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grrdrr / algorithm.py

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from model import (ensure, WithArcWeight, WithNodeRank, WithLayers, WithBeadOrder,
                   WithGraphSize, WithNodeDimensions, WithGraphMargins,
                   WithNodePosition, WithArcVertices, WithArcPolarity)
import itertools


def rank(graph):
    return rank_feedback(graph)


def rank_feedback(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcWeight), "without arc weights", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithNodeRank), "already with node ranks", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithNodeRank)

    def get_cycle(forbidden):

        path = []
        active = {}
        visited = set()

        def dfs(node):
            if node in visited:
                return None
            if node in active:
                cycle = path[active[node]:]
                return cycle
            active[node] = len(path)
            for arc in node.outgoing:
                if arc in forbidden:
                    continue
                path.append(arc)
                cycle = dfs(arc.target)
                if cycle is not None:
                    return cycle
                path.pop()
            visited.add(node)
            return None

        for node in graph.nodes:
            cycle = dfs(node)
            if cycle is not None:
                return cycle
        return None

    def get_node_weights(forbidden):
        weights = {}
        active = set()

        def dfs(node):
            assert node not in weights and node not in active
            active.add(node)
            total = 0.0
            for arc in node.outgoing:
                if arc in forbidden:
                    continue
                if arc.target not in weights:
                    weights[arc.target] = dfs(arc.target)
                total += arc.weight.value + weights[arc.target]
            return total

        for node in graph.nodes:
            if node not in weights:
                weights[node] = dfs(node)
        return weights

    feedback = []
    arc_weights = dict((arc, arc.weight.value) for arc in graph.arcs)

    cycle = get_cycle(feedback)
    while cycle is not None:
        min_weight = min(arc_weights[arc] for arc in cycle)
        for arc in cycle:
            if arc_weights[arc] == min_weight:
                feedback.append(arc)
            arc_weights[arc] -= min_weight
        cycle = get_cycle(feedback)

    for arc in feedback[:]:
        feedback.remove(arc)
        cycle = get_cycle(feedback)
        if cycle is not None:
            feedback.append(arc)

    node_weights = get_node_weights(feedback)
    ordered_nodes = sorted(graph.nodes, key=(lambda node: node_weights[node]))
    for value, node in enumerate(ordered_nodes):
        node.set_rank(value)

    graph.freeze(WithNodeRank)

    return graph


def rank_greedy(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcWeight), "without arc weights", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithNodeRank), "already with node ranks", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithNodeRank)

    selected = []
    while len(selected) < len(graph.nodes):
        candidates = []
        min_outdegree = None
        for node in graph.nodes:
            if node in selected:
                continue
            outdegree = sum(arc.weight.value for arc in node.outgoing
                            if arc.target not in selected and arc.target is not node)
            if min_outdegree is None or outdegree < min_outdegree:
                candidates = [node]
                min_outdegree = outdegree
            elif outdegree == min_outdegree:
                candidates.append(node)
        if selected:
            parent = selected[-1]
            if set(parent.neighbors) & set(candidates):
                candidates = [node for node in candidates if node in parent.neighbors]
        next_node = None
        min_degree = None
        for node in candidates:
            degree = (sum(arc.weight.value for arc in node.incoming
                          if arc.origin not in selected and arc.origin is not node) +
                      sum(arc.weight.value for arc in node.outgoing
                          if arc.target not in selected and arc.target is not node))
            if min_degree is None or degree < min_degree:
                next_node = node
                min_degree = degree
        selected.append(next_node)

    for value, node in enumerate(selected):
        node.set_rank(value)

    graph.freeze(WithNodeRank)

    return graph


def polarize(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcWeight), "without arc weights", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeRank), "without node ranks", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithArcPolarity), "already with arc polarity", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithArcPolarity)

    nodes = graph.nodes_by_rank
    polarity_by_arc = {}

    node = nodes[0]
    for next_node in nodes[1:]:
        for arc in node.incoming:
            if arc.origin in [node, next_node]:
                polarity_by_arc[arc] = 0
        for arc in node.outgoing:
            if arc.target in [node, next_node]:
                polarity_by_arc[arc] = 0
        node = next_node

