::
* Entering Arguments::
* Outliner::
* Rolodex::
* Window Configurations::
* Developing with Hyperbole::
* Glossary::
* Smart Key Reference::
* Outliner Keys::
* Suggestion or Bug Reporting::
* Questions and Answers::
* Future Work::
* References::
* Key Binding Index::
* Code and File Index::
* Concept Index::

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Hyperbole Overview::
* Mail Lists::
* Manual Overview::

Installation

* Obtaining::
* Building::
* Installing::
* Configuring::

Configuring

* Internal Viewers::
* External Viewers::
* Link Variable Substitution::
* Button Colors::

Buttons

* Explicit Buttons::
* Global Buttons::
* Implicit Buttons::
* Action Types::
* Button Type Precedence::
* Button Files::
* Utilizing Explicit Buttons::

Utilizing Explicit Buttons

* Creation::
* Renaming::
* Deletion::
* Modification::
* Location::
* Buttons in Mail::
* Buttons in News::

Creation

* By Dragging::                 Creation Via Action Key Drags
* By Menu::                     Creation Via Menus

Outliner

* Menu Commands::
* Creating Outlines::
* Autonumbering::
* Idstamps::
* Editing::
* Viewing::
* Links::
* Cell Attributes::
* Outliner History::

Editing

* Adding and Killing::
* Moving Around::
* Relocating and Copying::
* Filling::
* Transposing::
* Splitting and Appending::
* Inserting and Importing::

Viewing

* Hiding and Showing::
* View Specs::

Rolodex

* Rolo Concepts::
* Rolo Menu::
* Rolo Keys::
* Rolo Settings::

Developing with Hyperbole

* Hook Variables::
* Creating Types::
* Explicit Button Technicalities::
* Encapsulating Systems::
* Embedding Hyperbole::

Creating Types

* Action Type Creation::
* Implicit Button Types::

Explicit Button Technicalities

* Button Label Normalization::
* Operational and Storage Formats::
* Programmatic Button Creation::

Smart Key Reference

* Smart Mouse Keys::
* Smart Keyboard Keys::
@end menu

@node Introduction, Installation, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction

This chapter describes what Hyperbole is, lists some of its potential
applications, explains how to subscribe to its mail lists, and then
summarizes the structure of the rest of the manual.

@menu
* Hyperbole Overview::
* Mail Lists::
* Manual Overview::
@end menu

@node Hyperbole Overview, Mail Lists, Introduction, Introduction
@section   Hyperbole Overview
@cindex button
A Hyperbole user works with @emph{buttons} embedded within textual
documents; he may create, modify, move or delete buttons.  Each button
performs a specific action, such as linking to a file or executing a
shell command.

@cindex button, explicit
@cindex button, global
@cindex button, implicit
@cindex button category
@cindex explicit button
@cindex global button
@cindex implicit button
There are three categories of Hyperbole buttons:
@table @dfn
@item explicit buttons
created by Hyperbole, accessible from within a single document;

@item global buttons
created by Hyperbole, accessible anywhere within a user's network of
documents;

@item implicit buttons
created and managed by other programs or embedded within the structure
of a document, accessible from within a single document.  Hyperbole
recognizes implicit buttons by contextual patterns given in their type
specifications (explained later).
@end table

Explicit Hyperbole buttons may be embedded within any type of text file.
Implicit buttons may be recognized anywhere within a text file,
depending on the implicit button types that are available.  All global
buttons are stored in a single location and activated by entering their
names, rather than by direct selection, the means used to activate
explicit and implicit buttons.

@noindent
To summarize:

@example
Button Category   Active Within        Activation Means      Managed By
========================================================================
Explicit          a single document    direct selection      Hyperbole
Global            any document         specifying its name   Hyperbole
Implicit          a matching context   direct selection      other tools
========================================================================
@end example

@cindex terminal use
Hyperbole buttons may be clicked upon with a mouse to activate them or
to describe their actions.  Thus, a user can always check how a button
will act before activating it.  Buttons may also be activated from a
keyboard.  (In fact, virtually all Hyperbole operations, including menu
usage, may be performed from any standard character terminal interface,
so one need not be anchored to a workstation all day).  @xref{Smart
Keys}.

@cindex Hyperbole features
Hyperbole does not enforce any particular hypertext or information
management model, but instead allows you to organize your information in
large or small chunks as you see fit.  The Hyperbole outliner organizes
information hierarchies which may also contain links to external
information sources.

@noindent
Some of Hyperbole's most important features include:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Buttons may link to information or may execute procedures, such as
starting or communicating with external programs;

@item
One simply drags between a button source location and a link destination
to create or to modify a link button.  The same result can be achieved
from the keyboard.

@item
Buttons may be embedded within electronic mail messages;

@item
Outlines allow rapid browsing, editing and movement of chunks of
information organized into trees (hierarchies);

@item
Other hypertext and information retrieval systems may be encapsulated
under a Hyperbole user interface (a number of samples are provided).
@end itemize

@cindex Hyperbole applications
@noindent
Typical Hyperbole applications include:

@table @strong
@item personal information management
Overlapping link paths provide a variety of views into an information space.
A search facility locates buttons in context and permits quick selection.

@item documentation and code browsing
Cross-references may be embedded within documentation.  One can add a
point-and-click interface to existing documentation, link code with
associated design documents, or jump to the definition of an identifier
by selecting its name within code or documentation.

@item brainstorming
The Hyperbole outliner, @xref{Outliner}, is an
effective tool for capturing ideas and then quickly reorganizing them in
a meaningful way.  Links to related ideas are easy to create,
eliminating the need to copy and paste information into a single place.

@item help/training systems
Tutorials containing buttons can show students how things work while
explaining the concepts, e.g@. an introduction to local commands.  This
technique can be much more effective than written documentation alone.

@item archive managers
Programs that manage archives from incoming information streams may be
supplemented by having them add topic-based buttons that link to the
archive holdings.  Users can then search and create their own links to
archive entries.
@end table

@node Mail Lists, Manual Overview, Hyperbole Overview, Introduction
@section   Mail Lists

If you maintain or use Hyperbole, you should consider joining one of the
two Hyperbole interest mailing lists.  @xref{Menus}, and the description
of the Msg/ menu item, for a convenient means of joining and mailing
to these lists.

@cindex mail lists
@cindex e-mail
There are several Hyperbole-related mail addresses.  Learn what each is
for before you mail to any of them.

@cindex mail list requests
@cindex joining a mail list
@cindex subscribing to a mail list
@cindex unsubscribing from a mail list
@format
<hyperbole-request@@hub.ucsb.edu>
<hyperbole-announce-request@@hub.ucsb.edu>
@end format

@display
@strong{All} mail concerning administration of the Hyperbole mailing
lists should be sent to the appropriate one of these addresses.  That
includes addition, change, or deletion requests.  Don't consider sending
such a request to a Hyperbole mail list or people will wonder why you
don't know that all Internet mail lists have a -request address for
administrative requests.@refill

Use the following formats on your subject line to execute requests,
where you substitute your own values for the <> delimited items.@refill

   Subject: Subscribe '<' <user@@domain> '>' (<your name>).
   Subject: Unsubscribe '<' <user@@domain> '>'.

To change your address, you must unsubscribe your old address in one
message and then subscribe your new address in another message.@refill

For example:

   To: hyperbole-announce-request@@hub.ucsb.edu
   Subject: Unsubscribe <joe@@any.com>.

   To: hyperbole-announce-request@@hub.ucsb.edu
   Subject: Subscribe <joe@@any.com> (Joe Williams).
@end display

@noindent
There are two Hyperbole-related mail lists.  Subscribe to one or the other,
not to both.

@cindex hyperbole mail list
@format
<hyperbole@@hub.ucsb.edu>
@end format

@display
Mail list for discussion of all Hyperbole issues.  Bug reports and
suggestions may also be sent here.@refill
@end display

@cindex e-mail, effective communication
@cindex effective communication
@display
Always use your Subject and/or Summary: lines to state the position that
your message takes on the topic that it addresses.

For example, send:

   Subject: Basic bug in top-level minibuffer menu.

rather than:

   Subject: Hyperbole bug.

Statements end with periods, questions with question marks (typically),
and high energy, high impact declarations with exclamation points.  This
simple rule makes all e-mail communication much easier for recipients to
handle appropriately.@refill
@end display

@cindex Hyperbole version
@cindex Emacs version
@vindex emacs-version
@display
If you ask a question, your subject line should end with a ?,
e.g@. "Subject: How can man page SEE ALSOs be made implicit buttons?"  A
"Subject: Re: How can ..." then indicates an answer to the question.
Question messages should normally include your Hyperbole and Emacs
version numbers and clearly explain your problem and surrounding issues.
Otherwise, you will simply waste the time of those who may want to help
you.  (Your top-level Hyperbole menu shows its version number and @{@kbd{M-x
emacs-version @key{RET}}@} gives the other.)@refill

If you ask questions, you should consider adding to the discussion by
telling people the kinds of work you are doing or contemplating doing
with Hyperbole.  In this way, the list will not be overwhelmed by
messages that ask for, but provide no information.@refill
@end display

@cindex hyperbole-announce mail list
@format
<hyperbole-announce@@hub.ucsb.edu>
@end format

@display
Those who don't want to participate in the discussion but want to hear
about bug fixes and new releases of Hyperbole should subscribe to this
list.  Anyone on the `hyperbole' list is automatically on this one too,
so there is no need to subscribe to this one in that case.  This list is
for official fixes and announcements so don't send your own fixes here.
Send them to `hyperbole' instead.
@end display


@node Manual Overview,  , Mail Lists, Introduction
@section   Manual Overview

Remember that the @file{DEMO} file included in the Hyperbole
distribution demonstrates many of Hyperbole's standard facilities,
(@pxref{Top, Preface}) for more details.

@xref{Glossary}, for definitions of Hyperbole terms for quick
reference, so in some cases terms are not precisely defined within the
text.  Be sure to reference the glossary if a term is unclear to you.
Although you need not have a keen understanding of all of these terms, a
quick scan of the Glossary should help throughout Hyperbole use.

If you have a question, feature suggestion or bug report on Hyperbole,
follow the instructions given in @ref{Suggestion or Bug Reporting}.  A few
commonly asked questions are answered in the manual, @ref{Questions and
Answers}.  If you are interested in classic articles on hypertext,
@ref{References}.

@xref{Installation}, for explanations of how to obtain, install, configure
and load Hyperbole for use.

@xref{Buttons}, for an overview of Hyperbole buttons and how to use them.

@xref{Smart Keys}, for an explanation of the innovative,
context-sensitive mouse and keyboard Action and Assist Keys offered by
Hyperbole.  @xref{Smart Key Reference}, for a complete reference on what
the Action and Assist Keys do in each particular context that they
recognize.

(Keep in mind as you read about how to use Hyperbole that in many cases,
it provides a number of overlapping interaction methods are provided to
support different work styles and hardware limitations.  You need learn
only one with which you can become comfortable, in such instances.)

@xref{Menus}, for summaries of Hyperbole menu commands and how to use
the minibuffer-based menus that work on dumb terminals.

@xref{Entering Arguments}, for special support that Hyperbole provides for
entering arguments when prompted for them.

@xref{Outliner}, for concept and usage information on the
autonumbered, hypertextual outliner.  A full summary of the outliner
commands that are bound to keys may be found in @ref{Outliner Keys}.

@xref{Rolodex}, for concept and usage information on the
rapid lookup, hierarchical, free text record management system included
with Hyperbole.

@xref{Window Configurations}, for instructions on how to save and restore
the set of buffers and windows that appear with a frame.  This feature
lets you switch among working contexts easily, even on a dumb terminal.
Such configurations only last throughout your current editor session.

Developers comfortable with Emacs Lisp will want to continue on through
to, @ref{Developing with Hyperbole}.

@xref{Future Work}, for future directions in Hyperbole's evolution.


@node Installation, Buttons, Introduction, Top
@chapter Installation

@cindex installation
Hyperbole must be installed at your site before you can use it.  The
following sections explain how to obtain, install and configure
Hyperbole for use.

@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex customization, init
If you want to customize the basic Hyperbole initialization sequence for
yourself rather than the users at your site, you should make a personal
copy of the @file{hsite.el} file, modify it the way you want, and then
load it.  (If you are familiar with Emacs Lisp, @ref{Hook Variables}.)

@menu
* Obtaining::
* Building::
* Installing::
* Configuring::
@end menu

@node Obtaining, Building, Installation, Installation
@section   Obtaining

@cindex InfoDock
@cindex ftp
@cindex anonymous ftp
Hyperbole is actually part of an integrated tool framework that we have
developed called InfoDock.  InfoDock provides a modern user interface on top
of Emacs, information management, and powerful software development tools,
all in one package.  Hyperbole or InfoDock can be obtained via anonymous
ftp on the Internet from:

@file{ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/infodock}.

@cindex downloading Hyperbole
@cindex obtaining Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, obtaining
@noindent
Here are detailed instructions for downloading and unpacking Hyperbole.

Move to a directory below which you want the @file{hyperbole} directory to
be created.  Unpacking the Hyperbole archive will create the
@file{hyperbole} directory and will place all of the files below it.

@example
  cd <LOCAL-EMACS-LISP-DIR>
@end example

@noindent
Ftp to ftp.xemacs.org  (Internet Host ID = 128.174.252.16):

@example
   prompt> ftp ftp.xemacs.org
@end example

@noindent
Login as @emph{anonymous} with your own @emph{<user-id>@@<site-name>} as
a password.

@example
   Name (ftp.xemacs.org): anonymous
   331 Guest login ok, send EMAIL address (e.g@. user@@host.domain)
       as password.
   Password:
   230 Guest login ok, access restrictions apply.
@end example

@noindent
Move to the Hyperbole directory:

@example
   ftp> cd pub/infodock
@end example

@noindent
Set your transfer mode to binary:

@example
   ftp> bin
   200 Type set to I.
@end example

@noindent
Turn off prompting:

@example
   ftp> prompt
   Interactive mode off.
@end example

@noindent
Retrieve just the Hyperbole archive and any diff-based patches (there may not
be any patches):

@example
   ftp> mget hyperbole*
   ftp> mget hdiff*
@end example

@noindent
Close the ftp connection:

@example
   ftp> quit
   221 Goodbye.
@end example

@cindex gzcat
@cindex zcat
@cindex gunzip
@cindex tar archive
@cindex uncompressing archives
@cindex unpacking archives
@noindent
Unpack the tar archive using the GNU version of the @code{zcat} program,
sometimes called @code{gzcat} or the @code{gunzip} program:

@example
   zcat hyperbole*tar.gz | tar xvf -
or
   gunzip hyperbole*tar.gz; tar xvf hyperbole*tar
@end example

@noindent
Apply any patches you retrieved:

@example
   cd hyperbole; patch < <patch-file>
@end example


@node Building, Installing, Obtaining, Installation
@section   Building

@vindex file, Makefile
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex Hyperbole, building
@cindex building Hyperbole
The following explains how to Use the Hyperbole @file{Makefile} to
compile any needed code, to generate the @file{hsite.el} file used for
site-specific Hyperbole customization, and to produce printable
documentation.

@vindex EMACS, environment variable
@cindex compiling Lisp
@cindex Lisp compilation
Edit the line near the top of @file{Makefile} that represents the emacs
version that you use, so that it corresponds to the emacs executable
name used on your system.  Then immediatly below there, set the
@var{EMACS} variable to the variable name for the emacs that you will
use to compile the Hyperbole Lisp files.

@vindex SITE-PRELOADS, environment variable
You may also have to set the @var{SITE-PRELOADS} variable defined further down
in the file; follow the instructions that precede the @var{SITE-PRELOADS =}
line.  Make these changes now and save the @file{Makefile}.

@cindex HYPERBOLE-DIR
The following instructions use the term @file{<HYPERBOLE-DIR>/} to refer
to your @file{hyperbole/} directory, so substitute your own value.

@noindent
To install Hyperbole for use with InfoDock, XEmacs, GNU Emacs or Epoch, from
a shell:

@example
   cd <HYPERBOLE-DIR>; make
@end example

@noindent
All of the .elc compiled Lisp files are already built for XEmacs and V19, so
this build will finish very quickly.  If you really want to rebuild all of
the .elc files, use:

@example
   cd <HYPERBOLE-DIR>; make all-elc
@end example

@cindex Postscript
@cindex manual, generating Postscript
@vindex file, man/hyperbole.ps
@noindent
To produce the Postscript version of the Hyperbole manual, you must have
the TeX formatter on your system:

@example
   cd <HYPERBOLE-DIR>; make ps
@end example

@noindent
To install Hyperbole for use with GNU Emacs V18 or Epoch:

@example
   cd <HYPERBOLE-DIR>; make all-elc-v18
@end example

@noindent
This will produce a complete set of Emacs V18 .elc files.


@node Installing, Configuring, Building, Installation
@section   Installing

@cindex configuration
You may want to explore the Hyperbole configuration options before
installing it.  @xref{Configuring}.  If you just want to get up and
running quickly, however, there is no need to configure anything, just
follow these instructions to install Hyperbole.

@cindex Hyperbole, initializing
@cindex initializing Hyperbole
@cindex installation
@cindex site initialization
@vindex file, hsite.el
@vindex file, ~/.emacs
Add the following lines to a site initialization file such as
@file{site-start.el} to set up so that all users have Hyperbole
loaded for them when they run Emacs.  Otherwise, each user will have to
add these lines to his own @file{~/.emacs} initialization file.

@cindex autoloading Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, autoloading
@noindent
To autoload Hyperbole so that it loads only when needed:

@vindex hyperb:dir
@vindex file, hversion.el
@vindex file, hyperbole.el
@lisp
(defvar hyperb:dir "<HYPERBOLE-DIR>/")
  "Directory where the Hyperbole executable code is kept.
It must end with a directory separator character.")

(load (expand-file-name "hversion" hyperb:dir))
(load (expand-file-name "hyperbole" hyperb:dir))
@end lisp

@cindex loading Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, loading
This establishes a few key bindings and sets up Hyperbole to
automatically load whenever you activate its menu.  If you would rather
have the whole Hyperbole system loaded when you start up so that you can
always use the Smart Keys and other facilities, add the additional line:

@lisp
(require 'hsite)
@end lisp

If you use mouse keys, be sure to add the above lines after any setup of
mouse key bindings, to ensure that Hyperbole's mouse keys are properly
initialized.  @xref{Smart Keys}, for further details.  If you use any
Hyperbole mail or news support, @ref{Buttons in Mail}, be certain to
perform all of your personal mail/news initializations before the point
at which you load Hyperbole.  Otherwise, the mail/news support may not
be configured properly.  For example, if you use the Emacs add-on
Supercite package, its setup should come before Hyperbole initialization.

@cindex Hyperbole manual
@noindent
The Hyperbole Manual is included in the distribution in two forms:

@cindex Info manual
@cindex Texinfo manual
@vindex file, man/hyperbole.info
@vindex file, man/hyperbole.texi
@example
@file{man/hyperbole.info}   - online version
@file{man/hyperbole.texi}   - source form
@end example

@vindex Info-directory-list
@noindent
To add pointers to the Info version of the Hyperbole manual within your
Info directory, follow these instructions.  If @var{Info-directory-list}
is bound as a variable within your Emacs (all versions except V18 and
Epoch), then you can simply set it so that <HYPERBOLE-DIR> is an element
in the list:

@lisp
(setq Info-directory-list (cons "<HYPERBOLE-DIR>" Info-directory-list))
@end lisp

@noindent
Otherwise, from a shell:

@vindex Info-directory
@example
   cd to the directory given by your @var{Info-directory} variable
   rm hyperbole.info*; cp <HYPERBOLE-DIR>/man/hyperbole.info* .
@end example

@noindent
For all versions of Emacs, add an Info menu entry for the Hyperbole
manual in your Info @file{dir} file (the `*' should be placed in the
first column of the file):

@example
* Hyperbole::  GNU Emacs-based everyday information management system.
    Use @{C-h h d d@} for a demonstration.  Includes context-sensitive
    mouse and keyboard support, a powerful rolodex, an autonumbered
    outliner with hyperlink anchors for each outline cell, and extensible
    hypertext facilities including hyper-links in mail and news messages.
@end example

@cindex invoking Hyperbole
@cindex starting Hyperbole
@cindex Hyperbole, starting
@cindex Hyperbole main menu
@kindex C-h h
@findex hyperbole
That's all there is to the installation.  Once Hyperbole has been
installed for use at your site, you can invoke it with @{@kbd{C-h h}@}
or @{@kbd{M-x hyperbole @key{RET}}@} to bring up the Hyperbole main menu
in the minibuffer window.


@node Configuring,  , Installing, Installation
@section   Configuring

@cindex configuration
@vindex file, hyperbole.el
@vindex file, hsite.el
There are many Hyperbole configuration options that may be changed by
editing the @file{hyperbole.el} and @file{hsite.el} files in the
@file{hyperbole/} directory.  The following sections discuss the
configuration options most likely to be of interest to users.

@menu
* Internal Viewers::
* External Viewers::
* Link Variable Substitution::
* Button Colors::
@end menu


@node Internal Viewers, External Viewers, Configuring, Configuring
@subsection  Internal Viewers
@vindex hpath:display-alist
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex file display function
@cindex display function
@cindex internal viewer
@cindex link, display function
When given a file name, Hyperbole will by default display the file for
editing within an Emacs buffer.  The @var{hpath:display-alist} variable
can be used to specify file name patterns, such as matching suffixes,
which will invoke a special Emacs Lisp function to display any matching
files within Emacs.  This can be used to format raw data files for
convenient display.

Configure the @var{hpath:display-alist} variable in @file{hsite.el}.
Its value is an association list whose elements are
(<file-name-regular-expression> . <function-of-one-arg>) pairs.  Any
path whose name matches a <file-name-regular-expression> will be
displayed by calling the associated <function-of-one-arg> with the file
name as the argument.@refill

@xref{External Viewers}, for instructions on associating file names with
external, window-system specific viewers.

@node External Viewers, Link Variable Substitution, Internal Viewers, Configuring
@subsection  External Viewers
@vindex hpath:find-alist
@vindex file, hsite.el
@cindex window system
@cindex external program
@cindex external viewer
@cindex link, viewer program
If you will be using Hyperbole under a window system, you may want to
configure the @var{hpath:find-alist} variable in @file{hsite.el} to
support hyperlinks which open files using non-Emacs tools, e.g@. a
fax reader or a bitmap viewer.

The value of @var{hpath:find-alist} is determined when Hyperbole is
initialized based upon the current window system and the version of
Emacs in use.  The value is an association list whose elements are
(<file-name-regular-expression> . <viewer-program>) pairs.  Any path
whose name matches a <file-name-regular-expression> will be
displayed using the corresponding viewer-program.  If a <viewer-program>
entry contains a @code{%s} string, the filename to display will be
substituted at that point within the string.  Otherwise, the filename
will be appended to the <viewer-program> entry.  See the "x-suffixes"
and "nextstep-suffixes" settings within the definition of
@var{hpath:find-alist} as examples.@refill

@node Link Variable Substitution, Button Colors, External Viewers, Configuring
@subsection  Link Variable Substitution
@vindex hpath:variables
@cindex environment variables
@cindex Emacs Lisp variables
@cindex Lisp variables
Another variable to consider modifying in the @file{hsite.el} file is
@var{hpath:variables}.   This variable consists of a list of Emacs Lisp
variable names, each of which may have a pathname or a list of pathnames
as a value.  Whenever a Hyperbole file or directory link button is
created, its pathname is compared against the values in
@var{hpath:variables}.  The first match found, if any, is selected and
its associated variable name is substituted into the link pathname, in
place of its literal value.  When the link is resolved (the button is
activated), Hyperbole replaces each variable with the first matching
value from this list.  (Environment variables are also replaced whenever
link paths are resolved.

This permits sharing of links over wide areas, where the variable values
may differ between link creator and link activator.  The entire process
is wholly transparent to the user; it is explained here simply to help
you in deciding whether or not to modify the value of
@var{hpath:variables}.

