sqlite-jdbc / SQLiteJDBC.wiki

[[PageOutline]]

= SQLite JDBC Driver =

SQLite JDBC driver, which is developed by [wiki:leo Taro L. Saito], is an extension of [http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc Zentus's SQLite JDBC driver] that enables you to access [http://sqlite.org SQLite] database files in Java codes.

Our SQLiteJDBC library, which is developed as a part of [http://www.xerial.org Xerial project], requires no configuration, since all native libraries for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Soralis, etc. and the pure-java SQLite, which works in any enviroment, are assembled into a single JAR (Java Archive) file. Usage is quite simple; [#Download Download] our sqlite-jdbc library, then append the jar file to your class path. 

== What is different from Zentus's SQLite JDBC? ==

The original Zentus's SQLite JDBC driver http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc/ itself is an excellent utility for using [http://sqlite.org SQLite] databases from Java language, and our SQLiteJDBC library also relies on its implementation. However, SQLite JDBC driver's pure-java version, which totally translates c/c++ codes of SQLite into Java, is significantly slower than its native version, which uses SQLite native binaries compiled for each OS (win, mac, linux). 

On the other hand, in order to use the native version, user has to set a path to the native codes (dll, jnilib, so files, which are JNDI C programs) by using command-line arguments, e.g., -Djava.library.path=(path to the dll, jnilib, etc.), or -Dorg.sqlite.lib.path, etc. This process is error-prone, and bothersome to tell every user to set these variables. Our SQLiteJDBC library completely does away these inconveniences. 


== Public Discussion Forum == 
 * Post bug reports or feature requests to [http://groups.google.com/group/xerial Xerial Public Discussion Group] 

== News ==
 * 2008 October 14th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.3 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.3.
 * 2008 September 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.2 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.2 and contains pure-java and native versions.
 * 2008 July 17th: sqlite-jdbc-3.6.0 released. Compatible with SQLite 3.6.0, and includes both pure-java and native versions. 
 * 2008 July 3rd: [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/3.5.9-universal sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-universal] released. This version contains both native and pure-java SQLite libraries, so it probably works in any OS environment.  

 * 2008 May 29th: Current development revision (sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-1) can be compiled with JDK 6. No need to use JDK 1.5 for compiling SQLiteJDBC. 
 * 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9 released.
 * 2008 May 20th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.8 released (corresponding to SQLite 3.5.8 and sqlite-jdbc-v047). From this release, Windows, Mac OS X, Linux (i386, amd64) and Solaris (SunOS, sparcv9) libraries are bundled into one jar file.
 * 2008 May 1st: sqlite-jdbc is now in the maven central repository! [#UsingSQLiteJDBCwithMaven2 How to use SQLiteJDBC with Maven2]
 * 2008 Mar. 18th: sqlite-jdbc-3.5.7 released. This version corresponds to [http://www.sqlite.org/releaselog/3_5_7.html SQLite 3.5.7].

 * 2008 Mar. 10th: sqlite-jdbc-v042 released. Corresponding to SQLite 3.5.6, which integrates FTS3 (full text search). 
 * 2008 Jan. 31st: sqlite-jdbc-v038.4 released.   SQLiteJDBCLoder.initialize() is no longer requried. 
 * 2008 Jan. 11th: The Jar files for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux are packed into a single Jar file! So, no longer need to use an OS-specific jar file.
 * 2007 Dec. 31th: Upgraded to sqlitejdbc-v038

== Download ==
Download the latest version of SQLiteJDBC from [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc here]. 
 * version 3.6.3 is the latest one. 
  * Do not use sqlite-jdbc-v0xx.jar, which are obsolete libraries but left here for users still using these versions. 

If your are an [http://maven.apache.org Maven] user, follow the instruction described [#UsingSQLiteJDBCwithMaven2 here].

== Supported Operating Systems ==
Since the sqlite-jdbc-3.5.9-universal, any OSs that can run Java programs are supported. The natively compiled SQLite engines will be used in the following operating systems:

 * Windows XP, Vista  (Windows, x86 architecture)
 * Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), 10.5(Leopard) (for i386, Intel CPU machines)
 * Linux i386 (Intel), amd64 (64-bit X86 Intel processor) 

In the other OSs not listed above, the pure-java SQLite is used.