    for polarity in [-1, 1]:
        arcs_by_range = {}
        weight_by_range = {}
        for length in range(1, len(nodes)):
            for start in range(len(nodes)-length):
                end = start+length
                if length == 1:
                    arcs_by_range[start, end] = []
                    weight_by_range[start, end] = 0.0
                else:
                    arcs = []
                    weight = 0.0
                    for arc in graph.arcs:
                        if arc in polarity_by_arc:
                            continue
                        if ((arc.origin.rank.value == start and arc.target.rank.value == end) or
                            (arc.origin.rank.value == end and arc.target.rank.value == start)):
                            arcs.append(arc)
                            weight += arc.weight.value
                    best_sep = None
                    for sep in range(start+1, end):
                        if best_sep is None or (weight_by_range[start, sep]+weight_by_range[sep, end] >
                                                weight_by_range[start, best_sep]+weight_by_range[best_sep, end]):
                            best_sep = sep
                    arcs += arcs_by_range[start, best_sep] + arcs_by_range[best_sep, end]
                    weight += weight_by_range[start, best_sep] + weight_by_range[best_sep, end]
                    arcs_by_range[start, end] = arcs
                    weight_by_range[start, end] = weight
        for arc in arcs_by_range[0, len(nodes)-1]:
            polarity_by_arc[arc] = polarity

    for arc in graph.arcs:
        if arc in polarity_by_arc:
            continue
        start = min(arc.origin.rank.value, arc.target.rank.value)
        end = max(arc.origin.rank.value, arc.target.rank.value)
        left_crosses = 0.0
        right_crosses = 0.0
        for other_arc in graph.arcs:
            polarity = polarity_by_arc.get(other_arc, 0)
            if not polarity:
                continue
            other_start = min(other_arc.origin.rank.value, other_arc.target.rank.value)
            other_end = max(other_arc.origin.rank.value, other_arc.target.rank.value)
            if (start < other_start < end < other_end) or (other_start < start < other_end < end):
                if polarity < 0:
                    left_crosses += other_arc.weight.value
                elif polarity > 0:
                    right_crosses += other_arc.weight.value
        if left_crosses < right_crosses:
            polarity_by_arc[arc] = -1
        else:
            polarity_by_arc[arc] = +1

    for arc in graph.arcs:
        value = polarity_by_arc[arc]
        arc.set_polarity(value)

    graph.freeze(WithArcPolarity)

    return graph


def layer(graph):
    return layer_respecting_rank(graph)


def layer_neatly(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeRank), "without node ranks", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithLayers), "already with layers", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithLayers)

    max_nodes_per_layer = int(len(graph.nodes)**0.5)+1
    nodes = graph.nodes_by_rank[:]
    while nodes:
        candidates = []
        for node in nodes:
            for neighbor in node.neighbors:
                if neighbor in candidates:
                    break
            else:
                candidates.append(node)
                if len(candidates) > max_nodes_per_layer:
                    break
        layer = graph.add_layer()
        for node in candidates:
            layer.add_node_bead(node)
            nodes.remove(node)

    for arc in graph.arcs:
        head = min(arc.origin.layer.idx, arc.target.layer.idx) + 1
        tail = max(arc.origin.layer.idx, arc.target.layer.idx)
        for idx in range(head, tail):
            graph.layers[idx].add_arc_bead(arc)

    graph.freeze(WithLayers)

    return graph


def layer_respecting_rank(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeRank), "without node ranks", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithLayers), "already with layers", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithLayers)

    max_nodes_per_layer = int(len(graph.nodes)**0.5)+1
    nodes = graph.nodes_by_rank[:]
    while nodes:
        candidates = []
        for node in nodes:
            for neighbor in node.neighbors:
                if neighbor.rank.value < node.rank.value and neighbor.layer is None:
                    break
            else:
                candidates.append(node)
                if len(candidates) > max_nodes_per_layer:
                    break
        layer = graph.add_layer()
        for node in candidates:
            layer.add_node_bead(node)
            nodes.remove(node)

    for arc in graph.arcs:
        head = min(arc.origin.layer.idx, arc.target.layer.idx) + 1
        tail = max(arc.origin.layer.idx, arc.target.layer.idx)
        for idx in range(head, tail):
            graph.layers[idx].add_arc_bead(arc)