@node Button Colors,  , Link Variable Substitution, Configuring
@subsection  Configuring Button Colors
@cindex XEmacs support
@cindex Emacs 19 support
@cindex Epoch support
@cindex button highlighting
@cindex button flashing
@vindex file, hui-ep*.el
@findex hproperty:cycle-but-color
When Hyperbole is run under a window system together with Emacs 19,
XEmacs or Epoch, it automatically highlights any explicit buttons in
a buffer and makes them flash when selected.  The main setting
you may want change is the selection of a color (or style) for button
highlighting and button flashing.  See the @file{hui-*-b*.el} files for
lists of potential colors and the code which supports this behavior.  A
call to @code{(hproperty:cycle-but-color)} within a Hyperbole
initialization sequence in the @file{hsite.el} file changes the color
used to highlight and flash explicit buttons.

@cindex button emphasis
@vindex hproperty:but-emphasize-p
@vindex file, hsite.el
Additionally, under XEmacs and Emacs 19, if @var{hproperty:but-emphasize-p}
is set to @code{t} in @file{hsite.el}, then whenever the mouse pointer
moves over an explicit button, it will be emphasized in a different
color or style.  This emphasis is in addition to any non-mouse-sensitive
button highlighting.

@cindex button highlighting, forcing
@findex hproperty:but-create
If you read in a file with explicit buttons before you load Hyperbole,
these buttons won't be highlighted.  Load Hyperbole and then use
@code{M-x hproperty:but-create @key{RET}} to highlight the buttons in
the current buffer.


@node Buttons, Smart Keys, Installation, Top
@chapter Buttons

This chapter explains the user-level notion of Hyperbole buttons.
Hyperbole buttons that are stored in files persist across Emacs
sessions, so they provide a convenient means of linking from one
information source to another.

@menu
* Explicit Buttons::
* Global Buttons::
* Implicit Buttons::
* Action Types::
* Button Type Precedence::
* Button Files::
* Utilizing Explicit Buttons::
@end menu

@node Explicit Buttons, Global Buttons, Buttons, Buttons
@section   Explicit Buttons

@cindex explicit button
@cindex button, explicit
@cindex button label
Hyperbole creates and manages @emph{explicit buttons} which look like
this @code{<(fake button)>} to a Hyperbole user.  They are quickly
recognizable, yet relatively non-distracting as one scans the text in
which they are embedded.  The text between the @code{<(} and
@code{)>} delimiters is called the @dfn{button label}.  Spacing between
words within a button label is irrelevant to Hyperbole, so button labels
may wrap across several lines without causing a problem.

@cindex button data
@cindex button attribute
@vindex file, .hypb
Hyperbole stores the @dfn{button data} that gives an explicit button its
behavior, separately from the button label, in a file named @file{.hypb}
within the same directory as the file in which the button is created.
Thus, all files in the same directory share a common button data file.
Button data is comprised of individual @dfn{button attribute} values.  A
user never sees this data in its raw form but may see a formatted
version by asking for help on a button.

@cindex button, moving
@cindex moving buttons
Explicit buttons may be freely moved about within the buffer in which
they are created.  (No present support exists for moving buttons between
buffers).  A single button may also appear multiple times within the
same buffer; one simply copies the button label with its delimiters
to a new location in such cases.

Each explicit button is assigned an action type which determines the
actions that it performs.  @dfn{Link action types} connect buttons to
particular types of referents.  @dfn{Activation} of such buttons then
displays the referents.

@cindex linking, in-place
@cindex Hyperbole data model
Hyperbole does not manage referent data; this is left to the
applications that generate the data.  This means that Hyperbole
provides in-place linking and does not require reformatting of data to
integrate it with a Hyperbole framework.

@node Global Buttons, Implicit Buttons, Explicit Buttons, Buttons
@section   Global Buttons

@cindex global button
@cindex button, global
@cindex button label
Access to explicit buttons depends upon the information on your screen
since they are embedded within particular buffers.  Sometimes it is
useful to activate buttons without regard to the information with which
you are presently working.  In such instances, you use @dfn{global
buttons}, which are simply explicit buttons which may be activated or
otherwise operated upon by entering their labels when they are prompted
for, rather than selecting the buttons within a buffer.

If you want a permanent link to a file section that you can follow at
any time, you can use a global button.  Or what about an Emacs keyboard
macro that you use frequently?  Create an @code{exec-kbd-macro} button
with an easy to type name and then you can easily activate it whenever
the need arises.

@node Implicit Buttons, Action Types, Global Buttons, Buttons
@section   Implicit Buttons

@cindex button, implicit
@cindex implicit button
Implicit buttons are those defined by the natural structure of a
document.  They are identified by contextual patterns which limit the
locations or states in which they can appear.  Their behavior is
determined by one or more actions which they trigger when activated.  An
action is derived from either a Hyperbole action type specification,
@ref{Action Types}, or an Emacs Lisp function.  Implicit
button types may use the same action types that explicit buttons do.

@vindex file, hibtypes.el
@cindex context
Implicit buttons never have any button data associated with them.  They
are recognized in context based on predicate matches defined within
implicit button types.  For example, Hyperbole recognizes file names
enclosed in double quotes and can quickly display their associated files
in response to simple mouse clicks.

@cindex ibtypes, list of
@noindent
See @file{hibtypes.el} for complete examples.  Standard implicit button
types include (in alphabetical order):

@table @code

@item annot-bib
@findex ibtypes::annot-bib
@cindex bibliography
@cindex reference
Displays annotated bibliography entries referenced internally, delimeters = [].
References must be delimited by square brackets, must begin with a
word constituent character, and must not be in buffers whose
names begin with a ' ' or '*' character.

@item completion
@findex ibtypes::completion
@cindex completion
Inserts completion at point into minibuffer or other window.

@item dir-summary
@findex ibtypes::dir-summary
@vindex file, MANIFEST
@vindex file, DIR
Detects filename buttons in files named "MANIFEST" or "DIR".
Displays selected files.
Each file name must be at the beginning of the line and must be followed
by one or more spaces and then another non-space, non-parenthesis, non-brace
character.

@item doc-id
@findex ibtypes::doc-id
@cindex online library
@cindex document identifier
Displays an index entry for a site-specific document given its id.  Ids
must be delimited by 'doc-id-start' and 'doc-id-end' and must match the
function given by 'doc-id-p'.  This permits creation of catalogued
online libraries.  See @file{$@{hyperb:dir@}/hib-doc-id.el} for more
information.@refill

@item elisp-compiler-msg
@findex ibtypes::elisp-compiler-msg
@cindex byte compiler error
@cindex Emacs Lisp compiler error
@cindex compiler error
Jumps to source code for definition associated with byte-compiler error
message.  Works when activated anywhere within an error line.

@item debugger-source
@findex ibtypes::debugger-source
@cindex gdb
@cindex dbx
@cindex xdb
@cindex stack frame
@cindex breakpoint
@cindex source line
Jumps to source line associated with debugger stack frame or breakpoint lines.
This works with gdb, dbx, and xdb.  Such lines are recognized in any buffer.

@item grep-msg
@findex ibtypes::grep-msg
@cindex grep
@cindex compiler error
Jumps to line associated with grep or compilation error msgs.
Messages are recognized in any buffer.

@item hyp-address
@findex ibtypes::hyp-address
@cindex Hyperbole mail list
Turns a Hyperbole e-mail list address into an implicit button which
inserts Hyperbole environment information.
Useful when sending mail to a Hyperbole mail list.  See also the
documentation for @code{actypes::hyp-config}.

@item hyp-source
@findex ibtypes::hyp-source
@cindex Hyperbole report
Turns source location entries in Hyperbole reports into buttons that jump to the associated location.

@item Info-node
@findex ibtypes::Info-node
@cindex Info node
Makes "(file)node" buttons display the associated Info node.

@item kbd-key
@findex ibtypes::kbd-key
@cindex key sequence
Executes a key sequence delimited by curly braces.
Key sequences should be in human readable form, e.g@. @{@kbd{C-b}@}.
Forms such as @{@}, @{@}, and @{^b@} will not be recognized.

@item klink
@findex ibtypes::klink
@cindex klink
@cindex koutline link
@cindex kcell link
Follows a link delimited by <> to a koutline cell.
See documentation for @code{actypes::link-to-kotl} for valid link
specifiers.

@item mail-address
@findex ibtypes::mail-address
@cindex e-mail address
@cindex rolodex address
@cindex address
If on an e-mail address in a specific buffer type, mail to that address
in another window. Applies to the rolodex match buffer, any buffer
attached to a file in @var{rolo-file-list}, or any buffer with @file{mail}
or @file{rolo} (case-insensitive) within its name.

@item man-apropos
@findex ibtypes::man-apropos
@item UNIX manual
@item man pages
@item man apropos
Makes man apropos entries display associated man pages when selected.

@item patch-msg
@findex ibtypes::patch-msg
@cindex patch output
Jumps to source code associated with output from the @code{patch}
program.  Patch applies diffs to source code.

@item pathname
@findex ibtypes::pathname
@findex hpath:at-p
@findex hpath:find
@vindex hpath:suffixes
@cindex ange-ftp
@cindex efs
@cindex pathname
@cindex remote path
@cindex filename
@cindex link, pathname
Makes a delimited, valid pathname display the path entry.
Also works for delimited and non-delimited ange-ftp and efs pathnames.
See @code{hpath:at-p} function documentation for possible delimiters.
See @var{hpath:suffixes} variable documentation for suffixes that are
added to or removed from pathname when searching for a valid match.
See @code{hpath:find} function documentation and
@var{hpath:display-alist} and @var{hpath:find-alist} variable
documentation for special file display options.

@item rfc
@findex ibtypes::rfc
@cindex Internet RFC
@cindex Request For Comment
@cindex RFC
@cindex ange-ftp
@cindex efs
Retrieves and displays an Internet rfc referenced at point.
Requires ange-ftp or efs when needed for remote retrievals.  The
following formats are recognized: RFC822, rfc-822, and RFC 822.  The
@var{hpath:rfc} variable specifies the location from which to retrieve
RFCs."

@item rfc-toc
@findex ibtypes::rfc-toc
@cindex Internet RFC
@cindex Request For Comment
@cindex RFC
@cindex table of contents
Summarizes contents of an Internet rfc from anywhere within rfc buffer.
Each line in summary may be selected to jump to section.

@item text-toc
@findex ibtypes::text-toc
@cindex table of contents
@cindex toc implicit button type
Jumps to the text file section referenced by a table of contents entry
at point. File name must contain @file{README} and there must be a
`Table of Contents' or `Contents' label on a line by itself (it may
begin with an asterisk), preceding the table of contents.  Each toc
entry must begin with some whitespace followed by one or more asterisk
characters.  Each file section name line must start with one or more
asterisk characters at the very beginning of the line.

@item www-url
@findex ibtypes::www-url
@cindex URL
@cindex World-wide Web
@cindex WWW
@cindex Action Key, web browsing
@kindex Action Key, web browsing
@vindex action-key-url-function
When not in a w3 browser buffer, follow any non-ftp url (link) at point.
The variable, @var{action-key-url-function}, can be used to customize
the url browser that is used.
@end table

The Hyperbole Smart Keys offer extensive additional context-sensitive
point-and-click type behavior beyond these standard implicit button
types.  @xref{Smart Keys}.


@node Action Types, Button Type Precedence, Implicit Buttons, Buttons
@section   Action Types

@cindex action type
@cindex argument, use
@cindex action
@dfn{Action types} provide action procedures that specify button behavior.
The arguments needed by an action type are prompted for at button creation
time.  When a button is activated, the stored arguments are fed to the
action type's @dfn{action} body to achieve the desired result.  Hyperbole
handles all of this transparently.

@cindex actypes, list of
@noindent
Standard action types in alphabetical order include:

@table @code
@item annot-bib
@findex actypes::annot-bib
Follows internal ref KEY within an annotated bibliography, delimiters=[].

@item completion
@findex actypes::completion
Inserts completion at point into minibuffer or other window.
Unless at end of buffer or if completion has already been inserted, then
deletes completions window.

@item eval-elisp
@findex actypes::eval-elisp
Evaluates a Lisp expression LISP-EXPR.

@item exec-kbd-macro
@findex actypes::exec-kbd-macro
Executes KBD-MACRO REPEAT-COUNT times.
KBD-MACRO may be a string of editor command characters or a function symbol.
Optional REPEAT-COUNT nil means execute once, zero means repeat until
error.

@item exec-shell-cmd
@findex actypes::exec-shell-cmd
Executes a SHELL-CMD string asynchronously.
Optional non-nil second argument INTERNAL-CMD means do not display the shell
command line executed.  Optional non-nil third argument KILL-PREV means
kill last output to shell buffer before executing SHELL-CMD.

@item exec-window-cmd
@findex actypes::exec-window-cmd
Executes an external window-based SHELL-CMD string asynchronously.

@item hyp-config
@findex actypes::hyp-config
Inserts Hyperbole configuration info at end of optional OUT-BUF or current.

@item hyp-request
@findex actypes::hyp-request
Inserts Hyperbole mail list request help into optional OUT-BUF or current.

@item hyp-source
@findex actypes::hyp-source
Displays a buffer or file from a line beginning with 'hbut:source-prefix'.

@item kbd-key
@findex actypes::kbd-key
Executes the function binding for KEY-SEQUENCE, delimited by @{@}.
Returns t if a KEY-SEQUENCE has a binding, else nil.

@item link-to-buffer-tmp
@findex actypes::link-to-buffer-tmp
Displays a BUFFER in another window.
Link is generally only good for current Emacs session.
Use 'link-to-file' instead for a permanent link.

@item link-to-directory
@findex actypes::link-to-directory
Displays a DIRECTORY in Dired mode in another window.

@item link-to-doc
@findex actypes::link-to-doc
Displays online version of a document given by DOC-ID, in other window.
If the online version of a document is not found in
@var{doc-id-indices}, an error is signalled.

@item link-to-ebut
@findex actypes::link-to-ebut
Performs action given by another button, specified by KEY and KEY-FILE.

@item link-to-elisp-doc
@findex actypes::link-to-elisp-doc
Displays documentation for FUNC-SYMBOL.

@item link-to-file
@findex actypes::link-to-file
Displays a PATH in another window scrolled to optional POINT.
With POINT, buffer is displayed with POINT at the top of the window.

@item link-to-file-line
@findex actypes::link-to-file-line
Displays a PATH in another window scrolled to LINE-NUM.

@item link-to-kcell
@findex actypes::link-to-kcell
Displays FILE with kcell given by CELL-REF at the top of the window.
CELL-REF may be a kcell's display label or its permanant idstamp.
If FILE is nil, the current buffer is used.
If CELL-REF is nil, the first cell in the view is shown.

@item link-to-kotl
@findex actypes::link-to-kotl
Displays at the top of another window the referent pointed to by LINK.
LINK may be of any of the following forms, with or without delimiters:
@example
  < pathname [, cell-ref] >
  < [-!&] pathname >
  < @@ cell-ref >
@end example

@noindent
See documentation for @code{kcell:ref-to-id} for valid cell-ref formats.


@item link-to-Info-node
@findex actypes::link-to-Info-node
Displays an Info NODE in another window.
NODE must be a string of the form '(file)nodename'.

@item link-to-mail
@findex actypes::link-to-mail
Displays mail msg with MAIL-MSG-ID from MAIL-FILE in other window.
See documentation for the variable @var{hmail:init-function} for
information on how to specify a mail reader to use.

@item link-to-regexp-match
@findex actypes::link-to-regexp-match
Finds REGEXP's Nth occurrence in FILE and displays location at window top.
Returns t if found, signals an error if not.

@item link-to-rfc
@findex actypes::link-to-rfc
Retrieves and displays an Internet rfc given by RFC-NUM.
RFC-NUM may be a string or an integer.  Requires ange-ftp or efs for
remote retrievals.

@item link-to-string-match
@findex actypes::link-to-string-match
Finds STRING's Nth occurrence in FILE and displays location at window top.
Returns t if found, nil if not.

@item man-show
@findex actypes::man-show
Displays man page on TOPIC, which may be of the form @code{<command>(<section>}).

@item rfc-toc
@findex actypes::rfc-toc
Computes and displays summary of an Internet rfc in BUF-NAME.
Assumes point has already been moved to start of region to summarize.
Optional OPOINT is point to return to in BUF-NAME after displaying summary.

@item text-toc
@findex actypes::text-toc
@cindex table of contents
@cindex toc action type
Jumps to the text file SECTION referenced by a table of contents entry
at point.

@item www-url
@findex actypes::www-url
@cindex URL
@cindex World-wide Web
@cindex WWW
@vindex action-key-url-function
Follows a link given by URL.
The variable, @var{action-key-url-function}, can be used to customize
the url browser that is used.
@end table

@cindex action
@vindex hui:ebut-prompt-for-action
The use of action types provides a convenient way of specifying button
behavior without the need to know how to program.  Expert users who are
familiar with Emacs Lisp, however, may find that they often want to
tailor button actions in a variety of ways not easily captured within a
type system.  In such cases, @var{hui:ebut-prompt-for-action} should be
set non-nil.  This will cause Hyperbole to prompt for an action to
override the button's action type at each explicit button creation.  For
those cases where the action type is sufficient, a nil value should be
entered for the action.  An action may be any Lisp form that may be
evaluated.

@node Button Type Precedence, Button Files, Action Types, Buttons
@section   Button Type Precedence

@cindex button precedence
@cindex button label overlap
Explicit buttons always take precedence over implicit buttons.  Thus, if
a button selection is made which falls within both an explicit and
implicit button, only the explicit button will be selected.  Explicit
button labels are not allowed to overlap; Hyperbole's behavior in such
cases is undefined.

@cindex ibtype, evaluation order
If there is no explicit button at point during a selection request, then
each implicit button type predicate is tested in turn until one returns
non-nil or all are exhausted.  Since two implicit button types may have
overlapping domains (those contexts in which their predicates are true),
only the first matching type is used.  The type predicates are tested
in @strong{reverse} order of definition, i.e@. most recently entered
types are tested first, so that personal types defined after standard
system types take precedence.  It is important to keep this order in
mind when defining new implicit button types.  By making their match
predicates as specific as possible, one can minimize any overlapping of
implicit button type domains.

@cindex type redefinition
Once a type name is defined, its precedence relative to other types
remains the same even if you redefine the body of the type, as long as
you don't change its name.  This allows incremental modifications to
types without having to worry about shifts in type precedence.
@xref{Creating Types}, for information on how to develop
or modify types.

@node Button Files, Utilizing Explicit Buttons, Button Type Precedence, Buttons
@section   Button Files

@cindex button files
It is often convenient to create lists of buttons that can be used as
menus to provide centralized access to distributed information pools or
for other purposes.  These files can serve as useful roadmaps to help
efficiently guide a user through both unfamiliar and highly familiar
information spaces.  Files that are created specifically for this
purpose, we call @dfn{button files}.

@vindex hbmap:filename
@cindex button file, personal
@cindex button file, directory
The Hyperbole menu system provides quick access to two types of these
button files: personal and directory-specific, through the ButFile menu.
(The variable, @var{hbmap:filename}, contains the base name of these
standard button files.  Its standard value is @file{HYPB}.)

@vindex dir, ~/.hyperb
@vindex hbmap:dir-user
@cindex global button
A personal button file may serve as a user's own roadmap to frequently
used resources.  Selection of the ButFile/PersonalFile menu item
displays this file for editing.  The default personal button file is
stored within the directory given by the @var{hbmap:dir-user} variable
whose standard value is @file{~/.hyperb}.  The standard Hyperbole
configuration also appends all global buttons to the end of this file,
one per line, as they are created.  So you can edit or annotate them
within the file.

A directory-specific button file may exist for each file system
directory.  Such files are useful for explaining the contents of
directories and pointing readers to particular highlights within the
directories.  Selection of the ButFile/DirFile menu item displays the
button file for the current directory; this provides an easy means of
updating this file when working on a file within the same directory.
If you want to view some other directory-specific button file, simply
use the normal Emacs file finding commands.

One might suggest that menu quick access be provided for group-specific
and site-specific button files.  Instead, link buttons to such things
should be placed at the top of your personal button file.  This provides
a more flexible means of quick access.

@node Utilizing Explicit Buttons,  , Button Files, Buttons
@section   Utilizing Explicit Buttons

Explicit buttons are a fundamental building block for creating personal
or organizational hypertext networks with Hyperbole.  This section
summarizes the user-level operations available for managing these
buttons.

@menu
* Creation::
* Renaming::
* Deletion::
* Modification::
* Location::
* Buttons in Mail::
* Buttons in News::
@end menu

@node Creation, Renaming, Utilizing Explicit Buttons, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Creation

@menu
* By Dragging::                 Creation Via Action Key Drags
* By Menu::                     Creation Via Menus
@end menu

@node By Dragging, By Menu, Creation, Creation
@subsubsection Creation Via Action Key Drags

@cindex explicit button, creation
@cindex button, creation
@cindex link, creation
@cindex drag
@cindex Action Key drag
The most efficient way to create an explicit button interactively is to
use the mouse Action Key to drag from a button source window to a window
showing its link referent.  More specifically, you should split your
current Emacs frame into two windows: one which contains the point at
which you want a button to be inserted and another which shows the point
to which you want to link.  Depress the mouse Action Key at the point at
which the button should be inserted, drag to the other window and
release it at the point of the link referent.  The process becomes quite
simple with a little practice. (@xref{By Menu, Creation Via Menus}, for a
more detailed explanation of the explicit button creation process.)

Hyperbole uses the link referent context to determine the type of link
to make.  If there are a few different types of links which are
applicable from the context, you will be prompted with a list of the
types.  Simply use the Action Key or the first letter of the link
type to select one of the type names and to finish the link creation.
Hyperbole will then insert explicit button delimiters around the button
label and will display a message in the minibuffer indicating both the
button name and its action/link type.

@kindex M-o
@kindex C-u M-o
@kindex C-x o
@findex hkey-operate
If you run Emacs under a window system, you can emulate an Action Key
drag from the keyboard by: hitting @{@kbd{M-o}@}, the
@code{hkey-operate} command, at the button source location, moving
to the link destination, e.g@. with @{@kbd{C-x o}@}, and then hitting
@{@kbd{M-o}@} again.  This simulates a depress and then release of the
Action Key.  @{@kbd{C-u M-o}@} emulates drags of the Assist Key.
This will not work when Hyperbole is run from a dumb terminal Emacs
session since drag actions are not supported without a window system.

@page
@node By Menu,  , By Dragging, Creation
@subsubsection Creation Via Menus

You can alternatively use the Hyperbole menus to create explicit
buttons.  First, mark a short region of text in any fashion allowed by
GNU Emacs and then select the Hyperbole menu item sequence, Ebut/Create.
You will be prompted for the button's label with the marked region as
the default.  If you accept the default and enter the rest of the
information you are prompted for, the button will be created within the
current buffer and Hyperbole will surround the marked region with
explicit button delimiters to indicate success.

If you do not mark a region before invoking the button create command,
you will be prompted for both a label and a target buffer for the button
and the delimited label text will be inserted into the target buffer
after a successful button creation.

After Hyperbole has the button label and its target buffer, it will
prompt you for an action type for the button.  Use the @{@kbd{?}@}
completion help key to see the available types.  The type selected
determines any following values for which you will be prompted.

@cindex button instance
@cindex instance number
If a previous button with the same label exists in the same buffer,
Hyperbole will add an @dfn{instance number} to the label when it adds
the delimiters so that the name is unique.  Thus, you don't have to
worry about accidental button name conflicts.  If you want the same
button to appear in multiple places within the buffer, just enter the
label again and delimit it yourself.  Hyperbole will interpret all
occurrences of the same delimited label within a buffer as the same
button.

@cindex link, creation
If you create link buttons using the Hyperbole menus, the best technique
is to place on screen both the source buffer for the button and the
buffer to which it will link.  Mark the region of text to use for your
button label, invoke the button create command from the menu, choose an
action type which begins with @code{link-to-} and then use the direct
selection techniques mentioned in @ref{Entering Arguments}, to select
the link referent.


@node Renaming, Deletion, Creation, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Renaming

@cindex explicit button, renaming
@cindex button, renaming
Once an explicit button has been created, its label text must be
treated specially.  Any inter-word spacing within the label may be
freely changed, as may happen when a paragraph is refilled.  But a
special command must be invoked to rename it.