If you want to use the native library for your OS, [#BuildfromSource build the source from scratch].


== Usage ==

 1. Download sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar from [http://www.xerial.org/maven/repository/artifact/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/], then append this jar file into your classpath. 
 1. load the JDBC driver org.sqlite.JDBC from your code. (see the example below)

 * Usage Example (Assuming sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar is placed in the current directory)
{{{
> javac Sample.java
> java -classpath ".:sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar" Sample 
name = leo
id = 1
name = yui
id = 2
}}}
 * Sample.java
{{{
#!java
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;


public class Sample
{
  public static void main(String[] args) throws ClassNotFoundException
  {
    // load the sqlite-JDBC driver using the current class loader
    Class.forName("org.sqlite.JDBC");
    
    Connection connection = null;
    try
    {
      // create a database connection
      connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:sample.db");
      Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
      statement.setQueryTimeout(30);  // set timeout to 30 sec.
      
      statement.executeUpdate("drop table if exists person");
      statement.executeUpdate("create table person (id integer, name string)");
      statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(1, 'leo')");
      statement.executeUpdate("insert into person values(2, 'yui')");
      ResultSet rs = statement.executeQuery("select * from person");
      while(rs.next())
      {
        // read the result set
        System.out.println("name = " + rs.getString("name"));
        System.out.println("id = " + rs.getInt("id"));
      }
    }
    catch(SQLException e)
    {
      // if the error message is "out of memory", 
      // it probably means no database file is found
      System.err.println(e.getMessage());
    }
    finally
    {
      try
      {
        if(connection != null)
          connection.close();
      }
      catch(SQLException e)
      {
        // connection close failed.
        System.err.println(e);
      }
    }
  }
}
}}}

The usage of SQLite-JDBC driver is the same with the original version. See http://www.zentus.com/sqlitejdbc/ for the general usage. For usage of JDBC, see  [http://www.xerial.org/trac/Xerial/wiki/WebApplication/JDBC my article] about JDBC.

== How to Specify Database Files ==
Here is an example to select a file C:\work\mydatabase.db (in Windows)
{{{
#!java
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:C:/work/mydatabase.db");
}}}

A UNIX (Linux, Mac OS X, etc) file /home/leo/work/mydatabase.db
{{{
#!java
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite:/home/leo/work/mydatabase.db");
}}}

== How to Use Memory Databases ==
SQLite supports on-memory database management, which does not create any database files. To use a memory database in your Java code, get the database connection as follows:
{{{
#!java
Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:sqlite::memory:");
}}}

== How to test the running mode: Native or Pure-Java Version? ==
{{{
#!java
import org.xerial.db.sql.sqlite.SQLiteJDBCLoader;

// in your function ...
void test()
{
  System.out.println(String.format("running in %s mode", SQLiteJDBCLoader.isNativeMode() ? "native" : "pure-java"));
}


}}}

== Run in Pure-Java mode ==

In some OS (e.g., old Linux kernel), loading native library causes JVM crashes. In this case, set sqlite.purejava=true JVM variable:
{{{
 > java -Dsqlite.purejava=true -cp .:sqlite-jdbc-3.6.3.jar Sample
}}}

Or, set this System property before loading the JDBC driver:
{{{
  System.setProperty("sqlite.purejava", "true");
  Class.forName("org.sqlite.JDBC");
}}}

In this mode, sqlite-jdbc never uses native SQLite libraries.

== How does SQLiteJDBC work? ==

Our SQLite JDBC driver package (i.e., sqlite-jdbc-(VERSION).jar) contains three types of native SQLite libraries (sqlite-jdbc.dll, sqlite-jdbc.jnilib, sqlite-jdbc.so), each of them is compiled for Windows, Mac OS and Linux. An appropriate native library file is automatically extracted into your OS's temporary folder, when your program loads "org.sqlite.JDBC" driver.  

== Source Codes ==
 * Subversion Repository: http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/trunk/sqlite-jdbc/
   * version 3.6.3 snapshot: http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/tags/sqlite-jdbc/sqlite-jdbc-3.6.3

web viewer: http://www.xerial.org/trac/Xerial/browser/XerialJ/trunk/sqlite-jdbc

== License ==

This program follows the Apache License version 2.0 (http://www.apache.org/licenses/ )
That means:

It allows you to:
    * freely download and use this software, in whole or in part, for personal, company internal, or commercial purposes;
    * use this software in packages or distributions that you create.