    graph.freeze(WithLayers)

    return graph


def order(graph):
    return order_median(graph)


def order_by_default(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcWeight), "without arc weights", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithBeadOrder), "already with bead orders", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithBeadOrder)

    for layer in graph.layers:
        for order, bead in enumerate(layer.beads):
            bead.set_order(order)

    graph.freeze(WithBeadOrder)

    return graph


def order_optimally(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcWeight), "without arc weights", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithBeadOrder), "already with bead orders", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithBeadOrder)

    layer = graph.layers[0]
    indexes = range(len(layer.beads))
    shuffles = list(itertools.permutations(indexes))
    crosses = {}
    solutions = {}
    for shuffle in shuffles:
        crosses[shuffle] = 0.0
        solutions[shuffle] = [shuffle]

    for next_layer in graph.layers[1:]:
        next_indexes = range(len(next_layer.beads))
        next_shuffles = list(itertools.permutations(next_indexes))
        next_crosses = {}
        next_solutions = {}

        weights = {}
        for idx, bead in enumerate(layer.beads):
            for next_idx, next_bead in enumerate(next_layer.beads):
                arcs = []
                if bead.is_node:
                    for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                        if next_bead.is_node and next_bead.node in [arc.origin, arc.target]:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                        elif next_bead.is_arc and next_bead.arc is arc:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                else:
                    if next_bead.is_node and bead.arc in next_bead.node.incoming+next_bead.node.outgoing:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                    elif next_bead.is_arc and bead.arc is next_bead.arc:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                weight = 0.0
                for arc in arcs:
                    weight += arc.weight.value
                weights[idx, next_idx] = weight

        for next_shuffle in next_shuffles:

            crossings = {}
            for left_idx in indexes:
                for right_idx in indexes:
                    crossing = 0.0
                    if left_idx != right_idx:
                        for next_left_idx in next_indexes:
                            left_weight = weights[left_idx, next_left_idx]
                            for next_right_idx in next_indexes:
                                right_weight = weights[right_idx, next_right_idx]
                                if next_shuffle[next_left_idx] > next_shuffle[next_right_idx]:
                                    crossing += left_weight*right_weight
                    crossings[left_idx, right_idx] = crossing

            min_cross = None
            min_solution = None

            for shuffle in shuffles:
                cross = crosses[shuffle]
                for left_idx in indexes:
                    for right_idx in indexes:
                        if shuffle[left_idx] < shuffle[right_idx]:
                            cross += crossings[left_idx, right_idx]
                if min_cross is None or cross < min_cross:
                    min_cross = cross
                    min_solution = solutions[shuffle]

            next_crosses[next_shuffle] = min_cross
            next_solutions[next_shuffle] = min_solution+[next_shuffle]

        layer = next_layer
        indexes = next_indexes
        shuffles = next_shuffles
        crosses = next_crosses
        solutions = next_solutions

    min_cross = None
    min_solution = None
    for shuffle in shuffles:
        cross = crosses[shuffle]
        if min_cross is None or cross < min_cross:
            min_cross = cross
            min_solution = solutions[shuffle]

    for layer, shuffle in zip(graph.layers, min_solution):
        for bead, value in zip(layer.beads, shuffle):
            bead.set_order(value)

    graph.freeze(WithBeadOrder)

    return graph


def order_dfs(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithBeadOrder), "already with bead orders", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithBeadOrder)

    next_order_by_layer = {}
    for layer in graph.layers:
        next_order_by_layer[layer] = 0

    stack = []
    stack.extend(reversed(graph.beads))
    while stack:
        bead = stack.pop()
        if bead.order is not None:
            continue
        value = next_order_by_layer[bead.layer]
        bead.set_order(value)
        next_order_by_layer[bead.layer] = value+1
        stack.extend(bead.neighbors)

    graph.freeze(WithBeadOrder)

    return graph


def order_transpose(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithBeadOrder), "already with bead orders", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithBeadOrder)