The rename command operates in two different ways.  If point is within a
button label when it is invoked, it will tell you to edit the button
label and then invoke the rename command again.  The second invocation
will actually rename the button.  If instead the command is originally
invoked outside of any explicit button, it will prompt for the button
label to replace and the label to replace it with and then will perform
the rename.  All occurrences of the same button in the buffer will be
renamed, so you need locate only one occurrence of the button.

@vindex file, .~/.emacs
@vindex file, hsite.el
@kindex C-c C-r
The rename command may be invoked from the Hyperbole menu via
Ebut/Rename.  A faster method is to use a key bound to the
@code{hui:ebut-rename} command.  Your site installation may include such
a key.  @{@kbd{C-h w hui:ebut-rename @key{RET}}@} should show you any
key it is on.  If no key binding has been established or if you prefer
one of your own, simply bind it within your @file{~/.emacs} file.  We
recommend the @{@kbd{C-c C-r}@} key, as in: @code{(global-set-key
"\C-c\C-r" 'hui:ebut-rename)}.


@node Deletion, Modification, Renaming, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Deletion

@cindex explicit button, deleting
@cindex button, deleting
Ebut/Delete works similarly to the Rename command but deletes the
selected button.  The button's delimiters are removed to confirm the
delete.  If the delete command is invoked with a prefix argument, then
both the button label and the delimiters are removed as confirmation.

@vindex hui:ebut-delete-confirm-p
Presently there is no way to recover a deleted button; it must
be recreated.  Therefore, the @var{hui:ebut-delete-confirm-p} variable
is true by default, causing Hyperbole to require confirmation before
interactively deleting explicit buttons.  Set it to nil if you prefer no
confirmation.

@node Modification, Location, Deletion, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Modification

@cindex explicit button, modifying
@cindex button, modifying
@cindex Smart Mouse Key drag
Ebut/Modify prompts you with each of the elements from the button's
data list and allows you to modify each in turn.

There is a quicker way to modify explicit link buttons.  Simply drag with the
mouse Action Key from within the button label to a link destination in a
different window, just as you would when creating a new button with a mouse
drag.  Remember that drags may also be emulated from the keyboard.
@xref{Creation}.

@node Location, Buttons in Mail, Modification, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Location

@cindex explicit button, summarizing
@cindex button, summarizing
@cindex button, help
The Ebut/Help menu can be used to summarize a single explicit button or
all such buttons within a single buffer.  The buttons summarized may
then be activated directly from the summary.

Ebut/Help/BufferButs summarizes the explicit buttons in the order in
which they appear in the buffer.  Ebut/Help/CurrentBut summarizes only
the button at point.  Ebut/Help/OrderedButs summarizes the buttons in
alphabetical order.  All of these summary commands eliminate duplicate
instances of buttons from their help displays.

@cindex explicit button, searching
@cindex button, searching
Ebut/Search prompts for a search pattern and searches across all the
locations in which you have previously created explicit buttons.  It
asks you whether to match to any part of a button label or only complete
labels.  It then displays a list of button matches with a single line of
surrounding context from their sources.  Any button in the match list
may be activated as usual.  An Action Key press on the surrounding context
jumps to the associated source line or a press on the filename preceding
the matches jumps to the file without selecting a particular line.

There are presently no user-level facilities for globally locating buttons
created by others or for searching on particular button attributes.

@node Buttons in Mail, Buttons in News, Location, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Buttons in Mail

@kindex C-x m
@findex mail
Hyperbole allows the embedding of buttons within electronic mail
messages that are composed in Emacs with the standard @code{(mail)}
command, normally bound to @{@kbd{C-x m}@} or with other Emacs-based
mail composing functions.  An enhanced mail reader can then be used
to activate the buttons within messages just like any other buttons.

@cindex button, mailing
@cindex button, posting
@cindex mailing buttons
@cindex posting buttons
@cindex mail reader
@cindex mailer initialization
@cindex RMAIL
@cindex VM
@cindex PIEmail
@cindex MH-e
@cindex GNUS
@cindex USENET
@cindex news
@vindex file, hmail.el
Hyperbole automatically supports the following mail readers:  Rmail,
@ref{Rmail,,,emacs, the GNU Emacs Manual}, VM, @ref{Introduction,,,vm,
the VM Manual}, and PIEmail, and MH-e.  Button inclusion and activation
within USENET news articles is also supported in the same fashion via
the GNUS news reader, @ref{Introduction,,,gnus, the GNUS Manual}, if
available at your site.  (The @file{hmail.el} file provides a
generalized interface that can be used to hook in other mail or news
readers if the necessary interface functions are written.)

@vindex mail-yank-original
@kindex C-c C-y
@cindex mail inclusion
All explicit buttons to be mailed must be created within the outgoing
message buffer. There is no present support for including text from
other buffers or files which contain explicit buttons, except for the
ability to yank the contents of a message being replied to, together
with all of its buttons, via the @code{(mail-yank-original)} command
bound to @{@kbd{C-c C-y}@}.  From a user's perspective, buttons are
created in precisely the same way as in any other buffer.  They also
appear just like any other buttons to both the message sender and the
reader who uses the Hyperbole enhanced readers.  Button operation may be
tested any time before a message is sent.  A person who does not use
Hyperbole enhanced mail readers can still send messages with embedded
buttons since mail composing is independent of any mail reader
choice.

Hyperbole buttons embedded within received mail messages act just like
any other buttons.  The mail does not contain any of the action type
definitions used by the buttons, so the receiver must have these or she
will receive an error when she activates the buttons.  Buttons which
appear in message @emph{Subject} lines are copied to summary buffers
whenever such summaries are generated.  Thus, they may be activated from
either the message or summary buffers.

Nothing bad will happen if a mail message with explicit buttons is sent
to a non-Hyperbole user.  The user will simply see the text
of the message followed by a series of lines of button data at its end.
Hyperbole mail users never see this data in its raw form.

@vindex smail:comment
@cindex mail comment
In order to alert readers of your mail messages that you can utilize
Hyperbole mail buttons, the system automatically inserts a comment into
each mail message that you compose to announce this fact.  The variable,
@var{smail:comment} controls this behavior.  See its documentation for
technical details.  By default, it produces a message of the form:

@example
Comments: Hyperbole mail buttons accepted, vX.XX.
@end example

@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@noindent
where the X's indicate your Hyperbole version number.  You can cut this
out of particular messages before you send them.  If you don't want any
message at all, add the following to your @file{~/.emacs} file before
the point at which you load Hyperbole.

@lisp
(setq smail:comment nil)
@end lisp

@cindex actype, link-to-mail
A final mail-related facility provided by Hyperbole is the ability to
save a pointer to a received mail message by creating an explicit button
with a @code{link-to-mail} action type.  When prompted for the mail
message to link to, if you press the Action Key on an Rmail message, the
appropriate parameter will be copied to the argument prompt, as
described in @ref{Entering Arguments}.


@node Buttons in News,  , Buttons in Mail, Utilizing Explicit Buttons
@subsection  Buttons in News

@cindex button, posting
@cindex news reader/poster
@cindex posting news
@cindex GNUS
@cindex USENET
@vindex file, hgnus.el
@vindex file, hsite.el
Explicit buttons may be embedded within outgoing USENET news articles
and may be activated from news articles that are being read.  This
support is available for the GNUS news reader.  It is enabled by default
within @file{hsite.el} by autoloading the @file{hgnus.el} file.

All Hyperbole support should work just as it does when reading or
sending mail.  @xref{Buttons in Mail}.  When reading news, buttons which
appear in message @emph{Subject} lines may be activated within the GNUS
subject buffer as well as the article buffer.  When posting news, the
*post-news* buffer is used for outgoing news articles rather than the
*mail* buffer.

Remember that the articles you post do not contain the action type
definitions used by the buttons, so the receiver must have these or she
will receive an error when he activates the buttons.  You should also
keep in mind that most USENET readers will not be using Hyperbole, so if
they receive a news article containing explicit buttons, they will
wonder what the button data at the end of the message is.  You should
therefore limit distribution of such messages.  For example, if most
people at your site read news with GNUS and use Hyperbole, it would be
reasonable to embed buttons in postings to local newsgroups.

@cindex news comment
In order to alert readers of your postings that you can utilize
Hyperbole mail buttons embedded within personal replies,
the system automatically inserts the same comment that is included
within mail messages to announce this fact.  @xref{Buttons in Mail}, for
details and an explanation of how to turn this feature off.

@node Smart Keys, Menus, Buttons, Top
@chapter Smart Keys

@cindex Smart Key
@cindex mouse support
@cindex Action Key
@cindex Assist Key
@kindex Action Key
@kindex Assist Key
Hyperbole provides two special @dfn{Smart Keys} that perform
context-sensitive operations, the Action Key and the Assist Key.  By
default, the @dfn{Action Key} is bound to your shift-middle mouse button (or
shift-left on a 2-button mouse) and the @dfn{Assist Key} is bound to your
shift-right mouse button, assuming Hyperbole is run under an external window
system.  (InfoDock users should use the middle mouse button as the
Action Key, instead.)

@findex hmouse-shift-buttons
Mouse configuration is automatic for InfoDock, XEmacs, and Epoch under
the X window system and for GNU Emacs versions 18 and 19 under X,
OpenWindows, NEXTSTEP, SunView and Apollo's Display Manager, assuming
your Emacs program has been built with support for any of these window
systems.  The command, @code{hmouse-shift-buttons}, can be used to
select between shifted and unshifted Smart Mouse Keys.

@vindex hkey-init
@kindex C-u M-RET
@kindex M-RET
By default (if @var{hkey-init} is set to @code{t} in @file{hsite.el}),
then @{@kbd{M-@key{RET}}@} may also be used as the Action Key and
@{@kbd{C-u M-@key{RET}}@} may be used as the Assist Key.  In many
read-only modes like Dired and Rmail,
@{@key{RET}@} also functions as the Action Key.  These key bindings allow
context sensitive operation from any keyboard.

@cindex key binding, smart keys
@cindex smart key commands
@findex action-key
@findex assist-key
@findex action-mouse-key
@findex assist-mouse-key
If you prefer other key bindings, simply bind the commands
@code{action-key} and @code{assist-key} to keyboard keys.
@code{hkey-either} may be used instead if you prefer a single
key binding for both commands; a prefix argument then invokes
@code{assist-key}.

You may also bind @code{action-mouse-key} and @code{assist-mouse-key}
to mouse keys, as you like.

@cindex button activation
@cindex activation
@cindex button help
The Action Key generally selects entities, creates links and
activates buttons.  The Assist Key generally provides help,
such as reporting on a button's attributes, or serves a complementary
function to whatever the Action Key does within a context.

@cindex Smart Key operation
You can get a summary of what the Smart Keys do in all of their
different contexts by pressing the Assist Key in the right
corner (within the rightmost 3 characters) of a window modeline or by
using the Hyperbole Doc/SmartKy menu entry.

The following table is an example of this summary.  Much of the browsing
power of Hyperbole comes from use of the Smart Keys, so you should spend
some time practicing how to use them.  This table may appear daunting at
first, but as you practice and notice that the Smart Keys do just a few
context-sensitive things per editor mode, you will find it easy to just
point and click and let Hyperbole do the rest.

For extensive reference documentation on the Smart Keys, @ref{Smart
Key Reference}.

@page
@iftex
@example
@include ../etc/hypb-mouse.txt
@end example
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@format
@include ../etc/hypb-mouse.txt
@end format
@end ifinfo

@vindex action-key-default-function
@vindex assist-key-default-function
Note how the last line in the table explains the default behavior of the
Smart Keys.  That is what they do when they cannot find a context match
at your current location.  See the documentation for the variables
@var{action-key-default-function} and @var{assist-key-default-function}
for information on how to customize the behavior of the Smart Keys
within default contexts.

@cindex Hyperbole help
A prime design criterion of Hyperbole's user interface is that one
should be able to see what an operation will do before using it.
The Assist Key shows you what a button or minibuffer menu item will do
before you activate it.   Hyperbole also shows the result of directly
selecting an argument value with the mouse, to provide feedback as to
whether the right item has been selected.  A second click is necessary
before an argument is accepted and processed.

@cindex Smart Key help
@cindex help, Smart Key
@cindex context sensitive help
When you use a mouse and you want to find out what either of the Smart
Keys does within a context, depress the one you want to check on and
hold it down, then press the other and release as you please.  A help
buffer will pop up explaining the actions that will be performed in that
context, if any.  A press of either Smart Key at the end of that
help buffer will restore your display to its configuration prior to
invoking help.

@kindex C-h A
@vindex hkey-init
By default (if @var{hkey-init} is left set equal to @code{t} in
@file{hsite.el}), then @{@kbd{C-h A}@} will display this same
context-sensitive help for the Action Key while @{@kbd{C-u C-h
A}@} will display the help for the Assist Key.  Note that
@{@kbd{C-h a}@} will perform a function unrelated to Hyperbole, so you
must press the shift key when you hit the @kbd{A} character.

@cindex Smart Key toggle
@cindex mouse key toggle
@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@vindex file, hsite.el
@kindex C-c t
When Hyperbole is installed, a key may be bound which allows you
to switch between the Smart Key mouse bindings and your prior ones.
@kbd{C-h w hmouse-toggle-bindings @key{RET}} should show you any key
which performs this command.  If no key binding has been established or
if you prefer one of your own, simply select a key and bind it
within your @file{~/.emacs} file.  For example, @code{(global-set-key
"\C-ct" 'hmouse-toggle-bindings)}.


@node Menus, Entering Arguments, Smart Keys, Top
@chapter Menus

@cindex InfoDock
@cindex XEmacs
@cindex Emacs 19
@cindex menu use
@cindex menubar, Hyperbole menu
Under InfoDock, XEmacs, and Emacs 19, pulldown and popup menus are
available to invoke Hyperbole commands, including those from the rolodex
and the outliner.  These menus operate like any other X window menus.
Use the Quit command on the Hyperbole menubar menu to get rid of the
menu if you do not need it.  Invoking Hyperbole again will add the menu
back to the menubar.

@cindex minibuffer menus
This section discusses only the specialized @dfn{minibuffer menus} that
appear in the minibuffer window and that work with all Emacs versions.
Minibuffer menu items may be selected from either the keyboard or via
mouse clicks.  When used with the keyboard, they provide rapid command
access similar to key bindings.

@kindex C-h h
@vindex action-key-default-function
@cindex menu, top level
The top level menu is invoked from a key given in your @file{hsite.el}
file (by default, @{@kbd{C-h h}@}) or via an Action Key press in a
location with no other action defined.  The menu will appear in the
minibuffer and should look mostly like so:

@noindent
@example
Hy4>  Act Butfile/ Doc/ Ebut/ Gbut/ Hist Ibut/ Msg/ Otl/ Rolo/ Win/
@end example

@noindent
The above menu items can be summarized as follows:

@table @strong
@cindex menu, Act
@item Act
Perform the action associated with any button at point or prompt for the
name of an explicit button to activate if point is not on one.

@cindex menu, ButFile
@cindex button file, HYPB
@vindex file, HYPB
@item Butfile/
Display a local or global file of buttons, providing easy access.
@file{HYPB} for a local button file and @file{~/.hyperb/HYPB} for your
global file.  These are good places to start your button creation testing.

@cindex menu, EBut
@item Ebut/
All explicit button commands.

@cindex menu, Doc
@cindex menu, Types
@item Doc/
Hyperbole documentation quick access.  Contains Types/ submenu for
documentation on Hyperbole implicit button and action types.

@cindex menu, Global Buttons
@item Gbut/
All global button commands.  Global buttons are accessed by name
rather than by direct selection.

@cindex menu, History
@cindex history
@item Hist
Jumps back to last position in button traversal history.

@cindex menu, Implicit Buttons
@item Ibut/
All implicit button commands.

@cindex menu, Message
@item Msg/
Hyperbole-specific mail and news messaging support commands.
Use this to send mail to the Hyperbole discussion list or to
add/modify your entry on a Hyperbole mail list.

@cindex menu, Outliner
@item Otl/
Autonumbered, structured outliner and hyper-node manager commands.
@xref{Outliner}.

@cindex menu, Rolodex
@item Rolo/
Hierarchical, multi-file rolodex lookup and edit commands.
@xref{Rolodex}.

@cindex menu, Window Configurations
@cindex menu, Windows
@item Win/
Window configuration management such as adding and restoring window
configurations by name. @xref{Window Configurations}.

@end table

@cindex submenus
@cindex menu help
@cindex help, menu items
All menu items are selected via the first character of their names
(letter case does not matter) or via a press of the Action Key.  "/" at
the end of an item name indicates that it brings up a sub-menu.  A press
of the Assist Key on an item displays help for the item, including the
action that it performs.

@kindex C-t
@kindex q
@kindex C-g
While a menu is active, to re-activate the top-level Hyperbole menu, you
must use @{@kbd{C-t}@}.  This allows you to browse the submenus and then
return to the top.  You can quit without selecting an item by using
@{@kbd{q}@}.  @{@kbd{C-g}@} aborts whether you are at a menu prompt or
any other Hyperbole prompt.



@node Entering Arguments, Outliner, Menus, Top
@chapter Entering Arguments

@cindex argument entry
@cindex direct selection
@cindex double click
Many Hyperbole commands prompt you for arguments.  The standard
Hyperbole user interface has an extensive core of argument types that it
recognizes.  Whenever Hyperbole is prompting you for an argument, it
knows the type that it needs and provides some error checking to help
you get it right.  More importantly, it allows you to press the Action
Key within an entity that you want to use as an argument and it will grab the
appropriate thing and show it to you at the input prompt within the
minibuffer.  If you press the Action Key again at the same point (click
with a mouse) on the same thing again, it accepts the entity as the
argument and moves on.  Thus, a double click registers a desired
argument.  Double-quoted strings, pathnames, mail messages, Info nodes,
dired listings, buffers, numbers, completion items and so forth are all
recognized at appropriate times.  All of the argument types mentioned in
the documentation for the Emacs Lisp @code{(interactive)} function are
recognized.  Experiment a little and you will quickly get used to this
direct selection technique.

@cindex completion
Wherever possible, standard Emacs completion is offered, see
@ref{Completion,,,emacs, the Gnu Emacs Manual}.  Remember to use @{@kbd{?}@}
to see what your possibilities for an argument are.  Once you have a
list of possible completions on screen, you can double click the Action
Key on any one to enter it as the argument.


@node Outliner, Rolodex, Entering Arguments, Top
@chapter Outliner

@cindex outliner
@cindex autonumber
@cindex relative autonumber
@cindex permanent identifier
@cindex idstamp
@cindex hyperlink anchor
The Hyperbole outliner, also known as the Koutliner (pronounced
Kay-outliner), produces structured, autonumbered documents composed of
hierarchies of cells.  Each @dfn{cell} has two identifiers, a
@dfn{relative identifier} indicating its present position within the
outline and a @dfn{permanent identifier} called an @dfn{idstamp},
suitable for use within hyperlink references to the cell.  The idstamp
is typically not displayed but is available when needed.
@xref{Autonumbering}.

Cells also store their time of creation and the user who created the
cell.  User-defined attributes may also be added to cells.  @xref{Cell
Attributes}.

@cindex menu, Outline
The outliner works only under GNU Emacs version 19 or higher, XEmacs
version 19.9 or higher or under InfoDock.  You can tell whether you are
running a version of Emacs which supports the outliner by hitting
@{@kbd{C-h h}@} to display the Hyperbole menu.  If you see an
@code{Otl/} entry in the menu, then the outliner is available.
Otherwise, the outliner does not work with your version of Emacs, so
this section of the manual will not be of interest to you.  (The same is
true of the Hyperbole/Outline pulldown menu; if it appears, the outliner
is available for use.)

@vindex file, EXAMPLE.kotl
@cindex menu, Outline/Example
This chapter expands on the information given in @file{EXAMPLE.kotl}
file included with Hyperbole.  Use @{@kbd{C-h h o e}@} to display that
file.  It is an actual outline file that explains major outliner
operations.  You can test out the viewing and motion commands with this
file.  If you want to experiment with editing operations, use @{@kbd{C-x
C-w}@} to write the outline to a temporary file such as,
@file{/tmp/e.kotl}, and then use @{@kbd{C-x C-q}@} to make the outline
editable.

@xref{Outliner Keys}, for a full summary of the key bindings and
commands available in the outliner.

@menu
* Menu Commands::
* Creating Outlines::
* Autonumbering::
* Idstamps::
* Editing::
* Viewing::
* Links::
* Cell Attributes::
* Outliner History::
@end menu


@node Menu Commands, Creating Outlines, Outliner, Outliner
@section   Menu Commands

The Otl/ menu entry on the Hyperbole top-level menu provides access to
a number of major outliner commands:

@cindex outliner commands
@cindex Koutliner commands
@findex kotl-mode:show-all
@findex kvspec:toggle-blank-lines
@findex kfile:find
@findex kotl-mode:hide-sublevels
@findex kotl-mode:hide-tree
@findex kotl-mode:kill-tree
@findex klink:create
@findex kotl-mode:overview
@findex kotl-mode:show-tree
@findex kotl-mode:top-cells
@findex kvspec:activate
@cindex menu, Outline
@example
@group
Menu Item    Command                    Description
====================================================================
All          kotl-mode:show-all         Expand all cells
Blanks       kvspec:toggle-blank-lines  Toggle blank lines on or off
Create       kfile:find                 Edit or create an outline
Downto       kotl-mode:hide-sublevels   Hide cells deeper than a level
Examp        <sample outliner file>     Show self-descriptive example
Hide         kotl-mode:hide-tree        Hide tree with root at point
Info         <outliner documentation>   Show outliner manual section
Kill         kotl-mode:kill-tree        Kill the current tree
Link         klink:create               Create a link to another cell
Overvw       kotl-mode:overview         Show first line of each cell
Show         kotl-mode:show-tree        Show tree with root at point
Top          kotl-mode:top-cells        Collapse to top-level cells
Vspec        kvspec:activate            Set a view specification
====================================================================
@end group
@end example


@node Creating Outlines, Autonumbering, Menu Commands, Outliner
@section   Creating Outlines

@cindex outline file suffix
@cindex outline, creating
@vindex file, .kotl suffix
In addition to the Otl/Create menu item, you can create and experiment
with outline files simply by finding a file, @{@kbd{C-x C-f}@} with a
@file{.kotl} suffix.  @file{.kot} will also work for DOS or
Windows-impaired users.

@cindex root cell
@cindex top-level cell
@cindex cell, top-level
@cindex cell, idstamp 0
When a new koutline is created, an invisible root cell is created.  Its
permanent and relative ids are both 0, and it is considered to be at
level 0 in the outline.  All visible cells in the outline are at level 1
or deeper, and thus are descendants of this root cell.  Some koutliner
commands prompt for cell numbers as arguments.  An argument of 0 makes
commands operate upon the entire outline.

An initial level 1 cell is also created to make it easy to start
entering text in the outline.  A koutline always has at least one
visible cell in it.

@xref{Autonumbering}, which explains how cells are labeled according to their
respective levels in the outline and how these labels are updated as the
structure of the outline changes.


@node Autonumbering, Idstamps, Creating Outlines, Outliner
@section   Autonumbering

@cindex autonumber
@cindex relative identifier
@xref{Adding and Killing}, which explains how to add new cells to or remove
cells from a koutline.  As you do this, or as you promote or demote
cells within the outline, the labels preceding the contents of each cell
automatically update to reflect the new structure.  These labels are
also known as @dfn{autonumbers} and as @dfn{relative ids} because they
change as the structure changes.

@cindex outline structure
The outline structure is shown by these labels and by the indentation of
each outline level.  Normally, each deeper level is indented another
three characters, to reflect the nesting.

@cindex label type, alpha
@cindex label type, legal
@cindex alpha labels
@cindex legal labels
@cindex outline, label type
The default autonumbers are called @dfn{alphanumeric labels} because
they alternate between using numbers and letters to distinguish each
successive level.  Each alphanumeric label uniquely identifies a cell's
position in an outline, so that there is no need to scan back to prior
cells to see what the current section number of an outline is.  This is
similar to a legal numbering scheme but without all the period
characters between level numbers.  As an example, 1b3 is equivalent to a
legal label of 1.2.3.  Both refer to the 3rd cell at level 3,
below the 2nd child of the first cell at level 1.  Said another way,
this is the 3rd child of the 1st cell's 2nd child.  In other words, it
is easier to visualize hierarchies than to talk about them.

