SQLALCHEMY UNIT TESTS
NOTE: SQLAlchemy as of 0.9.4 now standardizes on pytest for test running! However, the existing support for Nose still remains! That is, you can now run the tests via pytest or nose. We hope to keep the suite nose-compatible indefinitely however this might change at some point.
SQLAlchemy unit tests by default run using Python's built-in sqlite3 module. If running on a Python installation that doesn't include this module, then pysqlite or compatible must be installed.
Unit tests can be run with pytest or nose:
The suite includes enhanced support when running with pytest.
SQLAlchemy implements plugins for both pytest and nose that must be present when tests are run. In the case of pytest, this plugin is automatically used when pytest is run against the SQLAlchemy source tree. However, for Nose support, a special test runner script must be used.
The test suite as also requires the mock library. While mock is part of the Python standard library as of 3.3, previous versions will need to have it installed, and is available at:
RUNNING TESTS VIA SETUP.PY
A plain vanilla run of all tests using sqlite can be run via setup.py, and requires that pytest is installed:
$ python setup.py test
RUNNING ALL TESTS - PYTEST
To run all tests:
The pytest configuration in setup.cfg will point the runner at the test/ directory, where it consumes a conftest.py file that gets everything else up and running.
RUNNING ALL TESTS - NOSE
When using Nose, a bootstrap script is provided which sets up sys.path as well as installs the nose plugin:
Assuming all tests pass, this is a very unexciting output. To make it more interesting:
$ ./sqla_nose.py -v
RUNNING INDIVIDUAL TESTS
Any directory of test modules can be run at once by specifying the directory path, and a specific file can be specified as well:
$ py.test test/dialect $ py.test test/orm/test_mapper.py
When using nose, the setup.cfg currently sets "where" to "test/", so the "test/" prefix is omitted:
$ ./sqla_nose.py dialect/ $ ./sqla_nose.py orm/test_mapper.py
With Nose, it is often more intuitive to specify tests as module paths:
$ ./sqla_nose.py test.orm.test_mapper
Nose can also specify a test class and optional method using this syntax:
$ ./sqla_nose.py test.orm.test_mapper:MapperTest.test_utils
With pytest, the -k flag is used to limit tests:
$ py.test test/orm/test_mapper.py -k "MapperTest and test_utils"
COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
SQLAlchemy-specific options are added to both runners, which are viewable within the help screen. With pytest, these options are easier to locate as they are underneath the "sqlalchemy" grouping:
$ py.test --help $ ./sqla_nose.py --help
The --help screen is a combination of common nose options and options which the SQLAlchemy nose plugin adds. The most commonly SQLAlchemy-specific options used are '--db' and '--dburi'.
Both pytest and nose support the same set of SQLAlchemy options, though pytest features a bit more capability with them.
Tests will target an in-memory SQLite database by default. To test against another database, use the --dburi option with any standard SQLAlchemy URL:
If you'll be running the tests frequently, database aliases can save a lot of typing. The --dbs option lists the built-in aliases and their matching URLs:
$ py.test --dbs Available --db options (use --dburi to override) mysql mysql://scott:firstname.lastname@example.org:3306/test oracle oracle://scott:email@example.com:1521 postgresql postgresql://scott:firstname.lastname@example.org:5432/test [...]
To run tests against an aliased database:
$ py.test --db postgresql
This list of database urls is present in the setup.cfg file. The list can be modified/extended by adding a file test.cfg at the top level of the SQLAlchemy source distribution which includes additional entries:
Your custom entries will override the defaults and you'll see them reflected in the output of --dbs.
MULTIPLE DATABASE TARGETS
As of SQLAlchemy 0.9.4, the test runner supports multiple databases at once. This doesn't mean that the entire test suite runs for each database, but instead specific test suites may do so, while other tests may choose to run on a specific target out of those available. For example, if the tests underneath test/dialect/ are run, the majority of these tests are either specific to a particular backend, or are marked as "multiple", meaning they will run repeatedly for each database in use. If one runs the test suite as follows:
$ py.test test/dialect --db sqlite --db postgresql --db mysql
The tests underneath test/dialect/test_suite.py will be tripled up, running as appropriate for each target database, whereas dialect-specific tests within test/dialect/mysql, test/dialect/postgresql/ test/dialect/test_sqlite.py should run fully with no skips, as each suite has its target database available.
The multiple targets feature is available both under pytest and nose, however when running nose, the "multiple runner" feature won't be available; instead, the first database target will be used.
When running with multiple targets, tests that don't prefer a specific target will be run against the first target specified. Putting sqlite first in the list will lead to a much faster suite as the in-memory database is extremely fast for setting up and tearing down tables.
Use an empty database and a database user with general DBA privileges. The test suite will be creating and dropping many tables and other DDL, and preexisting tables will interfere with the tests.