    weights = {}
    layer = graph.layers[0]
    for next_layer in graph.layers[1:]:
        for bead in layer.beads:
            for next_bead in next_layer.beads:
                arcs = []
                if bead.is_node:
                    for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                        if next_bead.is_node and next_bead.node in [arc.origin, arc.target]:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                        elif next_bead.is_arc and next_bead.arc is arc:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                else:
                    if next_bead.is_node and bead.arc in next_bead.node.incoming+next_bead.node.outgoing:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                    elif next_bead.is_arc and bead.arc is next_bead.arc:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                weight = 0.0
                for arc in arcs:
                    weight += arc.weight.value
                weights[bead, next_bead] = weight
        layer = next_layer

    order_by_bead = {}
    next_order_by_layer = {}
    for layer in graph.layers:
        next_order_by_layer[layer] = 0
    stack = []
    stack.extend(reversed(graph.beads))
    while stack:
        bead = stack.pop()
        if bead in order_by_bead:
            continue
        value = next_order_by_layer[bead.layer]
        order_by_bead[bead] = value
        next_order_by_layer[bead.layer] = value+1
        stack.extend(bead.neighbors)

    improved = True
    while improved:
        improved = False
        for prev_layer, layer, next_layer in zip([None]+graph.layers[:-1], graph.layers, graph.layers[1:]+[None]):
            prev_beads = None
            if prev_layer is not None:
                prev_beads = sorted(prev_layer.beads, key=(lambda bead: order_by_bead[bead]))
            beads = sorted(layer.beads, key=(lambda bead: order_by_bead[bead]))
            next_beads = None
            if next_layer is not None:
                next_beads = sorted(next_layer.beads, key=(lambda bead: order_by_bead[bead]))
            for idx in range(len(beads)-1):
                left = beads[idx]
                right = beads[idx+1]
                direct = 0.0
                reverse = 0.0
                if prev_beads is not None:
                    for left_neighbor in prev_beads:
                        left_weight = weights[left_neighbor, left]
                        for right_neighbor in prev_beads:
                            right_weight = weights[right_neighbor, right]
                            if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] > order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                direct += left_weight*right_weight
                            if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] < order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                reverse += left_weight*right_weight
                if next_beads is not None:
                    for left_neighbor in next_beads:
                        left_weight = weights[left, left_neighbor]
                        for right_neighbor in next_beads:
                            right_weight = weights[right, right_neighbor]
                            if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] > order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                direct += left_weight*right_weight
                            if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] < order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                reverse += left_weight*right_weight
                if reverse < direct or (reverse == direct and left.idx < right.idx):
                    beads[idx] = right
                    beads[idx+1] = left
                    order_by_bead[left] = idx+1
                    order_by_bead[right] = idx
                    improved = True

    for bead in graph.beads:
        value = order_by_bead[bead]
        bead.set_order(value)

    graph.freeze(WithBeadOrder)

    return graph


def order_median(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithBeadOrder), "already with bead orders", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithBeadOrder)

    weights = {}
    layer = graph.layers[0]
    for next_layer in graph.layers[1:]:
        for bead in layer.beads:
            for next_bead in next_layer.beads:
                arcs = []
                if bead.is_node:
                    for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                        if next_bead.is_node and next_bead.node in [arc.origin, arc.target]:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                        elif next_bead.is_arc and next_bead.arc is arc:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                else:
                    if next_bead.is_node and bead.arc in next_bead.node.incoming+next_bead.node.outgoing:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                    elif next_bead.is_arc and bead.arc is next_bead.arc:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                weight = 0.0
                for arc in arcs:
                    weight += arc.weight.value
                weights[bead, next_bead] = weight
                weights[next_bead, bead] = weight
        layer = next_layer

    order_by_bead = {}
    next_order_by_layer = {}
    for layer in graph.layers:
        next_order_by_layer[layer] = 0
    stack = []
    stack.extend(reversed(graph.beads))
    while stack:
        bead = stack.pop()
        if bead in order_by_bead:
            continue
        value = next_order_by_layer[bead.layer]
        order_by_bead[bead] = value
        next_order_by_layer[bead.layer] = value+1
        stack.extend(bead.neighbors)

    next_layouts = zip(graph.layers[1:], graph.layers[:-1])
    current_layouts = zip(graph.layers[:-1][::-1], graph.layers[1:][::-1])
    for count in range(len(graph.beads)):
        current_layouts, next_layouts = next_layouts, current_layouts

