= SQLite JDBC Driver =
SQLite JDBC driver developed by [wiki:leo Taro L. Saito] is an extension of [http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc Zentus's SQLite JDBC driver] that enables Java to access [http://sqlite.org SQLite] database files.
Our SQLiteJDBC library, developed as a part of [http://www.xerial.org Xerial project], requires no configuration since all native libraries for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and pure-java SQLite, which works in any OS enviroment, are assembled into a single JAR (Java Archive) file. The usage is quite simple; [#Download Download] our sqlite-jdbc library, then append the library (JAR file) to your class path. See [#Usage the sample code].
== What is different from Zentus's SQLite JDBC? ==
The original Zentus's SQLite JDBC driver http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc/ itself is an excellent utility for using [http://sqlite.org SQLite] databases from Java language, and our SQLiteJDBC library also relies on its implementation. However, its pure-java version, which totally translates c/c++ codes of SQLite into Java, is significantly slower compared to its native version, which uses SQLite binaries compiled for each OS (win, mac, linux).
To use the native version of sqlite-jdbc, user had to set a path to the native codes (dll, jnilib, so files, which are JNDI C programs) by using command-line arguments, e.g., -Djava.library.path=(path to the dll, jnilib, etc.), or -Dorg.sqlite.lib.path, etc. This process was error-prone and bothersome to tell every user to set these variables. Our SQLiteJDBC library completely does away these inconveniences.
Another difference is that we are keeping this SQLiteJDBC libray up-to-date to the newest version of SQLite engine, because we are one of the hottest users of this library. For example, SQLite JDBC is a core component of [http://utgenome.org/ UTGB (University of Tokyo Genome Browser) Toolkit], which is our utility to create personalized genome browsers.
== Public Discussion Forum ==
* Post bug reports or feature requests to [http://groups.google.com/group/xerial?hl=en Xerial Public Discussion Group]
== News ==
* 2010 August 27th: sqlite-jdbc-3.7.2 release: http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.7.2/
* 2010 April 3rd: beta release of sqlite-jdbc-184.108.40.206-SNAPSHOT: http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/snapshot/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/
* Added online backup/restore functions. Syntax: backup to (file name), restore from (file name).
* 2009 December 10th: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/220.127.116.11/ sqlite-jdbc-18.104.22.168] release.
* Read-only conection, recursive trigger, foreign key validation support etc. using SQLiteConfig class.
SQLiteConfig config = new SQLiteConfig();
// ... other configuration can be set via SQLiteConfig object
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:sample.db", config.toProperties());
* 2009 November 12th: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.6.19/ sqlite-jdbc-3.6.19] release.
* added 64-bit OS support: 64-bit native SQLite binaries for Windows (x86_64), Mac (x86_64) and Linux (adm64) are available.
* 2009 August 19th: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/22.214.171.124/ sqlite-jdbc-126.96.36.199] released.
* 2009 July 2nd: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.6.16/ sqlite-jdbc-3.6.16] release.
* 2009 June 4th: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/188.8.131.52/ sqlite-jdbc-184.108.40.206] released.
* 2009 May 19th: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/220.127.116.11/ sqlite-jdbc-18.104.22.168] released. This version supports "jdbc:sqlite::resource:" syntax to access read-only DB files contained in JAR archives, or external resources specified via URL, local files address etc. (see also the [http://groups.google.com/group/xerial/browse_thread/thread/39acb38f99eb2469/fc6afceabeaa0f76?lnk=gst&q=resource#fc6afceabeaa0f76 detailes])
* 2009 February 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.11 released.
* Fixed a bug in !PrepStmt, which does not clear the batch contents after executeBatch(). [http://groups.google.com/group/xerial/browse_thread/thread/1fa83eb36f6d5dab Discussion].
* 2009 January 19th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.10 released. This version is compatible with sqlite version 3.6.10. http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_10.html
* Added READ_UNCOMMITTED mode support for better query performance: (see also http://www.sqlite.org/sharedcache.html )
// READ_UNCOMMITTED mode works only in shared_cache mode.
Properties prop = new Properties();
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:", prop);
* 2008 December 17th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.7 released. Related information: http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_7.html
* 2008 December 1st: sqlite-jdbc-22.214.171.124 released, which fixed a bug incorporated in the version 3.6.6 http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_6_2.html
* 2008 November 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.6 release. sqlite-3.6.6 changes: http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_6.html
�@* 2008 November 11th: sqlite-jdbc-126.96.36.199. A bug fix release
* Pure-java version didn't work correctly. Fixed in both 188.8.131.52 and 3.6.4. If you have already downloaded 3.6.4, please obtain the latest one on the download page.
* 2008 October 16th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.4 released. Changes from SQLite 3.6.3: http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_6_4.html
* R*-Tree index and UPDATE/DELTE syntax with LIMIT clause are available from this build.
* 2008 October 14th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.3 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.3.
* 2008 September 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.2 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.2 and contains pure-java and native versions.
