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sqlalchemy / lib / sqlalchemy / ext / mutable.py

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# ext/mutable.py
# Copyright (C) 2005-2014 the SQLAlchemy authors and contributors <see AUTHORS file>
#
# This module is part of SQLAlchemy and is released under
# the MIT License: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php

"""Provide support for tracking of in-place changes to scalar values,
which are propagated into ORM change events on owning parent objects.

.. versionadded:: 0.7 :mod:`sqlalchemy.ext.mutable` replaces SQLAlchemy's
   legacy approach to in-place mutations of scalar values; see
   :ref:`07_migration_mutation_extension`.

.. _mutable_scalars:

Establishing Mutability on Scalar Column Values
===============================================

A typical example of a "mutable" structure is a Python dictionary.
Following the example introduced in :ref:`types_toplevel`, we
begin with a custom type that marshals Python dictionaries into
JSON strings before being persisted::

    from sqlalchemy.types import TypeDecorator, VARCHAR
    import json

    class JSONEncodedDict(TypeDecorator):
        "Represents an immutable structure as a json-encoded string."

        impl = VARCHAR

        def process_bind_param(self, value, dialect):
            if value is not None:
                value = json.dumps(value)
            return value

        def process_result_value(self, value, dialect):
            if value is not None:
                value = json.loads(value)
            return value

The usage of ``json`` is only for the purposes of example. The
:mod:`sqlalchemy.ext.mutable` extension can be used
with any type whose target Python type may be mutable, including
:class:`.PickleType`, :class:`.postgresql.ARRAY`, etc.

When using the :mod:`sqlalchemy.ext.mutable` extension, the value itself
tracks all parents which reference it.  Below, we illustrate the a simple
version of the :class:`.MutableDict` dictionary object, which applies
the :class:`.Mutable` mixin to a plain Python dictionary::

    from sqlalchemy.ext.mutable import Mutable

    class MutableDict(Mutable, dict):
        @classmethod
        def coerce(cls, key, value):
            "Convert plain dictionaries to MutableDict."

            if not isinstance(value, MutableDict):
                if isinstance(value, dict):
                    return MutableDict(value)

                # this call will raise ValueError
                return Mutable.coerce(key, value)
            else:
                return value

        def __setitem__(self, key, value):
            "Detect dictionary set events and emit change events."

            dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
            self.changed()

        def __delitem__(self, key):
            "Detect dictionary del events and emit change events."

            dict.__delitem__(self, key)
            self.changed()

The above dictionary class takes the approach of subclassing the Python
built-in ``dict`` to produce a dict
subclass which routes all mutation events through ``__setitem__``.  There are
variants on this approach, such as subclassing ``UserDict.UserDict`` or
``collections.MutableMapping``; the part that's important to this example is
that the :meth:`.Mutable.changed` method is called whenever an in-place
change to the datastructure takes place.

We also redefine the :meth:`.Mutable.coerce` method which will be used to
convert any values that are not instances of ``MutableDict``, such
as the plain dictionaries returned by the ``json`` module, into the
appropriate type.  Defining this method is optional; we could just as well
created our ``JSONEncodedDict`` such that it always returns an instance
of ``MutableDict``, and additionally ensured that all calling code
uses ``MutableDict`` explicitly.  When :meth:`.Mutable.coerce` is not
overridden, any values applied to a parent object which are not instances
of the mutable type will raise a ``ValueError``.

Our new ``MutableDict`` type offers a class method
:meth:`~.Mutable.as_mutable` which we can use within column metadata
to associate with types. This method grabs the given type object or
class and associates a listener that will detect all future mappings
of this type, applying event listening instrumentation to the mapped
attribute. Such as, with classical table metadata::

    from sqlalchemy import Table, Column, Integer

    my_data = Table('my_data', metadata,
        Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
        Column('data', MutableDict.as_mutable(JSONEncodedDict))
    )

Above, :meth:`~.Mutable.as_mutable` returns an instance of ``JSONEncodedDict``
(if the type object was not an instance already), which will intercept any
attributes which are mapped against this type.  Below we establish a simple
mapping against the ``my_data`` table::

    from sqlalchemy import mapper

    class MyDataClass(object):
        pass

    # associates mutation listeners with MyDataClass.data
    mapper(MyDataClass, my_data)

The ``MyDataClass.data`` member will now be notified of in place changes
to its value.