        for layer, opposite_layer in current_layouts:
            beads = sorted(layer.beads, key=(lambda bead: order_by_bead[bead]))
            medians = {}
            for bead in beads:
                neighbors = sorted(order_by_bead[neighbor]
                                  for neighbor in opposite_layer.beads if weights[bead,neighbor] > 0.0)
                if not neighbors:
                    value = order_by_bead[bead]
                else:
                    length = len(neighbors)
                    if length % 2 == 1:
                        value = neighbors[length/2]
                    elif length == 2:
                        value = 0.5*sum(neighbors)
                    else:
                        l = neighbors[length/2-1] - neighbors[0]
                        r = neighbors[-1] - neighbors[length/2]
                        value = 1.0*(l*neighbors[length/2-1]+r*neighbors[length/2])/(l+r)
                medians[bead] = value
            beads = sorted(beads, key=(lambda bead: medians[bead]))
            for idx, bead in enumerate(beads):
                order_by_bead[bead] = idx

        improved = True
        while improved:
            improved = False
            for prev_layer, layer, next_layer in zip([None]+graph.layers[:-1],
                                                     graph.layers,
                                                     graph.layers[1:]+[None])[::-1]:
                beads = sorted(layer.beads, key=(lambda bead: order_by_bead[bead]))
                for idx in range(len(beads)-1):
                    left = beads[idx]
                    right = beads[idx+1]
                    direct = 0.0
                    reverse = 0.0
                    for opposite_layer in [prev_layer, next_layer]:
                        if opposite_layer is None:
                            continue
                        for left_neighbor in opposite_layer.beads:
                            left_weight = weights[left_neighbor, left]
                            for right_neighbor in opposite_layer.beads:
                                right_weight = weights[right_neighbor, right]
                                if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] > order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                    direct += left_weight*right_weight
                                if order_by_bead[left_neighbor] < order_by_bead[right_neighbor]:
                                    reverse += left_weight*right_weight
                    if reverse < direct:
                        beads[idx] = right
                        beads[idx+1] = left
                        order_by_bead[left] = idx+1
                        order_by_bead[right] = idx
                        improved = True

    for bead in graph.beads:
        value = order_by_bead[bead]
        bead.set_order(value)

    graph.freeze(WithBeadOrder)

    return graph


def place(graph):
    return place_simplex(graph)


def place_uniform(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithBeadOrder), "without bead orders", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeDimensions), "without node dimensions", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithGraphMargins), "without graph margins", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithGraphSize), "already with graph size", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithNodePosition), "already with node positions", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithArcVertices), "already with arc vertices", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithGraphSize)
    graph.upgrade(WithNodePosition)
    graph.upgrade(WithArcVertices)

    width = graph.margins.horizontal
    height = graph.margins.vertical
    for layer in graph.layers:
        layer_width = (len(layer.beads)+1)*graph.margins.horizontal
        layer_height = 0
        for bead in layer.beads:
            if bead.is_node:
                layer_width += bead.node.dimensions.width
        for bead in layer.beads:
            if bead.is_node:
                layer_height = max(layer_height, bead.node.dimensions.height)
        width = max(width, layer_width)
        height += layer_height+graph.margins.vertical
    graph.set_size(width, height)

    top = graph.margins.vertical
    for layer in graph.layers:
        left = graph.margins.horizontal
        height = 0
        density = 0
        for bead in layer.beads:
            if bead.is_node:
                height = max(height, bead.node.dimensions.height)
                density += bead.node.dimensions.width
        spread = 0
        if len(layer.beads) > 1:
            spread = (graph.size.width-2*graph.margins.horizontal-density) / (len(layer.beads)-1)
        else:
            left += (graph.size.width-2*graph.margins.horizontal-density) / 2
        for bead in layer.beads_by_order:
            if bead.is_node:
                w = bead.node.dimensions.width
                h = bead.node.dimensions.height
                x = left
                y = top + (height-h)/2
                cx = x+w/2
                cy = y+h/2
                bead.node.set_position(x, y, w, h)
                for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                    arc.add_vertex(cx, cy)
                left += w+spread
            if bead.is_arc:
                x = left
                y = top + height/2
                bead.arc.add_vertex(x, y)
                left += spread
        top += height+graph.margins.vertical