Alphanumeric labels are the default because they are shorter and easier
to read aloud than equivalent legal ones.  They also simplify
distinguishing between even and odd level labels because of the
alternating character set.

@kindex C-c C-l
@cindex label type, changing
You can change the labeling scheme used in a particular outline with the
command @{@kbd{C-c C-l}@}.  A @{@kbd{?}@} then will show all of your
options.  Legal labels, partial alpha labels (single level autonumbering
where only the last part of the level number is shown, as commonly seen
in other outliner products), idstamps (permanent cell ids), and star
outline level labels (Emacs asterisk-based outline labeling) are all
available.  Or you may choose to turn autonumbering off.  Cells are
still indented to reflect the outline structure whether or not labels
are displayed.

@cindex label separator, changing
@cindex cell, label separator
@cindex outline, label separator
@kindex C-c M-l
@kindex C-u C-c M-l
A cell label is normally followed by two spaces, called the @dfn{label
separator}, prior to the start of the cell contents.  You can change the
separator with for the current outline with @{@kbd{C-c M-l}@}.
@{@kbd{C-u C-c M-l}@} will additionally change the default separator
value used when new outlines are created (for the current session only).
For example, use the value ". " to get a trailing period after each cell
label.  The separator must be at least two characters long but may be
longer.

@vindex file, ~/.emacs
@cindex initialization file
If you find a separator that you prefer for all outlines, change the
separator setting permanently by adding the following line to your Emacs
initialization file, @file{~/.emacs}, substituting for `your-separator':

@cindex label separator, default
@vindex kview:default-label-separator
@lisp
(setq kview:default-label-separator "your-separator")
@end lisp


@node Idstamps, Editing, Autonumbering, Outliner
@section   Idstamps

@cindex permanent identifier
@cindex idstamp
Idstamps (permanent ids) are associated with each cell and can be
used in hyperlinks that are maintained as cells are reordered in a file.
@xref{Links}.  Idstamps may also be displayed in place of the outline
level relative ids.  Use @{@kbd{C-c C-l id RET}@}.

@cindex idstamp counter
An idstamp counter for each outline starts at 0 and is incremented by
one each time a cell is added to the outline.  This idstamp stays with
the cell no matter where it is moved within the outline.  If the cell is
deleted, its idstamp is not reused.

@cindex root cell
@cindex top-level cell
@cindex cell, top-level
@cindex cell, idstamp 0
@cindex idstamp 0
The 0 idstamp is always assigned to the root node of the entire outline.
This node is never visible within the outline, but is used so that the
outline may be treated as a single tree when needed.  Idstamps always
begin with a 0, as in 012, to distinguish them from relative ids.


@node Editing, Viewing, Idstamps, Outliner
@section   Editing

You edit text and move around in the Koutliner just as you would in any
other Emacs buffer, except when you want to deal with the structural
components of an outline.  Within the contents of a cell, all of your
standard editing keys should work properly.  You can just type in text
and the left and right margins of the lines will be maintained for you.
@xref{Filling}, for the times when you need to refill a paragraph or to
control when filling occurs.@refill

Don't invoke editing commands with @{@kbd{M-x command-name @key{RET}}@}
since the Koutliner uses special differently named commands made to act
like the regular editing commands but which account for the structure
and indentation in koutlines.

@cindex cell, selection
You can use the mouse to select parts of the contents of a single cell
for editing.  But don't drag across cell boundaries and then edit the
selected region, since that can destroy the outline structure.

@menu
* Adding and Killing::
* Moving Around::
* Relocating and Copying::
* Filling::
* Transposing::
* Splitting and Appending::
* Inserting and Importing::
@end menu

@node Adding and Killing, Relocating and Copying, Editing, Editing
@subsection  Adding and Killing

@kindex C-j
@kindex C-u c-j
@kindex C-c a
@kindex C-c p
@cindex cell, adding
@cindex cell, creating
@{@kbd{C-j}@} adds a new cell as a successor sibling of the
current cell, that is, the next cell at the same level as the current
cell.  If you enter a positive number as a prefix argument, that number
of cells will be inserted, all at the same level.  @{@kbd{C-u C-j}@} is
handled specially.  It adds a single cell as a child of the current cell.
@{@kbd{C-c a}@} does the same thing.  @{@kbd{C-c p}@} adds the cell as
the successor of the current cell's parent.

@kindex C-c C-k
@kindex C-c k
@kindex C-u C-c k
@kindex C-y
@cindex cell, killing
@cindex cell, yanking contents
@cindex tree, killing
@{@kbd{C-c C-k}@} kills the current cell and its entire subtree.
@{@kbd{C-c k}@} kills the contents of a cell from point through the end
of the cell; it does not remove the cell itself.  @{@kbd{C-u C-c k}@}
kills the entire contents of the cell regardless of the location of
point.  You may then yank the contents into another cell or another
buffer with @{@kbd{C-y}@}.


@node Relocating and Copying, Moving Around, Adding and Killing, Editing
@subsection  Relocating and Copying

@cindex promotion
@cindex demotion
@cindex tree, promoting
@cindex tree, demoting
@dfn{Demotion} is the act of moving a tree down one or more levels in the
outline.  The new tree will become either the successor or the first
child of the cell which precedes it in the outline.  @dfn{Promotion} is
the inverse operation.  Note that trees (cells and their entire
substructure) are promoted and demoted, not individual cells.

@kindex @key{TAB}
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
Trees may be demoted or promoted by pressing @{@key{TAB}@} or
@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} respectively, as in most outliners today.
@{@kbd{M-0 @key{TAB}}@} and @{@kbd{M-0 M-@key{TAB}}@} demote and
promote trees and additionally refill each cell that is not specially
marked to prevent refilling.  @xref{Filling}.  A positive or negative
prefix argument to these commands promotes or demotes the tree up to a
maximum of the number of levels given by the argument.  The outline may
not support movement of the tree by the number of levels requested.

@cindex tree, copying
@cindex tree, moving
@cindex Action Key, cell argument
@kindex Action Key, cell argument
For maximum flexibility in rearranging outlines, there are commands that
move or copy entire trees.  Each of these commands prompts for the label
of the root cell to move or copy and for second cell at the new location
for the moved or copied tree.  You can either accept the default
provided, type in the cell label or when a mouse is available, simple
double click with the Action Key on the contents of a cell.  The
Koutliner knows to use the cell's label in such cases.

In these following commands, words delimited with <> represent the
arguments for which each command prompts.  Note how the use of prefix
arguments changes each command's behavior from insertion at the sibling
level to insertion at the child level.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c c
@item C-c c
Copy <tree> to be the successor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c c
@itemx C-u C-c c
Copy <tree> to follow as the first child of <cell>.

@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Copy <tree> to be the predecessor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c C-c
@itemx C-u C-c C-c
Copy <tree> to be the first child of the parent of <cell>.

@kindex C-c m
@item C-c m
Move <tree> to be the successor of <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c m
@itemx C-u C-c m
Move <tree> to follow as the first child of <cell>.

@kindex C-c C-m
@item C-c C-m
Move <tree> to precede <cell>.
@kindex C-u C-c C-m
@itemx C-u C-c C-m
Move <tree> to be the first child of the parent of <cell>.
@end table

@cindex mouse, moving trees
If you have mouse support under Hyperbole, you can move entire trees
with mouse clicks.  Simply click the Assist Key within the indentation
to the left of a cell and you will be prompted for a tree to move.
Double click the Action Key within the contents the root cell of the tree
to move and then double click within the contents of the root cell of the
tree you want it to follow as a sucessor.

Copying and moving only work within a single outline right now, so don't
try to use them to move trees across different outline files.  You can,
however, copy an outline tree to a non-outline buffer with:

@cindex tree, exporting
@cindex outline, exporting
@cindex tree, mailing
@cindex outline, mailing
@cindex exporting an outline
@cindex mailing an outline
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c M-c
@item C-c M-c
Copy  <tree> to a non-koutline buffer.
@kindex C-c @@
@itemx C-c @@
Copy a <tree> to an outgoing mail message.
@end table

@node Moving Around, Filling, Relocating and Copying, Editing
@subsection  Moving Around

@cindex outline, motion
In addition to normal Emacs movement commands, you can move within a
cell or from one cell or tree to another.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c ,
@item C-c ,
Move to the beginning of the current cell.
@kindex C-c .
@itemx C-c .
Move to the end of the current cell.

@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Move to the next visible cell, regardless of level.
@kindex C-c C-p
@itemx C-c C-p
Move to the previous visible cell, regardless of level.

@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Move forward to this cell's successor, if any.
@kindex C-c C-b
@itemx C-c C-b
Move backward to this cell's predecessor, if any.

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Move to the first child of the current cell, if any.
@kindex C-c C-u
@itemx C-c C-u
Move to the parent cell of the current cell, if any.

@kindex C-c <
@item C-c <
Move to the first sibling at the current level within this tree.
@kindex C-c >
@itemx C-c >
Move to the last sibling at the current level within this tree.

@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
Move to the level 1 root cell of the current tree.
@kindex C-c $
@itemx C-c $
Move to the last cell in the tree rooted at point, regardless of level.
@end table


@node Filling, Transposing, Moving Around, Editing
@subsection  Filling

@cindex outline, filling
Filling is the process of extending lines that are shorter than the
right margin and reducing lines which extend past the margin by moving
words among the lines.  Commands are provided to fill a paragraph within
a cell or a whole cell, which may have multiple paragraphs.

@cindex filling
@cindex cell, filling
@cindex paragraph, filling
@cindex tree, filling
@cindex margin
@kindex M-q
@kindex M-j
@kindex C-c M-q
@kindex C-c M-j
@kindex C-M-q
@kindex C-M-j
@{@kbd{M-q}@} or @{@kbd{M-j}@} refills a paragraph within a
cell so that its lines wrap within the current margin settings.
@{@kbd{C-c M-q}@} or @{@kbd{C-c M-j}@} refills all paragraphs within a
cell.  @{@kbd{C-M-q}@} or @{@kbd{C-M-j}@} refills all cells within a
tree.  See your Emacs or InfoDock manual for information on how to set
the left and right margins.

@vindex kotl-mode:refill-flag
@cindex refilling
@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
Set the variable, @var{kotl-mode:refill-flag}, to t if you want
moving, promoting, demoting, exchanging, splitting and appending cells
to also automatically refill each cell.  Generally, this is not
recommended since if you happen to move a cell that you have carefully
formatted and forgot to give it a `no-fill' property, your formatting
will be lost.


@node Transposing, Splitting and Appending, Filling, Editing
@subsection  Transposing

The Koutliner move and copy commands rearrange entire trees.  The
following two commands, in contrast, exchange the locations of two
individual cells.

@kindex C-c e
@cindex cell, transposing
@cindex cell, exchanging
@cindex exchanging cells
@cindex transposing cells
@{@kbd{C-c e}@} prompts for two cell addresses and exchanges the cell
locations.

@kindex C-c t
@{@kbd{C-c t}@} does not prompt.  It exchanges the current
and immediatly prior cell, regardless of their levels.  If there is no
prior cell it exchanges the current and next cell.

@cindex cell, mark and point
@kindex M-0 C-c t
@{@kbd{M-0 C-c t}@} exchanges the cells in which point and mark fall.
@{@kbd{C-c t}@} with a non-zero numeric prefix argument, N, moves
the current tree past maximally the next N visible cells.  If there are
fewer visible, it makes the current cell the last cell in the outline.


@node Splitting and Appending, Inserting and Importing, Transposing, Editing
@subsection  Splitting and Appending

@cindex splitting a cell
@cindex cell, splitting
@kindex C-c s
@kindex C-u C-c s
You can split one cell into two adjacent sibling cells with @{@kbd{C-c
s}@}.  This leaves the cell contents preceding point in the current
cell, minus any trailing whitespace, and moves the contents following
point to a new sibling cell which is inserted into the outline.
@{@kbd{C-u C-c s}@} instead adds the new cell as the first child of the
original cell, rather than as its successor.

All cell attributes in the original cell are propagated to the new one,
aside from the creation attributes and idstamp.

@kindex C-c +
@cindex cell, appending
@cindex appending to a cell
@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
@{@kbd{C-c +}@} appends the contents of a specified cell to the end of
another cell.  It has no effect on cell attributes, except that if one
cell has a `no-fill' attribute that prevents all but user requested
filling of a cell, then the cell appended to inherits this property.
This helps maintain any special formatting the appended text may have.


@node Inserting and Importing,  , Splitting and Appending, Editing
@subsection  Inserting and Importing

@cindex outline, inserting into
@cindex outline, importing into
@cindex importation
@cindex insertion
@kindex C-x i
@cindex outline, foreign file
The elements of another buffer or file may be inserted into a koutline
as a set of cells by using the @{@kbd{C-x i}@} command.  When prompted,
you may use a buffer name or file name from which to insert, though
completion is provided only for file names.

@kindex C-u C-x i
The elements from the original buffer are converted into kcells and
inserted as the successors of the current cell.  If @{@kbd{C-u C-x i}@}
is used, they are instead inserted as the inital children of the current
cell.

@vindex kimport:mode-alist
@vindex kimport:suffix-alist
@cindex outline, conversion
@findex kotl-mode
@cindex outline mode
@cindex koutline mode
@cindex file, importing
@cindex importing a file
See the documentation for the variables, kimport:mode-alist and
kimport:suffix-alist, for information on mode and suffix-specific
conversions performed on file elements before they are inserted.  This
same conversion process applies if you invoke @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode
RET}@} in a non-koutline buffer or if you perform a generic file import
as described later in this section.

@findex kotl-mode:insert-file-contents
Use @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode:insert-file-contents RET}@} to insert the
entire contents of a file into the current cell at the location of
point.

@findex kimport:file
The outliner presently supports conversion of three types of files into
koutline files.  You can choose to import a file into an existing
koutline, following the tree at point, or to create a new koutline of
the imported file contents.  @{@kbd{M-x kimport:file RET}@} will select
the importation type based on the buffer or file name suffix of the file
to import.

@findex kotl-mode
If you want to convert a buffer from some other mode into a koutline and
then want to save the converted buffer back to its original file,
thereby replacing the original format, then use @{@kbd{M-x kotl-mode
RET}@} to convert the buffer into a koutline.  Remember that you will
lose the old format of the buffer when you do this.

Use one of the following commands if you really need explicit control over the
type of importation used on some text.  With these commands, your
original file remains intact.

@findex kimport:text
@cindex text file
Use @{@kbd{M-x kimport:text RET}@} and you will be prompted for a text
buffer or file to import and the new koutline buffer or file to create
from its text.  It will also import the contents, attributes and level
structure of cells from a koutline.

@findex kimport:star-outline
@cindex emacs outline
@cindex star outline
Star outlines are standard Emacs outlines where each entry begins with
one or more asterisk characters.  Use @{@kbd{M-x kimport:star-outline
RET}@} and you will be prompted for the star outline buffer or file to
import and the new koutline buffer or file to create.

@cindex Augment outline
@findex kimport:aug-post-outline
(Skip this if you are unfamiliar with the Augment system.)  Files
exported from the Augment system as text often have alphanumeric
statement identifiers on the right side.  You can import such files
while maintaining there outline structure.  Use @{@kbd{M-x
kimport:aug-post-outline RET}@} and you will be prompted for the Augment
buffer or file to import and the koutline to create.


@node Viewing, Links, Editing, Outliner
@section   Viewing

@cindex outline, viewing
@cindex view
The Koutliner has very flexible viewing facilities to allow you to
effectively browse and study large amounts of material.

@menu
* Hiding and Showing::
* View Specs::
@end menu

@node Hiding and Showing, View Specs, Viewing, Viewing
@subsection  Hiding and Showing

@cindex outline, hiding
@cindex outline, showing
@cindex collapsing
@cindex expanding
@cindex hiding
@cindex showing
Individual cells, branches, or particular levels in the outline may be
hidden or shown.  These commands work even when an outline buffer is
read-only, e.g. when its file is not checked out of a version control
system yet, so that you can get effective views of an outline without
editing it.  Some of these commands affect the current view spec,
@ref{View Specs}.

@table @kbd
@cindex hide tree
@cindex tree, show
@kindex C-c C-h
@item C-c C-h
Hide (collapse) the tree rooted at point.
@cindex show tree
@cindex tree, show
@kindex C-c C-s
@itemx C-c C-s
Show (expand) the tree rooted at point.

@cindex outline, all cells
@cindex cell, show all
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show (expand) all of the cells in the outline.
@cindex level
@cindex cell, show levels
@cindex outline, show levels
@kindex C-x $
@itemx C-x $
Show all of the cells down to a particular <level>.  You are prompted
for the level or a prefix argument may be given.

@cindex subtree, hide
@cindex tree, hide subtree
@cindex cell, hide subtree
@cindex hide subtree
@kindex C-M-h
@item C-M-h
Hide the subtree at point, excluding the root cell.
@cindex subtree, show
@cindex tree, show subtree
@cindex cell, show subtree
@cindex show subtree
@itemx M-x kotl-mode:show-subtree
Show the subtree at point.  Use @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@} to achieve a similar
effect.  The only difference is that it will expand the root cell too.

@cindex overview
@cindex outline, overview
@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Show an overview of the outline by showing only the first line of
every cell.  This also turns off blank lines between cells to maximize
your view of the outline.
@cindex top-level view
@cindex outline, top-level
@kindex C-c C-t
@itemx C-c C-t
Show a top-level view of the outline by showing only the first line of
each level one cell.  This does not turn off blank lines.
@end table

@kindex Action Key, hide or show cell
@cindex Action Key, hide or show cell
@cindex cell, collapse
@cindex cell, expand
@kindex M-@key{RET}
A click or a press of the Action Key within a cell's body, but not on a 
Hyperbole button, toggles between hiding and showing the tree rooted at
point.  Try it with either your mouse or with @{@kbd{M-@key{RET}}@}.


@node View Specs,  , Hiding and Showing, Viewing
@subsection  View Specs

@cindex view spec
@cindex modeline, view spec
@vindex kvspec:string
@cindex pipe character
@cindex |
@cindex <|viewspec>
@dfn{View specifications} (view specs, for short) are short codes used
to control the view of a koutline.  The view specs in effect for an
outline are always displayed in the modeline of the outline's window,
following the outline buffer name, unless the variable,
@var{kvspec:string}, has been set to @code{nil} to disable view spec
modeline display.  The modeline display appears as <|viewspec> so that
you can easily pick them out.  The | (pipe character) is also used in
links that specify view specs to indicate the start of a view spec
sequence.  @xref{Links}.

@cindex outline, view specs
The current view spec is saved whenever the outline is saved.  The next
time the outline is read in, this will be the initial view.

The rest of this section documents the view spec characters that are
presently supported and explains how to invoke a view spec.  There is no
user-level way to add your own view spec characters, so all character
codes are reserved for future use.

@kindex C-c C-v
@cindex view spec, setting
@cindex view spec, changing
@cindex changing the view spec
@cindex setting the view spec
@{@kbd{C-c C-v}@} prompts for a new view spec setting in which the following
codes are valid.  Any invalid characters in a view spec are ignored.
Characters are evaluated in an order meant to do the right thing, even
when you use conflicting view spec characters.  The standard initial
view spec is <|ben>.

@cindex view spec, characters
@table @kbd
@cindex view spec, all lines and levels
@item a
Show all cell levels and all lines in cells.

@kindex C-c b
@cindex blank lines, toggle
@cindex view spec, blank lines
@kindex C-c b
@cindex toggling blank lines
@item b
Turn on blank lines between cells.  Without this character, blank lines
will be turned off.  You can also use the @{@kbd{C-c b}@} key binding to
toggle line numbers on and off independent of any other view settings.

@cindex view spec, lines per cell
@cindex hide lines
@cindex collapse lines
@cindex cutoff lines
@item cN
Hide any lines greater than N in each cell.  0 means don't cutoff any
lines.

@cindex ellipses
@cindex view spec, ellipses
@item e
Show ellipses when some content of a cell or its subtree is hidden.

@cindex level
@cindex cell, hiding levels
@cindex hide levels
@cindex view spec, show levels
@item lN
Hide cells at levels deeper than N.  0 means don't hide any cells.

@cindex label type
@cindex view spec, label type
@vindex kview:default-label-type
@cindex default label type
@item n
Turn on the default label type, as given by the variable,
@var{kview:default-label-type}.  Normally, this is alphanumeric labels.
@cindex label type, idstamps
@itemx n0
Display idstamps.
@cindex label type, alpha
@itemx n1
Display alpha labels.
@cindex label type, partial alpha
@itemx n2
Display partial alpha labels (don't use this, as full alpha labels are
better).
@cindex label type, legal
@itemx n.
Display legal labels.
@cindex label type, star
@cindex label type, asterisk
@itemx n*
Display star labels.  A level three cell would have three asterisks as a
label, for example.
@cindex label type, no labels
@itemx n~
Turn off labels.  (n viewspec is removed from modeline).
@end table

@cindex view spec, example
As a test, use @{@kbd{C-h h o e}@} to display the example koutline.
Then use @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@} to set a view spec of `c2l1'.  This will turn
off blank lines, clip each cell after its second line, and hide all
cells below level one.


@node Links, Cell Attributes, Viewing, Outliner
@section   Links

@cindex link
@cindex hyperlink
@cindex klink
@cindex <> delimiters
Hyperlinks may be embedded in cells and may refer to other cells or
external sources of information.  Explicit Hyperbole buttons may be
created as usual via mouse drags, @ref{By Dragging, Creation Via Action
Key Drags}.  A @dfn{klink} is a special implicit link button, delimited
by <> separators, that jumps to a specific outline cell.  This section
discusses klinks.

@kindex Action Key, klink
@cindex Action Key, klink
@cindex klink, activating
@cindex klink referent
Press the Action Key over a klink to follow it.  This will flash the
klink as a button and then will display its referent in the other
window.  If the klink contains a view spec, that will be used when the
referent is displayed.

@cindex klink, inserting
@kindex C-c l
There are a number of easy ways to insert klinks into koutlines.  If you
have mouse support under Hyperbole, simply click the Action Key within
the indentation to the left of a cell text.  If you then double click on
some cell, a link to that cell will be inserted where you started.  From
a keyboard, use @{@kbd{C-c l}@} when in a koutline or @{@kbd{C-h h o
l}@} when not in a koutline to insert a klink.  Since klinks are
implicit buttons, you can type in the text of the klink just as you see
it in the examples below and it will work exactly as if it had been
entered with the insert link command.

@cindex klink, formats
@noindent
There are basically three forms of klinks:

@table @bullet
@cindex internal klink
@cindex klink, internal
@cindex <@@ klink>
@item internal
<@@ 2b=06> is an internal klink, since it refers to the koutline in which
it is embedded.  When activated, it jumps to the cell within the current
outline which has permanent id `06' and relative id `2b'.  <@@ 06> does
the same thing, as does <@@ 2b>, though this latter form will not
maintain the link properly if the cell is moved elsewhere within the
outline.  The form, <@@ 2b=06 |ben> additionally sets the view spec of
the current outline back to the default value, with a blank line between
each cell and all levels and lines of cells displayed.

@cindex external klink
@cindex klink, external
@item external
The second klink format is an external link to another koutline, such
as, <EXAMPLE.kotl, 3=012 |c1e>, which displays the named file, starting
at the cell 3 (whose permanent identifer is 012), with the view
specification of: blank lines turned off, cutoff after one line per
cell, and show ellipses for cells or trees which are clipped.

@cindex klink, view spec
@cindex view spec klink
@item view spec
The third format simply allows you to set a view spec for the current
koutline.  For example, <|ben>, when activated, sets the view in the
current outline to display blank lines, ellipses following collapsed
lines and standard alphanumeric numbering.
@end table


@node Cell Attributes, Outliner History, Links, Outliner
@section   Cell Attributes

@cindex cell, attribute
@cindex attribute
@dfn{Attributes} are named variables whose values are specific to a
particular outline cell.  Thus, each cell has its own attribute list.
Every cell has three standard attributes:

@table @bullet
@cindex idstamp attribute
@item idstamp
The permanent id of the cell, typically used in cross-file hyperlinks
that reference the cell.

