1. Taro L. Saito
  2. sqlite-jdbc


**NOTICE: sqlite-jdbc has moved to GitHub: [https://github.com/xerial/sqlite-jdbc](https://github.com/xerial/sqlite-jdbc) ** SQLite JDBC Driver ================== SQLite JDBC, developed by [Taro L. Saito](http://www.xerial.org/leo), is a library for accessing and creating [SQLite](http://sqlite.org) database files in Java. Our SQLiteJDBC library requires no configuration since native libraries for major OSs, including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux etc., are assembled into a single JAR (Java Archive) file. The usage is quite simple; [download](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads) our sqlite-jdbc library, then append the library (JAR file) to your class path. See [the sample code](#markdown-header-usage). What is different from Zentus's SQLite JDBC? -------------------------------------------- The current sqlite-jdbc implementation is based on the code of [Zentus's SQLite JDBC driver (missing link)](http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc/). We have improved it in two ways: * Support major operating systems by embedding native libraries of SQLite, compiled for each of them. * Remove manual configurations In the original version, in order to use the native version of sqlite-jdbc, users had to set a path to the native codes (dll, jnilib, so files, etc.) through the command-line arguments, e.g., `-Djava.library.path=(path to the dll, jnilib, etc.)`, or `-Dorg.sqlite.lib.path`, etc. This process was error-prone and bothersome to tell every user to set these variables. Our SQLiteJDBC library completely does away these inconveniences. Another difference is that we are keeping this SQLiteJDBC library up-to-date to the newest version of SQLite engine, because we are one of the hottest users of this library. For example, SQLite JDBC is a core component of [UTGB (University of Tokyo Genome Browser) Toolkit](http://utgenome.org/), which is our utility to create personalized genome browsers. Public Discussion Forum ======================= * [Xerial Public Discussion Group](http://groups.google.com/group/xerial?hl=en) * Post bug reports or feqture requests to [Issue Tracker](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/issues) Usage ============ SQLite JDBC is a library for accessing SQLite databases through the JDBC API. For the general usage of JDBC, see [JDBC Tutorial](http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/jdbc/index.html) or [Oracle JDBC Documentation](http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/tech/index-jsp-136101.html). 1. Download sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar from the [download page](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads) (or by using [Maven](#markdown-header-using-sqlitejdbc-with-maven2)) then append this jar file into your classpath. 2. Load the JDBC driver `org.sqlite.JDBC` from your code. (see the example below) ** More usage examples are available at <https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/wiki/Usage> ** ** Usage Example (Assuming `sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar` is placed in the current directory)** > javac Sample.java > java -classpath ".;sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar" Sample # in Windows or > java -classpath ".:sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar" Sample # in Mac or Linux name = leo id = 1 name = yui id = 2 ** Sample.java** :::java import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.DriverManager; import java.sql.ResultSet; import java.sql.SQLException; import java.sql.Statement; public class Sample { public static void main(String[] args) throws ClassNotFoundException { // load the sqlite-JDBC driver using the current class loader Class.forName("org.sqlite.JDBC"); Connection connection = null; try { // create a database connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:sample.db"); Statement statement = connection.createStatement(); statement.setQueryTimeout(30); // set timeout to 30 sec. statement.executeUpdate("drop table if exists person"); statement.executeUpdate("create table person (id integer, name string)"); statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(1, 'leo')"); statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(2, 'yui')"); ResultSet rs = statement.executeQuery("select * from person"); while(rs.next()) { // read the result set System.out.println("name = " + rs.getString("name")); System.out.println("id = " + rs.getInt("id")); } } catch(SQLException e) { // if the error message is "out of memory", // it probably means no database file is found System.err.println(e.getMessage()); } finally { try { if(connection != null) connection.close(); } catch(SQLException e) { // connection close failed. System.err.println(e); } } } } How to Specify Database Files ----------------------------- Here is an example to select a file `C:\work\mydatabase.db` (in Windows) Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:C:/work/mydatabase.db"); A UNIX (Linux, Mac OS X, etc) file `/home/leo/work/mydatabase.db` Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:/home/leo/work/mydatabase.db"); How to Use Memory Databases --------------------------- SQLite supports on-memory database management, which does not create any database files. To use a memory database in your Java code, get the database connection as follows: Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite::memory:"); News ==== * 2014 October 8th: [sqlite-jdbc-3.8.6.jar](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads/sqlite-jdbc-3.8.6.jar) Updated to sqlite 3.8.6 * 2014 August 11th: The source code repository is moved to <https://github.com/xerial/sqlite-jdbc> * 2014 January 5th: [sqlite-jdbc4-3.8.2-SNAPSHOT](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads/sqlite-jdbc-3.8.2-SNAPSHOT.jar) Introduced JDBC4 version of driver. (Requires at least Java 6). * Source code is on branch [feature/jdbc4](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/branch/feature/jdbc4) * 