    graph.freeze(WithGraphSize)
    graph.freeze(WithNodePosition)
    graph.freeze(WithArcVertices)

    return graph


def debug_simplex(A, B, C):
    M = len(B)
    N = len(C)
    print
    print "A:"
    for i in range(M):
        for j in range(N):
            print A[i,j],
        print
    print "B:"
    for i in range(M):
        print B[i],
    print
    print "C:"
    for j in range(N):
        print C[j],
    print

def simplex(A, B, C):
    M = len(B)
    N = len(C)
    A = dict((key, float(A[key])) for key in A)
    B = [float(b) for b in B]
    C = [float(-c) for c in C]
    X = [i for i in range(M)]
    Y = [None for j in range(N)]
    #debug_simplex(A, B, C)

    eps = 1e-5
    assert all(b >= -eps for b in B)
    while not all(c >= -eps for c in C):
        i0 = None
        j0 = None
        for j in range(N):
            if C[j] < -eps:
                j0 = j
                break
        for i in range(M):
            if A[i,j0] > eps:
                if i0 is None or B[i]/A[i,j0] < B[i0]/A[i0,j0]:
                    i0 = i
        assert i0 is not None
        AA = {}
        BB = [None]*M
        CC = [None]*N
        for i in range(M):
            for j in range(N):
                if i == i0 and j == j0:
                    AA[i,j] = 1/A[i0,j0]
                elif i == i0:
                    AA[i,j] = A[i,j]/A[i0,j0]
                elif j == j0:
                    AA[i,j] = -A[i,j]/A[i0,j0]
                else:
                    AA[i,j] = A[i,j]-A[i0,j]*A[i,j0]/A[i0,j0]
        for i in range(M):
            if i == i0:
                BB[i] = B[i]/A[i0,j0]
            else:
                BB[i] = B[i]-B[i0]*A[i,j0]/A[i0,j0]
        for j in range(N):
            if j == j0:
                CC[j] = -C[j]/A[i0,j0]
            else:
                CC[j] = C[j]-A[i0,j]*C[j0]/A[i0,j0]
        A, B, C = AA, BB, CC
        X[i0], Y[j0] = Y[j0], X[i0]
        #print
        #print "pivot:", (i0, j0)
        #debug_simplex(A, B, C)

    #debug_simplex(A, B, C)
    solution = [0]*M
    for y, c in zip(Y, C):
        if y is not None:
            solution[y] = int(c)
    #print "solution:", solution
    return solution


def place_simplex(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithLayers), "without layers", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithBeadOrder), "without bead orders", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeDimensions), "without node dimensions", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithGraphMargins), "without graph margins", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithGraphSize), "already with graph size", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithNodePosition), "already with node positions", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithArcVertices), "already with arc vertices", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithGraphSize)
    graph.upgrade(WithNodePosition)
    graph.upgrade(WithArcVertices)

    A = {}
    B = []
    C = []
    delta = graph.margins.horizontal
    for layer in graph.layers:
        beads = layer.beads_by_order
        bead = beads[0]
        for next_bead in beads[1:]:
            c = delta
            if bead.is_node:
                c += bead.node.dimensions.width/2
            if next_bead.is_node:
                c += next_bead.node.dimensions.width/2
            i1 = bead.idx
            i2 = next_bead.idx
            j = len(C)
            A[i1,j] = -1
            A[i2,j] = +1
            C.append(c)
            bead = next_bead
    B += [0]*len(graph.beads)
    layer = graph.layers[0]
    for next_layer in graph.layers[1:]:
        for bead in layer.beads:
            for next_bead in next_layer.beads:
                arcs = []
                if bead.is_node:
                    for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                        if next_bead.is_node and next_bead.node in [arc.origin, arc.target]:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                        elif next_bead.is_arc and next_bead.arc is arc:
                            arcs.append(arc)
                else:
                    if next_bead.is_node and bead.arc in next_bead.node.incoming+next_bead.node.outgoing:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                    elif next_bead.is_arc and bead.arc is next_bead.arc:
                        arcs.append(bead.arc)
                b = 0.0
                for arc in arcs:
                    b += arc.weight.value
                if bead.is_arc and next_bead.is_arc:
                    b *= 8
                elif bead.is_arc or next_bead.is_arc:
                    b *= 4
                if b:
                    i1 = bead.idx
                    i2 = next_bead.idx
                    i3 = len(B)
                    j1 = len(C)
                    j2 = len(C)+1
                    A[i1,j1] = -1
                    A[i2,j1] = +1
                    A[i3,j1] = +1
                    A[i1,j2] = +1
                    A[i2,j2] = -1
                    A[i3,j2] = +1
                    B.append(b)
                    C.append(0)
                    C.append(0)
        layer = next_layer
    for i in range(len(B)):
        for j in range(len(C)):
            if (i,j) not in A:
                A[i,j] = 0