@cindex creator attribute
@cindex e-mail address
@cindex mail address
@item creator
The e-mail address of the person who created this cell.

@cindex create-time attribute
@cindex cell, creation time
@item create-time
The time at which the cell was created.  This is stored in a form that
allows for easy data comparisons but is displayed in a human readable
format, such as "Jan 28 18:27:59 CST 1994".
@end table

@kindex C-c C-i
@cindex attribute, adding
@cindex attribute, modifying
@cindex attribute, removing
@{@kbd{C-c C-i}@} is the command to add an attribute to or to modify an
existing attribute in the cell at point.  Think of it as inserting an
attribute value.  To remove an attribute from cell, set its value to
@code{nil}.


@cindex attribute, no-fill
@cindex cell, no-fill attribute
@cindex no-fill attribute
@vindex kotl-mode:refill-flag
The `no-fill' attribute is special.  When added with a non-nil value, it
prevents moving, promoting, demoting, exchanging, splitting and
appending cells from refilling the cell, even if the variable,
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag}, is set to t.  It does not prevent you from
invoking explicit commands that refill the cell.  @xref{Filling}.

@kindex Assist Key, listing attributes
@cindex Assist Key, listing attributes
@cindex listing attributes
@cindex outline, attribute list
The attribute lists for the cells in the tree rooted at point can be
displayed by pressing the Assist Key within the contents of a cell.

@kindex C-c h
@kindex C-u C-c h
@{@kbd{C-c h}@} prompts for a cell label and displays the cell's
attributes.  @{@kbd{C-u C-c h}@} prompts for a cell label and displays
the attributes for it and its subtree; use 0 as the kcell id to see
attributes for all visible cells in the outline.


@node Outliner History,  , Cell Attributes, Outliner
@section   Outliner History

@cindex NLS
@cindex Augment
@cindex Engelbart
Much of the Hyperbole outliner design is based upon concepts pioneered
in the NLS/Augment system, @cite{[Eng84a]}.  Augment treated documents as
a hierarchical set of nodes, called statements, rather than cells.
Every Augment document utilized this intrinsic structure.

@cindex distributed collaboration
@cindex collaboration
The system could rapidly change the view of a document by collapsing,
expanding, generating, clipping, filtering, including or reordering
these nodes.  It could also map individual views to multiple workstation
displays across a network to aid in distributed, collaborative work.

@cindex knowledge transfer
@cindex idea structuring
@cindex cross referencing
These facilities aided greatly in idea structuring, cross-referencing,
and knowledge transfer.  The Koutliner is a start at bringing
these capabilities back into the mainstream of modern computing culture.


@node Rolodex, Window Configurations, Outliner, Top
@chapter Rolodex

@cindex rolodex
@cindex wrolo
Hyperbole includes a complete, advanced rolodex system, Wrolo, for
convenient management of hierarchical, record-oriented information.

@cindex rolo, buttons in
Hyperbole buttons may be included within rolodex records and then
manually activated whenever their records are retrieved.

@vindex file, wrolo.el
See the description at the top of the @file{wrolo.el} file for
details on programmatic interfacing to the rolodex.  The following
subsections explain use and basic customization of the rolodex.

@menu
* Rolo Concepts::
* Rolo Menu::
* Rolo Keys::
* Rolo Settings::
@end menu

@node Rolo Concepts, Rolo Menu, Rolodex, Rolodex
@section   Rolo Concepts

@cindex rolodex file
@cindex rolodex entry
The rolodex manages and searches rolodex files.  A @dfn{rolodex file}
consists of an optional header which starts and ends with a line of
equal signs (at least three equal signs starting at the beginning of a
line), followed by any non-negative number of rolodex records.  You must
manually add a header to any rolodex file if you want it to have one.

@noindent
Here is an example of a simple rolodex file.

@example
@group
==================================================================
                        PERSONAL ROLODEX
<Last-Name>, <First>  <Email>        W<Work#>       F<Fax#>
==================================================================
*   Smith, John       <js@@hiho.com> W708-555-2001  F708-321-1492
        Chief Ether Maintainer, HiHo Industries
        10/24/95
@end group
@end example

We call rolodex records, @dfn{entries}.  Entries begin with a delimiter,
some number of `*' characters at the beginning of a line.  Entries may
be arranged in a hierarchy, where child entries begin with one more `*'
characters than do their parents.  Top level entries begin with a single
`*'.

Beyond this initial delimiter, entries are completely free-form text.
It is best to use a "lastname, firstname" format, however, when adding
contact entries into a rolodex.  Then the rolodex system will
automatically keep your entries alphabetized as you enter them.  You'll
also be able to sort them whenever you desire.

Any search done on the rolodex scans the full text of each entry.
During a search, the rolodex file header separator lines and anything in
between are appended to the buffer of matched entries before any entries
are retrieved from the file.  Whenever an entry is matched, it and all
of its descendant entries are retrieved.  If your Emacs version supports
textual highlighting, each search match is highlighted for quick, visual
location.

@noindent
For example, a search on "Company" could retrieve the following:

@example
@group
==================================================================
                        COMPANY ROLODEX
==================================================================
*    Company
**     Manager
***      Underlings
@end group
@end example

@noindent
Thus, searching for Company retrieves all listed employees.
Searching for Manager turns up all Underlings.


@node Rolo Menu, Rolo Keys, Rolo Concepts, Rolodex
@section   Rolo Menu

@cindex rolodex menu
The Rolo/ menu entry on the Hyperbole top-level menu provides the
user interface to the rolodex.  The rolo menu provides access to the
following commands:

@cindex rolodex commands
@cindex Wrolo commands
@findex rolo-add
@findex rolo-display-matches
@findex rolo-edit
@findex rolo-kill
@findex rolo-mail-to
@findex rolo-sort
@findex rolo-grep
@findex rolo-fgrep
@findex rolo-word
@findex rolo-yank
@example
@group
Menu Item       Command               Description
====================================================================
Add             rolo-add              Adds a rolodex entry
Display         rolo-display-matches  Displays last matches again
Edit            rolo-edit             Edits an existing rolodex entry
Info                                  Displays Rolodex manual entry
Kill            rolo-kill             Removes an entry from the rolodex
Mail            rolo-mail             Mail to address following point
Order           rolo-sort             Sorts all levels in rolodex
RegexFind       rolo-grep             Finds all entries containing
                                        a regular expression
StringFind      rolo-fgrep            Finds all entries containing
                                        a string
WordFind        rolo-word             Finds all entries containing
                                        a string of whole words
Yank            rolo-yank             Inserts first matching rolodex
                                        entry at point
====================================================================
@end group
@end example

A prefix argument used with either of the find commands listed above
limits the search to a maximum number of matches given by the argument.
The search is terminated whenever that number of matches is found.

For any of the above commands that prompt for a name, you may use the
form parent/child to locate a child entry below a parent entry.  So for
a rolodex which looked like so:

@example
@group
*    Company
**     Manager
***      Underlings
@end group
@end example

@noindent
You could edit the Underlings entry by identifying it as
Company/Manager/Underlings.  Do not use this hierarchical notation in
search expressions since the whole rolodex will be searched anyway.
Thus, "Underlings" as a search pattern will find an entry containing
"Underlings" at any level in a hierarchy, like so:

@example
***      Underlings
@end example

@node Rolo Keys, Rolo Settings, Rolo Menu, Rolodex
@section   Rolo Keys

@kindex e
@cindex rolodex, editing an entry
Use the @{@kbd{e}@} key to edit the entry at point within the rolodex
source file.

@cindex wrolo menu
@cindex rolodex keys
After a rolodex search is performed, point is left in the @dfn{rolodex
match buffer}, @file{*Rolodex*}, which uses @code{wrolo-mode} to
simplify browsing many rolodex matches.  Press @{@kbd{?}@} when in the
match buffer for a summary of available keys.

@kindex TAB
@kindex M-TAB
@kindex r
@cindex rolodex, highlighting matches
@cindex rolodex, finding matches
@cindex rolodex, moving through matches
If your Emacs version supports textual highlighting, each search match
is highlighted for quick, visual location.  @{@key{TAB}@} moves point
forward to successive spans of text which match the search expression.
@{@kbd{M-@key{TAB}}@} or @{@kbd{r}@} moves point backward to earlier
matches.  These keys allow you to quickly find the matching entry of
most interest to you if your search expression failed to narrow the
matches sufficiently.

@kindex M-s
@kindex C-r
@cindex rolodex, extending a match
@cindex rolodex, interactive searching
If you want to extend the match expression with some more characters to
find a particular entry, use @{@kbd{M-s}@}, which performs an
interactive search forward for the match expression.  You can add or
delete characters to this expression to find different occurences.
@{@kbd{C-r}@} will reverse the direction of the search.

@kindex a
@kindex h
@kindex s
@kindex t
@cindex rolodex, outlining
Single key outlining commands are also available for browsing matches.
If your search matches a large number of entries, use
@{@kbd{t}@} to get a top-level overview of all the entries.  Each entry
is collapsed so that only its first line shows.  Press @{@kbd{s}@} to
show (expand) the entry at point.  Use @{@kbd{h}@} to hide (collapse)
the entry again.  Press @{@kbd{a}@} to expand all entries in the buffer.

Many other keys are defined to help you move through matching entries.

@cindex rolodex, moving to entries
@table @kbd
@kindex b
@item b
Move to the previous entry at the same level as the current entry.
@kindex f
@item f
Move to the next entry at the same level as the current entry.
@kindex n
@item n
Move to the next entry at any level.
@kindex p
@item p
Move to the previous entry at any level.
@kindex u
@item u
Move to the previous entry one level up.
@kindex .
@kindex <
@item .
@itemx <
Move to the beginning of the buffer.
@kindex ,
@kindex >
@item ,
@itemx >
Move to the end of the buffer.
@kindex @key{DEL}
@item @key{DEL}
Scroll backward a windowful.
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item @key{SPC}
Scroll forward a windowful.
@end table

@kindex q
@cindex rolodex, quitting
Once you have found an entry of interest and you want to remove the
rolodex match buffer, use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit.  This will restore your
current frame to its state prior to the rolodex search.

@node Rolo Settings,  , Rolo Keys, Rolodex
@section   Rolo Settings

@vindex rolo-highlight-face
@cindex rolodex, highlighting matches
If textual highlighting is available in your Emacs on your current
display type, the rolodex uses the value of @var{rolo-highlight-face} as
the face to use to highlight search matches.

@vindex rolo-kill-buffers-after-use
The buffers containing the rolodex files are not killed after a search
on the assumption that another search is likely to follow within this
Emacs session.  You may wish to change this behavior with the following
setting: @code{(setq rolo-kill-buffers-after-use t)}.

@vindex rolo-save-buffers-after-use
After an entry is killed, the modified rolodex file is automatically
saved.  If you would rather always save files yourself, use this
setting: @code{(setq rolo-save-buffers-after-use nil)}.

@vindex rolo-email-format
When adding an entry from within a buffer containing a mail message, the
rolodex add function will extract the sender's name and e-mail address
and prompt you with the name as a default.  If you accept it, it will
enter the name and the email address using the format given by the
@var{rolo-email-format} variable.  See its documentation if you want to
change its value.

@vindex rolo-file-list
@cindex rolodex, personal
The files used in any rolodex search are given by the
@var{rolo-file-list} variable, whose default value is
@code{("~/.rolodex.otl")}, so that searches initially scan only your
personal rolodex.  Any entries added to this list should be file
pathnames.  If a file in the list does not exist or is not readable, it
is skipped.  Files are searched in the order in which they appear in the
list.  In general, you should leave your personal rolodex file as the
first entry in the list, since this is the only file to which the rolo
menu Add command adds entries.@refill

@vindex rolo-entry-regexp
The rolodex entry start delimiter is given by the regular expression
variable, @var{rolo-entry-regexp}, whose default value is "^\*+".

@vindex rolo-hdr-regexp
A rolodex file may begin with an optional header section which is copied
to the match display buffer whenever any matches are found during a
search.  The start and end lines of this header are controlled by
the regular expression variable, @var{rolo-hdr-regexp}, whose default
value is "^===".  This allows lines of all equal signs to visually
separate matching entries from multiple files retrieved from a single
search.

@node Window Configurations, Developing with Hyperbole, Rolodex, Top
@chapter Window Configurations

@cindex window configurations
@cindex restoring windows
@cindex saving window configurations
@vindex file, wconfig.el
Hyperbole includes the @file{wconfig.el} package which lets you save and
restore window configurations, i.e@. the window layout and buffers
displayed within an Emacs frame.  This is useful to save a particular
working context and then to jump back to it at a later time during an
Emacs session.  It is also useful during demonstrations to pull up many
informational artifacts all at once, e.g@. all of the windows for a
particular subsystem.  None of this information is stored between Emacs
sessions, so your window configurations will last only through a single
session of use.

The wconfig library provides two distinct means of managing window
configurations.  The first means associates a name with each stored
window configuration.  The name can then be used to retrieve the window
configuration later.  The second means uses a ring structure to save
window configurations and then allows browsing through the sequence of
saved configurations.

The Win/ menu entry on the Hyperbole top-level menu displays a menu of
window configuration commands:

@noindent
@display
WinConfig>  AddName  DeleteName  RestoreName  PopRing  SaveRing  YankRing
@end display

@cindex wconfig commands
@cindex window configuration commands
@example
@group
@findex wconfig-add-by-name
@findex wconfig-delete-by-name
@findex wconfig-restore-by-name
@findex wconfig-delete-pop
@findex wconfig-ring-save
@findex wconfig-yank-pop
Menu Item       Command                   Description
====================================================================
AddName         wconfig-add-by-name       Name current wconfig
DeleteName      wconfig-delete-by-name    Delete wconfig with name
RestoreName     wconfig-restore-by-name   Restore wconfig by name

PopRing         wconfig-delete-pop        Restore and delete wconfig
SaveRing        wconfig-ring-save         Store wconfig to ring
YankRing        wconfig-yank-pop          Restore next wconfig
====================================================================
@end group
@end example

Saving and restoring window configurations by name is the easiest
method, but it requires that you input the chosen name from the
keyboard.  The ring commands permit saving and restoring through mouse
interaction only, if so desired.  The prior section, @ref{Smart Keys},
mentions how to save and restore window configurations with the Smart Keys.
Since the ring commands are a bit more complex than their by-name
counterparts, the following paragraphs explain them in more detail.

@vindex kill-ring
Wconfig creates a ring structure that operates just like the Emacs
@var{kill-ring}, @ref{Kill Ring,,,emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}, but its
elements are window configurations rather than text regions.  One can
add an element to the ring based upon the current window configuration.
After several elements are in the ring, one can walk through all of them
in sequence until the desired configuration is restored.

@findex wconfig-ring-save
SaveRing executes the @code{wconfig-ring-save} command which
saves the current window configuration to the ring.

@findex wconfig-yank-pop
YankRing executes the @code{wconfig-yank-pop} command.  It restores the
window configuration from the currently pointed to configuration in the
ring.  It does not delete this configuration from the ring but it does
move the pointer to the prior ring element.  Repeated calls to this
command thus restore successive window configurations until the ring
pointer wraps around.  Simply stop when a desired configuration appears
and use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit from the minibuffer menu.

@findex wconfig-delete-pop
PopRing calls the @code{wconfig-delete-pop} command.
It is used to restore a previously saved configuration and at the same
time delete it from the ring.  Simply stop when a desired configuration
appears and use @{@kbd{q}@} to quit from the minibuffer menu.

@vindex wconfig-ring-max
The maximum number of elements the ring can hold is set by the
@var{wconfig-ring-max} variable whose default is 10.  Any saves beyond
this value cause deletion of the oldest element in the ring before
a new one is added.

@node Developing with Hyperbole, Glossary, Window Configurations, Top
@chapter Developing with Hyperbole

This chapter is only for people who are familiar with Emacs Lisp and
wish to customize Hyperbole, to extend it, or to develop other systems
using Hyperbole as a base.

@menu
* Hook Variables::
* Creating Types::
* Explicit Button Technicalities::
* Encapsulating Systems::
* Embedding Hyperbole::
@end menu

@node Hook Variables, Creating Types, Developing with Hyperbole, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Hook Variables

@cindex variables
@cindex hook variables
Hyperbole provides a number of hook variables that allow you to adjust
its basic operations to meet your own needs, without requiring you to
change the code for those operations.

We find it best to always set the value of hook variables either to nil
or to a list of function names of no arguments, each of which will be
called in sequence when the hook is triggered.

Given the name of a function, a Hyperbole hook variable triggered within
that function has the same name as the function with a @code{-hook}
appended.  Hyperbole provides the following hook variables:

@table @var

@vindex hyperb:init-hook
@item hyperb:init-hook
For customization at Hyperbole initialization time.  Use this to load
any personal Hyperbole type definitions you might have.  It is run after
Hyperbole support code is loaded but before Hyperbole session
initializations take place.

@vindex action:act-hook
@vindex hbut:current
@item action:act-hook
Run before each Hyperbole button activation.
The variable @var{hbut:current} contains the button to be activated when
this is run.

@vindex ebut:create-hook
@item ebut:create-hook
To add to the Hyperbole explicit button creation process.

@vindex ebut:delete-hook
@item ebut:delete-hook
To add to the Hyperbole explicit button deletion process.

@vindex ebut:modify-hook
@item ebut:modify-hook
Executed when an explicit button's attributes are modified.

@vindex hibtypes:begin-load-hook
@item hibtypes:begin-load-hook
Executed prior to loading of standard Hyperbole implicit button types.
Used to load site-specific low priority implicit button types since
lowest priority ibtypes are loaded first.

@vindex hibtypes:end-load-hook
@item hibtypes:end-load-hook
Executed after loading of standard Hyperbole implicit button types.
Used to load site-specific high priority implicit button types since
highest priority ibtypes are loaded last.

@vindex htype:create-hook
@item htype:create-hook
Executed when a Hyperbole type (e.g@. action type or implicit button
type) is added to the environment.

@vindex htype:delete-hook
@item htype:delete-hook
Executed when a type is deleted from the environment.

@vindex kotl-mode-hook
@item kotl-mode-hook
Executed when a Koutline is created or read in or when kotl-mode is
invoked.

@vindex wrolo-display-hook
@item wrolo-display-hook
Executed when rolodex matches are displayed.

@vindex wrolo-mode-hook
@item wrolo-mode-hook
Executed when a rolodex match buffer is created and put into wrolo-mode.

@vindex wrolo-yank-reformat-function
@cindex yank, reformatting
@item wrolo-yank-reformat-function
A variable whose value may be set to a function of two arguments, START
and END, indicating the region of the rolodex entry yanked into the
current buffer by the rolo-yank command.  The function may reformat this
region to meed user-specific needs.

@end table

@noindent
Hyperbole also makes use of a number of external Emacs hook variables.

@table @var

@vindex find-file-hooks
@cindex button highlighting
@item find-file-hooks
This is called whenever a file is read into a GNU Emacs buffer.
Hyperbole uses it to highlight any buttons within files when run under
any NEXTSTEP or X window system-based versions of GNU Emacs.

@vindex write-file-hooks
@cindex button data saving
@item write-file-hooks
This is called whenever a GNU Emacs buffer is written to a file.
Hyperbole uses it to save any modified button data associated with the
file's directory.

@cindex mail hooks
@cindex news hooks
Hyperbole mail and news facilities also utilize a number of external hook
variables.  These hide button data and highlight buttons if possible.
See the various support files for details.
@end table

@node Creating Types, Explicit Button Technicalities, Hook Variables, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Creating Types

@cindex type definition
@cindex type redefinition
@noindent
To define or redefine a single Hyperbole type, you may either:

@itemize @bullet
@kindex C-M-x
@findex eval-defun
@kindex C-x C-e
@findex eval-last-sexp
@item
move your Emacs point to within the type definition and use
@{@kbd{C-M-x}@} @code{(eval-defun)} (only works in Emacs Lisp mode);

@item
or move your point to the end of the last line of the type definition and
use @{@kbd{C-x C-e}@} @code{(eval-last-sexp)} (works in most modes).
@end itemize

@cindex Hyperbole types
@vindex class, htype
The functions from the @code{htype} class may be applied to any
Hyperbole types, if needed.

@vindex file, hactypes.el
@vindex file, hibtypes.el
The following subsections explain the specifics of Hyperbole type
definitions which are beyond standard practice for Emacs Lisp programming.
See the definitions of the standard types in @file{hactypes.el}
and @file{hibtypes.el} for examples.

@menu
* Action Type Creation::
* Implicit Button Types::
@end menu

@node Action Type Creation, Implicit Button Types, Creating Types, Creating Types
@subsection  Action Type Creation

@findex actype:create
@vindex file, hactypes.el
@vindex file, hbut.el
New forms of explicit buttons may be created by adding new action types
to a Hyperbole environment.  The file, @file{hactypes.el}, provides
many examples of working action types.

@cindex action type, creation
@findex defact
@findex actype:create
An action type is created, i.e@. loaded into the Hyperbole environment,
with the @code{(defact)} function (which is an alias for
@code{(actype:create)}).  The calling signature for this function is
given in its documentation; it is the same as that of @code{(defun)}
except that a documentation string is required.  (An interactive calling
form is also required if the action type has formal parameters and is to
be used in explicit button definitions.  Implicit buttons never use an
action type's interactive form.  It is good practice to include an
interactive form since the type creator cannot know how users may choose
to apply the type.)@refill

An action type's parameters are used differently than those of a
function being called.  Its interactive calling form is used when an
explicit button is created to prompt for type-specific button
attributes.  The rest of its body is used when a button with that action
type is activated.  Then the button attributes together with the action
type body are used to form an action that is executed in response to the
button activation.  The action's result is returned to the action caller
unless it returns nil, in which case t is returned to the caller to
ensure that it registers the performance of the action.

An action type body may perform any computation using Emacs Lisp and
Hyperbole functions.

@cindex interactive form
@findex interactive
The interactive calling form for an action type is of the same form as
that of a regular Emacs Lisp function definition (see the documentation
for the Emacs Lisp @code{(interactive)} form).  It may additionally use
Hyperbole command character extensions when the form is given as a
string.  Each such extension character @emph{must} be preceded by a plus
sign, @code{+}, in order to be recognized since such characters may also
have standard interactive form meanings.

The present Hyperbole extension characters are:

@table @strong
@cindex argument, Info node
@cindex interactive cmd char, +I
@item +I
Prompts for an existing Info node name and file.

@cindex argument, kcell
@cindex argument, koutline
@cindex interactive cmd char, +K
@item +K
Prompts for an existing kcell identifier, either a full outline level
identifier or a permanent idstamp.

@cindex interactive cmd char, +M
@cindex argument, mail message
@item +M
Prompts for a mail message date and the file name it resides in.
The mail parameters prompted for by this character code are likely to
change in the future.

@cindex argument, view spec
@cindex interactive cmd char, +V
@item +V
Prompts for a Hyperbole view specification.
Not yet available for use.

@end table

@vindex class, hargs
@cindex argument, reading
Arguments are read by the functions in Hyperbole's @code{hargs} class,
rather than the standard Lisp @code{read} functions, in order to allow
direct selection of arguments via the Action Key.

If an action type create is successful, the symbol that Hyperbole uses
internally to reference the type is returned.  @code{Nil} is returned on
failure so that you may test whether or not the operation succeeds.

Once you have defined an action type within your present Hyperbole
environment, you can create new explicit buttons which use it.  There is
no explicit button type beyond its action type, so no further work is
necessary.

@findex actype:delete
Call @code{(actype:delete)} to remove an action type from a Hyperbole
environment.  It takes a single parameter which should be the same type
symbol used in the type definition call (not the Hyperbole symbol
returned by the call).

@node Implicit Button Types,  , Action Type Creation, Creating Types
@subsection  Implicit Button Types

@cindex implicit button type
@cindex ibtype
@findex defib
@findex ibtype:create
An implicit button type is created or loaded via the @code{(defib)}
function (which is an alias for @code{(ibtype:create)}).  The calling
signature for this function is given in its documentation; it is the
same as that of @code{(defun)}, but with a number of constraints.  The
parameter list should always be empty since no parameters will be used.
A documentation string is required.  The type's body follows this.