2013 August 27th: sqlite-jdbc-3.8.0 snapshot version is [available](https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.8.0-SNAPSHOT/) * 2013 August 19th: [sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-M1](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads/sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-M1.jar) * 2013 March 24th : [sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-SNAPSHOT-2](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads/sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-SNAPSHOT-2.jar) * 2013 January 22nd: The repositories and documentations were moved to the bitbucket. * 2012 December 15th: [sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-SNAPSHOT](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads/sqlite-jdbc-3.7.15-SNAPSHOT.jar) * Removed pure-java. * 2010 August 27th: [sqlite-jdbc-3.7.2](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/snapshot/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/) released * 2010 April 3rd: [beta release of sqlite-jdbc-](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/snapshot/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/) * Added online backup/restore functions. Syntax: `backup to (file name)`, `restore from (file name)`. * 2009 December 10th: [sqlite-jdbc-](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ release. * Read-only connection, recursive trigger, foreign key validation support etc. using SQLiteConfig class. SQLiteConfig config = new SQLiteConfig(); // config.setReadOnly(true); config.setSharedCache(true); config.recursiveTriggers(true); // ... other configuration can be set via SQLiteConfig object Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:sample.db", config.toProperties()); * 2009 November 12th: [sqlite-jdbc-3.6.19](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.6.19/) released. * added 64-bit OS support: 64-bit native SQLite binaries for Windows (x86\_64), Mac (x86\_64) and Linux (adm64) are available. * 2009 August 19th: [sqlite-jdbc-](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ released. * 2009 July 2nd: [sqlite-jdbc-3.6.16](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.6.16/) release. * 2009 June 4th: [sqlite-jdbc-](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ released. * 2009 May 19th: [sqlite-jdbc-](http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ released. * This version supports "jdbc:sqlite::resource:" syntax to access read-only DB files contained in JAR archives, or external resources specified via URL, local files address etc. (see also the <http://groups.google.com/group/xerial/browse_thread/thread/39acb38f99eb2469/fc6afceabeaa0f76?lnk=gst&q=resource#fc6afceabeaa0f76 detailes> * 2009 February 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.11 released. * Fixed a bug in `PrepStmt`, which does not clear the batch contents after `executeBatch()`. [Discussion](http://groups.google.com/group/xerial/browse_thread/thread/1fa83eb36f6d5dab). * 2009 January 19th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.10 released. This version is compatible with sqlite version 3.6.10. <http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_10.html> * Added `READ_UNCOMMITTED` mode support for better query performance: (see also <http://www.sqlite.org/sharedcache.html> ) // READ_UNCOMMITTED mode works only in shared_cache mode. Properties prop = new Properties(); prop.setProperty("shared_cache", "true"); Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:", prop); conn.setTransactionIsolation(Conn.TRANSACTION_READ_UNCOMMITTED); * 2008 December 17th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.7 released. * Related information: <http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_7.html> * 2008 December 1st: sqlite-jdbc- released, * Fixed a bug incorporated in the version 3.6.6 <http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_6_2.html> * 2008 November 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.6 release. * Related information sqlite-3.6.6 changes: <http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_6.html> * 2008 November 11th: sqlite-jdbc- A bug fix release * Pure-java version didn't work correctly. Fixed in both and 3.6.4. If you have already downloaded 3.6.4, please obtain the latest one on the download page. * 2008 October 16th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.4 released. * Changes from SQLite 3.6.3: <http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_4.html> * `R*-Tree` index and `UPDATE/DELTE` syntax with `LIMIT` clause are available from this build. * 2008 October 14th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.3 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.3. * 2008 September 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.2 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.2 and contains pure-java and native versions. * 2008 July 17th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.0 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.0, and includes both pure-java and native versions. * 2008 July 3rd: [sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-universal] (http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.5.9-universal) released. This version contains both native and pure-java SQLite libraries, so it probably works in any OS environment. * 2008 May 29th: Current development revision (sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-1) can be compiled with JDK 6. No need to use JDK 1.5 for compiling SQLiteJDBC. * 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9 released. * 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.8 released (corresponding to SQLite 3.5.8 and sqlite-jdbc-v047). From this release, Windows, Mac OS X, Linux (i386, amd64) and Solaris (SunOS, sparcv9) libraries are bundled into one jar file. * 2008 May 1st: sqlite-jdbc is now in the maven central repository! [How to use SQLiteJDBC with Maven2](#using-sqlite-jdbc-with-maven2) * 2008 Mar. 