* 2008 July 17th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.0 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.0, and includes both pure-java and native versions.
* 2008 July 3rd: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.5.9-universal sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-universal] released. This version contains both native and pure-java SQLite libraries, so it probably works in any OS environment.
* 2008 May 29th: Current development revision (sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-1) can be compiled with JDK 6. No need to use JDK 1.5 for compiling SQLiteJDBC.
* 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9 released.
* 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.8 released (corresponding to SQLite 3.5.8 and sqlite-jdbc-v047). From this release, Windows, Mac OS X, Linux (i386, amd64) and Solaris (SunOS, sparcv9) libraries are bundled into one jar file.
* 2008 May 1st: sqlite-jdbc is now in the maven central repository! [#UsingSQLiteJDBCwithMaven2 How to use SQLiteJDBC with Maven2]
* 2008 Mar. 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.7 released. This version corresponds to [http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_5_7.html SQLite 3.5.7].
* 2008 Mar. 10th: sqlite-jdbc-v042 released. Corresponding to SQLite 3.5.6, which integrates FTS3 (full text search).
* 2008 Jan. 31st: sqlite-jdbc-v038.4 released. SQLiteJDBCLoder.initialize() is no longer requried.
* 2008 Jan. 11th: The Jar files for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux are packed into a single Jar file! So, no longer need to use an OS-specific jar file.
* 2007 Dec. 31th: Upgraded to sqlitejdbc-v038
== Download ==
Download the latest version of SQLiteJDBC from [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc here].
* version 3.6.x is the latest one.
* Do not use sqlite-jdbc-v0xx.jar, which are obsolete libraries but left here for users still using these versions.
If your are an [http://maven.apache.org Maven] user, follow the instruction described [#UsingSQLiteJDBCwithMaven2 here].
=== Beta Release ===
The early releases (beta) of sqlite-jdbc with some advanced features are available from here:
== Supported Operating Systems ==
Since sqlite-jdbc-3.6.19, the natively compiled SQLite engines will be used for the following operating systems:
* Windows XP, Vista (Windows, x86 architecture, x86_64)
* Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), 10.5(Leopard), 10.6 SnowLeopard (for i386, x86_64, Intel CPU machines)
* Linux i386 (Intel), amd64 (64-bit X86 Intel processor)
In the other OSs not listed above, the pure-java SQLite is used.
If you want to use the native library for your OS, [#BuildfromSource build the source from scratch].
== Usage ==
1. Download sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar from [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/], then append this jar file into your classpath.
1. load the JDBC driver org.sqlite.JDBC from your code. (see the example below)
* Usage Example (Assuming sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar is placed in the current directory)
> javac Sample.java
> java -classpath ".;sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar" Sample # in Windows
> java -classpath ".:sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar" Sample # in Mac or Linux
name = leo
id = 1
name = yui
id = 2
public class Sample
public static void main(String args) throws ClassNotFoundException
// load the sqlite-JDBC driver using the current class loader
Connection connection = null;
// create a database connection
connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:sample.db");
Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
statement.setQueryTimeout(30); // set timeout to 30 sec.
statement.executeUpdate("drop table if exists person");
statement.executeUpdate("create table person (id integer, name string)");
statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(1, 'leo')");
statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(2, 'yui')");
ResultSet rs = statement.executeQuery("select * from person");
// read the result set
System.out.println("name = " + rs.getString("name"));
System.out.println("id = " + rs.getInt("id"));
// if the error message is "out of memory",
// it probably means no database file is found
if(connection != null)
// connection close failed.
The usage of SQLite-JDBC driver is the same with the original version. See http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc/ for the general usage. For usage of JDBC, see [http://www.xerial.org/trac/Xerial/wiki/WebApplication/JDBC my article] about JDBC.
== How to Specify Database Files ==
Here is an example to select a file C:\work\mydatabase.db (in Windows)
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:C:/work/mydatabase.db");
A UNIX (Linux, Mac OS X, etc) file /home/leo/work/mydatabase.db
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:/home/leo/work/mydatabase.db");
== How to Use Memory Databases ==
SQLite supports on-memory database management, which does not create any database files. To use a memory database in your Java code, get the database connection as follows:
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite::memory:");
== How to test the running mode: Native or Pure-Java Version? ==
// in your function ...
System.out.println(String.format("running in %s mode", SQLiteJDBCLoader.isNativeMode() ? "native" : "pure-java"));
== Run in Pure-Java mode ==
In some OS (e.g., old Linux kernel), loading native library causes JVM crashes. In this case, set sqlite.purejava=true JVM variable:
> java -Dsqlite.purejava=true -cp .:sqlite-jdbc-3.6.10.jar Sample
Or, set this System property before loading the JDBC driver:
In this mode, sqlite-jdbc never uses native SQLite libraries.