@cindex ibtype, predicate
@cindex ibtype, argument
@cindex ibtype, return val
@cindex ibtype, actype
The body of an implicit button type is a predicate which determines
whether or not point is within an implicit button of the type.  If not,
the predicate returns @code{nil}.  If so, it may optionally setup to
flash the button and then perform one or more actions.  A call of the
form: @code{(ibut:label-set label start-pos end-pos)} is used to setup
the button flashing, if desired.  This is then typically immediately
followed by an action invocation of the form:
@code{(hact 'actype &rest actype-arguments)}.  It is imperative that all
actions (non-predicate code) be invoked through the @code{(hact)}
function rather than directly or your ibtypes will not work properly.
(Hyperbole first tests to see if any ibtype matches the current context
before activating any type, so it ensures that @code{(hact)} calls are
disabled during this testing.)  Any action types used may be created
before or after the implicit button type definition but obviously should
be defined before any implicit buttons of the given type are activated;
an error will result, otherwise.

If an implicit button type create is successful, the symbol that
Hyperbole uses internally to reference the type is returned.  @code{Nil}
is returned on failure so that you may test whether or not the operation
succeeds.  Implicit button type names and action type names may be the
same without any conflict.  In fact, such naming is encouraged when an
implicit button type is the exclusive user of an action type.

@findex ibtype:delete
Call @code{(ibtype:delete)} to remove an implicit button type from a
Hyperbole environment.  It takes a single parameter which should be the
same type symbol used in the type definition call (not the Hyperbole
symbol returned by the call).  This will not delete the action type used
by the implicit button; that must be done separately.

@cindex ibtype, help
@findex ibut:at-p
@vindex class, hattr
@vindex class, hbut
@vindex file, hib-kbd.el
By default, a request for help on an implicit button will display the
button's attributes in the same manner as is done for explicit buttons.
For some implicit button types, other forms of help will be more
appropriate.  If an Emacs Lisp function is defined whose name is formed
from the concatenation of the type name followed by @code{:help}, e.g@.
@code{my-ibtype:help}, it is used to respond to requests for
help on buttons of that type.  Any such function should take a single
argument of an implicit button construct.  (This is what
@code{(ibut:at-p)} returns when point is within an implicit button
context.)  The button may be queried for its attributes using functions
from the @code{hbut} and @code{hattr} classes.  See the @file{hib-kbd.el}
file for an example of a custom help function.

@node Explicit Button Technicalities, Encapsulating Systems, Creating Types, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Explicit Button Technicalities
@menu
* Button Label Normalization::
* Operational and Storage Formats::
* Programmatic Button Creation::
@end menu

@node Button Label Normalization, Operational and Storage Formats, Explicit Button Technicalities, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Button Label Normalization
@cindex normalized label
@cindex button label
@cindex button key
@vindex hbut:label-to-key
Hyperbole uses a normalized form of button labels called button keys (or
label keys) for all internal operations.  See the documentation for the
function @code{(hbut:label-to-key)} for details of the normalization
process.  The normalized form permits Hyperbole to recognize buttons that
are the same but whose labels appear different from one another, due to
text formatting conventions.  For example, all of the following would
be recognized as the same button.

@example
  <(fake button)>     <( fake      button)>

  Pam>  <(fake
  Pam>    button)>

  ;; <(fake
  ;;   button)>

  /* <( fake      */
  /*    button )> */
@end example

@vindex hbut:fill-prefix-regexps
@vindex fill-prefix
@cindex fill prefix
@cindex button, multiple lines
@cindex button, split across lines
The last three examples demonstrate how Hyperbole ignores common fill
prefix patterns that happen to fall within the middle of a button label
that spans multiple lines.  As long as such buttons are selected with
point at a location within the label's first line, the button will be
recognized.  The variable @var{hbut:fill-prefix-regexps} holds the list
of fill prefixes recognized when embedded within button labels.  All
such prefixes are recognized (one per button label), regardless of the
setting of the GNU Emacs variable, @var{fill-prefix}, so no user
intervention is required.

@node Operational and Storage Formats, Programmatic Button Creation, Button Label Normalization, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Operational and Storage Formats

@cindex explicit button, formats
@cindex explicit button, storage
@cindex storage manager
@cindex button attributes
@vindex hbut:current
Hyperbole uses a terse format to store explicit buttons and a more
meaningful one to show users and to manipulate during editing.  The
terse format consists solely of button attribute values whereas the edit
format includes an attribute name with each attribute value.  A button
in edit format consists of a Lisp symbol together with its attribute list
which holds the attribute names and values.  In this way, buttons may be
passed along from function to function simply by passing the symbol to
which the button is attached.  Most functions utilize the pre-defined
@var{hbut:current} symbol by default to store and retrieve the last
encountered button in edit format.

@vindex class, hbdata
@vindex class, ebut
@vindex class, hbut
The @code{hbdata} class handles the terse, stored format.  The
@code{hbut}, @code{ebut}, and @code{ibut} classes work with the
name/value format.  This separation permits the wholesale replacement of
the storage manager with another, with any interface changes hidden from
any Hyperbole client programming.

@node Programmatic Button Creation,  , Operational and Storage Formats, Explicit Button Technicalities
@subsection  Programmatic Button Creation

@cindex explicit button, creation
A common need when developing with Hyperbole is the ability to create or
modify explicit buttons without user interaction.  For example, an
application might require the addition of an explicit summary button to
a file for each new mail message a user reads that contains a set of
keywords.  The user could then check the summary file and jump to
desired messages quickly.

@vindex class, ebut
@vindex file, hbut.el
@findex ebut:create
@findex ebut:map
The Hyperbole class @code{ebut} supports programmatic access to explicit
buttons.  See it within the @file{hbut.el} file for full details.  The
documentation for @code{(ebut:create)} explains the set of attributes
settings necessary to create an explicit button.  For operations over
the whole set of buttons within the visible (non-narrowed) portion of a
buffer, use the @code{(ebut:map)} function.

@page
@node Encapsulating Systems, Embedding Hyperbole, Explicit Button Technicalities, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Encapsulating Systems

@vindex file, hsys-*
@cindex Hyperbole, system encapsulation
@cindex system encapsulation
A powerful use of implicit button types is to provide a Hyperbole-based
interface to external systems.  The basic idea is to interpret patterns
output by the application as implicit buttons.

See the @file{hsys-*} files for examples of how to do this.
Encapsulations are provided for the following systems (the systems
themselves are not included with Hyperbole):

@table @bullet
@item World-Wide Web
The world-wide web system originally developed at CERN, that now spans
the Internet universe.  This is automatically loaded by Hyperbole so
that a press of the Action Key follows a URL.

@item WAIS
The Wide Area Information Systems full text-retrieval system orginally
developed at Thinking Machines and then later at WAIS Inc.

@item HyperBase
A hypertextual storage manager that stores textual nodes as records with
locking so that multiple users can read and edit hypertexts.
@end table


@node Embedding Hyperbole,  , Encapsulating Systems, Developing with Hyperbole
@section   Embedding Hyperbole

[NOTE: We have never done this ourselves, though we have done similar
things which leads us to infer that the task should not be difficult.]

@cindex Hyperbole API
@cindex API
@cindex programming interface
@cindex Hyperbole, embedding
The standard Emacs-based Hyperbole user interface has purposely been
separated from the Hyperbole backend to support the development of
alternative interfaces and the embedding of Hyperbole functionality
within other system prototypes.  The Hyperbole backend functionality
that system developers can make use of is called its Application
Programming Interface (API).  The API may be used to make server-based
calls to Hyperbole when Emacs is run as a non-interactive (batch)
process, with its input/output streams attached to another process.

The public functions and variables from the following files may be
considered the present Hyperbole API:

@noindent
@file{hact.el}, @file{hargs.el}, @file{hbmap.el}, @file{hbut.el},
@file{hhist.el}, @file{hmail.el}, @file{hmoccur.el}, @file{hpath.el},
@file{htz.el}, @file{hypb.el}, @file{set.el}, @file{wconfig.el},
@file{wrolo.el}, and @file{wrolo-logic.el}.@refill

@noindent
Note when looking at these files, that they are divided into sections
that separate one data abstraction (class) from another.  A line of
dashes within a class separates public parts of the class from the
private parts that follow the line.

This API does not include the Hyperbole outliner, as it has been
designed for interactive use, rather than programmatic extensibility.
You can certainly study its code, below the @file{hyperbole/kotl/}
directory and learn to program it, however.


@node Glossary, Smart Key Reference, Developing with Hyperbole, Top
@appendix Glossary

Concepts pertinent to operational usage of Hyperbole are defined here.
If some GNU Emacs terms are unfamiliar to you, @ref{Glossary, Emacs
Glossary,, emacs, the GNU Emacs Manual}.

@table @code

@cindex action
@item action
An executable behavior associated with a Hyperbole button.  A specific
class of actions which display entities are called @emph{links},
such as a link to a file.

@cindex Action Key
@item Action Key
See @emph{Smart Key}.

@cindex action type
@item action type
A behavioral specification for use within Hyperbole buttons.  Action
types usually contain a set of parameters which must be given values for
each button with which they are associated.  An action type together
with a set of values, called arguments, may be considered an @emph{action}.
@emph{Actype} is a synonym for action type.

@cindex activation
@item activation
Request for a Hyperbole button to perform its action.
Ordinarily the user presses a key which selects and activates a button.

@cindex ange-ftp
@cindex ftp
@item ange-ftp
A standard GNU Emacs Lisp package which allows one to use pathnames
that are accessible via the Internet File Transfer Protocol (ftp) just
like other pathnames, for example when finding a file.  The
latest version of ange-ftp may always be obtained via anonymous ftp to:
@file{/ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu:ange-ftp/ange-ftp.tar.gz}.

@cindex argument
@item argument
A button-specific value fed to a Hyperbole type specification when the
button is activated.

@cindex Assist Key
@item Assist Key
See @emph{Smart Key}.

@cindex attributes
@item attributes
Slot names associated with Hyperbole buttons.  An @emph{attribute value}
is associated with each button attribute.

@cindex Augment
@cindex NLS
@cindex hypertext
@cindex interactive computing
@cindex mouse
@cindex windows
@cindex hypertext
@cindex outline processor
@cindex groupware
@cindex digital signature
@cindex Engelbart
@item Augment
The Augment system, originally named NLS, was a pioneering research and
production system aimed at augmenting human intellect and group
knowledge processing capabilities through integrated tools and
organizational development strategies.  This approach led to the
invention of much of interactive computing technology decades ahead of
other efforts, including: the mouse, screen windows, true hypertext,
outline processors, groupware, and digitally signed documents.
@xref{References}, which cites several Douglas Engelbart papers on the
subject.  The Koutliner concept emerged from studies of publicly
available information concerning Augment.

@cindex button
@item button
A selectable Hyperbole construct which performs an action.  A button
consists of a set of attributes that includes: a textual label, a
category, a type and zero or more arguments.  @emph{Explicit buttons}
also have creator, create time, last modifier, and last modifier time
attributes.

Buttons provide the user's gateway to information.  The user sees and
interacts with button labels, the rest of the button data is managed
invisibly by Hyperbole and displayed only in response to user queries.

@cindex button activation
@item button activation
See @emph{activation}.

@cindex button attributes
@item button attributes
See @emph{attributes}.

@cindex button data
@item button data
Lists of button attribute values explicitly saved and managed by Hyperbole.
One list for each button created by Hyperbole.

@cindex button file, local
@item button file, local
A per-directory file named @file{HYPB} that may be used to store any
desired buttons and may then be displayed via a menu selection whenever
a user is within that directory.

@cindex button file, personal
@item button file, personal
A per-user file named @file{HYPB} that may be used to store any desired
buttons and may then be displayed via a menu selection.

@cindex button key
@item button key
A normalized form of a @emph{button label} used internally by Hyperbole.

@cindex button label
@item button label
A text string that visually indicates a Hyperbole button location and
provides it with a name and unique identifier.  Within a buffer, buttons
with the same label are considered separate views of the same button and
so behave exactly alike.  Since button labels are simply text strings,
they may be embedded within any text to provide non-linear information
or operational access points.

The maximum length of a button label is limited by the variable
@var{ebut:max-len}.

@cindex button selection
@item button selection
The act of designating a Hyperbole button upon which to operate.
Use the Action Key to select a button.

@cindex category
@item category
A high-level, conceptual grouping of Hyperbole buttons into classes.
@emph{Implicit} and @emph{explicit} groupings represent categories.

@cindex cell
@item cell
See @emph{kcell}.

@cindex children
@item children
The set of koutline cells which share a common parent cell and are one
level deeper than the parent.

@cindex class
@item class
A group of functions and variables with the same prefix in their names,
used to provide an interface to an internal or external Hyperbole
abstraction.

@cindex context
@item context
A programmatic or positional state recognized by Hyperbole.
We speak of Smart Key and implicit button contexts.  Both are typically
defined in terms of surrounding patterns within a buffer, but may be
defined by arbitrary Emacs Lisp predicates.  (Context may come to have a
broader meaning within future versions of Hyperbole.)

@cindex environment
@item environment
See @emph{Hyperbole environment}.

@cindex efs
@item efs
The much larger successor to ange-ftp.  It does the same thing as
ange-ftp but works with more types of ftp hosts.  See @emph{ange-ftp}.

@cindex explicit button
@item explicit button
A button created and managed by Hyperbole.  By default, explicit buttons
are delimited like this @code{<(fake button)>}.  Direct selection is
used to operate upon an explicit button.

@cindex global button
@item global button
@vindex gbut:file
A form of explicit button which is typically accessed by name rather
than direct selection.  Global buttons are useful when one wants
quick access to actions such as jumping to common file locations or for
performing sequences of operations.  One need not locate them since they
are always available by name, with full completion offered.  All global
buttons are stored in the file given by the variable @var{gbut:file} and
may be activated as regular explicit buttons by visiting this file.  By
default, this is the same as the user's personal button file.

@cindex global button file
@item global button file
See @emph{button file, personal}.

@findex run-hooks
@cindex hook variable
@item hook variable
A variable that permits customization of an existing function's
operation without the need to edit the function's code.  See also the
documentation for the function @code{(run-hooks)}.

@cindex Hyperbole
@item Hyperbole
A flexible, programmable information management and viewing system built
on top of GNU Emacs.  It utilizes a button-action model and supports
hypertextual linkages.  Hyperbole is all things to all people.

@cindex Hyperbole environment
@item Hyperbole environment
A programmatic context within which Hyperbole operates.  This includes
the set of Hyperbole types defined and the set of Hyperbole code modules
loaded.  It does not include the set of accessible buttons.
Although the entire Emacs environment is available to Hyperbole, we do
not speak of this as part of the Hyperbole environment.

@cindex hypertext
@item hypertext
A text or group of texts which may be explored in a non-linear fashion
through associative linkages embedded throughout the text.  Instead of
simply referring to other pieces of work, hypertext references when
followed actually take you to the works themselves.

@cindex implicit button
@item implicit button
A button recognized contextually by Hyperbole.  Such buttons contain no
button data.  See also @emph{implicit button type}.

@cindex implicit button type
@item implicit button type
A specification of how to recognize and activate implicit buttons of a
specific kind.  Implicit button types often utilize structure internal
to documents created and managed without Hyperbole assistance, for
example, programming documentation.  @emph{Ibtype} is a synonym for
implicit button type.  See also @emph{system encapsulation}.

@cindex instance number
@item instance number
A colon prefaced number appended to the label of a newly created button
when the button's label duplicates the label of an existing button in
the current buffer.  This number makes the label unique and so allows
any number of buttons with the same base label within a single buffer.

@cindex koutline
@item koutline
A hierarchically ordered grouping of cells which may be stored as a file
and viewed and edited as an outline.

@cindex Koutliner
@item Koutliner
Koutliner, the Hyperbole outliner, is a powerful autonumbering outliner
with permanent hypertext anchors for easy hyperlinking and view
specs for rapid outline view alteration.  

@cindex kcell
@item kcell
Cells or kcells are elements within koutlines.  Each cell contains
textual and graphical contents, a relative identifier, a permanent
identifier and a set of attributes such as the user who created the cell
and the time of creation.  See also @emph{Koutliner}.

@cindex link
@item link
A reference from a Hyperbole button to an entity.  The referenced entity
is sometimes called a @emph{node} or @emph{referent}.
A specific class of actions which display entities are called
@emph{links}, such as a link to a file.

@cindex local button file
@item local button file
See @emph{button file, local}.

@cindex minibuffer window
@item minibuffer window
The one line window at the bottom of a frame where messages and prompts
are displayed.

@cindex minibuffer menu
@item minibuffer menu
A Hyperbole menu displayed in the minibuffer window.  Each menu item
within a minibuffer menu begins with a different letter that can be used
to invoke the item (case doesn't matter).  Items that display other
menus end with a forward slash, /.

@cindex mouse button
@item mouse button
@item mouse key
See @emph{Smart Key}.

@cindex node
@item node
See @emph{link} or @emph{cell}.

@cindex outline
@item outline
See @emph{koutline}.

@cindex parent
@item parent
Any koutline cell which has children.

@cindex predecessor
@item predecessor
The previous same level koutline cell with the same parent.

@cindex predicate
@item predicate
A boolean (nil = false, non-nil = true) Lisp expression typically
evaluated as part of a conditional expression.

@cindex referent
@item referent
See @emph{link}.

@cindex rolodex
@item rolodex
Wrolo, the Hyperbole rolodex, provides rapid lookup of multi-line,
hierarchically ordered free form text records.

@cindex root cell
@item root cell
A koutline cell which has cells below it.  All such cells share the same
root cell.

@cindex Smart Key
@vindex smart-scroll-proportional
@cindex proportional scrolling
@cindex scrolling
@item Smart Key
A context-sensitive key used within Hyperbole and beyond.  Actually,
there are two Smart Keys, the Action Key and the Assist Key.  The
Action Key, typically bound to the shift-middle mouse key (or shift-left
mouse key on a 2-button mouse), activates Hyperbole buttons and scrolls
the current buffer line to the top of the window when pressed at the end
of a line.  The Assist Key, typically bound to the shift-right mouse
key, explains what a Hyperbole button does or scrolls the current line
to the bottom of the window when pressed at the end of a line.  (See the
documentation for the variable, @var{smart-scroll-proportional}, for
information on how to make these keys scroll forward and backward a
windowful at a time).

To see what a Smart Key will do within a particular context, depress and
hold the key at the point desired and depress the other Smart Key.  A
buffer containing a description of its contextual function will then be
displayed.  You may release the two keys in any order after you have
them both depressed.  A press of the Assist Key in an unsupported
context displays a summary of Smart Key functions in each context, as
does the Doc/SmartKy menu item.

@cindex source buffer
@cindex source file
@item source buffer / file
The buffer or file within which a Hyperbole button is embedded.

@cindex subtree
@item subtree
All of the cells in a koutline which share the same root cell, excluding
the root cell.

@cindex successor
@item successor
The next same level koutline cell with the same parent.

@cindex system encapsulation
@item system encapsulation
Use of Hyperbole to provide an improved or simply consistent user
interface to another system.  Typically, implicit button types are
defined to recognize and activate button-type constructs managed by the
other system.

@cindex tree
@item tree
The set of cells in a koutline that share a common root cell, including
the root cell.

@cindex view
@item view
A perspective on some information.  A view can affect the extent of the
information displayed, its format, modes used to operate on it, its
display location and so forth.

@cindex view spec
@item view spec
A terse (and to the uninitiated, cryptic) string that specifies a
particular view of koutline or a link referent.  If a view spec is in
use in a buffer, the view spec appears in the modeline delimited by
<|view spec>.

@end table

@node Smart Key Reference, Outliner Keys, Glossary, Top
@appendix Smart Key Reference

This appendix supplies complete documentation on Smart Key operation.  It is
quite extensive and is meant for reference rather than sequential reading.
@xref{Smart Keys}, for a description of the Smart Keys.  That section also
describes how to get context-sensitive Smart Key help, with which you can
explore Smart Key operation bit by bit.

Smart Key operations are context-sensitive.  Contexts are described herein as
conditionals, e.g@. when depressed here, if this is true, etc.  Each Smart
Key context is listed in the order in which it will be checked.  The first
matching context is always the one applied.  Within each context, the
actions performed by the Action and Assist Keys are listed.

@menu
* Smart Mouse Keys::
* Smart Keyboard Keys::
@end menu

@node Smart Mouse Keys, Smart Keyboard Keys, Smart Key Reference, Smart Key Reference
@section   Smart Mouse Keys

@cindex Smart Mouse Keys
Smart Key drags and modeline presses can only be used when running under
a window system with mouse key support.  So keep in mind that the
operations in this section apply only if you have mouse support within
Hyperbole.  The Smart Key operations in, @ref{Smart Keyboard Keys},
apply to both mouse and keyboard Smart Key usage.

@cindex drag, side edge
@cindex side drag
@format
@group
If dragged from a side-by-side window edge or from the immediate left of
a vertical scroll bar:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Resizes adjacent window sides to the point of drag release.
@end group
@end format

@cindex drag, between windows
@format
@group
If dragged from inside one window to another:
  ACTION
     Creates a new link button at the drag start location, linked to the
     drag end location.  If drag start position is within a button,
     modifies the button to link to drag end location.
  ASSIST
     Swaps buffers in the two windows.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex drag, horizontal
@cindex horizontal drag
@format
@group
If dragged horizontally within a single window while depressed
(hmouse-x-drag-sensitivity sets the minimal horizontal movement which
registers a drag):
  ACTION
     Goes to buffer end if drag was to the right, otherwise goes to beginning.
  ASSIST
     Splits window vertically if drag was to the right, otherwise deletes
     window.
@end group
@end format

@cindex depress, modeline
@cindex modeline depress
@format
@group
If depressed within a window mode line:
  ACTION
     (1) clicked on left edge of a window's modeline,
         window's buffer is buried (placed at bottom of buffer list);
     (2) clicked on right edge of a window's modeline,
         the Info buffer is displayed, or if already displayed and the
         modeline clicked belongs to a window displaying Info, the Info
         buffer is hidden;
     (3) clicked anywhere in the middle of a window's modeline,
	 the functions listed in 'assist-key-modeline-hook' are
         called;
     (4) dragged vertically from modeline to within a window,
         the modeline is moved to point of key release, thereby resizing
         its window and potentially its vertical neighbors.
  ASSIST
     (1) clicked on left edge of a window's modeline,
         bottom buffer in buffer list is unburied and placed in window;
     (2) clicked on right edge of a window's modeline,
         the summary of Smart Key behavior is displayed, or if already
         displayed and the modeline clicked belongs to a window displaying
         the summary, the summary buffer is hidden;
     (3) clicked anywhere in the middle of a window's modeline,
         a popup menu (if available) is displayed;
     (4) dragged vertically from modeline to within a window,
         the modeline is moved to point of key release, thereby resizing
         its window and potentially its vertical neighbors.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex drag, vertical
@cindex vertical drag
@format
@group
If dragged vertically within a single window while depressed
(hmouse-y-drag-sensitivity sets the minimal vertical movement which
registers a drag):
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Splits current window into two side-by-side windows.
@end group
@end format

@cindex drag, diagonal
@cindex diagonal drag
@format
@group
If dragged diagonally within a single window while depressed
(hmouse-x-diagonal-sensitivity and hmouse-y-diagonal-sensitivity set the
minimal diagonal movement which registers a drag):
  ACTION
     Save current window configuration onto a ring of window configurations.
  ASSIST
     Restores prior window configuration from ring.  A prefix argument N
     specifies the Nth prior configuration from the ring.
@end group
@end format

@page

@node Smart Keyboard Keys,  , Smart Mouse Keys, Smart Key Reference
@section   Smart Keyboard Keys

@cindex Smart Keyboard Keys
@format
@group
When prompting for a Hyperbole argument, a press in the minibuffer:
  ACTION
     Terminates this minibuffer argument.
  ASSIST
     Offers completion help for current minibuffer argument.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When reading a Hyperbole menu item or a Hyperbole completion-based argument:
  ACTION
     Returns value selected at point if any, else nil.  If
     value is the same as the contents of the minibuffer, it is used as the
     current minibuffer argument, otherwise, the minibuffer is erased and
     value is inserted there.