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.7 released. * This version corresponds to [SQLite 3.5.7](http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_5_7.html). * 2008 Mar. 10th: sqlite-jdbc-v042 released. * Corresponding to SQLite 3.5.6, which integrates FTS3 (full text search). * 2008 Jan. 31st: sqlite-jdbc-v038.4 released. * SQLiteJDBCLoder.initialize() is no longer requried. * 2008 Jan. 11th: The Jar files for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux are packed into a single Jar file! So, no longer need to use an OS-specific jar file. * 2007 Dec. 31th: Upgraded to sqlitejdbc-v038 Download ======== Download the latest version of SQLiteJDBC from the [downloads page](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads). Beta Release ------------ The early releases (beta) of sqlite-jdbc with some advanced features are available from [here](https://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/downloads) * The old releases are still available from [here](http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/), but the site might be closed in future. Supported Operating Systems =========================== Since sqlite-jdbc-3.6.19, the natively compiled SQLite engines will be used for the following operating systems: * Windows XP, Vista (Windows, x86 architecture, x86_64) * Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), 10.5(Leopard), 10.6 SnowLeopard (for i386, x86_64, Intel CPU machines) * Linux i386 (Intel), amd64 (64-bit X86 Intel processor) In the other OSs not listed above, the pure-java SQLite is used. (Applies to versions before 3.7.15) If you want to use the native library for your OS, [build the source from scratch. How does SQLiteJDBC work? ------------------------- Our SQLite JDBC driver package (i.e., `sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar`) contains three types of native SQLite libraries (`sqlite-jdbc.dll`, `sqlite-jdbc.jnilib`, `sqlite-jdbc.so`), each of them is compiled for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. An appropriate native library file is automatically extracted into your OS's temporary folder, when your program loads `org.sqlite.JDBC` driver. Dependency Tests ---------------- * Windows XP (32-bit) * dependency check > DUMPBIN /DEPENDENTS sqlitejdbc.dll KERNEL32.dll msvcrt.dll * Mac OS X (10.4.10 Tiger ~ 10.5 Leopard) * dependency check > otool -L libsqlitejdbc.jnilib libsqlitejdbc.jnilib: build/Darwin-i386/libsqlitejdbc.jnilib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.0.0) /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 88.3.9) * Linux (glibc-2.5.12) * Dependency check > ldd libsqlitejdbc.so linux-gate.so.1 => (0x00b45000) libc.so.6 => /lib/i686/nosegneg/libc.so.6 (0x002dd000) /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x47969000) Source Codes ============ * Mercurial Repository: <http://bitbucket.org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc> License ------- This program follows the Apache License version 2.0 (<http://www.apache.org/licenses/> ) That means: It allows you to: * freely download and use this software, in whole or in part, for personal, company internal, or commercial purposes; * use this software in packages or distributions that you create. It forbids you to: * redistribute any piece of our originated software without proper attribution; * use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that we xerial.org endorse your distribution; * use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that you created this software in question. It requires you to: * include a copy of the license in any redistribution you may make that includes this software; * provide clear attribution to us, xerial.org for any distributions that include this software It does not require you to: * include the source of this software itself, or of any modifications you may have made to it, in any redistribution you may assemble that includes it; * submit changes that you make to the software back to this software (though such feedback is encouraged). See License FAQ <http://www.apache.org/foundation/licence-FAQ.html> for more details. Using SQLiteJDBC with Maven2 ============================ If you are familiar with [Maven2](http://maven.apache.org), add the following XML fragments into your pom.xml file. With those settings, your Maven will automatically download our SQLiteJDBC library into your local Maven repository, since our sqlite-jdbc libraries are synchronized with the [Maven's central repository](http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/). <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.xerial</groupId> <artifactId>sqlite-jdbc</artifactId> <version>3.7.2</version> </dependency> </dependencies> To use snapshot/pre-release versions, add the following repository to your Maven settings: * Pre-release repository: <https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/releases> * Snapshot repository: <https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots> Using SQLiteJDBC with Tomcat6 Web Server ======================================== Do not include sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar in WEB-INF/lib folder of your web application package, since multiple web applications hosted by the same Tomcat server cannot load the sqlite-jdbc native library more than once. That is the specification of JNI (Java Native Interface). You will observe `UnsatisfiedLinkError` exception with the message "no SQLite library found". Work-around of this problem is to put `sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar` file into `(TOMCAT_HOME)/lib` direcotry, in which multiple web applications can share the same native library file (.dll, .jnilib, .so) extracted from this sqlite-jdbc jar file. If you are using Maven for your web application, set the dependency scope as 'provided', and manually put the SQLite JDBC jar file into (TOMCAT_HOME)/lib folder. <dependency> <groupId>org.xerial</groupId> <artifactId>sqlite-jdbc</artifactId> <version>3.7.2</version> <scope>provided</scope> </dependency>