There's no difference in usage when using declarative::

    from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

    Base = declarative_base()

    class MyDataClass(Base):
        __tablename__ = 'my_data'
        id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
        data = Column(MutableDict.as_mutable(JSONEncodedDict))

Any in-place changes to the ``MyDataClass.data`` member
will flag the attribute as "dirty" on the parent object::

    >>> from sqlalchemy.orm import Session

    >>> sess = Session()
    >>> m1 = MyDataClass(data={'value1':'foo'})
    >>> sess.add(m1)
    >>> sess.commit()

    >>> m1.data['value1'] = 'bar'
    >>> assert m1 in sess.dirty
    True

The ``MutableDict`` can be associated with all future instances
of ``JSONEncodedDict`` in one step, using
:meth:`~.Mutable.associate_with`.  This is similar to
:meth:`~.Mutable.as_mutable` except it will intercept all occurrences
of ``MutableDict`` in all mappings unconditionally, without
the need to declare it individually::

    MutableDict.associate_with(JSONEncodedDict)

    class MyDataClass(Base):
        __tablename__ = 'my_data'
        id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
        data = Column(JSONEncodedDict)


Supporting Pickling
--------------------

The key to the :mod:`sqlalchemy.ext.mutable` extension relies upon the
placement of a ``weakref.WeakKeyDictionary`` upon the value object, which
stores a mapping of parent mapped objects keyed to the attribute name under
which they are associated with this value. ``WeakKeyDictionary`` objects are
not picklable, due to the fact that they contain weakrefs and function
callbacks. In our case, this is a good thing, since if this dictionary were
picklable, it could lead to an excessively large pickle size for our value
objects that are pickled by themselves outside of the context of the parent.
The developer responsibility here is only to provide a ``__getstate__`` method
that excludes the :meth:`~MutableBase._parents` collection from the pickle
stream::

    class MyMutableType(Mutable):
        def __getstate__(self):
            d = self.__dict__.copy()
            d.pop('_parents', None)
            return d

With our dictionary example, we need to return the contents of the dict itself
(and also restore them on __setstate__)::

    class MutableDict(Mutable, dict):
        # ....

        def __getstate__(self):
            return dict(self)

        def __setstate__(self, state):
            self.update(state)

In the case that our mutable value object is pickled as it is attached to one
or more parent objects that are also part of the pickle, the :class:`.Mutable`
mixin will re-establish the :attr:`.Mutable._parents` collection on each value
object as the owning parents themselves are unpickled.

.. _mutable_composites:

Establishing Mutability on Composites
=====================================

Composites are a special ORM feature which allow a single scalar attribute to
be assigned an object value which represents information "composed" from one
or more columns from the underlying mapped table. The usual example is that of
a geometric "point", and is introduced in :ref:`mapper_composite`.

.. versionchanged:: 0.7
    The internals of :func:`.orm.composite` have been
    greatly simplified and in-place mutation detection is no longer enabled by
    default; instead, the user-defined value must detect changes on its own and
    propagate them to all owning parents. The :mod:`sqlalchemy.ext.mutable`
    extension provides the helper class :class:`.MutableComposite`, which is a
    slight variant on the :class:`.Mutable` class.