    centers = simplex(A, B, C)
    left = None
    right = None
    for bead in graph.beads:
        l = r = centers[bead.idx]
        if bead.is_node:
            l -= bead.node.dimensions.width/2
            r += bead.node.dimensions.width/2
        if left is None or l < left:
            left = l
        if right is None or r > right:
            right = r
    width = graph.margins.horizontal*2 + (right-left)
    height = graph.margins.vertical
    for layer in graph.layers:
        layer_height = 0
        for bead in layer.beads:
            if bead.is_node:
                layer_height = max(layer_height, bead.node.dimensions.height)
        height += layer_height+graph.margins.vertical
    graph.set_size(width, height)
    shift = graph.margins.horizontal-left

    top = graph.margins.vertical
    for layer in graph.layers:
        height = 0
        for bead in layer.beads:
            if bead.is_node:
                height = max(height, bead.node.dimensions.height)
        for bead in layer.beads_by_order:
            if bead.is_node:
                w = bead.node.dimensions.width
                h = bead.node.dimensions.height
                x = shift+centers[bead.idx]-w/2
                y = top + (height-h)/2
                cx = x+w/2
                cy = y+h/2
                bead.node.set_position(x, y, w, h)
                for arc in bead.node.incoming+bead.node.outgoing:
                    arc.add_vertex(cx, cy)
            if bead.is_arc:
                x = shift+centers[bead.idx]
                y = top + height/2
                bead.arc.add_vertex(x, y)
        top += height+graph.margins.vertical

    graph.freeze(WithGraphSize)
    graph.freeze(WithNodePosition)
    graph.freeze(WithArcVertices)

    return graph


def place_polarized(graph):
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeRank), "without node ranks", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithArcPolarity), "without arc polarity", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithNodeDimensions), "without node dimensions", graph)
    ensure(graph.readonly(WithGraphMargins), "without graph margins", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithGraphSize), "already with graph size", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithNodePosition), "already with node positions", graph)
    ensure(not graph.readable(WithArcVertices), "already with arc vertices", graph)

    graph.upgrade(WithGraphSize)
    graph.upgrade(WithNodePosition)
    graph.upgrade(WithArcVertices)

    width = 0
    height = 0
    for node in graph.nodes:
        width = max(width, node.dimensions.width)
        height += node.dimensions.height+graph.margins.vertical
    width *= 3
    width += 2*graph.margins.horizontal
    height += graph.margins.vertical
    graph.set_size(width, height)

    top = graph.margins.vertical
    center = width/2
    for node in graph.nodes_by_rank:
        x = center-node.dimensions.width/2
        y = top
        w = node.dimensions.width
        h = node.dimensions.height
        node.set_position(x, y, w, h)
        top += node.dimensions.height+graph.margins.vertical

    left = graph.margins.horizontal
    right = width-graph.margins.horizontal
    for arc in graph.arcs:
        start = arc.origin.position.y + arc.origin.position.h/2
        end = arc.target.position.y + arc.target.position.h/2
        arc.add_vertex(center, start)
        if arc.polarity.value < 0:
            arc.add_vertex(left, (start+end)/2)
        elif arc.polarity.value > 0:
            arc.add_vertex(right, (start+end)/2)
        arc.add_vertex(center, end)

    graph.freeze(WithGraphSize)
    graph.freeze(WithNodePosition)
    graph.freeze(WithArcVertices)

    return graph