  ASSIST
     Displays Hyperbole menu item help when item is selected.
@end group
@end format

@vindex smart-scroll-proportional
@cindex proportional scrolling
@cindex scrolling
@cindex click, end of line
@cindex end of line click
@format
@group
When pressed at the end of a line but not the end of a buffer:
  ACTION
     Scrolls up according to value of smart-scroll-proportional.  If
     smart-scroll-proportional is nil or if point is on the top
     window line, scrolls up (forward) a windowful.  Otherwise, tries to
     bring current line to top of window.  Leaves point at end of line and
     returns t if scrolled, nil if not.
  ASSIST
     Scrolls down according to value of smart-scroll-proportional.  If
     smart-scroll-proportional is nil or if point is on the
     bottom window line, scrolls down (backward) a windowful.  Otherwise,
     tries to bring current line to bottom of window.  Leaves point at end of
     line and returns t if scrolled, nil if not.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, button
@cindex button click
@format
@group
When pressed on a Hyperbole button:
  ACTION
     Activates button.
  ASSIST
     Displays help for button, typically a summary of its attributes.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If pressed within a buffer in View major or minor mode:
  ACTION
     Scrolls buffer forward a windowful and quits from view mode when at
     the last line of the buffer.
  ASSIST
     Scrolls buffer backward a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within a Hyperbole outliner buffer (kotl-mode):
  ACTION
     (1) at the end of buffer, uncollapse and unhide all cells in view;
     (2) within a cell, if its subtree is hidden then show it,
         otherwise hide it;
     (3) between cells or within the read-only indentation region to the
         left of a cell, then move point to prior location and begin
	 creation of a klink to some other outline cell; hit the Action
	 Key twice to select the link referent cell;
     (4) anywhere else, scroll up a windowful.
  ASSIST
     (1) at the end of buffer, collapse all cells and hide all non-level-one
         cells;
     (2) on a header line but not at the beginning or end, display
         properties of each cell in kotl beginning at point;
     (3) between cells or within the read-only indentation region to the
         left of a cell, then move point to prior location and prompt to
         move one tree to a new location in the outline; hit the Action
         Key twice to select the tree to move and where to move it;
     (4) anywhere else, scroll down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed on a Smart Menu item:
  ACTION
    Activates item.
  ASSIST
    Displays help for item.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed at the end of a Help buffer:
  ACTION or ASSIST
    Restores window configuration prior to help display.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within an OO-Browser listing window:
  ACTION
     (1) in a blank buffer or at the end of a buffer, browser help
         information is displayed in the viewer window;
     (2) at the beginning of a (non-single char) class name, the class'
         ancestors are listed;
     (3) at the end of an entry line, scrolls listing up;
     (4) on the '...', following a class name, point is moved to the class
         descendency expansion;
     (5) before an element name, the implementor classes of the name are
         listed;
     (6) anywhere else on an entry line, the source is displayed for editing.
  ASSIST
     (1) in a blank buffer, a selection list of buffer files is displayed;
     (2) at the beginning of a (non-single char) entry, the class'
         descendants are listed;
     (3) at the end of an entry line, scrolls listing down;
     (4) on the '...', following a class name, point is moved to the class
         expansion;
     (5) anywhere else on a class entry line, lists the class' elements;
     (6) anywhere else on an element line, lists the element's implementor
         classes;
     (7) on a blank line following all entries, the current listing buffer
         is exited.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within an OO-Browser Command Help Menu buffer:
  ACTION
     Executes an OO-Browser command whose key binding is at point.
  ASSIST
     Displays help for an OO-Browser command whose key binding is at point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed on an identifier within an OO-Browser source file:
  ACTION
     Tries to display identifier definition.
  ASSIST
     Not applicable.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a C source code file:
  ACTION
     Jumps to the definition of selected C construct:
     (1) on a '#include' statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory lists
         'smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and 'smart-c-include-dirs'.
     (2) on a C identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an 'etags' generated tag file
         in the current directory or any of its ancestor directories.
     (3) if 'smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil, the C identifier is
         recognized as a library symbol, and a man page is found for the
         identifier, then the man page is displayed.
  ASSIST
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within an assembly source code file:
  ACTION
     Jumps to the definition of selected assembly construct:
     (1) on an include statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory list
         'smart-asm-include-dirs'.
     (2) on an identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an 'etags' generated
	 tag file in the current directory or any of its ancestor
	 directories.
  ASSIST
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a C++ source code file:
  ACTION
     Jumps to the definition of selected C+ construct:
     (1) on a '#include' statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory lists
         'smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and 'smart-c-include-dirs'.
     (2) on a C++ identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an 'etags' generated tag file
         in the current directory or any of its ancestor directories.
     (3) if 'smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil, the C++ identifier is
         recognized as a library symbol, and a man page is found for the
         identifier, then the man page is displayed.
  ASSIST
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within a Objective-C source code file:
  ACTION
     Jumps to the definition of selected C+ construct:
     (1) on a '#include' statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory lists
         'smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and 'smart-c-include-dirs'.
     (2) on an Objective-C identifier, the identifier definition is displayed,
         assuming the identifier is found within an 'etags' generated tag file
         in the current directory or any of its ancestor directories.
     (3) if 'smart-c-use-lib-man' is non-nil, the Objective-C identifier is
         recognized as a library symbol, and a man page is found for the
         identifier, then the man page is displayed.
  ASSIST
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed on a Lisp symbol within a Lisp code buffer:
  ACTION
     Jumps to the definition of any selected Lisp construct.
     If on an Emacs Lisp require, load, or autoload clause and 'find-library'
     from load-library package by Hallvard Furuseth <hallvard@@ifi.uio.no> has
     been loaded, jumps to library source, if possible.
  ASSIST
     Jumps to the next tag matching an identifier at point or if using the
     "wtags" package and identifier is an Emacs Lisp symbol, then displays
     documentation for the symbol.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When the OO-Browser has been loaded and the press is within a C++ buffer:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Jumps to the definition of selected C++ construct via OO-Browser support.
     (1) on a '#include' statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory lists
         'smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and 'smart-c-include-dirs'.
     (2) within a method declaration, its definition is displayed;
     (3) on a class name, the class definition is shown.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When the OO-Browser has been loaded and the press is within a
Objective-C buffer:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Jumps to the definition of selected Objective-C construct via
     OO-Browser support.
     (1) on a '#include' statement, the include file is displayed;
         Look for include file in directory lists
         'smart-c-cpp-include-dirs' and 'smart-c-include-dirs'.
     (2) within a method declaration, its definition is displayed;
     (3) on a class name, the class definition is shown.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within an occur-mode or moccur-mode buffer:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Jumps to the source buffer and line of the current occurrence.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
When pressed within a calendar-mode buffer:
  ACTION
     (1) at the end of the buffer, the calendar is scrolled forward 3 months;
     (2) to the left of any dates on a calendar line, the calendar is scrolled
         backward 3 months;
     (3) on a date, the diary entries for the date, if any, are displayed.
  ASSIST
     (1) at the end of the buffer, the calendar is scrolled backward 3 months;
     (2) to the left of any dates on a calendar line, the calendar is scrolled
         forward 3 months;
     (3) anywhere else, all dates with marking diary entries are marked in the
         calendar window.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
When pressed within a man page apropos buffer:
  ACTION
     (1) on a UNIX man apropos entry, the man page for that entry is
         displayed in another window;
     (2) on or after the last line, the buffer in the other window is
         scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST
     (1) on a UNIX man apropos entry, the man page for that entry is
         displayed in another window;
     (2) on or after the last line, the buffer in the other window is
         scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If Smart Menu package has been loaded and 'hkey-always-display-menu' is
non-nil:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Pops up a window with a Smart Menu of commands.
     Menu displayed is selected by (smart-menu-choose-menu).
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
If pressed within an outline-mode buffer or when 'selective-display' is
non-nil:
  ACTION
     Collapses, expands, and moves outline entries.
     (1) after an outline heading has been cut via the Action Key, then paste
         the cut heading at point;
     (2) at the end of buffer, show all buffer text
     (3) at the beginning of a heading line, cut the headings subtree from the
         buffer;
     (4) on a header line but not at the beginning or end, if headings
         subtree is hidden then show it, otherwise hide it;
     (5) anywhere else, scroll up a windowful.
  ASSIST
     (1) after an outline heading has been cut via the Action Key, allow
         multiple pastes throughout the buffer (last paste should be done
         with the Action Key, not the Assist Key);
     (2) at the end of buffer, hide all bodies in buffer;
     (3) at the beginning of a heading line, cut the current heading (sans
         subtree) from the buffer;
     (4) on a header line but not at the beginning or end, if heading body is
         hidden then show it, otherwise hide it;
     (5) anywhere else, scroll down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, Info
@cindex Info browsing
@format
@group
If pressed within an Info manual node:
  ACTION
     (1) the first line of an Info Menu Entry or Cross Reference, the desired
         node is found;
     (2) the Up,Next,or Previous entries of a Node Header (first line),
         the desired node is found;
     (3) the File entry of a Node Header (first line),
         the 'Top' node within that file is found;
     (4) at the end of the current node, the Next node is found (this will
         descend subtrees if the function 'Info-global-next' is bound);
     (5) anywhere else (e.g@. at the end of a line), the current node entry is
         scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST
     (1) the first line of an Info Menu Entry or Cross Reference, the desired
         node is found;
     (2) the Up,Next,or Previous entries of a Node Header (first line),
         the last node in the history list is found;
     (3) the File entry of a Node Header (first line),
         the 'DIR' root-level node is found;
     (4) at the end of the current node, the Previous node is found (this will
         return from subtrees if the function 'Info-global-prev is bound);
     (5) anywhere else (e.g@. at the end of a line), the current node entry is
         scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
If pressed within a Hyperbole-supported mail reader, 'hmail:reader', or mail
summary mode, 'hmail:lister', buffer at:
  ACTION
     (1) a msg buffer, within the first line or at the end of a message,
         the next undeleted message is displayed;
     (2) a msg buffer within the first line of an Info cross reference, the
         reference is followed;
     (3) anywhere else in a msg buffer, the window is scrolled up one
	 windowful;
     (4) a msg summary buffer on a header entry, the message corresponding to
         the header is displayed in the msg window;
     (5) a msg summary buffer, on or after the last line, the messages marked
         for deletion are expunged.
  ASSIST
     (1) a msg buffer, within the first line or at the end of a message,
         the previous undeleted message is displayed;
     (2) a msg buffer within the first line of an Info cross reference, the
         reference is followed;
     (3) anywhere else in a msg buffer, the window is scrolled down one
         windowful;
     (4) a msg summary buffer on a header entry, the message corresponding to
         the header is marked as deleted;
     (5) a msg summary buffer, on or after the last line, all messages are
         marked undeleted.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, GNUS
@cindex GNUS browsing
@format
@group
If pressed within a GNUS listing of newsgroups buffer at:
  ACTION
     (1) a GNUS-GROUP line, that newsgroup is read;
     (2) to the left of any GNUS-GROUP line, on any of the whitespace, the
         current group is unsubscribed or resubscribed;
     (3) at the end of the GNUS-GROUP buffer, after all lines, checks for new
         news.
  ASSIST
     (1) a GNUS-GROUP line, that newsgroup is read;
     (2) to the left of any GNUS-GROUP line, on any of the whitespace, the
         user is prompted for a group name to subscribe or unsubscribe to;
     (3) at the end of the GNUS-GROUP buffer, after all lines, quits from the
         newsreader.
@end group
@end format

@page
@format
@group
If pressed within a GNUS newsreader subject listing buffer at:
  ACTION
     (1) a GNUS-SUBJECT line, that article is read, marked deleted, and
         scrolled forward;
     (2) at the end of the GNUS-SUBJECT buffer, the next undeleted article
         is read or the next group is entered.
  ASSIST
     (1) a GNUS-SUBJECT line, that article is read and scrolled backward;
     (2) at the end of the GNUS-SUBJECT buffer, the subject is exited, the
         user is returned to group mode.
@end group
@end format

@format
@group
If pressed within a GNUS newsreader article buffer at:
  ACTION
     (1) the first line or end of an article, the next unread message is
         displayed;
     (2) the first line of an Info cross reference, the reference is followed;
     (3) anywhere else, the window is scrolled up a windowful.
  ASSIST
     (1) the first line or end of an article, the previous message is
         displayed;
     (2) the first line of an Info cross reference, the reference is followed;
     (3) anywhere else, the window is scrolled down a windowful.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex click, buffer menu
@cindex buffer menu
@format
@group
If pressed within a listing of buffers (Buffer-menu-mode):
  ACTION
     (1) on the first column of an entry, the selected buffer is marked for
         display;
     (2) on the second column of an entry, the selected buffer is marked to be
         saved;
     (3) anywhere else within an entry line, all saves and deletes are done,
         and selected buffers are displayed, including the one just clicked
         on (if in the OO-Browser, only the selected buffer is displayed);
     (4) on or after the last line in the buffer, all saves and deletes are
         done.
  ASSIST
     (1) on the first or second column of an entry, the selected buffer is
         unmarked for display and for saving or deletion;
     (2) anywhere else within an entry line, the selected buffer is marked for
         deletion;
     (3) on or after the last line in the buffer, all display, save, and delete
         marks on all entries are undone.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, dired
@cindex dired browsing
@format
@group
If pressed within a dired-mode buffer:
  ACTION
     (1) within an entry line, the selected file/directory is displayed
         for editing in the other window;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, if any deletes are to be
         performed, they are executed after user verification, otherwise, this
         dired invocation is quit.
  ASSIST
     (1) on a '~' character, all backup files in the directory are marked for
         deletion;
     (2) on a '#' character, all auto-save files in the directory are marked
         for deletion;
     (3) anywhere else within an entry line, the current entry is marked for
         deletion;
     (4) on or after the last line in the buffer, all delete marks on all
         entries are undone.
@end group
@end format

@page
@cindex click, tar
@cindex tar archive browsing
@cindex extracting from tar files
@format
@group
If pressed within a tar-mode buffer:
  ACTION
     (1) within an entry line, the selected file/directory is displayed
         for editing in the other window;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, if any deletes are to be
         performed, they are executed after user verification, otherwise, this
         tar file browser is quit.
  ASSIST
     (1) on an entry line, the current entry is marked for deletion;
     (2) on or after the last line in the buffer, all delete marks on all
         entries are undone.
@end group
@end format

@cindex man page references
@format
@group
If pressed on a cross reference within a man page entry section labeled
NAME, SEE ALSO, or PACKAGES USED, or within a man page C routine
specification (see 'smart-man-c-routine-ref') and man page buffer
has either an attached file or else a @var{man-path} local variable
containing its pathname:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     Displays man page or source code for cross reference.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, world-wide web
@cindex W3
@cindex URL
@cindex world-wide web
@format
@group
If pressed on a world-wide web universal resource locator:
  ACTION
     Displays the URL referent at point.
  ASSIST
     Goes back to a previously displayed web page.
@end group
@end format

@cindex game, gomoku
@cindex gomoku
@format
@group
If pressed in a Gomoku game buffer.
  ACTION
     Makes a move at the space pointed to.
  ASSIST
     Takes back a prior move made at the space pointed to.
@end group
@end format

@cindex click, wrolo matches
@cindex wrolo matches
@format
@group
If pressed within an entry in the wrolo match display buffer:
  ACTION or ASSIST
     The entry is edited in the other window.
@end group
@end format

@node Outliner Keys, Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Smart Key Reference, Top
@appendix Outliner Keys

@cindex outliner keys
This appendix summarizes the specialized key bindings available when
editing an outline with Hyperbole.  Each key is shown together with its
command binding and the documentation for that command.  Normal emacs
editing keys are modified to account for the structure within outlines.
An outliner command which overloads an Emacs command named @emph{cmd}
would be named @emph{kotl-mode:cmd}.

@table @code

@findex kfile:write
@item kfile:write  @{@kbd{C-x C-w}@}
Write current outline to FILE.

@findex klink:create
@item klink:create  @{@kbd{C-c l}@}
Insert at point an implicit link to REFERENCE.
REFERENCE should be a cell-ref or a string containing "filename, cell-ref".
See documentation for @code{kcell:ref-to-id} for valid cell-ref formats.

@findex kotl-mode:add-cell
@item kotl-mode:add-cell  @{@key{LFD}@}
Add a cell following current cell at optional RELATIVE-LEVEL with CONTENTS string.
Optional prefix arg RELATIVE-LEVEL means add as sibling if nil or >= 0, as child
if equal to universal argument, @kbd{C-u}, and as sibling of current cell's
parent, otherwise.  If added as sibling of current level, RELATIVE-LEVEL is
used as a repeat count for the number of cells to add.

Return last newly added cell.

@findex kotl-mode:add-child
@item kotl-mode:add-child  @{@kbd{C-c a}@}
Add a new cell to current kview as first child of current cell.

@findex kotl-mode:add-parent
@item kotl-mode:add-parent  @{@kbd{C-c p}@}
Add a new cell to current kview as sibling of current cell's parent.

@findex kotl-mode:append-cell
@item kotl-mode:append-cell  @{@kbd{C-c +}@}
Append CONTENTS-CELL to APPEND-TO-CELL.
APPEND-TO-CELL is refilled if neither cell has a no-fill property and
kotl-mode:refill-flag is enabled.

@findex kotl-mode:back-to-indentation
@item kotl-mode:back-to-indentation  @{@kbd{M-m}@}
Move point to the first non-read-only non-whitespace character on this line.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-cell
@item kotl-mode:backward-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-b}@}
Move to prefix ARGth prior cell (same level) within current view.
Return number of cells left to move.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-char
@item kotl-mode:backward-char  @{@kbd{C-b}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-kill-word
@item kotl-mode:backward-kill-word  @{@kbd{M-DEL}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG words preceding point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-sentence
@item kotl-mode:backward-sentence  @{@kbd{M-a}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) sentences and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:backward-word
@item kotl-mode:backward-word  @{@kbd{M-b}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) words and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-buffer
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-buffer  @{@kbd{M-<}@}
Move point to beginning of buffer and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-cell
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-cell  @{@kbd{C-c ,}@}
Move point to beginning of current or ARGth - 1 prior cell and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-line
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-line  @{@kbd{C-a}@}
Move point to beginning of current or ARGth - 1 line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:beginning-of-tree
@item kotl-mode:beginning-of-tree  @{@kbd{C-c ^}@}
Move point to the level 1 root of the current cell's tree.
Leave point at the start of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:center-line
@item kotl-mode:center-line  @{@kbd{M-s}@}
@vindex fill-column
Center the line point is on, within the width specified by @var{fill-column}.
This means adjusting the indentation so that it equals the distance between
the end of the text and @var{fill-column}.

@findex kotl-mode:center-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:center-paragraph  @{@kbd{M-S}@}
Center each nonblank line in the paragraph at or after point.
See @code{center-line} for more info.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-after
@item kotl-mode:copy-after  @{@kbd{C-c c}@}
Copy tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to follow tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg CHILD-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF, otherwise make it the sibling following TO-CELL-REF.

Leave point at the start of the root cell of the new tree.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-before
@item kotl-mode:copy-before  @{@kbd{C-c C-c}@}
Copy tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to precede tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg PARENT-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF's parent, otherwise make it the preceding sibling of TO-CELL-REF.

Leave point at the start of the root cell of the new tree.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-to-buffer
@item kotl-mode:copy-to-buffer  @{@kbd{C-c M-c}@}
Copy outline tree rooted at CELL-REF to a non-koutline BUFFER.
Use 0 to copy the whole outline buffer.

@findex kotl-mode:copy-to-register
@item kotl-mode:copy-to-register  @{@kbd{C-x x}@}
Copy into REGISTER the region START to END.
With optional prefix arg DELETE-FLAG, delete region.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-backward-char
@item kotl-mode:delete-backward-char  @{@kbd{DEL}@}
Delete up to the preceding prefix ARG characters.
Return number of characters deleted.
Optional KILL-FLAG non-nil means save in kill ring instead of deleting.
Does not delete across cell boundaries.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-blank-lines
@item kotl-mode:delete-blank-lines  @{@kbd{C-x C-o}@}
On blank line within a cell, delete all surrounding blank lines, leaving just one.
On isolated blank line, delete that one.
On nonblank line, delete all blank lines that follow it.

If nothing but whitespace follows point until the end of a cell, delete all
whitespace at the end of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-char
@item kotl-mode:delete-char  @{@kbd{C-d}@}
Delete up to prefix ARG characters following point.
Return number of characters deleted.
Optional KILL-FLAG non-nil means save in kill ring instead of deleting.
Does not delete across cell boundaries.

@findex kotl-mode:delete-indentation
@item kotl-mode:delete-indentation  @{@kbd{M-^}@}
Join this line to previous and fix up whitespace at join.
If there is a fill prefix, delete it from the beginning of this line.
With argument, join this line to following line.

@findex kotl-mode:demote-tree
@vindex kotl-mode:refill-flag
@item kotl-mode:demote-tree  @{@kbd{TAB}@}
Move current kotl a maximum of prefix ARG levels lower in current view.
Each cell is refilled iff its @emph{no-fill} attribute is nil and
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is non-nil.  With prefix ARG = 0, cells are
demoted up to one level and kotl-mode:refill-flag is treated as true.

@findex kotl-mode:down-level
@item kotl-mode:down-level  @{@kbd{C-c C-d}@}
Move down prefix ARG levels lower within current tree.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-buffer
@item kotl-mode:end-of-buffer  @{@kbd{M->}@}
Move point to end of buffer and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-cell
@item kotl-mode:end-of-cell  @{@kbd{C-c .}@}
Move point to end of current or ARGth - 1 succeeding cell and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-line
@item kotl-mode:end-of-line  @{@kbd{C-e}@}
Move point to end of current or ARGth - 1 line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:end-of-tree
@item kotl-mode:end-of-tree  @{@kbd{C-c $}@}
Move point to the last cell in tree rooted at the current cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell.

@findex kotl-mode:exchange-cells
@item kotl-mode:exchange-cells  @{@kbd{C-c e}@}
Exchange CELL-REF-1 with CELL-REF-2 in current view.  Don't move point.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-cell
@item kotl-mode:fill-cell  @{@kbd{C-c M-j}@}
Fill current cell within current view if it does not have the 'no-fill attribute.
With optional JUSTIFY, justify cell as well.
IGNORE-COLLAPSED-P is used when caller has already expanded cell, indicating
it is not collapsed.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:fill-paragraph  @{@kbd{C-x f}@}
Fill current paragraph within cell.  With optional JUSTIFY, justify
paragraph as well.  Ignore any non-nil no-fill attribute attached to the
cell.

@findex kotl-mode:fill-tree
@item kotl-mode:fill-tree  @{@kbd{C-M-j}@}
Refill each cell within the tree whose root is at point.

@findex kotl-mode:first-sibling
@item kotl-mode:first-sibling  @{@kbd{C-c <}@}
Move point to the first sibling of the present cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell or at its present position if it is
already within the first sibling cell.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-backward-char
@item kotl-mode:fkey-backward-char  @{@kbd{left}@}
Move point backward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-forward-char
@item kotl-mode:fkey-forward-char  @{@kbd{right}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-next-line
@item kotl-mode:fkey-next-line  @{@kbd{down}@}
Move point to ARGth next line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:fkey-previous-line
@item kotl-mode:fkey-previous-line  @{@kbd{up}@}
Move point to ARGth previous line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-cell
@item kotl-mode:forward-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-f}@}
Move to prefix ARGth following cell (same level) within current view.
Return number of cells left to move.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-char
@item kotl-mode:forward-char  @{@kbd{C-f}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) characters and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-para
@item kotl-mode:forward-para  @{@kbd{M-n}@}
Move to prefix ARGth next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-paragraph
@item kotl-mode:forward-paragraph  @{@kbd{M-]}@}
Move to prefix ARGth next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-sentence
@item kotl-mode:forward-sentence  @{@kbd{M-e}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) sentences and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:forward-word
@item kotl-mode:forward-word  @{@kbd{M-f}@}
Move point forward ARG (or 1) words and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:goto-cell
@item kotl-mode:goto-cell  @{@kbd{C-c g}@}
Move point to start of cell given by CELL-REF.  (See 'kcell:ref-to-id'.)
Return point iff CELL-REF is found within current view.
With a prefix argument, CELL-REF is assigned the argument value for use
as an idstamp.