Several tests require alternate usernames or schemas to be present, which are used to test dotted-name access scenarios. On some databases such as Oracle or Sybase, these are usernames, and others such as Postgresql and MySQL they are schemas. The requirement applies to all backends except SQLite and Firebird. The names are:
test_schema test_schema_2 (only used on Postgresql)
Please refer to your vendor documentation for the proper syntax to create these namespaces - the database user must have permission to create and drop tables within these schemas. Its perfectly fine to run the test suite without these namespaces present, it only means that a handful of tests which expect them to be present will fail.
Additional steps specific to individual databases are as follows:
POSTGRESQL: To enable unicode testing with JSONB, create the database with UTF8 encoding:: postgres=# create database test with owner=scott encoding='utf8' template=template0; To include tests for HSTORE, create the HSTORE type engine:: postgres=# \c test; You are now connected to database "test" as user "postgresql". test=# create extension hstore; CREATE EXTENSION MYSQL: Default storage engine should be "MyISAM". Tests that require "InnoDB" as the engine will specify this explicitly. ORACLE: a user named "test_schema" is created. The primary database user needs to be able to create and drop tables, synonyms, and constraints within the "test_schema" user. For this to work fully, including that the user has the "REFERENCES" role in a remote schema for tables not yet defined (REFERENCES is per-table), it is required that the test the user be present in the "DBA" role: grant dba to scott; SYBASE: Similar to Oracle, "test_schema" is created as a user, and the primary test user needs to have the "sa_role". It's also recommended to turn on "trunc log on chkpt" and to use a separate transaction log device - Sybase basically seizes up when the transaction log is full otherwise. A full series of setup assuming sa/master: disk init name="translog", physname="/opt/sybase/data/translog.dat", size="10M" create database sqlalchemy on default log on translog="10M" sp_dboption sqlalchemy, "trunc log on chkpt", true sp_addlogin scott, "tiger7" sp_addlogin test_schema, "tiger7" use sqlalchemy sp_adduser scott sp_adduser test_schema grant all to scott sp_role "grant", sa_role, scott Sybase will still freeze for up to a minute when the log becomes full. To manually dump the log:: dump tran sqlalchemy with truncate_only MSSQL: Tests that involve multiple connections require Snapshot Isolation ability implemented on the test database in order to prevent deadlocks that will occur with record locking isolation. This feature is only available with MSSQL 2005 and greater. You must enable snapshot isolation at the database level and set the default cursor isolation with two SQL commands: ALTER DATABASE MyDatabase SET ALLOW_SNAPSHOT_ISOLATION ON ALTER DATABASE MyDatabase SET READ_COMMITTED_SNAPSHOT ON MSSQL+zxJDBC: Trying to run the unit tests on Windows against SQL Server requires using a test.cfg configuration file as the cmd.exe shell won't properly pass the URL arguments into the nose test runner. POSTGRESQL: Full-text search configuration should be set to English, else several tests of ``.match()`` will fail. This can be set (if it isn't so already) with: ALTER DATABASE test SET default_text_search_config = 'pg_catalog.english'
SQLAlchemy logs its activity and debugging through Python's logging package. Any log target can be directed to the console with command line options, such as:
$ ./sqla_nose.py test.orm.unitofwork --log-info=sqlalchemy.orm.mapper \ --log-debug=sqlalchemy.pool --log-info=sqlalchemy.engine
This would log mapper configuration, connection pool checkouts, and SQL statement execution.
BUILT-IN COVERAGE REPORTING
Coverage is tracked using the coverage plugins built for pytest or nose:
$ py.test test/sql/test_query --cov=sqlalchemy $ ./sqla_nose.py test.sql.test_query --with-coverage
BIG COVERAGE TIP !!! There is an issue where existing .pyc files may store the incorrect filepaths, which will break the coverage system. If coverage numbers are coming out as low/zero, try deleting all .pyc files.
DEVELOPING AND TESTING NEW DIALECTS
See the file README.dialects.rst for detail on dialects.
TESTING WITH MULTIPLE PYTHON VERSIONS USING TOX
If you want to test across multiple versions of Python, you may find tox useful. SQLAlchemy includes a tox.ini file:
tox -e full
SQLAlchemy uses tox mostly for pre-fab testing configurations, to simplify configuration of Jenkins jobs, and not for testing different Python interpreters simultaneously. You can of course create whatever alternate tox.ini file you want.
"full" - runs a full py.test "coverage" - runs a py.test plus coverage, skipping memory/timing intensive tests "pep8" - runs flake8 against the codebase (useful with --diff to check against a patch)
Parallel testing is supported using the Pytest xdist plugin. Supported databases currently include sqlite, postgresql, and mysql. The username for the database should have CREATE DATABASE and DROP DATABASE privileges. After installing pytest-xdist, testing is run adding the -n<num> option. For example, to run against sqlite, mysql, postgresql with four processes:
tox -e -- -n 4 --db sqlite --db postgresql --db mysql
Each backend has a different scheme for setting up the database. Postgresql still needs the "test_schema" and "test_schema_2" schemas present, as the parallel databases are created using the base database as a "template".