It forbids you to:
    * redistribute any piece of our originated software without proper attribution;
    * use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that we xerial.org endorse your distribution;
    * use any marks owned by us in any way that might state or imply that you created this software in question.

It requires you to:
    * include a copy of the license in any redistribution you may make that includes this software;
    * provide clear attribution to us, xerial.org for any distributions that include this software

It does not require you to:
    * include the source of this software itself, or of any modifications you may have made to it, in any redistribution you may assemble that includes it;
    * submit changes that you make to the software back to this software (though such feedback is encouraged).

See License FAQ http://www.apache.org/foundation/licence-FAQ.html for more details.

== Using SQLiteJDBC with Maven2 ==
If you are familier with [http://maven.apache.org Maven2], add the following XML fragments into your pom.xml file. With those settings, your Maven will automatically download our SQLiteJDBC library into your local Maven repository, since our sqlite-jdbc libraries are synchronized with the [http://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/xerial/sqlite-jdbc/ Maven's central repository]. 

{{{
#!xml
  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.xerial</groupId>
      <artifactId>sqlite-jdbc</artifactId>
      <version>3.6.3</version>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
}}}

== Using SQLiteJDBC with Tomcat6 Web Server ==
Do not include sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar in WEB-INF/lib folder of your web application package, since multiple web applications hosted by the same Tomcat server cannot load the sqlite-jdbc native library more than once. That is the specification of JNI (Java Native Interface). You will observe UnsatisfiedLinkError exception with the message "no SQLite library found".

Work-around of this problem is to put sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar file into (TOMCAT_HOME)/lib direcotry, in which multiple web applications can share the same native library file (.dll, .jnilib, .so) extracted from this sqlite-jdbc jar file. 

If you are using Maven for your web application, set the dependency scope as 'provided', and manually put the SQLite JDBC jar file into (TOMCAT_HOME)/lib folder.
{{{
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.xerial</groupId>
      <artifactId>sqlite-jdbc</artifactId>
      <version>3.6.3</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
}}}

== Build from Source ==

If your OS is not supported, consider to build the [#SourceCodes source] from scratch. 

  * Install Java SDK (1.5 or higher) http://java.sun.com
  * Install [wiki:Subversion Subversion]
  * Install Maven2 (2.0.7 or higher) http://maven.apache.org
     * You need to set PATH variable so as to run mvn command. Here is an example setting for maven:
{{{
export MAVEN_HOME=$HOME/local/maven-2.0.7
export PATH=$MAVEN_HOME/bin:$PATH
}}}
  * Checkout the subversion repository
{{{ 
 svn checkout http://www.xerial.org/svn/project/XerialJ/trunk/sqlite-jdbc sqlite-jdbc
}}}
  * (If necessary) set the JAVA_HOME environment variable as your JDK folder (e.g. /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_13), and PATH so that you can run the javac command.
{{{
 > export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.5.0_13/; export PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH
 > javac -version
 javac 1.5.0_13
}}}
  * Type make in the sqlite-jdbc folder:
{{{
 > make 
}}}
  * An SQLite JDBC JAR file that can additionally support your OS is generated in target/sqlite-jdbc-(version).jar

=== Dependency Tests ===
 * Windows XP (32-bit)
   * dependency check
{{{
> DUMPBIN /DEPENDENTS sqlitejdbc.dll

  KERNEL32.dll
  msvcrt.dll
}}}
 * Mac OS X (10.4.10 Tiger ~ 10.5 Leopard)
   * dependency check
{{{
> otool -L libsqlitejdbc.jnilib  
libsqlitejdbc.jnilib:
        build/Darwin-i386/libsqlitejdbc.jnilib (compatibility version 0.0.0, current version 0.0.0)
        /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 88.3.9)
}}}
 * Linux (glibc-2.5.12)
   * Dependency check
{{{
> ldd libsqlitejdbc.so    
        linux-gate.so.1 =>  (0x00b45000)
        libc.so.6 => /lib/i686/nosegneg/libc.so.6 (0x002dd000)
        /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x47969000)
}}}
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