Optional second arg, ERROR-P, non-nil means signal an error if CELL-REF is
not found within current view.  Will signal same error if called
interactively when CELL-REF is not found.

@findex kotl-mode:hide-sublevels
@item kotl-mode:hide-sublevels  @{@kbd{C-X $}@}
Hide all cells in outline at levels deeper than LEVELS-TO-KEEP (a
number). Shows any hidden cells within LEVELS-TO-KEEP.  1 is the first
level.

@findex kotl-mode:hide-subtree
@item kotl-mode:hide-subtree  @{@kbd{C-M-h}@}
Hide subtree, ignoring root, at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at
point).

@findex kotl-mode:hide-tree
@item kotl-mode:hide-tree  @{@kbd{C-c BS}@}
Collapse kotl rooted at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at point).

@findex kotl-mode:insert-file
@item kotl-mode:insert-file  @{@kbd{C-x i}@}
Insert each paragraph in IMPORT-FROM as a separate cell in the current view.
Insert as sibling cells following the current cell.  IMPORT-FROM may be a
buffer name or file name (file name completion is provided).

@findex kotl-mode:insert-register
@item kotl-mode:insert-register  @{@kbd{C-c r i}@}
Insert contents of register REGISTER at point in current cell.
REGISTER is a character naming the register to insert.
Normally puts point before and mark after the inserted text.
If optional second arg is non-nil, puts mark before and point after.
Interactively, second arg is non-nil if prefix arg is supplied.

@findex kotl-mode:just-one-space
@item kotl-mode:just-one-space  @{@kbd{M-\}@}
Delete all spaces and tabs around point and leave one space.

@findex kotl-mode:kcell-help
@item kotl-mode:kcell-help  @{@kbd{C-c h}@}
Display a temporary buffer with CELL-REF's properties.
CELL-REF defaults to current cell.
Optional prefix arg CELLS-FLAG selects the cells to print:
  If = 1, print CELL-REF's cell only;
  If > 1, print CELL-REF's visible kotl (the tree rooted at CELL-REF);
  If < 1, print all visible cells in current view  (CELL-REF is not used).

See also the documentation for @code{kotl-mode:properties}.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-contents
@item kotl-mode:kill-contents  @{@kbd{C-c k}@}
Kill contents of cell from point to cell end.
With prefix ARG, kill entire cell contents.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-line
@item kotl-mode:kill-line  @{@kbd{C-k}@}
Kill ARG lines from point.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-region
@item kotl-mode:kill-region  @{@kbd{C-w}@}
Kill region between START and END within a single kcell.
With optional COPY-P equal to 't, copy region to kill ring but does not
kill it.  With COPY-P any other non-nil value, return region as a
string without affecting kill ring.

If the buffer is read-only and COPY-P is nil, the region will not be deleted
but it will be copied to the kill ring and then an error will be signaled.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-ring-save
@item kotl-mode:kill-ring-save  @{@kbd{M-w}@}
Copy region between START and END within a single kcell to kill ring.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-sentence
@item kotl-mode:kill-sentence  @{@kbd{M-k}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG (or 1) sentences following point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-tree
@item kotl-mode:kill-tree  @{@kbd{C-c C-k}@}
Kill ARG following trees starting with tree rooted at point.
If ARG is not a non-positive number, nothing is done.

@findex kotl-mode:kill-word
@item kotl-mode:kill-word  @{@kbd{M-d}@}
Kill up to prefix ARG words following point within a single cell.

@findex kotl-mode:last-sibling
@item kotl-mode:last-sibling  @{@kbd{C-c >}@}
Move point to the last sibling of the present cell.
Leave point at the start of the cell or at its present position if it is
already within the last sibling cell.

@findex kotl-mode:mail-tree
@item kotl-mode:mail-tree  @{@kbd{C-c @@}@}
Mail outline tree rooted at CELL-REF.  Use "0" for whole outline buffer.

@findex kotl-mode:move-after
@item kotl-mode:move-after  @{@kbd{C-c m}@}
Move tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to follow tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg CHILD-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF, otherwise make it the sibling following TO-CELL-REF.
With optional COPY-P, copies tree rather than moving it.

Leave point at original location but return the tree's new start point.

@findex kotl-mode:move-before
@item kotl-mode:move-before  @{@kbd{C-c RET}@}
Move tree rooted at FROM-CELL-REF to precede tree rooted at TO-CELL-REF.
If prefix arg PARENT-P is non-nil, make FROM-CELL-REF the first child of
TO-CELL-REF's parent, otherwise make it the preceding sibling of TO-CELL-REF.
With optional COPY-P, copies tree rather than moving it.

Leave point at original location but return the tree's new start point.

@findex kotl-mode:newline
@item kotl-mode:newline  @{@kbd{RET}@}
Insert a newline.  With ARG, insert ARG newlines.
In Auto Fill mode, if no numeric arg, break the preceding line if it is
too long.

@findex kotl-mode:next-cell
@item kotl-mode:next-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-n}@}
Move to prefix ARGth next cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:next-line
@item kotl-mode:next-line  @{@kbd{C-n}@}
Move point to ARGth next line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:open-line
@item kotl-mode:open-line  @{@kbd{C-o}@}
Insert a newline and leave point before it.
With arg N, insert N newlines.

@findex kotl-mode:overview
@item kotl-mode:overview  @{@kbd{C-c C-o}@}
Show only the first line of each cell in the current outline.

@findex kotl-mode:previous-cell
@item kotl-mode:previous-cell  @{@kbd{C-c C-p}@}
Move to prefix ARGth previous cell (any level) within current view.

@findex kotl-mode:previous-line
@item kotl-mode:previous-line  @{@kbd{C-p}@}
Move point to ARGth previous line and return point.

@findex kotl-mode:promote-tree
@vindex kotl-mode:refill-flag
@item kotl-mode:promote-tree  @{@kbd{M-TAB}@}
Move current kotl a maximum of prefix ARG levels higher in current view.
Each cell is refilled iff its @emph{no-fill} attribute is nil and
@var{kotl-mode:refill-flag} is non-nil.  With prefix ARG = 0, cells are
promoted up to one level and kotl-mode:refill-flag is treated as true.

@findex kotl-mode:scroll-down
@item kotl-mode:scroll-down  @{@kbd{M-v}@}
Scroll text of current window downward ARG lines; or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex kotl-mode:scroll-up
@item kotl-mode:scroll-up  @{@kbd{C-v}@}
Scroll text of current window upward ARG lines; or a windowful if no ARG.

@findex kotl-mode:set-cell-attribute
@item kotl-mode:set-cell-attribute  @{@kbd{C-c C-i}@}
Include ATTRIBUTE VALUE with the current cell or the cell at optional POS.
Replaces any existing value that ATTRIBUTE has.
When called interactively, it displays the setting in the minibuffer as
confirmation.

@findex kotl-mode:set-fill-prefix
@item kotl-mode:set-fill-prefix  @{@kbd{C-x l}@}
Sets fill prefix to line up to point.
With prefix arg TURN-OFF or at begin of line, turns fill prefix off.

@findex kotl-mode:show-all
@item kotl-mode:show-all  @{@kbd{C-c C-a}@}
Show (expand) all cells in current view.

@findex kotl-mode:show-subtree
@item kotl-mode:show-subtree
Show subtree, ignoring root, at optional CELL-REF (defaults to cell at
point).

@findex kotl-mode:show-tree
@item kotl-mode:show-tree  @{@kbd{C-c C-s}@}
Display fully expanded kotl rooted at CELL-REF.

@findex kotl-mode:split-cell
@item kotl-mode:split-cell  @{@kbd{C-c s}@}
Split cell into two cells and move to new cell.
Cell contents after point become part of newly created cell.
Default is to create new cell as sibling of current cell.
With optional universal ARG, @kbd{C-u}, new cell is added as child of
current cell.

@findex kotl-mode:top-cells
@item kotl-mode:top-cells  @{@kbd{C-c C-t}@}
Collapse all level 1 cells in view and hide any deeper sublevels.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-cells
@item kotl-mode:transpose-cells  @{@kbd{C-c t}@}
Exchange current and previous visible cells, leaving point after both.
If no previous cell, exchange current with next cell.
With prefix ARG, take current cell and move it past ARG cells.
With prefix ARG = 0, interchange the cell that contains point with the cell
that contains mark.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-chars
@item kotl-mode:transpose-chars  @{@kbd{C-t}@}
Interchange characters around point, moving forward one character.
With prefix ARG, take character before point and drag it forward past ARG
other characters (backward if ARG negative).
If no prefix ARG and at end of line, the previous two characters are
exchanged.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-lines
@item kotl-mode:transpose-lines  @{@kbd{C-x C-t}@}
Exchange current line and previous line, leaving point after both.
If no previous line, exchange current with next line.
With prefix ARG, take previous line and move it past ARG lines.
With prefix ARG = 0, interchange the line that contains point with the line
that contains mark.

@findex kotl-mode:transpose-words
@item kotl-mode:transpose-words  @{@kbd{M-t}@}
Interchange words around point, leaving point after both words.
With prefix ARG, take word before or around point and drag it forward past
ARG other words (backward if ARG negative).  If ARG is zero, the words around
or after point and around or after mark are interchanged.

@findex kotl-mode:up-level
@item kotl-mode:up-level  @{@kbd{C-c C-u}@}
Move up prefix ARG levels higher in current outline view.

@findex kotl-mode:yank
@item kotl-mode:yank  @{@kbd{C-y}@}
Reinsert the last stretch of killed text.
More precisely, reinsert the stretch of killed text most recently
killed OR yanked.  Put point at end, and set mark at beginning.
With just C-u as argument, same but put point at beginning (and mark at end).
With argument N, reinsert the Nth most recently killed stretch of killed
text.
See also the command M-x kotl-mode:yank-pop.

@findex kotl-mode:yank-pop
@item kotl-mode:yank-pop  @{@kbd{M-y}@}
Replace just-yanked stretch of killed text with a different stretch.
This command is allowed only immediately after a @code{yank} or a
@code{yank-pop}.  At such a time, the region contains a stretch of
reinserted previously-killed text.  @code{yank-pop} deletes that text
and inserts in its place a different stretch of killed text.

With no argument, the previous kill is inserted.
With argument N, insert the Nth previous kill.
If N is negative, this is a more recent kill.

The sequence of kills wraps around, so that after the oldest one
comes the newest one.

@findex kotl-mode:zap-to-char
@item kotl-mode:zap-to-char  @{@kbd{M-z}@}
Kill up to and including prefix ARG'th occurrence of CHAR.
Goes backward if ARG is negative; error if CHAR not found.

@findex kview:set-label-type
@item kview:set-label-type  @{@kbd{C-c C-l}@}
Change kview's label display type to NEW-TYPE, updating all displayed labels.
See documentation for variable, kview:default-label-type, for
valid values of NEW-TYPE.

@findex kvspec:activate
@item kvspec:activate  @{@kbd{C-c C-v}@}
Activate optional VIEW-SPEC or existing view spec in the current koutline.
VIEW-SPEC is a string.  See <$@{hyperb:dir@}/kotl/EXAMPLE.kotl, 2b17=048> for
details on valid view specs.

@findex kvspec:toggle-blank-lines
@item kvspec:toggle-blank-lines @{@kbd{C-c b}@}
Toggle blank lines between cells on or off.

@end table

@node Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Questions and Answers, Outliner Keys, Top
@appendix Suggestion or Bug Reporting

@xref{Mail Lists}, for complete details on Hyperbole mailing lists and
how to subscribe.

@cindex version description
@cindex Hyperbole version
If you find any errors in Hyperbole's operation or documentation, feel
free to report them to the Hyperbole discussion list:
<hyperbole@@hub.ucsb.edu>.  Be sure to use the Msg/Compose-Hypb-Mail
minibuffer menu item whenever you send a message to the mail list since
it will insert important system version information for you.

If you use Hyperbole mail or news support, @ref{Buttons in Mail}, a
click with your Action Key on the Hyperbole mail list address
will insert a description of your Hyperbole configuration information
into your outgoing message, so that you do not have to type it.  This is
useful when composing a reply for the Hyperbole mail list.  Otherwise,
be sure to include your Emacs, Hyperbole and window system versions in
your message.  Your Hyperbole version number can be found in the
top-level Hyperbole menu.

Please use your subject line to state the position that your message
takes on the topic that it addresses, e.g@. send "Subject: Basic bug in
top-level Hyperbole menu." rather than "Subject: Hyperbole bug".  This
simple rule makes all e-mail communication much easier.

If you have suggestions on how to improve Hyperbole, send them to the
same address.  Here are some issues you might address:

@itemize @bullet
@item
What did you like and dislike about the system?
@item
What kinds of tasks, if any, does it seem to help you with?
@item
What did you think of the Emacs-based user interface?
@item
How was the Hyperbole Manual and other documentation?
@item
Was the setup trivial, average or hard?
@item
What areas of Hyperbole would you like to see expanded/added?
@item
How does it compare to other hypertext tools you have used?
@item
Was it easy or difficult to create your own types?  Why?
@item
Did you get any use out of the external system encapsulations?
@end itemize

@node Questions and Answers, Future Work, Suggestion or Bug Reporting, Top
@appendix Questions and Answers

@table @emph
@cindex Smart Key
@cindex mouse key bindings
@findex hmouse-setup
@findex hmouse-get-bindings
@vindex file, hmouse-sh.el
@vindex file, hmouse-reg.el
@item How can I change the Smart Mouse Key bindings?
@findex hmouse-shift-buttons
Since the Smart Mouse Keys are set up for use under five different Emacs
configurations, there is no easy way to provide user level
customization.  The command, @code{hmouse-shift-buttons}, can be used to
select between shifted and unshifted Smart Mouse Keys.  Any other mouse
key binding changes must be done by editing the @code{hmouse-setup} and
@code{hmouse-get-bindings} functions in the @file{hmouse-sh.el} and
@file{hmouse-reg.el} files.

@vindex file, hmouse-key.el
@vindex file, hui-window.el
@vindex hkey-alist
@vindex hmouse-alist
The @var{hkey-alist} and @var{hmouse-alist} variable
settings in @file{hui-mouse.el} and @file{hui-window.el} must be altered
if you want to change what the Smart Keys do in particular contexts.
You should then update the Smart Key summary documentation in the file,
@file{hypb-mouse.txt}, and potentially the same summary in this manual.


@item Missing Action Types

What if someone sends a mail message with a button for which I do
not have the action type?  Or a button whose link referent I can't access?

You receive an error that an action type is not defined or a link
referent is not accessible/readable if you try to use the button.  This
is hardly different than trying to get through a locked door without a
key; you try the doorknob, find that it is locked, and then realize that
you need to take a different approach or else give up.

Like all communication, people need to coordinate, which usually
requires an iterative process.  If you get a mail message with a button
for which you don't have the action type, you mail the sender and
request it.

@cindex global button, modify
@item How can I modify a number of global buttons in succession?

Rather than typing the name for each, it is quicker to jump to the
global button file and edit the buttons there as you would any explicit
buttons.  By default, the ButFile/PersonalFile menu item takes you to
the file where global buttons are saved.

@item Why is all the button data scattered across directories?

When you think of a hyper-space that you depend on every day, you don't
want to have a single point of failure make you incapable of doing work.
With Hyperbole, if some directories become unavailable for a particular
time (e.g@. the filesystems on which they reside are dismounted) you can
still work elsewhere with minimal effect.  We believe this to be a
compelling factor to leave the design with external button data storage.

This design also permits the potential addition of buttons to read-only
media.

@item Why are action types defined separately from their implicit button types?

Any category of button can make use of an action type.  Some action types
are useful as behavior definitions for a variety of button categories,
so all action types are defined separately to give them independence
from those types which apply them.

For implicit button types that require a lot of code, it is useful to
add a module that includes the implicit button type definition, its
action type definition and supporting code.

@end table


@node Future Work, References, Questions and Answers, Top
@appendix Future Work

@noindent
This appendix is included for a number of reasons:

@itemize @bullet
@item
to better allow you to assess whether to work with Hyperbole by
providing sketches of possible additions:
@item
to direct further development effort towards known needs;
@item
and to acknowledge known weaknesses in the current system.
@end itemize

@table @asis

Note that due to a lack of volunteers to further develop Hyperbole, much
of this work may not be done.  So if you want to see these features,
encourage qualified people to volunteer.

@item Button Copying, Killing, and Yanking
There is as yet no means of transferring explicit buttons among buffers.
We realize this is a critical need.  Users should be able to manipulate
text with embedded buttons in ordinary ways.  This will probably be
implemented only for versions of Emacs 19 and higher.  It will store the
button attributes as text attributes within the buffers so that if a
button is copied, its attributes follow.  When a buffer is saved, the
attributes also will be saved.

@item Trails
Trails are an extension to the basic history mechanism presently offered
by Hyperbole.  Trails will allow a user to capture, edit and store a
specific sequence and set of views of information for later replay by
other users.  Conditional branching may also be supported.

@item Outliner View Mode
This will complement the outliner editing mode by using simple one
character keys that normally insert characters to instead modify the
view of an outline and to move around in it, for ease of study.
Switching between view and edit modes will also be simple.

@item Storage of button data within button source files
The current design choice of storing buttons external to the source file
was made under the assumption that people should be able to look at
files that contain Hyperbole buttons with any standard editor or tool
and not be bothered by the ugly button data (since they won't be able to
utilize the buttons anyway, they don't need to see or have access to
them).

In many contexts, embedding the button data within the source files may
be a better choice, so a provision which would allow selection of either
configuration may be added.  Here are some of the PROs and CONs of both
design choices:
@sp 1

@example
@group
           POSITIVE                        NEGATIVE

Button data in source file
           Documents can stand alone.      All edit operators have
           Normal file operations apply.   to account for file
                                           structure and hide
           Simplifies creation and         internal components.
           facility expansion for
           structured and multi-media
           files.

Button data external to source file
           Files can be displayed and      Currently, bdata for
           printed exactly as they look.   whole directory is
           No special display formatting   locked when any bdata
           is necessary.                   entry is locked.

           Button-based searches and
           database-type lookup operations
           need only search one file
           per directory.
@end group
@end example
@sp 2

@item Forms-based Interfaces

This will allow one to create buttons more flexibly.  For example, button
attributes could be given in any order.  Entry of long code sequences,
quick note taking and cross-referencing would also be made easier.

@item Collaboration Support

From the early stages of Hyperbole design, collaborative work
environments have been considered.  A simple facility has demonstrated
broadcast of button activations to a number of workstations on a local
area network, so that one user can lead others around an information
space, as during an online design review.  (This facility was never
adapted to the current Hyperbole release, however.)  We shall do some
work in specific collaborative mechanisms, but we also expect that
others who concentrate in collaborative work will provide more extensive
capabilities.

@end table

@node References, Key Binding Index, Future Work, Top
@appendix References

@table @b
@item [AkMcYo88]
Akscyn, R. M., D. L. McCracken and E. A. Yoder. KMS: A
Distributed Hypermedia System for Managing Knowledge in Organizations.
@emph{Communications of the ACM}, Vol. 31, No. 7, July 1988, pp. 820-835.

@item [Bro87]
Brown, P. J. Turning Ideas into Products: The Guide System.
@emph{Proceedings of Hypertext '87}, November 13-15, 1987, Chapel Hill, NC.
ACM: NY, NY, pp. 33-40.

@item [Con87]
Conklin, Jeff. Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey. @emph{IEEE
Computer}, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 1987, pp. 17-41.

@item [Eng68]
Engelbart, D., and W. English.  A research center for augmenting
human intellect. @emph{Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference},
33, 1, AFIPS Press: Montvale, NJ, 1968, pp. 395-410.

@item [Eng84a]
Engelbart, D. C. Authorship Provisions in Augment.
@emph{Proceedings of the 1984 COMPCON Conference (COMPCON '84 Digest)},
February 27-March 1, 1984, San Francisco, CA. IEEE Computer Society Press,
Spring, 1984.  465-472. (OAD,2250,)

@item [Eng84b]
Engelbart, D. C. Collaboration Support Provisions in Augment.
@emph{Proceedings of the AFIPS Office Automation Conference (OAC '84 Digest)},
February, 1984, Los Angeles, CA, 1984. 51-58. (OAD,2221,)

@item [Fos88]
Foss, C. L. Effective Browsing in Hypertext Systems.
@emph{Proceedings of the Conference on User-Oriented Content-Based Text and
Image Handling (RIAO 88)}, March 21-24, MIT, Cambridge MA. Centre de Hautes
Etudes Internationales d'Informatique Documentaire, 1988, pp. 82-98.

@item [GaSmMe86]
Garrett, N., K. E. Smith and N. Meyrowitz. Intermedia: Issues,
Strategies, and Tactics in the Design of a Hypermedia Document System.
@emph{Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW '86) Proceedings}, December
3-5, Austin, TX, 1986, pp. 163-174.

@item [HaMoTr87]
Halasz, F. G., T. P. Moran and R. H. Trigg. NoteCards in a
Nutshell. @emph{Proceedings of the CHI and GI '87 Conference on Human Factors
in Computing Systems}, Toronto, J. M. Carroll and P. P. Tanner, (editors),
ACM: NY, NY, April 1987, pp. 45-52.

@item [Har88]
Harvey, G. @emph{Understanding HyperCard.} Alameda, CA: SYBEX, Inc.,
1988.

@item [KaCaLoLa92]
Kaplan, S., A. M. Carroll, C. Love and D. M. LaLiberte.
@emph{Epoch 4.0 Manual.} Department of Computer Science, University of
Illinois, Urbana, March 1992.

@item [KaKaBeLaDr90]
Kaplan, S. J., M. D. Kapor, E. J. Belove, R. A.  Landsman, and
T. R. Drake.  AGENDA: A personal Information Manager.  @emph{Communications
of the ACM}, No. 33, July 1990, pp. 105-116.

@item [Nel87a]
Nelson, T. H.  @emph{Computer Lib/Dream Machines.} MicroSoft Press,
Redmond, WA, 1987.

@item [Nel87b]
Nelson, T. H. @emph{Literary Machines, Edition 87.1}.  Available
from the Distributors, 702 South Michigan, South Bend, IN 46618, 1987.

@item [NoDr86]
Norman, D. A. and S. W. Draper, editors.  @emph{User Centered System
Design.} Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1986.

@item [Shn82]
Shneiderman, B. The future of interactive systems and the emergence
of direct manipulation.  @emph{Behavior and Information Technology}, Vol. 1,
1982, pp. 237-256.

@item [Sta87]
Stallman, R.  @emph{GNU Emacs Manual.} Free Software Foundation,
Cambridge: MA, March 1987.

@item [Tri86]
Trigg, R., L. Suchman, and F. Halasz.  Supporting collaboration in
NoteCards.  @emph{Proceedings of the CSCW '86 Conference}, Austin, TX,
December 1986, pp. 147-153.

@item [TrMoHa87]
Trigg, R. H., T. P. Moran and F. G. Halasz.  Adaptability and
Tailorability in NoteCards. @emph{Proceedings of INTERACT '87}, Stuttgart,
West Germany, September 1987.

@item [Wei92]
Weiner, B.  @emph{PIEmail: A Personalized Information Environment
Mail Tool.}  Department of Computer Science Masters Project, Brown
University: Providence, RI, May 10, 1992.

@item [YaHaMeDr88]
Yankelovich, N., B. J. Haan, N. Meyrowitz and S. M.  Drucker.
Intermedia: The Concept and the Construction of a Seamless Information
Environment. @emph{IEEE Computer}, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 1988, pp.  81-96.

@item [YoAkMc89]
Yoder, E. A., R. M. Akscyn and D. L. McCracken.  Collaboration in
KMS, A Shared Hypermedia System. @emph{Proceedings of the 1989 ACM Conference
on Human Factors in Computer Systems (CHI '89)}, April 30-May 4, 1989,
Austin, TX, ACM: NY,NY, 1989, pp. 37-42.

@end table


@c ***************************
@c Indices
@c ***************************

@node Key Binding Index, Code and File Index, References, Top
@unnumbered Key Binding Index

@printindex ky

@node Code and File Index, Concept Index, Key Binding Index, Top
@unnumbered Code and File Index

@printindex fn

@node Concept Index,  , Code and File Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp

@page
@summarycontents
@contents
@bye
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