== How to use Online Backup and Restore Feature ==
* Take a backup of the whole database to "backup.db" file:
// Create a memory database
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:");
// Do some updates
stmt.executeUpdate("create table sample(id, name)");
stmt.executeUpdate("insert into sample values(1, \"leo\")");
stmt.executeUpdate("insert into sample values(2, \"yui\")");
// Dump the database contents to a file
stmt.executeUpdate("backup to backup.db");
* Restore the database from a backup file:
// Create a memory database
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:");
// Restore the database from a backup file
Statement stat = conn.createStatement();
stat.executeUpdate("restore from backup.db");
Another sample code is [http://code.google.com/p/xerial/source/browse/src/test/java/org/sqlite/BackupTest.java?repo=sqlite here].
== How does SQLiteJDBC work? ==
Our SQLite JDBC driver package (i.e., sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar) contains three types of native SQLite libraries (sqlite-jdbc.dll, sqlite-jdbc.jnilib, sqlite-jdbc.so), each of them is compiled for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. An appropriate native library file is automatically extracted into your OS's temporary folder, when your program loads "org.sqlite.JDBC" driver.
== Source Codes ==
* Mercurial Repository: http://code.google.com/p/xerial/source/checkout?repo=sqlite
$ hg clone https://sqlite.xerial.googlecode.com/hg/ sqlite-jdbc
* (obsolete) Subversion Repository: http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/trunk/sqlite-jdbc/
* source code snapshots for each version: http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/tags/sqlite-jdbc/
* version 3.6.11 snapshot: http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/tags/sqlite-jdbc/sqlite-jdbc-3.6.11
* web viewer: http://www.xerial.org/trac/Xerial/browser/XerialJ/trunk/sqlite-jdbc
== License ==
This program follows the Apache License version 2.0 (http://www.apache.org/licenses/ )
It allows you to:
* freely download and use this software, in whole or in part, for personal, company internal, or commercial purposes;
* use this software in packages or distributions that you create.
It forbids you to:
* redistribute any piece of our originated software without proper attribution;
* use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that we xerial.org endorse your distribution;
* use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that you created this software in question.
It requires you to:
* include a copy of the license in any redistribution you may make that includes this software;
* provide clear attribution to us, xerial.org for any distributions that include this software
It does not require you to:
* include the source of this software itself, or of any modifications you may have made to it, in any redistribution you may assemble that includes it;
* submit changes that you make to the software back to this software (though such feedback is encouraged).
See License FAQ http://www.apache.org/foundation/licence-FAQ.html for more details.
== Using SQLiteJDBC with Maven2 ==
If you are familier with [http://maven.apache.org Maven2], add the following XML fragments into your pom.xml file. With those settings, your Maven will automatically download our SQLiteJDBC library into your local Maven repository, since our sqlite-jdbc libraries are synchronized with the [http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ Maven's central repository].
== Using SQLiteJDBC with Tomcat6 Web Server ==
Do not include sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar in WEB-INF/lib folder of your web application package, since multiple web applications hosted by the same Tomcat server cannot load the sqlite-jdbc native library more than once. That is the specification of JNI (Java Native Interface). You will observe UnsatisfiedLinkError exception with the message "no SQLite library found".
Work-around of this problem is to put sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar file into (TOMCAT_HOME)/lib direcotry, in which multiple web applications can share the same native library file (.dll, .jnilib, .so) extracted from this sqlite-jdbc jar file.
If you are using Maven for your web application, set the dependency scope as 'provided', and manually put the SQLite JDBC jar file into (TOMCAT_HOME)/lib folder.
== Build from Source ==
If your OS is not supported, consider to build the [#SourceCodes source] from scratch.
* Install Java SDK (1.5 or higher) http://java.sun.com
* Install [http://mercurial.selenic.com/ Mercurial] (hg)
* Install Maven2 (2.0.7 or higher) http://maven.apache.org
* You need to set PATH variable so as to run mvn command. Here is an example setting for maven:
* Clone the Mercurial repository
hg clone https://sqlite.xerial.googlecode.com/hg/ sqlite-jdbc
* (If necessary) set the JAVA_HOME environment variable as your JDK folder (e.g. /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_13), and PATH so that you can run the javac command.
> export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.5.0_13/; export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
> javac -version
* Type make in the sqlite-jdbc folder:
* A new SQLite JDBC jar file that additionally supports your OS will be generated as target/sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar
=== Dependency Tests ===
* Windows XP (32-bit)
* dependency check
> DUMPBIN /DEPENDENTS sqlitejdbc.dll
* Mac OS X (10.4.10 Tiger ~ 10.5 Leopard)
* dependency check
> otool -L libsqlitejdbc.jnilib
build/Darwin-i386/libsqlitejdbc.jnilib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.0.0)
/usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 88.3.9)
* Linux (glibc-2.5.12)
* Dependency check
> ldd libsqlitejdbc.so
linux-gate.so.1 => (0x00b45000)
libc.so.6 => /lib/i686/nosegneg/libc.so.6 (0x002dd000)