As is the case with :class:`.Mutable`, the user-defined composite class
subclasses :class:`.MutableComposite` as a mixin, and detects and delivers
change events to its parents via the :meth:`.MutableComposite.changed` method.
In the case of a composite class, the detection is usually via the usage of
Python descriptors (i.e. ``@property``), or alternatively via the special
Python method ``__setattr__()``. Below we expand upon the ``Point`` class
introduced in :ref:`mapper_composite` to subclass :class:`.MutableComposite`
and to also route attribute set events via ``__setattr__`` to the
:meth:`.MutableComposite.changed` method::

    from sqlalchemy.ext.mutable import MutableComposite

    class Point(MutableComposite):
        def __init__(self, x, y):
            self.x = x
            self.y = y

        def __setattr__(self, key, value):
            "Intercept set events"

            # set the attribute
            object.__setattr__(self, key, value)

            # alert all parents to the change
            self.changed()

        def __composite_values__(self):
            return self.x, self.y

        def __eq__(self, other):
            return isinstance(other, Point) and \\
                other.x == self.x and \\
                other.y == self.y

        def __ne__(self, other):
            return not self.__eq__(other)

The :class:`.MutableComposite` class uses a Python metaclass to automatically
establish listeners for any usage of :func:`.orm.composite` that specifies our
``Point`` type. Below, when ``Point`` is mapped to the ``Vertex`` class,
listeners are established which will route change events from ``Point``
objects to each of the ``Vertex.start`` and ``Vertex.end`` attributes::

    from sqlalchemy.orm import composite, mapper
    from sqlalchemy import Table, Column

    vertices = Table('vertices', metadata,
        Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
        Column('x1', Integer),
        Column('y1', Integer),
        Column('x2', Integer),
        Column('y2', Integer),
        )

    class Vertex(object):
        pass

    mapper(Vertex, vertices, properties={
        'start': composite(Point, vertices.c.x1, vertices.c.y1),
        'end': composite(Point, vertices.c.x2, vertices.c.y2)
    })

Any in-place changes to the ``Vertex.start`` or ``Vertex.end`` members
will flag the attribute as "dirty" on the parent object::

    >>> from sqlalchemy.orm import Session

    >>> sess = Session()
    >>> v1 = Vertex(start=Point(3, 4), end=Point(12, 15))
    >>> sess.add(v1)
    >>> sess.commit()

    >>> v1.end.x = 8
    >>> assert v1 in sess.dirty
    True

Coercing Mutable Composites
---------------------------

The :meth:`.MutableBase.coerce` method is also supported on composite types.
In the case of :class:`.MutableComposite`, the :meth:`.MutableBase.coerce`
method is only called for attribute set operations, not load operations.
Overriding the :meth:`.MutableBase.coerce` method is essentially equivalent
to using a :func:`.validates` validation routine for all attributes which
make use of the custom composite type::

    class Point(MutableComposite):
        # other Point methods
        # ...

        def coerce(cls, key, value):
            if isinstance(value, tuple):
                value = Point(*value)
            elif not isinstance(value, Point):
                raise ValueError("tuple or Point expected")
            return value

.. versionadded:: 0.7.10,0.8.0b2
    Support for the :meth:`.MutableBase.coerce` method in conjunction with
    objects of type :class:`.MutableComposite`.

Supporting Pickling
--------------------

As is the case with :class:`.Mutable`, the :class:`.MutableComposite` helper
class uses a ``weakref.WeakKeyDictionary`` available via the
:meth:`MutableBase._parents` attribute which isn't picklable. If we need to
pickle instances of ``Point`` or its owning class ``Vertex``, we at least need
to define a ``__getstate__`` that doesn't include the ``_parents`` dictionary.
Below we define both a ``__getstate__`` and a ``__setstate__`` that package up
the minimal form of our ``Point`` class::

    class Point(MutableComposite):
        # ...

        def __getstate__(self):
            return self.x, self.y

        def __setstate__(self, state):
            self.x, self.y = state

As with :class:`.Mutable`, the :class:`.MutableComposite` augments the
pickling process of the parent's object-relational state so that the
:meth:`MutableBase._parents` collection is restored to all ``Point`` objects.

"""
from ..orm.attributes import flag_modified
from .. import event, types
from ..orm import mapper, object_mapper, Mapper
from ..util import memoized_property
import weakref


class MutableBase(object):
    """Common base class to :class:`.Mutable`
    and :class:`.MutableComposite`.

    """

    @memoized_property
    def _parents(self):
        """Dictionary of parent object->attribute name on the parent.

        This attribute is a so-called "memoized" property.  It initializes
        itself with a new ``weakref.WeakKeyDictionary`` the first time
        it is accessed, returning the same object upon subsequent access.

        """

        return weakref.WeakKeyDictionary()

    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Given a value, coerce it into the target type.

        Can be overridden by custom subclasses to coerce incoming
        data into a particular type.

        By default, raises ``ValueError``.

        This method is called in different scenarios depending on if
        the parent class is of type :class:`.Mutable` or of type
        :class:`.MutableComposite`.  In the case of the former, it is called
        for both attribute-set operations as well as during ORM loading
        operations.  For the latter, it is only called during attribute-set
        operations; the mechanics of the :func:`.composite` construct
        handle coercion during load operations.


        :param key: string name of the ORM-mapped attribute being set.
        :param value: the incoming value.
        :return: the method should return the coerced value, or raise
         ``ValueError`` if the coercion cannot be completed.

        """
        if value is None:
            return None
        msg = "Attribute '%s' does not accept objects of type %s"
        raise ValueError(msg % (key, type(value)))

    @classmethod
    def _listen_on_attribute(cls, attribute, coerce, parent_cls):
        """Establish this type as a mutation listener for the given
        mapped descriptor.

        """
        key = attribute.key
        if parent_cls is not attribute.class_:
            return

        # rely on "propagate" here
        parent_cls = attribute.class_

        def load(state, *args):
            """Listen for objects loaded or refreshed.

            Wrap the target data member's value with
            ``Mutable``.

            """
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if val is not None:
                if coerce:
                    val = cls.coerce(key, val)
                    state.dict[key] = val
                val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        def set(target, value, oldvalue, initiator):
            """Listen for set/replace events on the target
            data member.

            Establish a weak reference to the parent object
            on the incoming value, remove it for the one
            outgoing.

            """
            if value is oldvalue:
                return value

            if not isinstance(value, cls):
                value = cls.coerce(key, value)
            if value is not None:
                value._parents[target.obj()] = key
            if isinstance(oldvalue, cls):
                oldvalue._parents.pop(target.obj(), None)
            return value

        def pickle(state, state_dict):
            val = state.dict.get(key, None)
            if val is not None:
                if 'ext.mutable.values' not in state_dict:
                    state_dict['ext.mutable.values'] = []
                state_dict['ext.mutable.values'].append(val)

        def unpickle(state, state_dict):
            if 'ext.mutable.values' in state_dict:
                for val in state_dict['ext.mutable.values']:
                    val._parents[state.obj()] = key

        event.listen(parent_cls, 'load', load,
            raw=True, propagate=True)
        event.listen(parent_cls, 'refresh', load,
            raw=True, propagate=True)
        event.listen(attribute, 'set', set,
            raw=True, retval=True, propagate=True)
        event.listen(parent_cls, 'pickle', pickle,
            raw=True, propagate=True)
        event.listen(parent_cls, 'unpickle', unpickle,
            raw=True, propagate=True)


class Mutable(MutableBase):
    """Mixin that defines transparent propagation of change
    events to a parent object.

    See the example in :ref:`mutable_scalars` for usage information.

    """

    def changed(self):
        """Subclasses should call this method whenever change events occur."""

        for parent, key in self._parents.items():
            flag_modified(parent, key)

    @classmethod
    def associate_with_attribute(cls, attribute):
        """Establish this type as a mutation listener for the given
        mapped descriptor.

        """
        cls._listen_on_attribute(attribute, True, attribute.class_)

    @classmethod
    def associate_with(cls, sqltype):
        """Associate this wrapper with all future mapped columns
        of the given type.

        This is a convenience method that calls
        ``associate_with_attribute`` automatically.

        .. warning::

           The listeners established by this method are *global*
           to all mappers, and are *not* garbage collected.   Only use
           :meth:`.associate_with` for types that are permanent to an
           application, not with ad-hoc types else this will cause unbounded
           growth in memory usage.

        """

        def listen_for_type(mapper, class_):
            for prop in mapper.column_attrs:
                if isinstance(prop.columns[0].type, sqltype):
                    cls.associate_with_attribute(getattr(class_, prop.key))

        event.listen(mapper, 'mapper_configured', listen_for_type)

    @classmethod
    def as_mutable(cls, sqltype):
        """Associate a SQL type with this mutable Python type.

        This establishes listeners that will detect ORM mappings against
        the given type, adding mutation event trackers to those mappings.

        The type is returned, unconditionally as an instance, so that
        :meth:`.as_mutable` can be used inline::

            Table('mytable', metadata,
                Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
                Column('data', MyMutableType.as_mutable(PickleType))
            )

        Note that the returned type is always an instance, even if a class
        is given, and that only columns which are declared specifically with
        that type instance receive additional instrumentation.

        To associate a particular mutable type with all occurrences of a
        particular type, use the :meth:`.Mutable.associate_with` classmethod
        of the particular :class:`.Mutable` subclass to establish a global
        association.

        .. warning::

           The listeners established by this method are *global*
           to all mappers, and are *not* garbage collected.   Only use
           :meth:`.as_mutable` for types that are permanent to an application,
           not with ad-hoc types else this will cause unbounded growth
           in memory usage.

        """
        sqltype = types.to_instance(sqltype)

        def listen_for_type(mapper, class_):
            for prop in mapper.column_attrs:
                if prop.columns[0].type is sqltype:
                    cls.associate_with_attribute(getattr(class_, prop.key))

        event.listen(mapper, 'mapper_configured', listen_for_type)

        return sqltype



class MutableComposite(MutableBase):
    """Mixin that defines transparent propagation of change
    events on a SQLAlchemy "composite" object to its
    owning parent or parents.

    See the example in :ref:`mutable_composites` for usage information.

    """

    def changed(self):
        """Subclasses should call this method whenever change events occur."""

        for parent, key in self._parents.items():

            prop = object_mapper(parent).get_property(key)
            for value, attr_name in zip(
                                    self.__composite_values__(),
                                    prop._attribute_keys):
                setattr(parent, attr_name, value)

def _setup_composite_listener():
    def _listen_for_type(mapper, class_):
        for prop in mapper.iterate_properties:
            if (hasattr(prop, 'composite_class') and
                isinstance(prop.composite_class, type) and
                 issubclass(prop.composite_class, MutableComposite)):
                prop.composite_class._listen_on_attribute(
                    getattr(class_, prop.key), False, class_)
    if not event.contains(Mapper, "mapper_configured", _listen_for_type):
        event.listen(Mapper, 'mapper_configured', _listen_for_type)
_setup_composite_listener()


class MutableDict(Mutable, dict):
    """A dictionary type that implements :class:`.Mutable`.

    .. versionadded:: 0.8

    """

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        """Detect dictionary set events and emit change events."""
        dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
        self.changed()


    def setdefault(self, key, value):
        result = dict.setdefault(self, key, value)
        self.changed()
        return result

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        """Detect dictionary del events and emit change events."""
        dict.__delitem__(self, key)
        self.changed()

    def clear(self):
        dict.clear(self)
        self.changed()

    @classmethod
    def coerce(cls, key, value):
        """Convert plain dictionary to MutableDict."""
        if not isinstance(value, MutableDict):
            if isinstance(value, dict):
                return MutableDict(value)
            return Mutable.coerce(key, value)
        else:
            return value

    def __getstate__(self):
        return dict(self)

    def __setstate__(self, state):
        self.update(state)